DHARMA TO DHAMMA AS INDICATIVE OF THE VISION AND MISSION OF THE BUDDHA
Posted on October 21st, 2012

Inaugural Address by Ananda W. P. Guruge (U.S.A./Sri Lanka)

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DHARMA-DHAMMA Sanchi, Bhpoal, Madhya Pradesh, India, 21-23 Septemebr 2012

 I.                   Introduction: The Significance of Sanchi        in Indian and Sri Lankan History

 May I begin by expressing my deepest gratitude to the State Government of Madhya Pradesh and its Department of Culture, to the Centre for Study of Religion and Society (CSRS), New Delhi and the Mahabodhi Society , Colombo, Sri Lanka for the exceptional honour and the enviable privilege accorded to me by inviting me to deliver the Inaugural Address to this Conference. My wife and I are very thankful to the organizers for the generous hospitality extended to us.

This Conference is one of the important events and activities connected with the laying of the foundation stone for the Sanchi University of Buddhist Studies. It is most gratifying that India and Sri Lanka have come together in this project because Sanchi is a place of the highest significance in the histories of both our countries.

According to the most comprehensive and authentic account of the third emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty, Asoka the Righteous, preserved in the Pali commentaries and chronicles of Sri Lanka, it was around here that he, on his way to assume the post of Viceroy of Avanti, met his first consort Vedisa Devi and married her. It was possibly around here that their son and daughter, Arahants Mahinda and Sanghamitta, who brought and established Buddhism in Sri Lanka, were born. More precisely, it was in the monastery established here by Asoka himself that Vedisa Devi remained as a bhikkhuni and Arahant Mahinda came to bid her good-bye before proceeding to Sri Lanka. (Guruge 1993) So to us in Sri Lanka, Buddhism went to us from Sanchi and therefore we consider Sanchi as the fountain of our spiritual and cultural heritage.

The clearly labeled reliquaries with the names of Arahant Moggaliputtatissa and the missionaries sent out by him, found in the stupas of Sanchi and Sonari, and the Asokan Edict on schism provide irrefutable archaeological evidence to establish the accuracy and the authenticity of the historical tradition recorded in the Sri Lankan Pali Commentaries and the chronicles, Mahaavamsa and Diipavamsa. (Guruge 1993) Sri Lanka is ever grateful to India for having shared with us the sacred relics of the Buddha’s chief disciples, Saariputta and Moggallaana, which were enshrined in the main stupa.

Sanchi has remained from the Mauryan days for several centuries a Buddhist shrine of very great importance and hence patronized by a number of succeeding dynasties. Thus it has become the most spectacular centre of Buddhist aesthetic creativity in architecture and art. The exquisite sculpture of the archways of the two main stupas, illustrating the life of the Buddha and the early history of Buddhism, represents the veritable gems of Buddhist art of India.

 This hallowed site will no doubt be a source of immense inspiration to students and teachers of the University, which is planned to be located here.

 It is also apt that the organizers are marking the commencement of the university with an International Conference on the theme of Dharma-Dhamma. If the intention is to explore the interdependence and cross-fertilization of the mainstream spiritual and philosophical heritage of India, in the form of historical Brahmanism and present Hinduism, on the one hand, and Buddhism, on the other, we will be recalling and complying with Asoka’s own Rock Edict XII. It is where the emperor announces his interfaith devotion by saying that he respects equally both the clergy and the laity of all religious persuasions. He advises us to explore the inner essence of all religions and not to criticize and run down another’s religion. Even where any criticism is due, his advice is to be restrained in language. He lays emphasis on each one studying other’s religions and commends meeting together. He says, “Samavaayo saadhu “”…” Coming together is commendable.” It is exactly that we do at this Conference where the great spiritual traditions of India are represented by an excellent galaxy of national and international scholars of repute. 

 II.                What are Dharma in Sanskrit and Dhamma in Prakrit?

 The subject which I have chosen for my Inaugural Address is “Dharma to Dhamma as indicative of the vision and mission of the Buddha.“ Dharma is a very ancient word traceable to the Indo-European root   dher, meaning “to hold fast.” Its current form “firm” in English signifies the basic concept of what is being held firmly as belief and practice.  As Dharman, it occurs in the Rgveda to refer to Vedic ritual, while in the Brhadaarnayaka Upanishad  (1.4.14) Dharma has the connotation of teaching or doctrine. In Hindu thought, it is used to signify a variety of meanings.

Dharma as a Purushaartha   refers to the human objective of fulfilling one’s duties. In Varnaashramadharma and Dharmashaastra, the meaning is law or regulation, which governs all aspects of life. As a Grhasthdharma in the Dharmashaastras, the reference is to a householder’s spiritual and social duties.  As Sanaatanadharma, as the standard term for the Hindu system of religion, it stands for the beliefs, practices and rituals of India’s great spiritual and religious tradition, counting well-nigh a billion adherents in the world. Dhaarmika, as an adjective, stands for virtuous or righteous.                                                                     

            So let me take Dharma in Sanskrit to cover all that is connected with Hindu thought and practice. The main elements of the Hindu tradition are traceable to the Indus Valley Civilization of the third millennium in that meditation in a Yogic posture, sacrificial rite, phallic worship, trees as shrines, Mother goddess, sanctity of the bull and a godhead recognizable as Shiva with the attributes of Yogeshvara (Lord of Yoga) and Pashupati (Lord of animals) are vividly reflected in its seals and figurines. We are bound to know much more when the Indus Valley script and language are conclusively decided.

            The four Vedas, the Braahmanas, the Aaranyakas, Upanishads and the Vedangas were produced in the language from which classical Sanskrit was standardized. It was the language of the elite and the educated. If Sanskrit drama is relied upon to reflect the linguistic stratification of the ancient Indian society, the Brahmans and rulers spoke Sanskrit whereas the rest of the population communicated in a variety of vernacular dialects, collectively called the Prakrits.

            Dhamma in the two Prakrit dialects Ardhamagadhi (called Aarsha, the language of the seers or sages) and Magadhi (better known as Pali, the language of the text of the Buddhist Canon) are associated with the two unorthodox religious systems, which arose in India as Jainism and Buddhism in the sixth-fifth century BCE. The founders of both these religions, namely Jina Mahaaviira Vardhamaana (also known as Niganthnaataputta) and Gotama the Buddha, had used the vernacular dialects of the masses to propagate their teachings in revolt of what they opposed in contemporary Brahmanical norms and practices. Jains who consider their religion to be the oldest to arise in India assume that it was the language always used by the sages and do not think that it was an innovation of Jina Mahaaviira. The designation Aarsha, meaning the language of Rshis or seers, for the language used by him may suggest that Prakrit rather than Sanskrit was used by the Shramana tradition.(See in Section IX under Likhita No. 4 and &)

In the case of the Buddha, however, the choice of the vernacular was deliberate and emphasized his intention to break away not only from the content but also the medium of communication of the traditional religion. It also reflects the wider audience he had chosen to address, convince and bring to his point of view. The Buddha resisted any effort to render his teachings into elitist Sanskrit. When two disciples Yamelu and Tekula wished to translate the word of the Buddha to that of the Vedic metric form (i.e chandas), he objected to it, saying that one should learn the Buddha’s teachings in one’s own language (sakaniruttiyaa). (Cuulavagga V.33.1)

 In view of the fact that this Conference is a prelude to the establishment of the Sanchi University of Buddhist Studies, I will limit my discussion to how the transition from Brahmanical and Hindu Dharma to the Buddha Dhamma is indicative of the Buddha’s vision and mission.

Dhamma in the Buddhist Canonical texts convey many different meanings as Dharma does in Brahmanical and Hindu scriptures. In “Mano pubbangmaa dhammaa manosetthaa manomayaa,”(Dhammapada 1-2)  it signifies all phenomena or things. In Sariputta’s assertion “Bhagavanmuuliko no dhammo’, the formula of attributes “Svaakkhaato bhagavataa dhammo“ and in the list of the three refuges or jewels, “Buddha-dhamma-sangha,” dhamma refers to the teachings or doctrines of the Buddha. In “Dhammo have rakkhati dhammacaarii“ (Theragaathaa 303), dhamma has the connotation of virtue or righteousness. The adjective Dhammika in “Raajaa hotu dhammiko” signifies virtuous or righteous. It is clear that the word was in the common religious literary property of the subcontinent and the Buddha used it exactly as it was employed in Brahamanical and Hindu as well as Jain circles.

 III.             Transition from Dharma to Dhamma

 The Buddha, brought up in the Brahmanical tradition of his family, undergoing further training in the forest hermitages of Aalaarakaalaama and Uddakaraamaputta and associating for years with five Brahman ascetics engaged with him in austerities, had certainly acquired some knowledge of the prevailing religious systems. As regards the Vedic religion, the discourses in the Pali Canon have reference by name to the major composers of the hymns of the Rgveda, the Gayatrii hymn, as well as the Ashvamedha, Purushamedha, Vaajapeya and Raajasuuya sacrificial rites and the Vedic gods.

One may, however, find that the Upanishadic teachings of Brahman as a neuter principle, the material and instrumental agent of creation, and Aatman as a permanent, undying inner controller do not appear to be reflected in any of the discourses attributed to the Buddha. There is, of course, an interesting discussion on Brahmasahavyataa (togetherness with Brahmaa) in the Tevijjaasutta of the Diighanikaaya (DN 13). But here Brahma appears to be a personal deity rather than the Upanishadic Brahman or Paramaatman. (Guruge 2008 p. 160-163)

Whether the Buddha was acquainted with the central Upanishadic teaching per se or not, his knowledge of the emerging concepts in Indian thought is undeniable. Whatever he upheld he absorbed into his teachings and among them are the concepts of samsaara for the cycle of death and rebirth, karma as a moral law, Punya and Paapa as meritorious and evil action, moksha or vimukti as salvation, dukkha as a universally experienced state of misery or suffering, and the cosmology of many forms of existences including hells (naraka) and heavens (svarga). Despite such borrowings, Buddha Dhamma displays originality in presentation and development.

 IV.             The Buddha’s Departure from Dharma: Caste and Sacrifice

 What is original in the teachings of the Buddha? In Vaasetthasutta, (Suttanipaata I, 9) the Buddha explains to the two brahmans Vaasettha and Bhaaradvaaja that the human race is one single species unlike animals, birds, fish and insects. It is this concept that is used in Buddhism to counter the stratification of society as Brahmans, Ksatriyas, Vaishyas and Shuudras. The oneness of humanity constituted the Buddha’s vision of society. He questions with some degree of sarcasm the Rgvedic theory that the castes emerged from various parts of the body of the primeval man, especially with reference to the claim of the brahmans.(DN 27)

In theory, the idea that a person acquires his caste by birth is rejected with the statement, “Na jaccaa vasalo hoti na jaccaa hoti braahmano “”…” By birth one does not become an outcaste or untouchable and by birth one does not become a brahman.” It is one’s good or bad action that should determine one’s caste. It is stated quite emphatically “Kammunaa vasalo hoti kammunaa hoti braahmano“ (Vasalasutta “”…” Suttanipaata I, 7).  In this discourse, the Buddha is said to have addressed Bhaaradvaaja, who drove him away from a sacrifice that was in progress and called him a vasala or outcaste or untouchable. In it are listed as many as seventy kinds of behavior, which would qualify a person to be an untouchable. Very interestingly the list includes such lapses in social duties as not tending one’s parents in their old age, refusing to pay back debts, and enjoying another’s hospitality and not reciprocating. A similar discourse in the Suttanippata verses 620-647 and an entire twenty-sixth chapter of the Dhammapada extol the morally sound person upholding the qualities of an Arahant to be a brahman.

In practice, the Buddha demonstrated his rejection of the prevailing caste segregation by accepting into the Sangha all and sundry with neither discrimination nor hierarchic ranking whatsoever. Precedence among members was decided by the date and time of higher ordination. In fact, in an expressive statement, it is announced, ” Just as the great rivers – that is to say, the Gangaa, the Yamunaa, the Aciravatii, the Sarabhuu, and the Mahii – when they have fallen into the great ocean, renounce their name and lineage and are thenceforth reckoned as the great ocean, Just so do these four castes – the Khattiyas, the Brahmans, the Vessa, and the Suddas – when they have gone forth from the world under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Tathaagata, renounce their names and lineage, enter into the number of the Sakyaputta Samanas.” (Udaana V, 5; MN 84). The Buddha further emphasized his position regarding caste by ensuring precedence over his own kshatriya princely cousins in giving higher ordination to their barber, Upali who eventually was recognized by the Sangha as the authority of the Vinaya (Discipline of the Sangha).

In spite of this attitude to caste, the Buddha maintained friendly relations with reputed brahmans with whom he entered into long discussions and debates and won them over to his opinion most of the time. For example, he discussed with Sonadanda what would be the single most important characteristic of a respected brahman. Skillfully the Buddha gets him to agree that the most important characteristic is not the pedigree, the complexion, the knowledge of the Vedas and Vedic ritual but good moral conduct. (DN 4) The audience of the five monks to whom he delivered the first discourse and who became the first enlightened members of the Sangha were brahmans. So were his chief disciples Saariputta and Moggalaana.

 Another aspect of the prevailing religious practices that the Buddha wished to reform was the sacrificial ritual. Its condemnation by both Jina Mahaaviira and the Buddha was based on their commitment to the sanctity of life of all sentient beings. They upheld Ahimsaa (non-injury and non-violence) as the first precept of their ethical systems.

The Braahmanadhammikasutta (Suttanipaata II, 7) portrays that the priestly caste of brahmans became decadent when in animal sacrifice they killed cattle. The Kuutadantasutta of the Diighanikaaya shows the Buddha narrating the story of the chaplain of King Mahaavijita, who in preparation for a sacrifice first solved the problems of poverty and insecurity in the country, ensured the cooperation of all classes of people, exercised charity instead of taxing and eventually conducted the sacrifice with no loss of life. It is said that a convinced brahman Kuutadanta set free thousands of animals that were lined up to be sacrificed. (DN 5)

What differentiated the Dhamma of both Jina Mahaaviira and the Buddha from the Dharma of the time was the renewed emphasis on moral conduct and ethical perfection.

 V.                From Sacrifice to Philosophical Speculation: The  Gradual  De-emphasis of Morality and Ethics

 The moral standard which was upheld in the Brahmanical tradition dates back to the Rgvedic Rta. (III, 3; III, 34) Rta meant the truth while Anrta as falsehood included immoral conduct, which was punished by Varuna, the dispenser of ethics in the Vedic religion. Varuna himself was called Drtavrata and vrata, meaning religious practice, stood for the way of life that was guided by Rta. (VII, 40; VII, 52; VIII, 25) Rgveda in several hymns spells out the moral values observed in such a way of life as kindness, generosity, charity and elimination of craving. The vices condemned are sorcery, witchcraft, adultery and gambling. (Radhakrishnan I, 110)  As many as forty hymns extol charity and are listed as Daanastuti. (Winternitz I, 104-107) A prayer, which would remind us of the Christian Lord’s Prayer, is in Rgveda V, 85:”If we have sinned against the man who loves us, have ever wronged the friend or comrade, have ever done any injury to a neighbor who ever dwelt with us or even to a stranger, O Lord, free us from the guilt of trespass.”

Rgveda also has hymns in praise of ascetic practice. The hymn X, 127 says that Indra conquered the heaven by means of asceticism. Supernatural powers are said to be attained by fasting and abstinence while moods of ecstasy are described as spirits entering humans (X,86, 109,114, 136, and 167 and VII, 59). There is no doubt that before the early Vedic religion became the monopoly of a priestly caste, it had not only an ethical system to govern the lives of the people but also had a place for ascetic practices.

When Rta was equated to yajna or sacrificial ritual in the voluminous liturgical literature of the Braahmanas, ethical and ascetic aspects of the old Dharma gradually disappeared from the spiritual life of the people. Perhaps Varnaashramdharma had a part to play in this process. Brahmans, according to the Varnadharma, assumed the role of Bhuudeva or gods on earth and reduced religion to the performance of increasingly elaborate sacrifices. The Aashramadharma laid down a four-part scheme of life in which the stage of asceticism as a Sannyaasin came in old age after the stages of a celibate student, householder and forest-dweller.

Yet, outside the Vedic tradition, Yogic meditation had been preserved and practised by ascetics and recluses who, according to ancient Buddhist literature, renounced worldly life and retired to the forest at any age. The youngest age to be admitted as a novice is stated figuratively as kaakutthepa (Vinaya I, 79; that is, old enough to drive away a crow trying to get its food). What is called the Shramana tradition had been sustained by them from the days of the Indus Valley Civilization.

 Aaranyakas or forest texts record a significant transition from performing sacrificial ritual to meditating or contemplating on sacrifice. Meditation or contemplation in whatever form could be linked to Yoga, which was an integral element of the Shramana tradition.

The esoteric speculations of the Upanishads on the origin of the universe and living beings with the concepts of Brahman or Paramaatman, the Big Bang of Vishrsthi, the individual Aatman and ignorance causing the suffering experienced by people as fear, hatred and jealousy opened the way to a path of salvation through the realization of the oneness of Brahman and Aatman as “Tat tvam asi.” Study, meditation and contemplation figure in the path of knowledge (Jnaanamaarga) advocated in the Upanishads. In the same manner, ethical principles of generosity, honesty, and self-discipline culminating in asceticism reappear in the Upanishads. (Radhakrishnan I, 218-222).

All these developments in Indian religious and philosophical thought are within what we term here as Dharma and are recorded in Sanskrit. While the Vedas were not accessible to anyone of the Shuudra caste, the Upanishadic teachings were available to only a limited circle of trusted students or followers. As a rule, Dharma  in the pre-Buddhistic period was not universally propagated.

 VI.             Shramana Dharma with Yogic Asceticism for the Masses

 In contrast, Dhamma as presented by Jina Mahaaviira and the Buddha was propagated to the masses in the vernacular dialects without any restriction. Both men and women without any age restriction could enter the clergy as monks or nuns and lead a life of renunciation and spiritual endeavour. Their Dhamma emphasized good conduct mainly through abstinence from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct and falsehood. It offered paths of salvation combining knowledge and Yogic meditation, derived from the Shramana tradition. It also promoted logical and critical thinking. Thus Jainism and Buddhism brought about a significant intellectual revolution in Indian religious and philosophical thought.

The Buddha’s contribution to the process has a number of unique features. The Middle Path that he advocated avoided the extremes of indulgence and luxury, especially in lay life, and self-mortification in austerity and severity of asceticism. Moderated by the concept of the Middle Path, the precepts for the laity and rules of discipline for the Sangha could be observed with reasonable effort.

The Buddhist Path of Salvation or Deliverance was founded in moral or ethical perfection as conveyed by the term Siila. Siila consists of things to abstain from because they are evil and not conducive to the good and the benefit of the many (bahujanahitaaya bahujanasukhaaya) and things to do because they are conducive to the good and the benefit of the many.

The evil actions, designated as unskillful deeds (akusalakamma) in Buddha Dhamma, are in several lists. A list of five includes (1) depriving any living being of its life, (2) taking what is not given, (3) wrongful indulgence in sensual pleasures, especially through sexual misconduct, (4) falsehood and (5) loss of control over oneself due to intoxication by liquor and drugs. A list of ten removes the precept about liquor and drugs and adds three aspects of speech as (5) slandering, (6) harsh language and (7) frivolous talk and three aspects of the mind as (8) excessive greed, (9) hatred and (10) wrong views. The opposites of these actions are skillful deeds (kusalakamma). It is significant that the distinction between the good and the evil is on an intellectual criterion.  It is smart to be good and dumb to be otherwise.

Things to do also occur in several lists. Particularly important are the four Brahmavihaaras  or sublime states: (1) Mettaa, literally friendship but more specifically loving kindness equal to the affection that a mother has for her only son whom she would save at the risk of her own life, to be practiced without reservation to all sentient beings “”…” long, huge, middle-sized or tiny as an atom, seen or unseen, far away or nearby, already existing or seeking to be born; (2) Karunaa, compassion or pity, which leads to a conscious effort to relieve another’s pain and suffering which results from natural or man-made disaster; (3) Muditaa or sympathetic joy, which enables one to overcome envy and jealousy and be happy over another’s happiness; and (4) Upekkhaa or equanimity and equality which enables all situations and things to be approached dispassionately. The attitudinal change implied in the four Brhamavihaaras prepares one for further exercise of discipline, one the one hand, and involvement in beneficial actions, on the other.

The Buddha Dhamma also has a list of ten meritorious deeds as (1) charity or generosity, (2) virtue, (3) meditation or more precisely development of the mind, (4) civility, (5) service to others, (6) transferring merit to others, (7) sharing other’s merit, (8) preaching the Dhamma, (9) listening to the Dhamma, and (10) straightening one’s views.

The ethical principles of the Buddha Dhamma are for two purposes: a better life now and here and a better after-life. “Parattham patipajjatha “”…” Be of service for the other’s welfare,” the Buddha admonished as an effective way of accomplishing both purposes. For those who wish to follow the Buddha’s Path of Salvation or Deliverance and end suffering, a life of renunciation and full-time dedication to the cultivation of the mind through meditation is recommended. Bhikkhus and bhikkhunis in the Sangha were given a choice. They could either follow the vocation of Insight (Vipassanaadhura) for their own enlightenment or the vocation of Books (Ganthadhura) and serve in propagating the Dhamma through study and education. Whatever be the choice all had to adhere to a code of regulations which, in the three traditions of Buddhism, now lists 227 to 253 offences for bhikkhus and 311 to 364 for bhikkhunis. Many of the minor rules were meant to guide the lifestyle of the members of the Sangha pertaining to how they dressed, how they ate, how they attended to personal hygiene, how they interacted among themselves and the laity and what they had to do to protect the environment. It appears that nothing that constituted good manners and desirable etiquette is left out.

The Path of Salvation or Deliverance in the Buddha Dhamma is presented in a sequence of four stages, each stage involving a progressive step in moral or ethical perfection. One enters the stream leading ultimately to enlightenment and emancipation by eliminating the three defilements self-view, skepticism and reliance on mere rites and ritual. By suppressing lust and hatred one becomes a Once-returner and by their elimination the stage of a Non-returner is reached. To become enlightened as an Arahant and attain Nibbaana, five more defilements have to be eliminated, namely the desire to be reborn in a material or non-material sphere, conceit, restlessness, and ignorance. For those whose goal is to attain Buddhahood, the Buddha Dhamma specifies ten Paaramitaas or Perfections in the form of charity or generosity, virtue, renunciation, wisdom, effort, forbearance, truth, determination, loving kindness and equanimity.

The Buddha is presented in the Pali Canon as having discussions with lay persons of all classes and delivering to them discourses on a wide range of subjects with special emphasis on happiness and welfare in the present life. There is hardly any aspect of life that is not covered in them. Interpersonal relations within and outside the family, ways and means of achieving economic prosperity and ensuring security for life and possessions, good governance and protection of the environment are dealt with in great detail in several hundred discourses… All that is presented as the wisdom and values of the Buddha Dhamma find summarized as teachings of all Buddhas in

Avoid all evil

Do good

And keep the mind pure (Dhammapada 183)

It is the third line of the above statement. which connects the Buddha Dhamma to psychology.

 VII.          Psychological Foundation of Moral/Ethical Perfection in Buddha Dhamma

   In the Buddha Dhamma, the mind is the fore-runner of everything, everything has the mind as the foremost and all things originate in the mind. (Dhammapada 1-2). A controlled and well-trained mind is commended as a friend while the opposite is condemned as the worst enemy. A wise person’s first task is to get control of the constantly active, ever-changing and fickle mind as an irrigator controls and guides water to his fields or a fletcher straightens his arrows. (Dhammapada 33-43) It is stressed that thought precedes action and it is in the mind where thoughts begin that criteria of moral rectitude have to be ingrained. In Upaaligahaptisutta of the Majjhimanikaaya, Upaali, a disciple of Jina Mahaaviira, is told by the Buddha that the discipline of the mind was far more important than the bodily discipline, which was emphasized in Jainism with its austere ascetic practices.(MN 56).

In the Buddha Dhamma, Kamma is not mere action or any action. Kamma with ethical consequences consists of action deliberately and intentionally committed after thought. With the importance attached to the mind where all actions, good or bad, arise, purity of the mind becomes a matter of the highest concern and urgency.  The mind is polluted by a wide range of psychological factors such as emotions, biases and prejudices. The root causes of evil, namely greed, hatred and stupidity, arise in the mind and so are envy, jealousy, anger, intolerance, arrogance, fanaticism and the like. A mind free of such impurities, taints or defilements would generate only good thoughts culminating in wholesome words and deeds. The psychological basis of the ethics of the Buddha Dhamma is undoubtedly the most innovative contribution of the Buddha.

 The path of ethical perfection to end suffering, known as the Noble Eightfold path, which the Buddha presented in his first discourse, begins with Right Thought and Right Resolution. These are the first two steps because one has to make up one’s mind to dedicate one’s life to the pursuit of Salvation, Deliverance or Emancipation. It is with the positive psychological commitment that one proceeds to the next steps of achieving rectitude in speech, action and livelihood though Right Speech, Right Action and Right Livelihood. These constitute the foundation of virtue or moral perfection, which is Siila.

It is on this foundation that Right Effort is based. Salvation or Deliverance in the Buddha Dhamma is not to be attained through the grace of a supernatural entity, invoked by prayer, sacrificial ritual or any other action. One has to strive to achieve one’s goal and even the Buddhas are only instructors who show the way.

This assignment of individual responsibility to improve oneself is another of the challenging concepts in the Buddha Dhamma.  The Buddha rejected the prevailing theories forwarded by contemporary teachers that everything happened by accident or through pre-determination and fate or though divine creation.  The reason for rejecting them was that each of them failed to recognize the role and the responsibility of each person to engage himself or herself in making the effort to reach moral or ethical perfection.

The Right Effort is, of course, to control, direct and consolidate the thoughts that arise in the mind. The goal is Right Mindfulness wherein the mind is aware and conscious of everything a person is engaged in whether by thought, word or deed. The Buddhist technique of meditation gives the foremost priority to attaining mindfulness starting with mindful breathing and culminating in total awareness of all that happens and is done.

With the mind calmed in Right Mindfulness, further effort results in Right Concentration. At this stage of development, the one-pointedness that the mind attains makes it a perfect instrument for Insight Meditation through which the effort continues until Ignorance (Avijjaa) is overcome. The Buddha’s   Path of Salvation or Deliverance does not end with Samaadhi and the mental cultivation aimed at in Buddhism is not to stop the working of the mind. On the contrary, realization of the true nature of existence as impermanence, misery and non-self as described in the Anattalakkhanasutta (SN 22, 59) and the four noble truths of suffering, cause of suffering, end of suffering and the path leading to the end of suffering is the ultimate purpose of meditation. It is then that final stage of wisdom (Pannaa = Prajnaa)  is reached and that is enlightenment, which in Buddha Dhamma is the attainment of Nibbaana = Nirvaana).

 The complete transformation of Vedic Brahmanism to the religious system which we know as Sanaatanadharma or modern Hinduism   was substantially influenced by the ethical concepts enunciated by Jina Mahaaviira and the Buddha. As stated by Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan,

“The revolt of Buddhism and Jainism, even such as it was, forms an era in the history of Indian thought, since it finally exploded the method of dogmatism and helped to bring about a critical point of view. “¦. Buddha served as a cathartic in clearing the mind of the cramping effect of ancient obstructions. “¦ The conservative schools were compelled to codify their views and set for logical defences of them.” (Radhakrishnan II,  p.1-2)

Much has been said of the manner in which Buddhism and Jainism contributed to the evolution of Hindu philosophical systems with special reference to Logic (Nyaaya)  as a tool in inter-religious debate. The Buddha and later Buddhist thinkers in interacting with Hindu thinkers collaborated in evolving an intellectual base for Indian religious thought.

 VIII.       The Vision and Mission of the Buddha

             Coming to the topic I had chosen for this presentation, let me indicate what I see as the vision and the mission of the Buddha, which motivated him to pursue a forty-five year career of reaching out to masses with his Dhamma. He believed in the oneness of humanity and was not ready to accept the traditional division of human society into   castes determined by birth. Virtuous conduct alone would determine whether one person was better than another. The path of spiritual training that he developed was open to every man and woman with no discrimination on birth or age on his conviction that anyone could reach the highest goal of enlightenment by effort and dedication.  He relied on the intellectual capacity of each individual to fashion his or her own destiny when he said “One is one’s own master or refuge (Attaa hi attano naatho)” (Dhammapada 160; 380) and exhorted the Kaalaamas,

 “Do not accept anything on hearsay or traditions or on account of rumours or because it accords with your scriptures, by mere supposition or inference, by merely considering the reasons or because it agrees with your pre-conceived notions and therefore seems acceptable or because the preacher is a respected person.” (AN III,65)

The main criterion to determine what was acceptable was a positive answer to the question: “Is this conducive to the benefit and the happiness of the many.” The five precepts for the laity and all the rules of discipline for the Sangha were based on this principle. Loving kindness and compassion, he considered, had to be extended to all sentient beings without reservation. With his view that the mind was where all actions, good or bad, began, he urged that the purification of the mind of unwholesome thoughts was the foundation for a virtuous life.

 Sacrificial ritual which involved loss of life to animals and humans was not tolerated. Nor did he accept self-mortifying austere practices as contributing to spiritual development just as he rejected indulgence in luxury as a hindrance to it. The way of life that he conceived was one which was conducive to well-being here and now in this life as well as to a better after-life. He urged all religious teachers to show people the way to heaven (Saggassamaggam aacikkhanti “”…” Sigaalovaadasutta DN 31). He considered that people needed to be informed and advised on all aspects of life ranging from good governance and economic viability to interpersonal relations. This in brief is the vision of the Buddha which is reflected in his Dhamma.

The mission of the Buddha was to give expression to this vision in a lifetime of incessant activity. He walked from city to city and village to village to deliver his message to the people. He formed the Sangha as a self-regulating and self-renewing organization to carry on his mission. He provided a body of knowledge in the form of his teachings in prose and verse which, as recoded in the Pali Canon and the Chinese Aagamassutras, run into many volumes. He also guided the Sangha to preserve his teachings in memory, teach them to new generations of disciples, develop commentaries and interpretations to understand his doctrines better and continue intellectual activities of a wide nature. He organized the laity to support the Sangha through the provision of their basic needs in food, clothing, shelter and medicine. He also initiated the provision of the essential infrastructure for his Dhamma to spread through the establishment of monasteries wherein the Sangha could carry on a wide-ranging educational service. So effectively had the Buddha implemented this mission that the Sangha of many ethnicities and cultures had succeeded in preserving the Buddha Dhamma for two thousand six hundred years and taken it to all parts of the world. Wherever it has gone, it has been a remarkable civilizing force.

 IX.             The Buddha as a Discover of a Lost Path to a Forgotten City

 Did the Buddha do all this without the benefit of the Dharma which India had developed prior to his mission? In this conference on Dharma-Dhamma, it is important to take note of the Buddha’s own admission. In the Nagarasutta, (SN 12, 65) it is said,

“It is just as if a man, traveling along a wilderness track, were to see an ancient path, an ancient road, traveled by people of former times. He would follow it. Following it, he would see an ancient city, an ancient capital inhabited by people of former times, complete with parks, groves, & ponds, walled, delightful. He would go to address the king or the king’s minister, saying, ‘Sire, you should know that while traveling along a wilderness track I saw an ancient path… I followed it… I saw an ancient city, an ancient capital… complete with parks, groves, & ponds, walled, delightful. Sire, rebuild that city!’ The king or king’s minister would rebuild the city, so that at a later date the city would become powerful, rich, & well-populated, fully grown & prosperous.

“In the same way I saw an ancient path, an ancient road, traveled by the Rightly Self-awakened Ones of former times. And what is that ancient path, that ancient road, traveled by the Rightly Self-awakened Ones of former times? Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. That is the ancient path, the ancient road, traveled by the Rightly Self-awakened Ones of former times. I followed that path. Following it, I came to direct knowledge of aging & death, direct knowledge of the origination of aging & death, direct knowledge of the cessation of aging & death, direct knowledge of the path leading to the cessation of aging & death. I followed that path. Following it, I came to direct knowledge of birth… becoming… clinging… craving… feeling… contact… the six sense media… name-&-form… consciousness, direct knowledge of the origination of consciousness, direct knowledge of the cessation of consciousness, direct knowledge of the path leading to the cessation of consciousness. I followed that path. (www.dhammawheel.com)

With significant modesty, the Buddha acknowledges his role as a re-discoverer rather than an originator.

In addition, it is also clear that he was no plagiarist because he names the sources on which he had depended. May I conclude with brief references to two instances with the hope that this aspect of the Buddha Dhamma will be further studied by scholars, especially because the significance of the terminology of the Buddha has been lost in later commentaries and interpretations? The two expressions I have in mind are Yogakkhema and Sankhalikhitabrahamcariyam.

Yogakkhema occurs many times in the Pali Canon in relation to the Path of Salvation or Deliverance of the Buddha Dhamma. From the evidence of not only the seals of the Indus Valley Civilization as well as such Upanishads as Katha, Taittirya and the Maitryani. (Radhakrishnan  II p. 339), it is taken to be an integral element of the Shramana Dharma. It is not surprising that the Buddha whose training and inspiration has come from the Shramana Dharma was not only conversant with Yoga but also ready to adapt it. “Yogi” in Theriigaathaa occurs as a synonym for “muni.” (Theriigaathaa. I, 947) A Bhikkhu, devoted to meditation and spiritual exercises, is called a “Yogaavacara. Still the general consensus among scholars has been to consider the word as referring to ( i ) application, endeavour, undertaking, effort (ii) magic power or spells and (iii) bondage, tie, attachment. (PTS-PD sv). We have been guided by these definitions, I was once ready to concede that “Yogaavacara” could mean a bhikkhu who is dedicated to spiritual endeavor without reference to Yoga as a specific system of  spiritual training. But a close examination of the word Yogakhhema suggests another explanation.

Where it occurs in a string of synonyms with the adjective anuttara (unsurpassed or supreme or highest) in contexts like “abhabbo sambodhaaya abhabbo nibbaanaaya abhabbo anuttarassa yogakkhemassa adhigamaaya” Itivutaka Dukanipaata I,7), Phusanti dhiiraa Nibbanam  yogakkhemam  anuttaram  (Dhammpada 23) and anuttaram yogakkhemam patthayamƒÆ’-¾no (MN 1), it appears to have a special meaning. The current translations include “bondage-free,” “peace of union,” peace from bondage,” and “the supreme security from bondage.” Would it be possible to take this expression which in these contexts is equal to enlightenment (sambodhi) and Nibbaana  as an acknowledgement of the Buddha’s adoption of Yoga and the path of training? If so, it would be translatable as “supreme security or sanctuary gained through Yoga.” Not only is form of mental development of the Buddha Dhamma presented with similar terminology as in Yoga (e.g. Samaadhi, Jhaana= Dhyana, Samaapatti) but also is similar to the eightfold stages of Yoga.

            I am persuaded to suggest this interpretation of yogakkhema on account of what I observed as the most fitting rendering of the epithet Sankhalikhitam qualifying brahmacariyam, the higher life of renunciation and religious training (DN I p.63 Vinaya I p. 181). The commentaries explain it as likhitasankhasadisam and dhotasankhasuppatibhaagam  – – pure, bright or perfect like the polished, inscribed or washed mother-of-pearl.” This interpretation is not only far-fetched but also too figurative to be used in otherwise prosaic contexts as a frequent qualification for the life of religious training. It is very clear that the expression had become already obscure by the time commentaries were written.

The two brothers Sankha and Likhita are mentioned in the Mahaabhaarata as ascetics (XII Shaantiparva, Raajaanusaasanaaparva).         P. V. Kane found 493 references to their views in 17 works (ABORI 7, 1926 pp. 101 -128) and A. D. Thakur has attempted to reconstruct their work as Sankhalikhitasmrti on the basis of 963 quotations collected from 116 works. The sheer number of works in which they are quoted is an indication of their recognition as authorities of the subject on which they had written. Patrick Olivelle’s edition with a translation into English of the eleventh century Yadava Prakasha’s Yatidharmasamuccaya in his Rules and Regulations of Brahmanical Asceticism has thrown much light on the identification of Sankha and Likhita as two ancient and duly recognized authorities on asceticism. They are referred to individually and, quite frequently, jointly as exponents of certain specific aspects of ascetic life. The following rules they have laid down for ascetics seem to remind one of the rules of discipline in the Vinaya Pitaka:

 Sankha and Likhita jointly:

  1.  After he has lived as a forest hermit and has reached an advanced age, a man may freely take to itinerant asceticism (parivrajyam) (p.40)
  2. Abandoning all undertakings (e.g. Vedic ritual activities), he relies on the use of a triple staff, a water pot, fine thread,  and a water strainer, shaves his head (munda), wears ochre clothes (kaashaaya) and subsists on begging (bhaikshavrtti).  (p.51)
  3.  A begging bowl (bhaikshabhaajana) may be made of one of the following; wood, gourd, cane, and clay. “¦ After the meal, he should sip water, sip once again and sprinkle water on the articles. (p.119)
  4. 4.       An ascetic should subsist on alms food and not be fond of sharing it with others. He should avoid begging from public sinners and people fallen from their caste and live on humble and disparaged food. “¦ With his passions totally extinguished, he waits for his appointed time, constantly absorbed in meditation. Finding delight in himself, he is in the habit of living in secluded places. Free from deception, hypocrisy, and deceit, he never resides in the same village. Giving up the faults inherent in attachment, he should cultivate the habit of wandering. Adept at understanding the self and distinguishing it from other things, he should not be fond of staying in one place outside the rainy season. He should do the purification after voiding urine and excrement, as well as ritual sipping, with water that has been drawn out.

When a man bears the barbed words evil people may hurl at him and maintains a joyful spirit without getting angry, it constitutes his self-control generated in his mind. (damas tasya buddhijah)

When a man bears patiently cold, heat, and other such dualities, as well as attacks by evil people, the scriptures call it patience and forbearance.(titikshaa kshamaa).

When a man has attained supreme wisdom (praajnaa)and remains completely calm in the face of every event, whether it is desirable, calamitous or propitious, he possesses tranquility  and self-control (shamadamaatmakah).

When a man possessing austerity, knowledge, self-control and power (tapojnaanadamaishvairya) does not get angry at barbed and cutting words hurled at him “”…” that wise man will not be confounded in this world.

If an ascetic with a gentle heart follows in this world the rules of the order devoted to liberation, (mokshadhama) he will soon cast off the bonds of rebirth  (bhavabandha) and become fit for immortality (amrtatva).

Avoiding people who have fallen from their castes and keeping his senses, speech and eyes under control, he could beg almsfood from the four classes (caaturvaarnyam). (pp. 134-135)

Shankha only:

  1. Having thus spent some time in the forest a twice-born man should enter the celibate order of life (brahmaashrama). Even a Vedic student (brahamacaarya) may do so, however, if he has attained a high intensity of detachment by his knowledge of various Upanishads; if he had withdrawn all his senses and keeps them from sensual objects, if he finds delight only in himself; if with his mind he vanquished his adversaries; if he has got hold of his self securely fastened by repeatedly engaging in Yogic practices (yogaabhyaasa); if he has banished all attachments; if he adheres strictly to his vow. Or even a twice-born householder if he possesses the above qualities may enter celibate order of life after he has offered a sacrifice to Prajaapati ,given all his possessions as a sacrifici1al gift to the priest according to  the prescribed rules and deposited his sacred fires in himself. (p. 41-42)
  2. Even a Vedic student (brahmacaarya) may do so however “¦ if he has banished all attachments and if he adheres strictly to his vows. (p. 45)
  3. He should sit with a serene mind in an abandoned house (shuunye grhe), a temple, a cave or a mountain cavern or in a place he finds pleasant. Assuming a sitting position (aasana) in the manner prescribed in the yogic texts, he should always engage in yogic meditation (yogam yujjiita),but especially during twilight. (p. 81)
  4. A man burns up his faults through the control of breathing (Praanaayaama), his sins through concentration (dhaarana), his attachments through the withdrawal of the senses (Pratyaahaara) and the ignoble qualities through meditation (dhyaana). When a person recites three times the Gayatri verse together with OM, the great utterance, and the Siras formula, as he controls his breathing, this is called the control of breath. The curbing of the sense organs (samyamashcendriyaanaam) is called the withdrawal of the senses. The curbing of the mind (manah samyamana) knowledgeable term concentration (dhaarana). The vision of the God of gods within brahman through meditative practice is called meditation (dhyaana). I will tell you of a meditative practice better than that. In the heart abide all gods. The breaths are fixed within the heart. In the heart abide the sun and the celestial lights. Everything is established in the heart. Make your body the lower slab and the syllable OM the upper fire drill. Churn it continuously in meditation (dhyaana).  (pp. 81-82)
  5. After meditating (Dhyaatvaa) until he has obtained the bliss arising from the knowledge of the self, he should gradually end his yogic exercise (viramya yogaat). After silently reciting OM and completing his private Vedic recitation (svaaddhyaaya), he should leave that village and go to another. This is the settled rule. (p.97)
  6. 6.       If one man rubs sandalwood paste on one of his arms while another cuts off his other arm, he should not feel kindly towards the one and unkindly towards the other. With a friendly disposition (maitrah) and seeking the welfare of all creatures, he regards a clod, a stone and a piece of gold as the same. (p. 133)
  7. 7.       Association with women, day dreaming, wandering in the night and ejaculation of semen by effort must be avoided. (p. 392)

Likhita only

  1. As a result of merits he has accumulated over ten million lifetimes (janmakotishataabdhapunya)or by divine intervention, a man becomes detached (vairagyam jaayate) and displays a strong yearning for brahman. After he has learned the true meaning of the Veda, it may become impossible for such a man to live at home (grhavaasam). So he may depart for the ascetic life (pravrajet) either while he is a student or, when he is old, from home to the forest.  (pp. 42-43)
  2. Let him wear a ragged shawl and an ochre garb of cotton (kaashaayam kaarpaasam), “¦ (pp. 51-52)
  3. If a man says “ƒ”¹…”I have renounced,’ even with his last breath, he will rescue his forefathers and place himself on the path to liberation (muktipatha). (p.69)
  4. He should not speak Sanskrit (samskrtaam na vadet) but should behave like a man who is childish and dumb. He should not accumulate possessions, not even the articles of an acetic, for use at a future date. (p. 79)
  5. Imbued with love (bhaktim assthitah) after examining the puranas and the vedantas, he should always contemplate in his heart Visnu both with the physical appearance and without attributes. The contemplation of the self through yogic discipline (yogenaatmadarshanam) is the highest of all duties (sarvadharmaanaam). One should give up everything that impedes it, with the exception of what is absolutely necessary. (p. 83)
  6. Even if he is about to die, he should never eat a full meal given by one person. Let him live by begging in the manner of a bee (maadhukarena varteta) even from an outcaste (nishaat), for it purifies the mind. (p. 111)
  7. He should not be fond of books that do not deal with spiritual matters or become an astrologer (jyotishika). He should treat people who are sick, poisoned, or possessed, even if it is done for a religious reason. He should not gather a lot of disciples, broadcast his knowledge or speak in Sanskrit (samskrtaam na vaded vaaniim) but should go about like a simpleton and a mute. After he has renounced a man observes the duties of ascetic (yatidharma)for three years, devoting himself to continuously to yogic practice (yoganishthah), he will attain liberation (moksha) after his death (pretya). (p. 133-134).
  8. On every full moon day falling between the juncture between seasons, except when it occurs during the four months of the rainy season, as ascetic should have his head shaved (mundayeta) without cutting his topknot. (p. 141)
  9. Unless his is blind, sick or lame, he should not spent six nights (shadraatram) in any one place. “¦ It is certain that all ascetics should maintain a fixed residence in one place during the four months beginning with Sravana (July-August) (p. 151).

 X.                Conclusion

 The above extracts from Patrick  Olivelle’s translation of Yatidharmasamuccaya in his “Rules and Regulations of Brahmanical Asceticism,” which I have reproduced with highlights and  Sanskrit terms from the original, have confirmed my hunch, expressed in 2000 in the review of Patrick Olivelle’s work published in the Theosophical History Volume 8, January 2000, that the reference to Sankhalikhitabrahmacariyam in the Diighanikaaya and the Vinaya is an acknowledgement of the Buddha’s adoption of the rules and regulations of the ascetic system, as enunciated by Sankha and Likhita. More light will certainly be shed on this matter if a serious researcher examines the 493 references collected by P. V. Kane from 17 works and the 963 references discovered by A. D. Thakur in 116 works with the rules and regulations for the Buddhist Sangha in the Vinaya Pitaka. This and the examination of the meaning of Yogakkhema could be projects to be undertaken by the Sanchi University of Buddhist Studies when it comes into existence.

May I conclude by wishing you all a very successful and productive conference which will prove to be a timely meeting of minds of an outstanding gathering of international scholars dedicated to the promotion of the study of India’s incomparable religious and philosophical heritage. Thank you.

 Abbrevations:   ABORI “”…” annals of the Bhandarkar Research institute

                                 AN “”…” Anguttata nikaaya

                                 DN “”…” Diighanikaaya

                                 MN “”…” Majjhimanikaaya

                                 PTS-PD “”…” Pali Text Society: Pali Dictionary

                                 SN –   Samyuttanikaaya                                  

 References

 Guruge, Ananda W. P.        1993 “”…” Asoka the Righteous; A Definitive biography, Central

                                                                  Cultural Fund, Colombo

Guruge, Ananda W. P.         2008 “”…” Place of Buddhism in Indian Thought in Indologica

                                                                  Taurinensia  XXXIV

Olivelle, Patrick                    1995 “”…”  Rules and regulations of Brahmanical Asceticism, State

                                                   University of New York Press, Albany

Radhakrishnan, Sarvapalli 1948    Indian Philosophy I & II, George Allen & Unwin, London

Winternitz, Maurice             1981   A History of Indian Literature I, (A new translation by V.

                                                                Sirinivasa Sarma), Motilal Banrasidass, New Delhi

 Desamanya Kalakirti Dr. Ananda W.P. Guruge is Professor of Buddhist Studies, University of the West; Emeritus Dean of Academic Affairs and Special Assistant to the President and Director of the International Academy of Buddhism of the University of the West (formerly Hsi Lai University), Los Angeles County, California. He is also an adjunct professor of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Peace Studies of California State University, Fullerton; the Vice-President and Liaison Officer to the United Nations and UNESCO of the World Fellowship of Buddhists; the Chairman of the World Buddhist University Council; and the Patron of the European Buddhist Union; Formerly Ambassador Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary of Sri Lanka to UNESCO, France and USA (with non-resident accreditation to Spain, Algeria and Mexico) (1985″”…”1994); and Senior Special Adviser to the Director General of UNESCO (1995-2000). He is author of fifty-four books in English and Sinhala and over 175 research papers. Among his works are The Society of the Ramayana (Social Conditions of India as reflected in the Valmiki Ramayana), Colombo 1960, New Delhi 1961; Return to Righteousness – A Collection of Speeches, Essays and letters of the Anagarika Dharmapala, Colombo 1965; Second edition 1991; Anagarika Dharmapala,Colombo 1967; Facets of Buddhism, Colombo 1967; Singapore 1991; Buddhism: The Religion and its Culture, Chennai 1972, Colombo 1982, Singapore 1988; Buddhist Contribution to the World Culture and Civilization, (co-edited with D. C. Ahir), New Delhi,1977; Miracle of Instruction, Lake House, Colombo 1982, Sarvodaya, Ratmalana 1988; From the Living Fountains of Buddhism, Colombo 1984, Mahavamsa “”…” The Great Chronicle of Sri Lanka “”…” A New Translation with Prolegomena, Colombo, 1989; Mahavamsa (Birla Classics of the East), Calcutta, 1990; Voices from Ancient Sri Lanka, Colombo 1990; Asoka the Righteous “”…” A Definitive Biography, Colombo 1993; An Agenda for the International Buddhist Community, Colombo 1993; What in Brief is Buddhism? Mitram, USA, 1999, Buddha Light, Hacienda Heights, 2003; The Unforgettable Dharmapala, Authorhouse, USA 2002 Buddhist Answers to Current issues, Authorhouse, USA, 2005;The Buddha’s Encounters with Mara the Tempter – Their Representation in Literature and Art, Kandy, 2005/2012; Buddhism, Science and Economics, Authorhouse, USA, 2008; Buddhism Today and Aesthetic Creativity, Lulu, USA 2010; Scholar-Statesman Jayatilaka, Godage, Colombo, 2011 and also the Sri Lankan Trilogy from Freedom to Peace comprising Free at Last in Paradise, Serendipity of Andrew George and Peace at Last in Paradise, International Edition by Authrohouse, USA and the Sri Lankan Edition by Godage. E-mail: [email protected]; Address:  8351 Snowbird Drive, Huntington Beach, CA 92646, United States of America.

 

 

One Response to “DHARMA TO DHAMMA AS INDICATIVE OF THE VISION AND MISSION OF THE BUDDHA”

  1. wasantha Says:

    What a beutiful specimen of scholarly writing on Buddhist Civilisation. Dr Ananda Guruge is of the calbre Mallalasekera, Nandadeva Wijesekera, Adhikaram, etc. He is the only remaining giant of that era. They are a very rare class. Deteriorating social standard of the country will make people of this calibre an endangered species. They studied for the love of the subject and contributed heavily to the high scholarly standard of the time.

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