Why did Buddhism disappear from South Asia? Part -2
Posted on February 9th, 2013

Prof. Bahauddin elaborates:

“ƒ”¹…”Buddhism tried to create a dynamic society in ancient India. Jainism also contributed its share. As Buddhism spread, iron ploughs and implement were used for development of agriculture. As a result, new areas were cultivated and agricultural productivity increased, apart from developing trade centres and road links. Subsistence-level economy changed to a surplus economy with grain storage facilities, exchange of goods, trade and development of bureaucratic administration. This also created social change “”…” from elans consisting several families to tribes consisting several elans of similar socio-economic conditions. The emphasis of Brahmins, on the other hand, was for receiving and giving alms and not on production of goods. Those who give and receive alms were close to Gods and those who produce were considered as inferior. According to Manusmriti, a Sudra should not have wealth of his own. In case he has any, a Brahmin as his master can take it over without any hesitation. “ƒ”¹…”Rigveda’ goes a step further to kill those who do not give “ƒ”¹…”danam’ to the Brahmins. In other words, someone has to produce goods so that others can give “ƒ”¹…”danam’ to the recipient Brahmins. It was against this system of “ƒ”¹…”downgrading those who produce’ that Buddhism came into being.’

HINDU SOURCES DESCRIBING BUTCHERY: According to the Mahabharta 330 millions were killed. Prince Saddharta could not tolerate the death of millions, rejected paganism and became Gautum Buddh. Ashoka dumped his pagan roots and converted to Buddhism after the millions were massacred in the Hindu Kush. Of course these are not Western or non-Hindu sources that list the Kaura-Panda and the Mahabharta wars which were responsible for the death decimation and destruction of millions. According to Kalhani millions of Buddhists were killed and murdered in Buddhist Kashmir prior to the advent of anyone else. Buddhists were chased out of the Subcontinent.

Subraminium adds. We have to accept our shortcomings. The worst enemy of Hinduism is castism. Inequality of human beings determining by birth is unacceptable. The superiority complex of (the so called higher castes) even now does exist.

According to Dr Jayaprakash, Sakaracharya had played “ƒ”¹…”a demon’s role’ in destruction of Buddhist statues and monuments at Nagarjunakonda (in present-day Andhra Pradesh). “ƒ”¹…”A. N. Longhurst, who conducted excavations at Nagarjunakonda, had recorded this in his invaluable book, Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India No. 54, The Buddhist Antiquities of Nagarjunakonda (Delhi, 1938, p. 6). The ruthless manner in which all the buildings at Nagarjunakonda have been destroyed is simply appalling and cannot represent the work of treasure-seekers alone since so many pillars, statues, and sculptures have been wantonly smashed to pieces. Local tradition relates that the great Hindu philosopher and teacher, Sankaracharya, came to Nagarjunakonda with a host of followers and destroyed the Buddhist monuments. The cultivated lands on which ruined buildings stand represent a religious grant made to Sankaracharya.’

Quoting Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Prof. Bahauddin says that the conflict against Brahmin supremacy had, in fact, started before Buddhist period, between Vasishta Muni, a Brahmin, and Viswamitra, a non-Brahmin. “ƒ”¹…”The dispute was about the learning of “ƒ”¹…”Vedas’, the right to conduct religious ceremony, to receive gifts, and to perform coronation of King. Vasishta Muni insisted that these were the exclusive privileges of Brahmins, while Viswamitra was opposed to such exclusive rights. This dispute lasted for long period, and even Kings joined in it (Writings and Speeches of Dr. Ambedkar, vol. 7, p. 148-155. It was won by Brahmins.’

Coming to the death of Buddhism in India, yes it is still shrouded in mystery. Ramayana and Mahabharata, in all probability, were created much after Bhuddha’s advent. Though, Bhagwat Geeta has lot of great teachings that one can imbibe in oneself for liberation, it is difficult to digest that God created the four varnas. These things were deliberately written to brainwash people to the Hindu fold as Brahmins were losing hold.

Dr. Jayaprakash: “ƒ”¹…”The Hindu ruler Pushyamitra Sunga had destroyed 84,000 Buddhist stupas which were built by Emperor Ashoka. This was followed by the demolition of Buddhist centres in Magadha. Thousands of Buddhist saints were killed mercilessly. King Jalaluka destroyed the Buddha viharas within his jurisdiction on the ground that chanting of hymns by Buddhists disturbed his sleep! In Kashmir, King Kinnara demolished thousands of viharas and captured the Buddhist villages to please Brahmins. A large number of Buddha viharas were usurped by Brahmins and converted into Hindu temples where entry of “ƒ”¹…”untouchables’ was prohibited. Notably, Buddhist places were regularized as Hindu temples by writing Puranas, which were invented myths or pseudo history. The important temples at Tirupathi, Aihole, Undavalli, Ellora, Bengal, Puri, Badarinath, Mathura, Ayodhya, Sringeri, Bodhigaya, Saranath, Delhi, Nalanda, Gudimallam, Nagarjunakonda, Srisailam and Sabarimala are some of the striking examples of Brahminical usurpation of Buddhist centres.’

“¦ I have recently come across a book “Volga se Ganga“ by Rahul Sankrityayan ane emininent scholer which describes the animosity of Brahmins towards Bhuddhists and the cunningness of Brahmins. There is a mention that either Pushyamitra or Agnimitra of Sunga dynasty only is described as Rama in Ramayana by Valmiki and similarly, Mahakavi Kalidasa had created Kumara Sambava in praise of Kumara Gupta (son of Chandra Gupta Vikramaditya) wherin the hero is described as Shankar’s kumar, the karthikeya. From this we find that these epcis and fables were written in praise of some kings who were given divine status, the later generations might have blindly followed the rituals thus rendering the origin in oblivion

The sword of Brahamanism was not used exclusively for the Buddhists, Jains and darker skinned Untouchables suffered too. Not satisfied by eliminating Buddhism on the continental Subcontinent today the same sword of Hinduvata Brahmanism continues to spread carnage to the Sinhalese Buddhists in Sri Lanka, the Sikkimese Buddhist, and the Bhutanese Buddhists. Brahman’s also chased the Buddhists in Southeast Asia. Campuchia, Laos and Vietnam are full of carcasses the carnage that was exported to Souteast Asia. Millions of Buddhists ran from the Subcontinent to Burma, and even to China, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

  • Before the advent of Islam, but after the Aryan migrations, several invasions and mass migrations of the Central Asian tribes named as the Sakas, Parthians, Kushans, Huns and Gujjars took place in the Punjab (and other parts of Pakistan).
  • The last two tribes i.e. the Huns (White Huns/ Epthalites) and Gujjars arrived in the 5th century AD when Hinduism had revived under the Gupta Empire but had not fully succeeded in crushing the influence of Buddhism.
  • As the Gupta Empire collapsed under the impact of Hun invasions, it caused deep consternation among Brahmins in view of their failure to eliminate Buddhism while the Gupta power supporting them in this task had disappeared. Therefore, they began to make overtures to the new arrivals who were valiant, vigorous and warlike. They were offered the rank of Kshatryas in the Hindu fold, a position only next to that of the Brahmins and confers the responsiblity of rulership.
  • In the course of time the leading groups of Huns were absorbed in the Hindu fold as Kshatryas while Jats, who were the descendants of the remaining groups of Huns, occupied a lower strata of society. But the present day Jats and Rajputs also include the descendants of the previous invaders”¦.. the Sakas and the Kushans and even of earlier races. Sakas, Parthians, Kushans, White Huns, and Gujjars were ethnically Iranian.
  • In fact, Huns (White Huns/Hepthalites) are also called Iranian Huns to differentiate them from the other Mongoloid Huns who invaded Europe. The word Gujjar is derived from Khazar and Jat from Gatae who inhabited around the Caspian Sea and migrated towards northwest South Asia. http://www.oocities.org/pak_history/punjabis.html

 

  • A dwarf Brahmin from Kerala, Adi Shankara, undertook the task of reviving Brahmanism by destroying Buddhism, physically annihilating Buddhists and their monks, and converting Buddhist viharas into Hindu temples. After a prolonged bloody war and violence, the Brahmanical religion was revived by manufacturing two tales “”…” Epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata “”…” and then scripture called the Bhagawad Gita. The caste system was evolved, codified and strictly enforced through the Manu Dharma Shastra; non-violence (ahimsa) was borrowed from Jainism and incorporated into Hinduism. Brahmins were directed to abstain from meat-eating and become vegetarians. And others were directed to refrain from eating beef and cow was declared a sacred animal (gomata) and next only to mother. These were the tricks adopted by Brahmins to destroy Buddhism and re-establish the world’s most violent religion of inequality, injustice and inhumanity. All these form part of the history written by Brahmin historians themselves. Conversion: the best, simplest, surest & the most non-violent way to liberate Dalits V.T. Rajshekar

The use of appropriate amount of ruthlessness eliminated Buddhism from South Asia.

  • In order to overpower their opponents, the Brahmin strategy was: saam, daan, bhed, dand”¦
  • BRAHMINS GAVE DAUGHTERS: In my over three-decade study of Brahmin scriptures and their history, I found that though Brahmins used all sorts of ways to finish their enemy, they used dand to crush the defenseless people like shudras/Dalits. The Indus people too were virtually defenseless. So the Brahmins used dand against them. They used daan against the mightier enemy to win over the English and Mughals, they offered them every price i.e. daan including their daughters.
  • Saam, the deadliest and the surest strategy, was used to destroy our history and culture.
  • Saam is the deadliest of the four. It has been the most effective and a never fail way to finish the strongest enemy whom they cannot crush by dand nor buy through daan.

Prof. Bahauddin lists the different stages of Brahmin hostility against Buddhism: “ƒ”¹…”1) 483-273 BC: The period after Buddha’s death upto Ashoka’s rule when attempts were made to include Brahminical ideas in Buddhist ideology. 2) 273-200 BC: When Buddhism spread all over India and became a world religion. 3) 200 BC-500 AD: The period when all possible efforts were made to disintegrate Buddhism from within by adulterating Buddhist teachings with Brahminical ideas and also through physical annihilation from outside. As a result, Buddhism divided itself into 18 sects, of which Hinayana and Mahayana were prominent ones. 4) 500-700 AD: Brahminism gained supremacy in North India and efforts began to drive out Buddhism and Jainism from South India. 5) 700-1100 AD: Brahminism gained supremacy in South India and, with added vigour, it moved again to North India to obtain complete supremacy over Buddhism and Jainism. 6) 1100-1400 AD: Buddhism and Jainism were destroyed from the remaining Southern States of Karnataka and Kerala and, thus, total supremacy of Brahminism all over India was achieved.’

  • HOW BUDHISM WAS DESTROYED: During the Maurya era, Budha Dhamma was the mightiest enemy of Brahmins. It had almost wiped out Brahminism. At that time our Indus kingdom was in full bloom. The excavation of the Indus cities prove that every city contained a stupa. Seals of dhamma-chakra are found in plenty. In one of the cities even a headless statue of Budha was also found. Seals depicting worship of Bodhi Pipal tree have also been found. The whole Indus kingdom had turned into Budhist state.
  • At that time Brahmins under Pushyamitra committed regicide of Emperor Varihdarth and genocide of Budhists. But the Brahmins did not succeed in fishing the Budha Dhamma by dand. Therefore, they adopted the sure strategy of sam. Under this strategy, the Brahmins took their first step by declaring the Budha as one of our gods. As a next step the cunning Brahmins joined Budhism as bhikkhus.
  • A Brahmin like Kumarila Bhat, Nagarjun in the garb of bhikhus injected Brahminic venom into the veins of Dhamma. Tales of Jatak were distorted, simple Dhamma was infected with complex rituals. Brahmins led the Dhamma to Tantarikism. In the garb of bhikhu, they committed heinous sins. The end result: Dhamma vanished from its birth place.
  • The saam is persisting even today.

Dr. Jayaprakash says: a number of Buddha statues have been discovered at places like Ambalapuzha, Karunagapalli, Pallickal, Bharanikkavu, Mavelikara and Neelamperur in Kerala. “ƒ”¹…”They are either in the form of smashed pieces or thrown away from viharas. Lord Ayyappa of Sabarimala and Lord Padmanabha at Thiruvananthapuram are the proxy images of Buddha being worshipped as Vishnu. Hundreds of Buddhists were killed on the banks of Aluva river. The term “ƒ”¹…”Aluva’ was derived from “ƒ”¹…”Alawai’ which means “ƒ”¹…”Trisul’, a weapon used by Hindu fanatics to stab Buddhists. Similarly, on the banks of the Vaigai river in Tamilnadu, thousands of Buddhists were killed by the Vaishnava Saint, Sambanthar. Thevaram, a Tamil book, documents this brutal extermination of Buddhism.’

  • RADHAKRISHNAN’S MISCHIEF: The Brahmins took centuries to complete their job. The most dangerous part is that even today they are using this strategy.
  • Mischievous “scholars” like Dr. S. Radhakrishnan feel no shame in declaring that the Budha was born a Hindu and died a Hindu.
  • The Brahminist (Kayasth) Vivekananda feels no shame in depicting Budha’s moral values as that of Brahminism.
  • RSS fellows shout that Babasaheb is their leader, Budha is their god. Brahmins have no hesitation to join an exclusive Dalit party like BSP under this saam niti. They even go to the extent of claiming that the constitution too describes Budhism under Hinduism. http://palashscape.wordpress.com/2009/05/10/but-how-does-media-treat-dalits-and-the-issues-which-concern-them/

 

Prof. Bahauddin says: “ƒ”¹…”Equality, compassion, non-violence, utilization of human abilities for general welfare, etc. were the cardinal principles of Buddhism. According to “ƒ”¹…”Sathpatha Brahmanam (22-6, 3-4-14), on the other hand, the whole universe is controlled by God, God is controlled by Mantram and Mantram is with Brahmins and, therefore, Brahmins are God (on earth). They used Mantram and Sapam to instil fear in the people to obey them, while Buddhism encouraged people to observe visible facts, to apply reason to get out of fear. Buddhism also encouraged people to do good things, besides guiding Kings to look after the people’s welfare. Buddhism considers the general welfare of the people, while Brahminism considers that the whole world was created for them all along. And, there is bound to be conflict between these two opposite ways of thinking.’

SUMMARY OF BRAHMAN ATROCITIES THAT DESTROYED BUDDHISM IN INDIA

1) The Divyavadana (ed. Vaidya, 282). The most important of the murderous Hindu bigots who carried out their systematic campaign of violence against the peaceful followers of Lord Buddha was Pushyamitra (184-48 B.C.), the founder of the Shunga dynasty. For details and refrences do see BELOW

2) Goyal [430] “The culprit in this case was Toramana, a member of the same dynasty as the Shaivite Mihirakula who did “immense damage to the Buddhist shrines in Gandhara, Punjab and Kashmir.” For details and refrences do see BELOW

3) Mihirakula is said to have razed 1600 viharas, stupas and monasteries, and “put to death 900 Kotis, or lay adherents of Buddhism” [Joshi, 404].

4) The Aryamanjushrimulakalpa tells us that Pushyamitra “destroyed monasteries with relics and killed monks of good conduct.” [Jayaswal, 18-19]

5) As Goyal [394] notes, “According to many scholars hostility of the Brahmanas was one of the major causes of the decline of Buddhism in India.”

6) The celebrated Tibetan historian Lama Taranatha mentions the march of Pushyamitra from Madhyadesha to Jalandhara. In the course of his campaigns, the book states, Pushyamitra burned down numerous Buddhist monasteries and killed a number of learned monks The archaeological evidence for the ravages wrought by Pushyamitra and other Hindu fanatic rulers on famous Buddhist shrines is abundant.

7) The Brhannaradiya-purana lays it down as a principal sin for a Brahmana to enter the house of a Buddhist even in times of great peril.

8) The drama Mrchchhakatika shows that in Ujjain the Buddhist monks were despised and their sight was considered inauspicious.

9) The Vishnupurana (XVIII 13-18) also regards the Buddha as Mayamoha who appeared in the world to delude the demons. Kumarila is said to have instigated King Sudhanvan of Ujjain to exterminate the Buddhists.

10) The Kerala-utpatti describes how he exterminated the Buddhists from Kerala.”

11) The Chinese traveller Yuan Chwang (Huen Tsang), who visited India in the seventh century records the oppressions of Shashanka, the king of Gauda, who was a devotee of Shiva.

12) Yuan Chwang’s account reads, “In recent times Shashanka, the enemy and oppressor of Buddhism, cut down the Bodhi tree, destroyed its roots down to the water and burned what remained.” [Watters II p.115] He also says that Shashanka tried “to have the image (of Lord Buddha at Bodhgaya) removed and replaced by one of Shiva”.

13) Another independent account of Shashanka’s oppressions is found in the Aryamanjushrimulakalpa, which refers to Shashanka destroying “the beautiful image of Buddha” [Jayaswal, 49-50].

14) Another prominent seventh century murderer of Buddhists was Sudhanvan of Ujjain, already mentioned in the quotation from Goyal above as having been supposedly instigated by Kumarila Bhatt.

15) Madhava Acharya, in his “Sankara-digvijayam“ of the fourteenth century A.D., records that Suddhanvan “issued orders to put to death all the Buddhists from Ramesvaram to the Himalayas”.

16) Even after the Islamic invasions of India, Hindu bigotry and hatred for Buddhists was not subdued. According to Sharmasvamin, a Tibetan pilgrim who visited Bihar three decades after the invasion of Bakhtiaruddin Khilji in the 12th century, the biggest library at Nalanda was destroyed by Hindu mendicants who took advantage of the chaos produced by the invasion.

He says that “they (Hindus) performed a Yajna, a fire sacrifice, and threw living embers and ashes from the sacrifice into the Buddhist temples. This produced a great conflagration which consumed Ratnabodhi, thenine-storeyed library of the Nalanda University”. [Prakash, 213]. Numerous destroyed Buddhist shrines were converted into Hindu temples after their destruction.

17) Ahir [58] notes that “The Seat of Buddha’s Enlightenment was in the possession of a Hindu Mahant till 1952.

18) Similarly, at Kushinara, where the Buddha had entered into Mahaparinirvana, the cremation stupa had been converted into a Hindu temple, and on top of it stood the temple of Rambhar Bhavani when

Cunningham discovered the site in 1860-61.

19) Among the shrines which still continue to be dedicated to Hindu gods mention may be made of the Caityas of Chezrala and Ter in Andhra Pradesh which are now Shiva and Vishnu temples respectively.

20) The temple of Madhava at Sal Kusa, opposite Gauhati in Asam, was once a sacred shrine of the Buddhists. “¦

21) And the famous Jagannatha temple at Puri in Orissa was also originally a Buddhist shrine.

22) Similarly, the Vishnupada temple at Gaya was also once a Buddhist shrine.” As Rajendralal Mitra notes in his famous work of 1878 [quoted in Ahir, 59] the feet of Buddha at Gaya were rechristened the feet of Vishnu and held as the most sacred object of worship in the new Vishnupada temple.

23) According to the records of Hieun Tsang and Kalhana’s Rajaatarangini, Asoka the great repented, converted to Buddhism (273-232 BC) and did a lot for Buddhism. Asoka renounced violence, and renounced his religion after the Kalinga war, and he became a Buddhist. During Asoka, Buddhism had become the state religion. The Brahmans did not like him, and many historians think the Brahaman opposition to Asoka led to the destruction of the Muyarian dynasty.

24) In Glimpses of World History Jawahrlal Nehru says the following about the Kushans (emphasis is mine and not Nehru’s): “ This Kushan Empire is interesting in many ways. IT WAS A BUDDHIST EMPIRE, and one of its famous rulers-the Emperor Kanishka-was ardently devoted to the dharma”¦the Kushans were Mongolians or closely allied to them. From the Kushan capital there must have been a continuous coming and going to the Mongolian homelands, and Buddhist learning and Buddhist culture must have gone to China and Mongolia”¦the Kushan Empire sat like a colossus astride the back of Asia, in between the Greaco-Roman world in the south. It was a halfway house both between India, and Rome, and India and China. The Kushan period corresponded with the last days of the Roman Republic when Julius Ceaser was alive, and first 200 years of the Roman Empire

25) THE HINDU KASHATRIYA HINDU AND BUDDHIST WARS

Jawarhalal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says (Page 103 and 104) “Chandragupta proclaimed his holy war “against all foreign rulers in India. The Kashatriyas and the Aryan aristocracy, deprived of their power and positions by the aliens (Kushans), were at the back of this war. After a dozen or so years of fighting, Chandragupta managed to gain control over Northern India including what is now called UP. He then crowned himself king of kings. Thus began the Gupta dynasty. It was a period of somewhat aggressive Hinduism and nationalism. The foreign rulers-the Turkis and Parathions and other Non-Aryans were rooted our and forcibly removed. We thus find racial antagonism at work. The Indo-Aryan aristocrat was proud of his race and looked down upon these barbarians and malachas. Indo-Aryan States and rulers were conquered by the Guptas were dealt with leniently, But there was not leniency for non-Aryans.

26) Jawarhalal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says “Chandragupta’s son Samadugupta was an even more aggressive fighter than his father”¦.the Kushans were pushed back across the Indus”¦Samadugupta’s son, Chandragupta II was also a warrior king, and he conquered Kathiwad and Gujrat, which had been under the rule of a Saka or Turki dynasty for a long time. He took the nameVikramaditya”¦..The Gupta period was a period of Hindu imperialism in India. There was a great revival of old Aryan culture and Sanskrit learning. The Hellenistic, or Greek and Mongolian elements in Indian life

and culture which had been brought by the Greeks, Kushans and others were not encouraged, and were in fact deliberately superseded by laying stress on the Indo-Aryan traditions. Sanskrit was the official court language. But EVEN IN THOSE DAYS SANSKRIT WAS NOT THE COMMON LANGUAGE OF THE PEOPLE.

The spoken language was a form of Prakrit”¦.Kalidasa belonged to this period “¦”¦”¦”¦”¦. Samadragupta changed the capital of his empire from Pataliputra (Peshawar) to Ayodhia. Perhaps he felt that Ayodhiyaoffered a more suitable outlook””…”with its story of Ramachandra immortalized in Valmikis epic.

27) HINDU BUDDHIST CONFLICT

Jawarhalal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says “The Gupta revival of Aryanism and Hinduism was naturally not very favorably inclined towards Buddhism. This was partly because this movement was aristocratic, with the Kashatriya chiefs backing it, and Buddhism had more democracy in it; partly because the Mahayana form of Buddhism was closely associated with the Kushans and other alien rulers of northern India”¦.but Buddhism declined in India”¦Chandragupta the first was a contemporary of Constantine the great, the Roman Emperor who founded Constantinople. “

28) HINDU IMPERIALISM SAILS TO THE FAR EAST AND DESTROYS THE MALAY CIVILIZATION

The years of ANO DOMINI saw the beginning of Hindu imperialism outside India. Just like the Ferocious Aryans destroyed the IVC, these Hindu invaders destroyed the 2500 year old civilization of the Malay peninsula and imposed a foreign culture upon the peace loving people of the far east. Local temples were destroyed, people were enslaved, and the local language was abolished. Being polite, Jawahalal Nehru in the

understatement of the century writes in his book Glimpses of World History says:

Jawarhalal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says “These colonizing excursions started in the first century after Christ and they continued for a hundred years. All over Malay and Java and Sumatra andCambodia and Borneo they went, and established and took Indian culture with them”¦..In Burma and Siam and Indo-China there were large Indian colonies. Many times even of the names they gave to their new towns and settlements were borrowed from India-Ayodhia, Hastinapur, Taxila, Gandhara”¦No doubt Indian colonialists misbehaved wherever they went, as all such colonialists do. They must have exploited the people islands and lorded it over them”¦.Hindu States and empires were established in these eastern islands, and then Buddhist rulers came, and between the Hindu and the Buddhist there was a tussle for mastery. It is a long and ..story”¦”¦”¦mighty ruins still tell us of the great buildings and temples “¦..there were great cities”¦Kamboja, Sri Vijay, Angkor “¦”

29) During this time Fa-hien visited India to study Buddhism (399 AD) and found “gaya wa waste and desolate“. He gives a detailed account of Buddhist persecution by the Brahman Aryans.

THE ARYAN HUNS INVADE THE IVC. SUN WORSHIPPING and MAHAYANA BUDDHISM PROSECUTEDWith the decline of the Guptas, the nomadic tribes of Central Asia called the Huns invaded India. Their leader was Tormana (500 AD). Jawaharlal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says:

Skandagupta, the fith of the Gupta line had to face this Hun invasion”¦gradually they spread all over Gandhara and the greater part of Northern India. THEY TORTURED THE BUDDHISTS AND COMMITTED ALL MANNER OF FRIGHTFULNESS””¦.There must have been continuous warfare against them, but the Guptas could not drive them away. Fresh waves of Huns came “¦”

“ƒ”¹…”30) Jawaharlal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says:

“¦Torman installed himself king . He was bad enough, but after him came his son Miharagula, who was an unmitagated savage and fiendishly cruel. Lalhana in his history of Kashmir””…”the Rajatrangini””…”tells us that one of is Miharagula’s amusements was to have elephants thrown over the great precipices into the valley below”.

31) Jawaharlal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says:

The treatment of men was sometimes worse then that of animals (some of the animals like cows were actually revered because they were Gods). Lower caste Hindus had a misrable life. Other historians have commented that the treatment of women was even worse, specially women of lower castes, they were considered the “property” of the upper caste Hindus, to be molested and/or raped at will. In many cases the new bride had to stay a night with the village Brahman before she was married off. Kashmir converted to Islam during this time period. It was cruelty like this that led to the whole sale conversion to Islam. The new religion offered them equality and saved them from the Brahmans.

32) Jawaharlal Nehru says, “Soon however the Hun power weakened in India”¦ the Huns have been defeated and driven back, but many remain in odd corners. The Great Gupta dynasty fades away after Balditya.

33) HUNS DEFEATED. HARSHA VARDHANA TRIES TO REVIVE BUDDHISM

Jawaharlal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says:

“The Huns killed the Raja of Kanauj and made his wife Rajashiri a prisoner. Thereupon Rajashiri’s brother Raja came to fight the Huns and bacme an emperor (606-647 AD). The Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang visited India at this time, he gives a very harsh account of the conditions of India, and writes extensively of the persucution of Buddhists. Harshas ancestors were sun worshippers, however he was also attracted towards the Mahayana form of Buddhism. The Brahmans were very displeased with him and even conspired to kill him. Harsha spent time and money on arts and literature, and drama, and was probably the last great Buddhist emperor of India. He extensivle wrote of the atrocities com itted by the Hindusagainst the Buddhists in India.

34) Jawahalal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says “ Harsha was a keen Buddhist. Buddhism as a separate faith, had weakened greatly in India, “¦he was a pious Buddhist, and he came to visit the sacred places of Buddhism and to take with him the scriptures of the faith .”

35) THE ARYAN RAJPUT INVASION

The death of Harsha ushered in an era of anarchy again. The Rajputs were the invaders this time. This era is called the Rajput era. According to Tod, the Rajputs were the descendants of Sakas, Huns, Ushans, Gujaaras

etc.

36) According to Rajatarangini of Kalhana which forms a major source of our history, Duralabhavardhana founded a new royal dynasty about the middle of the 7th century. Lalitaditya ascended the thorne in 724 AD and he conquered large areas of India and brought it under Kashmiri rule. After him (750 AD) the power of Kashmir receded.

37) Jiyapida, the grandson of Lalitaditya tried to revive the reputation of the Karkota dynasty. The Karkota dynasty was replaced by the Utpala dynasty about the middle of the 9th century. The Rajputs were true Hindus and patronized Hindu religion and culture in all of India.

The following is for the negationists who have been trying to conceal the record of the Bloody Sword of Hinduism in India. The massacres and oppression perpetrated by Hindus out of religious hatred for Buddhists in ancient times are a matter of the historical record. Yet, for reasons best known to themselves, negationists like Mr. Rajiv Varma have been trying to conceal the hideous, blood-stained record of Hinduism.

The truth must be told. After the enlightenment of Gautama, the Buddha, in 483 B.C. his message and his teachings spread across the face of India and Asia. Everywhere, they encountered hostility and religious persecution from Hindu rulers and priests. The conversion of Ashoka, who ruled over much of India in the third century B.C., did much to counter this. After Ashoka’s death, however, the campaign of violence against Buddhists by Hindus began in earnest.

38) The most important of the murderous Hindu bigots who carried out their systematic campaign of violence against the peaceful followers of Lord Buddha was Pushyamitra (184-48 B.C.), the founder of the Shunga dynasty.

39) The Divyavadana (ed. Vaidya, 282) tells us that this king resolved to annihilate the teachings of the Buddha. He destroyed stupas, burned monasteries, and killed monks as far as Shakala, where he made the infamous declaration: “Whosoever gives me the head of a Shramana, him I shall give a hundred gold coins.”

40) The Aryamanjushrimulakalpa tells us that Pushyamitra “destroyed monasteries with relics and killed monks of good conduct.” [Jayaswal, 18-19]. In his famousHistory of Buddhism In India“, written in 1608 A.D. the celebrated Tibetan historian Lama Taranatha mentions the march of Pushyamitra from Madhyadesha to Jalandhara. In the course of his campaigns, the book states, Pushyamitra burned down numerous Buddhistmonasteries and killed a number of learned monks The archaeological evidence for the ravages wrought by Pushyamitra and other Hindu fanatic rulers on famous Buddhist shrines is abundant.

41) Marshall [I.] records evidence of damage done to Buddhist establishments at Takshashila. Goyal [430] notes that at Sanchi, “there is all too clear evidence of damage wrought during the age of Pushyamitra“. At Kaushambi, he continues, there is also evidence of the destruction and burning of the great monastery of Ghoshitarama in the second century B.C. The culprit in this case was Toramana, a member of the same dynasty as the Shaivite Mihirakula who did “immense damage to the Buddhist shrines in Gandhara,Punjab and Kashmir.”

42) Mihirakula is said to have razed 1600 viharas, stupas and monasteries, and “put to death 900 Kotis, or lay adherents of Buddhism“ [Joshi, 404]. As the revival of Brahmanical Hinduism progressed, atrocities against

43) Buddhists increased both in strength and in number. As Goyal [394] notes, “According to many scholars hostility of the Brahmanas was one of the major causes of the decline of Buddhism in India.” The hatred poured out against Buddhists in Hindu scriptures offers ample evidence of this. To quote Goyal again [394-5]:

44) “Yajnavalkya (I. 271-72) declares that the very sight of a Buddhist monk, even in dreams, is inauspicious“. The Brhannaradiya-purana lays it down as a principal sin for a Brahmana to enter the house of a Buddhist even in times of great peril. The drama Mrchchhakatika shows that in Ujjain the Buddhist monks were despised and their sight was considered inauspicious.

45) The Vishnupurana (XVIII 13-18) also regards the Buddha as Mayamoha who appeared in the world to delude the demons. Kumarila is said to have instigated King Sudhanvan of Ujjain to exterminate the Buddhists. “¦ The Kerala-utpatti describes how he exterminated the Buddhists from Kerala.”

46) The Chinese traveller Yuan Chwang (Huen Tsang), who visited India in the seventh century records the oppressions of Shashanka, the king of Gauda, who was a devotee of Shiva. Yuan Chwang’s account reads,

“In recent times Shashanka, the enemy and oppressor of Buddhism, cut down the Bodhi tree, destroyed its roots down to the water and burned what remained.” [Watters II p.115] He also says that Shashanka tried “to have the image (of Lord Buddha at Bodhgaya) removed and replaced by one of Shiva”. Another independent account of Shashanka’s oppressions is found in the Aryamanjushrimulakalpa, which refers to Shashanka destroying “the beautiful image of Buddha“ [Jayaswal, 49-50].

48) Another prominent seventh century murderer of Buddhists was Sudhanvan of Ujjain, already mentioned in the quotation from Goyal above as having been supposedly instigated by Kumarila Bhatt. Madhava Acharya, in his “Sankara-digvijayam“ of the fourteenth century A.D., records that Suddhanvan “issued orders to put to death all the Buddhists from Ramesvaram to the Himalayas“.

49) Even after the Islamic invasions of India, Hindu bigotry and hatred for Buddhists was not subdued. According to Sharmasvamin, a Tibetan pilgrim who visited Bihar three decaes after the invasion of Bakhtiaruddin Khilji in the 12th century, the biggest library at Nalanda was destroyed by Hindu mendicants who took advantage of the chaos produced by the invasion. He says that “they (Hindus) performed a Yajna, a fire sacrifice, and threw living embers and ashes from the sacrifice into the Buddhist temples. Thisproduced a great conflagration which consumed Ratnabodhi, the nine-storeyed library of the Nalanda University”. [Prakash, 213].

50) Numerous destroyed Buddhist shrines were converted into Hindu temples after their destruction. Ahir [58] notes that “The Seat of Buddha’s Enlightenment was in the possession of a Hindu Mahant till 1952.Similarly, at Kushinara, where the Buddha had entered into Mahaparinirvana, the cremation stupa had been converted into a Hindu temple, and on top of it stood the temple of Rambhar Bhavani when Cunningham discovered the site in 1860-61. Among the shrines which still continue to be dedicated to Hindu gods mention may be made of the Caityas of Chezrala and Ter in Andhra Pradesh which are now Shiva and Vishnu temples respectively. The temple of Madhava at Sal Kusa, opposite Gauhati in Asam, was once a sacred shrine of the Buddhists. “¦ And the famous Jagannatha temple at Puri in Orissa was also originally a Buddhist shrine. Similarly, the Vishnupada temple at Gaya was also once a Buddhist shrine.”As Rajendralal Mitra notes in his famous work of 1878 [quoted in Ahir, 59] the feet of Buddha at Gaya were rechristened the feet of Vishnu and held as the most sacred object of worship in the new Vishnupada temple.

51) Shankara (ca. AD 800) was the Vedantin who polemicized against Buddhism

Hinduism’s record of violence and bigotry against the peaceful followers of Lord Buddha is unparalleled. I trust this marshalling of the available evidence for the benefit of readers who may not have had access to it will impel negationists like Varma to accept and apologise for the crimes committed in the name of Hinduism.

After hundreds of years of conflict the Brahmans took complete control of the system. They owned the people and the lands. This era of absolute Brahaman control is the darkest era of Hinduism. Many Hindus and other rebelled against the Brahamin injustices meeted out to the people.

Prof. Bahauddin describes destruction of Jainism: “ƒ”¹…”Very little information is available about growth of Jainism in South India during 300-400 AD. The Jain book, “ƒ”¹…”Digambara Darsana’, recounts the starting of a Sangham at Madurai in 470 AD and Jainism became widespread and strong during 500-600 AD (Kumaraswamy Iyengar, “ƒ”¹…”Studies in South Indian Jainism’, p. 51-58)”¦.. The Jains used to instal the images of their saints in their religious places, a practice which was followed by Brahmins. Hindu temples appeared all over Tamilnadu probably after converting the Jain religious places. The idols of 63 Brahmin Sanyasis, who led destruction of Jainism, still adorn the walls of some Hindu temples in Tamilnadu. The remains of destroyed Jain idols, their abandoned religious and living places are scattered all over Tamilnadu to narrate their story. Frescos depicting the kings of Jains could be seen on the walls near the Golden Tank at Madurai Meenakshi Temple where, of the total 12 annual festivals, five depict the killing of Jains according to Kumaraswamy Iyengar (p. 78-79).’

HINDU AUTHORS LISTING CARNAGE: Kora-Panda, Mahabharta, Prakrit and other wars: THE DUPLICTIOUS GUILEFUL LUBRICIOUS SHIFTY SNEAKY POLICIES OF THE WORST OF THE BRAHMANS WHO WERE BENT ON TOTAL DOMINATION OF THE DOWNTRODDEN MASSES LED TO THE GENOCIDE OF THE BUDDHISTS.

THE EXTREMIST BRAHMANS MASSACRED MILLIONS OF OTHER HINDUS IN THE INTERNECINE INTER-ARYAN and ARYAN-DRAVIDIAN WARS, ENSLAVED HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS AS DALITS, AND DECIMATED MILLIONS OF BUDDHISTS””‚THEN THE BRIGHT BIGOTS AMONG THE BRAHMANS ATTEMPTED TO DISGUISE THEIR BRUTAL PAST BY WHITE WASHING THEIR BLOODY PAST HIDING IT UNDER PANAGLOSSIAN GLOSS THEN PASTING A VENEER OF NON-VIOLENCE AND PUTTING UP SARGENT MAJOR MOHANDAS GANDHI “”…”THE ADULTERER RACIST AS THEIR ICON.

Buddhism challenges Hinduism in the Valley of the Indus and the Valley of the Ganges:

Around the 5th century B.C Buddhism took root in the subcontinent. Suddharta (Gautam Buddh) rejected the caste system, the Hindu writings and the absolute power of the Brahmans. Around 468 B.C. Jainism and Buddhism appeared on the scene. Both Buddhism and Jainism competed with the tenants of Hinduism.

Buddhist-Hindu wars claimed many lives. The Muyara and the Gupta dynasties are chronologies of this time period. Many Zorastrian, Hindu and other kings converted to Buddhism and spread it to the four corners of the subcontinent and beyond.

“If you can’t win “ƒ”¹…”em join “ƒ”¹…”em”. Gautam Buddha was such a dynamic sage, that after his death, many enlightened Hindus have adopted him as a God.

Even some Muslims consider him a prophet. Buddhism is different from Hinduism. Though many Hindus later regard Buddha as God, the Brahmans were always leery of Buddhists because Buddhist teachings reduced the power of the Brahmins. Buddhism is fundamentally different than Hinduism because it does not believe in the caste system. Because of the lack of the caste system, the Brahmans didnot like Buddhists.

This is what Suresh says:

“ƒ”¹…”Except for brief period after Ashoka’s time, it(Buddhism) had always been associated with violence(wars) and nationalism. Always in rebellion against Hinduism.“

Horrific examples from Southeast Asia in general (where the majority of Buddhists practice the same form of Buddhism as in Sri Lanka), attest to this belief: Cambodia, Vietnam, Burma, Thailand and Japan(Buddhist-Zen beliefs). Especially in Thailand which had its share of Buddhist influence from the Sinhala-Buddhist clergy, Thai clergy gets involved in politics and its public positions have nationalistic overtones.

THE MACEDONIAN “GREEK” INFLUENCE ON BUDDHISM AND BACTERIAN COLONIES 

One of the few direct results of the Macedonian “Greek” invasions of India was the establishment of Macedonian “Greek” colonies in “India”. One of Asokas edicts refers to the existence of Yavana (“Greek”) settlers on the fringes of his empire. We now know that he was referring to the area of Hunza. Actually after the fall of the Muyeria (“Greek”) kingdoms in India, the Bacterians formed a number of Greek kingdoms in the area in and around Kashmir. In fact Chandragupta actually faced Alexander for military help (324-300 BC) but did not secure it. On the eve of Alexander’s invasion, Kashmir was called Abhisara. Abhisara consisted of the districts of Punch and Naushara.

THE MUYARAS, JAINISM AND THE SPREAD OF BUDDIHISM in the IV and GV 

The foundation of the Maurya empire in the brought a new dimension to “India”. Chandragupta Muyara was a Jain. One of the most brutal massacres of Hindus occurred at the hands of the Muyara kings, Asoka, during the battle of Kalinga. Some historians put the number at 300,000 (akin to 3 million in present day numbers). Contrary to BJP belief, all massacres in India were not committed by Muslims, Persians and Arabs. According to the records of Hieun Tsang and Kalhana’s Rajaatarangini, Asoka the great repented, converted to Buddhism (273-232 BC) and did a lot for Buddhism. Asoka renounced violence, and renounced his religion after the Kalinga war, and he became a Buddhist. During Asoka, Buddhism had become the state religion. The Brahmans did not like him, and many historians think the Brahaman opposition to Asoka led to the destruction of the Muyarian dynasty.

THE BACTERIANS INVADE THE INDUS VALLEY & BUDDHISM REPLACES ZORASTRIANISMWith political disunity in the subcontinent, many foreigners invaded India. Alexander’s kingdom was divided. The Bacterians invaded India (250 BC).

One of the Greek influences was the enshrinement of the father of Buddhism in a statue and his elevation to the status of God. Later, Buddhism split up into Mahayana and Hanayana sects. Mahayana was exported to the orient, while Hanayana pretty much shrunk to an unceremonial non-existance in India (though it still sruvives in, Sri Lanka, and Tibet, and also in Laos and Kampuchia)

While Buddhism was flourishing in “India”, Cunfuciansim was being preached in China, and Zorastrianism was being preached in Persia. The Sassandis were in power in Persia and were in a constant state of war . The Sassanids were under Ardeshir who was an ardent supporter of Zorastrianism. He enforced Zorastrianism on all of Persia. Much much later in the sevent century the defeat of the Sassanides in Persia led to the expulsion of Parsis to India in the seventh century.

THE KUSHANS THE BUDDHIST EMPIRE OF IV AND AFGHANISTANMany different races invaded the IV and made it their home. From the ashes of the Muyara empire, rose the Kushan dynasty. Kanishka the conqueror rose to power (78 AD) and began a new Buddhist era in India. He annexed the Indus Valley and conquered Kashmir. He set up his head quarters in Purushapura (Peshawar in present day Pakistan). Throughout a long duration in Indian history, the largest repositories of books were the Buddhist universities. In fact many non-Buddhist scholars had studied under Buddhist teachers.

In Glimpses of World History Jawahrlal Nehru says the following about the Kushans (emphasis is mine and not Nehru’s):

“This Kushan Empire is interesting in many ways. IT WAS A BUDDHIST EMPIRE, and one of its famous rulers-the Emperor Kanishka-was ardently devoted to the dharma”¦the Kushans were Mongolians or closely allied to them. From the Kushan capital there must have been a continuous coming and going to the Mongolian homelands, and Buddhist learning and Buddhist culture must have gone to China and Mongolia”¦the Kushan Empire sat like a colossus astride the back of Asia, in between the Greaco-Roman world in the south. It was a halfway house both between India, and Rome, and India and China. The Kushan period corresponded with the last days of the Roman Republic when Julius Ceaser was alive, and first 200 years of the Roman Empire

Kanishka was originally a Zorastrian. His coins display the sun god. Later in life he supported Buddhism (to the ire of the Hindu Brahmans). Kanishka had convened the Buddhist Council to spread Buddhism instead of Hinduism in the subcontinent (much to the disgust of the Brahmans ). During Asoka, Buddhism had become the state religion. Hinduism survived only due to Indian princes like Gautamiputra Satkarni.

Jawahalal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says:

“the Kushans themselves had followed Indo-Aryan traditions to a large extent. This was indeed the reason why they manged to stay in India and rule over large parts of it for a long time. They wanted to behave as Indo Aryans, and wanted the people of the country to forget that they were aleins. They succeeded in some measure, but not quite, for among the Kashatrayas especially the feeling rankled that aliens wer ruling over them. They chafed under this foreign rule, and so the ferment grew and peoples minds were troubled. Ultimately these disaffected people found a capable leader, and under his banner they started a “holy war” as it is called to free Aryavarta. This leader was called Chandragupta. (Not be confused wiith the other Chandragupta, the grandfather of the Mauryan dynesty”¦this happened 534 years after Asokas death)”

THE GUPTAS AND THE REVIVAL OF HINDUISM, END OF BUDDHISM IN THE IVC and GVC

With the fall of the Muyara and the Kushan dynasty, the Guptas came to power (beginning of the fourth century AD) with their independent kingdoms. Dr. R.C. Majumdar writes that The empire of Samudragupta

included the whole of Northern India. The Gupta period saw the distinct revival of Hinduism in the subcontinent. Buddhism declined, and never did rise in India.

THE HINDU KASHATRIYA HINDU AND BUDDHIST WARS

Jawarhalal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says (Page 103 and 104) “Chandragupta proclaimed his holy war “against all foreign rulers in India. The Kashatriyas and the Aryan aristocracy, deprived of their power and positions by the aliens (Kushans), were at the back of this war. After a dozen or so years of fighting, Chandragupta managed to gain control over Northern India including what is now called UP. He then crowned himself king of kings. Thus began the Gupta dynasty. It was a period of somewhatagressive Hinduism and nationalism. The foreign rulers-the Turkis and Parathions and other Non-Aryans were rooted our and forcibly removed. We thus find racial antagonism at work. The Indo-Aryan aritrocrat was proud of his race and looked down upon these barbarians and malachas. Indo-Aryan States and rulers were conquered by the Guptas were dealt with leniently, But there was not leniency for non-Aryans.

Chandragupta’s son Samadugupta was an even more agressive fighter than his father”¦.the Kushans were pushed back across the Indus”¦”¦..Samadugupta’s son, Chandragupta II was also a warrior king,and he conquered Kathiwad and Gujrat, which had been under the rule of a Saka or Turki dynasty for a long time. He took the name Vikramaditya”¦..The Gupta period was a period of Hindu imperialism in

India. There was a great revival of old Aryan culture and Sanskrit learning. The Hellenistic, or Greek and Mongolian elements in Indian life and culture which had been brought by the Greeks, Kushans and others were not encouraged, and were in fact deliberately superseded by laying stress on the Indo-Aryan traditions. Sanskrit was the official court language. But EVEN IN THOSE DAYS SANSKRIT WAS NOT THE COMMON LANGUAGE OF THE PEOPLE.

The spoken language was a form of Prakrit”¦.Kalidasa belonged to this period “¦”¦”¦”¦”¦. Samadragupta changed the capital of his empire from Pataliputra (Peshawar) to Ayodhia. Perhaps he felt that Ayodhiyaoffered a more suitable outlook””…”with its story of Ramachandra immortalized in Valmikis epic.

HINDU BUDDHIST CONFLICT

The Gupta revival of Aryanism and Hinduism was naturally not very favorably inclined towards Buddhism. This was partly because this movement was aristocratic, with the Kashatriya chiefs backing it, and Buddhism had more democracy in it; partly because the Mahayana form of Buddhism was closely associated with the Kushans and other alien rulers of northern India”¦.but Buddhism declined in India”¦Chandragupta the first was a contemporary of Constantine the great, the Roman Emperor who founded Constantinople.

BRAHMIN IMPERIALISM SAILS TO THE FAR EAST AND DESTROYS THE MALAY CIVILIZATION

The years of ANO DOMINI saw the beginning of Hindu imperialism outside India. Just like the Ferocious Aryans destroyed the IVC, these Hindu invaders destroyed the 2500 year old civilization of the Malay peninsula and imposed a foreign culture upon the peace loving people of the far east. Local temples were destroyed, people were enslaved, and the local language was abolished. Being polite, Jawahalal Nehru in the

understatement of the century writes in his book Glimpses of World History says:

These colonizing excursions started in the first century after Christ and they continued for a hundred years. All over Malay and Java and Sumatra and Cambodia and Borneo they went, and established and took Indian culture with them”¦..In Burma and Siam and Indo-China there were large Indian colonies. Many times even of the names they gave to their new towns and settlements were borrowed from India-Ayodhia, Hastinapur, Taxila, Gandhara”¦No doubt Indian colonialists misbehaved wherever they went, asall such colonialists do. They must have exploited the people islands and lorded it over them”¦.Hindu States and empires were established in these eastern islands, and then Buddhist rulers came, and between the Hindu and the Buddhist there was a tussle for mastery. It is a long and ..story”¦”¦”¦mighty ruins still tell us of the great buildings and temples “¦..there were great cities”¦Kamboja, Sri Vijay, Angkor “¦”

During this time Fa-hien visited India to study Buddhism (399 AD) and found “gaya wa waste and desolate”. He gives a detailed account of Buddhist persecution by the Brahman Aryans.

THE ARYAN HUNS INVADE THE IVC. SUN WORSHIPPING and MAHAYANA BUDDHISM PROSECUTEDWith the decline of the Guptas, the nomadic tribes of Central Asia called the Huns invaded India. Their leader was Tormana (500 AD). Jawaharlal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says:

Skandagupta, the fith of the Gupta line had to face this Hun invasion”¦gradually they spread all over Gandhara and the greater part of Northern India. THEY TORTURED THE BUDDHISTS AND COMMITTED ALL MANNER OF FRIGHTFULNESS””¦.There must have been continuous warfare against them, but the Guptas could not drive them away. Fresh waves of Huns came “¦””ƒ”¹…””¦Torman installed himself king . He was bad enough, but after him came his son Miharagula, who was an unmitagated savage and fiendishly cruel.

Lalhana in his history of Kashmir””…”the Rajatrangini””…”tells us that one of his Miharagula’s amusements was to have elephants thrown over the great precipices into the valley below”.

The treatment of men was sometimes worse then that of animals (some of the animals like cows were actually revered because they were Gods). Lower caste Hindus had a misrable life. Other historians have commented that the treatment of women was even worse, specially women of lower castes, they were considered the “property” of the upper caste Hindus, to be molested and/or raped at will. In many cases the new bride had to stay a night with the village Brahman before she was married off. Kashmir converted to Islam during this time period. It was cruelty like this that led to the whole sale conversion to Islam. The new religion offered them equality and saved them from the Brahmans.

Jawaharlal Nehru says, “Soon however the Hun power weakened in India”¦ the Huns have been defeated and driven back, but many remain in odd corners. The Great Gupta dynasty fades away after Balditya.

HUNS DEFEATED. HARSHA VARDHANA TRIES TO REVIVE BUDDHISM in the IVCThe Huns killed the Raja of Kanauj and made his wife Rajashiri a prisoner. Thereupon Rajashiri’s brother Raja came to fight the Huns and bacme an emperor (606-647 AD). The Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang visited India at this time, he gives a very harsh account of the conditions of India, and writes extensively of the persucution of Buddhists. Harshas ancestors were sun worshippers, however he was also attracted towards the Mahayana form of Buddhism. The Brahmans were very displeased with him and even conspired to kill him. Harsha spent time and money on arts and literature, and drama, and was probably the last great Buddhist emperor of India. He extensivle wrote of the atrocities committed by the Hindus against the Buddhists in India.

Jawahalal Nehru in his book Glimpses of World History says “ Harsha was a keen Buddhist. Buddhism as a separate faith, had weakened greatly in India, “¦he was a pious Buddhist, and he came to visit the sacred places of Buddhism and to take with him the scriptures of the faith .”

THE ARYAN RAJPUT INVASION into the IVCThe death of Harsha ushered in an era of anarchy again. The Rajputs were the invaders this time. This era is called the Rajput era. According to Tod, the Rajputs were the descendants of Sakas, Huns, Ushans, Gujaaras

etc.

According to Rajatarangini of Kalhana which forms a major source of our history, Duralabhavardhana founded a new royal dynasty about the middle of the 7th century. Lalitaditya ascended the thorne in 724 AD and he conquered large areas of India and brought it under Kashmiri rule. After him (750 AD) the power of Kashmir receded.

Jiyapida, the grandson of Lalitaditya tried to revive the reputation of the Karkota dynasty. The Karkota dynasty was replaced by the Utpala dynasty about the middle of the 9th century. The Rajputs were true Hindus and patronized Hindu religion and culture in all of India.

Disappearance of Buddhism From India: An Untold Story Disappearance of Buddhism From India: An Untold Story by Naresh Kumar

The complete disappearance of the religion of the Buddha from the land of its birth is one of the greatest puzzles of history. Once holding sway throughout the length and breadth of the subcontinent, Buddhism today survives only in the Himalayan fringes along the Tibetan frontier and in small pockets in northern and western India among recent Ambedkarite Dalit converts.

Various theories have been put forward which seek to explain the tragic eclipse of Buddhism from India. According to one view, corruption in the Buddhist sangha or priesthood precipitated Buddhism’s ultimate decline. While it is true that with time the Buddhist priests became increasingly lax in the observance of religious rules, corruption alone cannot explain the death of Buddhism. After all, Buddhism was replaced by an even more corrupt Brahminism. Another theory is that Buddhism disappeared from India in the wake of the Arab and Turkish invasions in which many Buddhists were said to have been killed. However, this theory,too, seems not to be convincing as a complete explanation of the extinction of Buddhism in India .

After all, in places such as Bengal and Sind, which were ruled by Brahminical dynasties but had Buddhist majorities, Buddhists are said to have welcomed the Muslims as saviours who had freed them from the tyranny of “ƒ”¹…”upper’ caste rule. This explains why most of the “ƒ”¹…”lower-caste’ people in Eastern Bengal and Sind embraced Islam. Few, if any, among the “ƒ”¹…”upper’ castes of these regions did the same.

Since Buddhism was replaced by triumphant Brahminism, the eclipse of Buddhism in India was obviously primarily a result of the Brahminical revival. The Buddha was a true revolutionaryƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬”and his crusade against Brahminical supremacy won him his most ardent followers from among the oppressed castes. The Buddha challenged the divinity of the Vedas, the bedrock of Brahminism. He held that all men are equal and that the caste system or varnashramadharma, to which the Vedas and Other Brah’minical’ books had given religious sanction, was completely false. Thus, in the Anguttara Nikaya, the Buddha is said to have exhorted the Bhikkus, saying, ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’-¦”…”Just, O brethren, as the great rivers, when they have emptied themselves into the Great Ocean, lose their different names and are known as the Great Ocean Just so, O brethren, do the four varnasƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬”Kshatriya, Brahmin, Vaishya and SudraƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬”when they begin to follow the doctrine and discipline propounded by the Tathagata [i.e. theBuddha], renounce the different names of caste and rank and become the members of one and the same society.ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬

The BuddhaƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬TMs fight against Brahminism won him many enemies from among the Brahmins. They were not as greatly opposed to his philosophical teachings as they were to his message of universal brotherhood and equality for it directly challenged their hegemony and the scriptures that they had invented to legitimize this. To combat Buddhism and revive the tottering Brahminical hegemony, Brahminical revivalists resorted to a three-pronged strategy. Firstly, they launched a campaign of hatred and persecution against the Buddhists. Then, they appropriated many of the finer aspects of Buddhism into their own system so as to win over the “lower” caste Buddhist masses, but made sure that this selective appropriation did not in any way undermine Brahminical hegemony. The final stage in this project to wipeout Buddhism was to propound and propagate the myth that the Buddha was merely another ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’-¹ƒ…-incarnationƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬TM (avatar) of the Hindu god Vishnu. Buddha was turned into just another of the countless deities of the Brahminical pantheon.

The Buddhists were finally absorbed into the caste system, mainly as Shudras and ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’-¹ƒ…-UntouchablesƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬TM, and with that the Buddhist presence was completely obliterated from the land of its birth. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar writes in his book, The Untouchables, that the ancestors of today’s Dalits were Buddhists who were reduced to the lowly status of ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’-¹ƒ…-untouchablesƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬TM for not having accepted the supremacy of the Brahmins.

They were kept apart from other people and were forced to live in ghettos of their own. Being treated worse that beasts of burden and forbidden to receive any education, these people gradually lost touch with Buddhism, but yet never fully reconciled themselves to the Brahminical order. Many of them later converted to Islam, Sikhism and Christianity in a quest for liberation from the Brahminical religion.

To lend legitimacy to their campaign against Buddhism, Brahminical texts included fierce strictures against Buddhists. Manu, in his Manusmriti, laid down that, ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’-¦”…”If a person touches a Buddhist [ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬¦] he shall purify himself by having a bath.ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ Aparaka ordained the same in his Smriti. Vradha Harit declared entry into a Buddhist temple a sin, which could only be expiated for by taking a ritual bath. Even dramas and other books for lay people written by Brahmins contained venomous propaganda against the Buddhists. 

In the classic work, Mricchakatika, (Act VII), the hero Charudatta, on seeing a Buddhist monk pass by, exclaims to his friend MaitriyaƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬” “Ah! Here is an inauspicious sight, a Buddhist monk coming towards us.” The Brahmin Chanakya, author of Arthashastra, declared that, “When a person entertains in a dinner dedicated to gods and ancestors those who are Sakyas (Buddhists), Ajivikas, Shudras and exiled persons, a fine of one hundred panas shall be imposed on him.” Shankaracharaya, the leader of the Brahminical revival, struck terror into the hearts of the Buddhists with his diatribes against their religion.

The simplicity of the BuddhaƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬TMs message, its stress on equality and its crusade against the bloody and costly sacrifices and ritualism of Brahminism had attracted the oppressed casts in large numbers. The Brahminical revivalists understood the need to appropriate some of these finer aspects of Buddhism and discarded some of the worst of their own practices so as to be able to win over the masses back to the Brahminical fold. Hence began the process of theassimilation of Buddhism by Brahminism. The Brahimns, who were once voracious beef-eaters, turned vegetarian, imitating the Buddhists in this regard. Popular devotion to the Buddha was sought to be replaced by devotion to Hindu gods such as Rama and Krishna. The existing version of the Mahabharata was written in the period in which the decline of Buddhism had already begun, and it was specially meant for the Shudras, most of whom were Buddhists, to attract them away from Buddhism. Brahminism, however, still prevented the Shudras from having access to the Vedas, and the Mahabharata was possibly written to placate

the Buddhist Shudras and to compensate them for this discrimination. The Mahabharata incorporated some of the humanistic elements of Buddhism to win over the

Shudras, but, overall, played its role of bolstering the Brahminical hegemony rather well. Thus, Krishna, in the Gita, is made to say that a person ought not to violate the ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’-¦”…”divinely ordainedƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ law of caste. Eklavya is made to slice off his thumb by Drona, who is finds it a gross violation of dharma that a mere tribal boy should excel the Kshatriya Arjun in archery.

The various writer of the puranas, too, carried on this systematic campaign of hatred, slander and calumny against the Buddhists. The Brahannardiya Purana made it a principal sin for Brahmins to enter the house of a Buddhist even in times of great peril.

The Vishnu Purana dubs the Buddha as Maha Moha or ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’-¹ƒ…-the great seducerƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬TM. It further cautions against the ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’-¦”…”sin of conversing with BuddhistsƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ and lays down that ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’-¦”…”those who merely talk to Buddhist ascetics shall be sent to hell.ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ In the Gaya Mahatmaya, the concluding section of the Vayu Purana, the town of Gaya is identified as Gaya Asura, a demon who had attained such holiness that all those who saw him or touched him went straight to heaven.

Clearly, this ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’-¹ƒ…-demonƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬TM was none other the Buddha who preached a simple way for all, including the oppressed castes, to attain salvation. The Vayu Purana story goes on to add that Yama, the king of hell, grew jealous at this, possibly because less people were now entering his domains. He appealed to the gods to limit the powers of Asura Gaya. This the gods, led by Vishnu, were able to do by placing a massive stone on the ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’-¦”…”demonƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬TMsƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ head. This monstrous legend signified the ultimate capture of BudhdhismƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬TMs most holy centre by its most inveterate foes.

Kushinagar, also known as Harramba, was one of the most important Buddhist centres as the Buddha breathed his last there. The Brahmins, envious of the prosperity of this pilgrim town and in order to discourage people from going there, invented the absurd theory that one who dies in Harramba goes to hell, or is reborn as an ass, while he who dies in Kashi, the citadel of Brahminism, goes straight to heaven. So pervasive was the belief in this bizarre theory that when the Sufi saint Kabir died in 1518 AD at Maghar, not far from Kushinagar, some of his Hindu followers refused to erect any memorial in his honour there and instead set up one at Kashi. Kabir’s Muslim followers were less superstitious. They set up a tomb for him at Maghar itself.

In addition to vilifying the fair name of the Buddha, the Brahminical revivalists goaded Hindu kings to persecute and even slaughter innocent Buddhists.

Sasanka, the Shaivite Brahmin king of Bengal, murdered the last Buddhist emperor Rajyavardhana, elder brother of Harshavardhana, in 605 AD and then marched on to

Bodh Gaya where he destroyed the Bodhi tree under which the Buddha had attained enlightenment. He forcibly removed the Buddha’s image from the Bodh Vihara near the tree and installed one of Shiva in its place. Finally, Sasanka is said to have slaughtered all the Buddhist monks in the area around Kushinagar.

The extermination of Buddhism in India was hastened by the large-scale destruction and appropriation of Buddhist shrines by the Brahmins. The Mahabodhi Vihara at Bodh Gaya was forcibly converted into a Shaivite temple, and the controversy lingers on till this day. The cremation stupa of the Buddha at Kushinagar was changed into a Hindu temple dedicated to the obscure deity with the name of Ramhar Bhavani.

¬her such Hindu king was, Mihirakula, a Shaivite, who is said to have completely destroyed over 1500 Buddhist shrines. The Shaivite Toramana is said to have destroyed the Ghositarama Buddhist monastery at Kausambi.

Adi Shankara is said to have established his Sringeri Mutth on the site of a Buddhist monastery which he took over. Many Hindu shrines in Ayodhya are said to have once been Buddhist temples, as is the case with other famous Brahminical temples such as those at Sabarimala, Tirupati, Badrinath and Puri.

India: Unable to bear the Brutal Brahamanic persecution””…” Buddhism survives in South East Asia

The land of Pakistan has been a cradle of ancient civilizations. With well-developed cities, Indus Valley Civilization was contemporary to the Nile, Mesopotamia and Yellow River Civilizations. Over 2,000 years ago, Gandhara Buddhist Civilization flourished in northern Pakistan, with Taxila as a seat of Buddhist learning. Rev. Maranantha, a famous Buddhist monk, came from what is now Pakistan in the fourth century and introduced Buddhism to the Korean Kingdom of Baekje.

Bibliography.

  • Ahir, D.C. “Buddha Gaya Through the Ages”, Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica Series No. 134, Delhi 1994.
  • Goyal, S.R., “A History of Indian Buddhism”, Meerut 1987.
  • Jayaswal, “An imperial history of India”, Lahore 1934.
  • Joshi, L.M. “Studies in the Buddhistic Culture of India”, New Delhi 1967.
  • Marshall, John, “Taxila” Cambridge University Press 1951.
  • Prakash, Buddh, “Aspects of Indian History and Civilisation”, Agra 1965.
  • Taranatha, “History of Buddhism in India”, Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, Simla, 1977.
  • Vaidya, P.L. ed. “Divyavadana”, Darbhanga 1959.
  • Watters, T. “On Yuan Chwang’s Travels in India,” ed. by T. W. Rhys Davids and S.W. Bushel, London 1904, 1905.
  • Rajwinder Singh.From: r”¦@crux4.cit.cornell.edu (Rohan Oberoi)

22 Responses to “Why did Buddhism disappear from South Asia? Part -2”

  1. Lorenzo Says:

    Even after these Hindu attacks, Buddhism did survive in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, parts of India UNTIL barbaric Arabic faith followers killed them all.

    So it was the Islamic attackers who really wiped out Buddhism from the subcontinent.

    That makes it VERY IMPORTANT to save Buddhism in SL AT ANY COST.

  2. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    The Islamic warlords conquest of the Indian subcontinent was the first great iconoclastic invasion into South Asia.
    The resulting occasional and sporadic destruction of temples did not affect Hinduism, but for Buddhism the destruction of the stupas has been attributed with a rapid and almost total disappearance from North India.
    More academic forms of Indian Buddhism relied on patronage by kings and merchants and this change in rulership coupled with the economic integration with the Islamic world and thus the growing domination of long-distance trade by the Islamic merchant class eroded these sources of patronage resulting in an absorption into either Hinduism or Islam.
    Islamic warlords conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Islamic conquests made limited inroads into modern North India and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 7th century.
    Prior to the conquest of India by the British East India Company, the Islamic Moghul Empire was able to annex or subjugate most of India’s Hindu kings. However, it was never able to conquer the Hindu kingdoms in upper reaches of the Himalayas such as the regions of today’s Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Nepal and Bhutan and the extreme south of India such as Travancore.
    In 1193, the Nalanda University complex was destroyed by Afghan Khilji-Ghilzai Muslims under Bakhtiyar Khalji; this event is seen as the final milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. He also burned Nalanda’s a major Buddhist library and Vikramshila University, as well as numerous Bhuddhist monasteries in India. When the Tibetan translator, Chag Lotsawa Dharmasvamin (Chag Lo-tsa-ba, 1197–1264), visited northern India in 1235, Nalanda was damaged, looted, and largely deserted, but still standing and functioning with seventy students. Mahabodhi, Sompura, Vajrasan and other important monasteries were found to be untouched. The Ghuri ravages only afflicted those monasteries that lay in the direct of their advance and were fortified in the manner of defensive forts.
    By the end of the 12th century, following the Muslim conquest of the Buddhist stronghold in Bihar, Buddhism having already declined in the south declined in the North as well as survivors retreated to Nepal, Sikkim and Tibet or escaped to the South of the sub-continent.
    During the seventh to 13th centuries when Islam arrived it replaced Buddhism as the great cosmopolitan trading religion in many places accompanied by a consolidation of the communal peasant religions of Hinduism. The Tibetan scholar of the 17th century Taranatha writes that during the time of the Sena king Stag-gzigs (Turks) had begun to appear on horses and that monasteries had been fortified with troops stationed in them; however, they were overrun and monks at Uddandapura were massacred, the monastery razed and replaced by a new fort and further north-east Vikramshila was destroyed as well. Hardly any contemporary evidence however exists on the destruction of Buddhist monasteries.

    Brief Muslim accounts and the one eye witness account of Dharmasmavim in wake of the conquest during the 1230s talks about abandoned viharas being used as camps by the Turukshahs. Later historical traditions such as Taranathas are mixed with legendary materials and summarized as “the Turukshah conquered the whole of Magadha and destroyed many monasteries and did much damage at Nalanda, such that many monks fled abroad” thereby bringing about a sudden demise of Buddhism with their destruction of the Viharas. Buddhism lingered longer in Iran than South Asia and was officially professed under fifty years of Mongol conquest. With the conversion of Ghazan to Islam in 1295, the backlash resulted in the destruction of many Buddhist places of worship and the further migration of monks into Kashmir.
    Many places were destroyed and renamed. For example, Udantpur’s monasteries were destroyed in 1197 by Mohammed-bin-Bakhtiyar and the town was renamed. Taranatha in his History of Buddhism in India of 1608 gives an account of the last few centuries of Buddhism, mainly in Eastern India.

  3. Lorenzo Says:

    NT,

    Can you write these as an article in LW.

    Then they can be seen in google, etc. as headings.

  4. Senevirath Says:

    Yes hindus did all these true
    but what about u people
    doing
    these things in the 21st century==destroying Bhamiyan statues etc etc.

    Even christians did in the past but not noe like u

  5. herman Says:

    The learned writer for obvious reasons had highlighted all the evils caused by the “sword of Brahamanism” and yet not mentioned the Barbarism inflicted by his fellow muslim invaders in India, particularly.

    Its no secret that both the hindus and muslims were the main culprits for the near destructions of Buddhism in India

  6. MuhammadFS Says:

    Why highlight differences between us? We can find so many common ground.

    Sinhalese are very peaceful. Muslims are very peaceful. Lets remain that way brothers.

  7. Ben Silva Says:

    It looks like the writer is creating Muslim friendly History, when all the evidence is that Muslims destroyed Buddhism in countries in the Silk route. Even recently, in Afghanistan, Muslims destroyed a part of their own heritage by destroying Buddhist statues. This clearly shows Muslim mentality. This is evidence of how anti Buddhist Muslims are. The main reason perhaps is the Muslim belief that infedals or non believers need to be killed or converted to Islam for them to go to heaven. This is an extremely dangerous belief for non Muslims. Christians too have killed others in the name of religion. Hinduism is has many similarities to Buddhism, but believes in multiple Gods.
    Buddhism declined in India after the Nalanda debacle. At Nalanda, buddhists did not run away or fight back believing that their fate is due to Karma. Even today, blind people or disabled people in Tibet are blamed for their Karma and are not helped. After Nalanda, Indians wisely realized that Buddhism will not help them and Buddhism was not revived. Sikhs learnt from their mistakes and modified their religion to meet force with force. Unfortunately Buddhists have not learnt and are refusing to learn and EVOLVE. All the evidence is that Lanka is gradually turning Muslim like Maldives due to passive and lethargic nature of Buddhism. Unfortunately, unless the Sinhalese quickly wake up and drop their beliefs in ancient Indian myths, and learn to think critically, they may be wiped out too.
    What is needed is morality and values independent of religion and human rights are recognized so that killing of fellow humans is not acceptable.

  8. sawmeer Says:

    Even after the Islamic invasions of India, Hindu bigotry and hatred for Buddhists was not subdued. According to Sharmasvamin, a Tibetan pilgrim who visited Bihar three decades after the invasion of Bakhtiaruddin Khilji in the 12th century, the biggest library at Nalanda was destroyed by Hindu mendicants who took advantage of the chaos produced by the invasion.

    He says that “they (Hindus) performed a Yajna, a fire sacrifice, and threw living embers and ashes from the sacrifice into the Buddhist temples. This produced a great conflagration which consumed Ratnabodhi, thenine-storeyed library of the Nalanda University”. [Prakash, 213]. Numerous destroyed Buddhist shrines were converted into Hindu temples after their destruction.

  9. Sunil Vijayapala Says:

    thanks to marauding moguls and that answers 50%. the rest is hindu and natural death.

  10. Sunil Vijayapala Says:

    Welcome back ben s for these indian mutts buddhism is not enough they need to worship erect phallases monkey faces elephant faces etc and invoke blessings just like our president who lets down thatagata buddhism would have disappeared from the face of heladeepa on few occations era of invaders including one telegu king rajasingha if not for the timely intervention of wise and brave buddhist monks, we must eliminate wahaabis in the east this is not racism eliminating sakkili tigers wasn’t racism but timely intervention of brave men like mr gr and sf they are not racists gr must deploy forces now and save temples like muhudu maha vihara to preserve buddhism in the east

  11. Lorenzo Says:

    SL lifts ban on Vishwaroopam

    Now the JIHAD mafia will go MAD.

    It will teach timely lessons for the SL SECRET SERVICE.

  12. Lorenzo Says:

    Sunil,

    There is a major situation in the east. Muslims verses Tamils. Wahabi Foxes verses Sakkkili Tigers.

    That is when we should move in, get rid of BOTH and save temples. We have to CREATE a situation to JUSTIFY deployment.

    We are NOT afraid of the racism BS.

    If doing the RIGHT thing is called racism, bring it on!! We can match ANY racism LIKEWISE. :))

  13. Sunil Vijayapala Says:

    Lorenzo good strategy does anyone in this forum know gota abaya? I have no regard or respect for mahinda anymore hence no contact with him, someone should inform gota the only sense in this administration and defiant, it may be mahinda who guides gota as he is not in a position to make bold statements, the rest of this government jakasses are just big mouths with hollow brains as a result of sitting in the toilet too long, virtually they are sitting on their brains that is if there are brains left, everyday the tv political dramas go on, these bloody conditioned ignoramus nonages still looking upto commonwealth and unhcr can’t these fool’s think outside the square?

  14. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Traders from the Middle East sailed in Indian Osean long before the birth of Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim. They established themselves along the Malabar Coast, and from there they settled in Sri Lankan coastal areas and finally Malaysia and Indonesia. Indian traders had already plied these eastern routes taking Hindu influence as far as North Vietnam.
    In year 708 a contingent of Arab widows and children who were returning from Sri Lanka were attacked by pirates off the coast of Karachi, and the pirates were protected by Dahar, the Hindu king of the province of Sind. When Dahar refused to release the women and children, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf al-Kulayb (661-714), a viceroy of the Umayyad Empire, sent three expeditions to Sind, the first two being unsuccessful. al-Hajjaj’s forces, under the leadership of his son-in-law Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi, finally prevailed, mainly due to superior military equipment, including a powerful Mongolian bow, plus superb leadership and unprecedented troop discipline. These military advantages would insure repeated Muslim victories over Hindu armies until the rise of Shivaji, the great Maratha military genius in the 18th Century. There were also religious advantages: congregational worship before going into battle, impossible in Hindu liturgy, and the concepts of military jihad were incredible morale boosters.
    Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi and his army advanced as far north as the Punjab and was preparing to invade Kashmir when the new Caliph Sulaiman recalled Qasim him to Iraq. Sulaiman hated al-Hajjaj, who died in 714, and Qasim was imprisoned and died there under torture. Qasim’s successes were not only due to military superiority but also due to at least three additional factors. First, the largely Buddhist population of Sind was unhappy with their Hindu rulers and their ethics of nonviolence inclined them to welcome the invaders. Second, Qasim responded positively to Buddhist and Hindu overtures of surrender and thereby avoided unnecessary bloodshed and destruction. This is all the more to Qasim’s credit because his compatriots in the first two Muslim expeditions were dealt with harshly. The third reason for Qasim’s success in Sind is that he found ready support among the lower castes, especially the Jats and the Meds, whose men bolstered the infantry of a Muslim army dominated by cavalry. For centuries caste discrimination would haunt Hindus and would motivated tens of thousands of Indians to convert to Islam and Christianity.
    Qasim made another decision that would prove crucial to the relatively benign way in which Muslims ruled India for the next 800 years. When deciding among the four schools of Islamic law, Qasim chose the Hanafi school, the most liberal of the four in terms of treatment of non-believers. The Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali schools all believed that non-believers in lands conquered by Muslim armies should be converted or be executed. The Hanafi interpretation of shari’ah permitted Qasim to treat Hindus, Buddhists, and Jains as zhimmis, as People of the Book, the same status accorded to Jews and Christians. That meant that they could continue to live under Islamic rule as long as they paid their religious tax – jiyah. Under some Islamic rulers jiyah was not required, and even when it was, collection was not consistently enforced or Hindus simply refused to pay it, sometimes even killing revenue officials.
    The Buddhist-Hindu empires in Sumatra, Java, Malaysia reached their zenith in the 13th Century, and the spread of Islam move eastwards as rulers in Sumatra and Java were converted. Even so the merchant class remained predominantly Hindu and the island of Bali retains its Hindu culture and religion with amazing grace and integrity.The brothers Harihara and Bukka, founders of the great Hindu empire Vijayanagar (1336-1565), who were forced to convert to Islam by Muhammad Tughluq in 1327. The most striking example of mass reconversion happened in Mysore, where Tipu Sultan (1750-1799) required that all his citizens convert to Islam. Today only 5 % of the people in the Mysore area is Muslim, while the adjoining Malabar Coast has 30 % Muslims, primarily because they settled this area as peaceful traders in the 8th Century. East Bengal, far from the centers of Islamic power, is now the Muslim country of Bangladesh. Sufi missionaries were also key to the peaceful spread of Islam in Indonesia – now the largest Muslim nation in the world and Malaysia.

  15. mjaya Says:

    Welcome back Ben Silva!

    Looks like you have had a deep Rip Van Winkle sleep and woken up not knowing what is happening in the UK (let alone Sri Lanka). Didn’t you miss the Telegraph article by Bishop Nazir-Ali? I think you are wasting your valuable time by posting comments on Lankaweb, instead be brave and help your fellow British countrymen who are being harassed and pushed out of Luton, Bradford and parts of London by Sharia patrols. You should set an example and not be lethargic yourself! Considered joining the EDL?

    Also don’t bother about Sri Lanka (after all you left Sri Lanka long ago…), the 100% Lethargic Sinhalese dealt with the LTTE.

  16. Ancient Sinhalaya Says:

    These guys come in various guises, various titles and point the finger at everybody else. Never in their direction. It is laughable to say the least. Who is really responsible for the disappearance of Buddhism in the Sub Continet, I suggest you look in the mirror rather than quoting from this and that.

    We don’t have to look far for evidence as what happened is repeated in modern day Sri Lanka. After multiplying like rabbits they control every town. Then with these increased numbers got into the Parliament and control the Government thanks to the two main parties bickering. Now they feel they got enough numbers so push the ‘halal boat’ vigorously to slowly islamise the country. Bulldozing ancient Buddhist temples, encroaching on sacred sites like Kuragala, building eyesore mosque next to our Sacred Sri Maha Bodhiya, building another in Sacred City of Dambulla. Are these actions to safeguard Buddhism in Sri Lanka? Of course you will say ‘saha jeevanaya’. That’s until the numbers are high enough. We are sure you are dreaming about the day you can bulldoz the lot like you did in Afganisthan, Pakisthan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia. Your textbook of terror says kill all non-believers and when you are in somebody else’s country you will you act differently? Any sensible person would say the minute you enter a non-muslim country you forefeit your right to be there since your religion says kill the people in that country.
    You can write lengthy articles trying to whitewash what you’ve done and what you’re doing. But readers are no fools. Is it not a futile exercise you think?

  17. Senevirath Says:

    Not only YOU Mhohommed—Even your leader Mohommed was not peaceful

  18. Nanda Says:

    Thank you very much Mjaya.
    Sunil Ayya is welcoming this ENEMY OF BUDDHISM who utters shamelessly “passive and lethargic nature of Buddhism”.
    This ENEMY wants to change the Buddhism, not Buddhist.
    Where has your gone Sunil Ayya ?
    You can condemn Rajapakse, your friend, and welcome this ENEMY of BUDDHISM.

    BEN SILVA is the biggest enemy of Buddhism and should not waste time writing comments here to teach his Dhamma

  19. Sunil Vijayapala Says:

    Nanda i consider mahinda rajapakse a worst enemy to buddhism than ben mr totally failed in the case of moratuwa monk who was murdered a megalomaniac like mr who lets down thatagata worshiping hindu gods must be rejected by all sensible buddhists he will also fail on the issue of wahaabis and become a pundit preachin his mahinda chintana to buddhist monks, we need to accomodate ben in this elite forum a congregation far superior to our presidents cabinet cosisting of thugs murderers bribe takers etc, the support base of his, ben is foolish to state we need to discard buddhism to save our country and follow the indian mutt who has no wisdom at all and concentrate on development, now do you nanda realise the value of ben? How do we say we are wise if there are no fools around, every thing is relative except nibbana so strive on that path instead of wasting time on fools

  20. Lorenzo Says:

    I encourage Ben to REMAIN in the forum BUT STOP talking about Buddhism. He has OTHER useful things to say.

    If Ben continues to insult Buddhism and link SL problems with Buddhism, I’m afraid he is of no use.

    Buddhism is here to stay. We have to find answers ASSUMING so.

    But there is onething I AGREE with Ben. Buddhists cannot do certain BAD things that MUST be done to preserve UNITARY SL. These are too NASTY, EVIL, etc. that NO Buddhist will ever do them. But they MUST be done. The solution is to get non-Buddhists to do these and there are plenty of willing people. No need for Buddhists to change.

    Just subcontract the nastiest defence tasks and “they” will handle it. Buddhists can go back to their meditation and wake up to a Dharma island all cleaned of Wahabis, Kallathonis, Tamil homeland claiming racists and other evils. They don’t need to know HOW it was done. Just enjoy the peace and Dharma.

  21. Lorenzo Says:

    Neelamahayoda once shared a history thing about Ravana-Raman war. Aparently OGRES protected SL!!

    We so badly need them AGAIN. Let them handle DIFFICULT situations. :))

  22. Nanda Says:

    Suni Ayya,

    I don’t have a problem with Rajapakse not following Buddhism.
    To be fair to him, he listens to prominent Buddhist monks on major decisions.
    He never said once Buddhism is a “Lethargic Religion”, even if he worships Hindu Gods.
    Likewise, even Ben’s brother Mervyn could be the biggest fool we have seen in this century but never attacks “Buddhism”.

    Lorenzo is not Buddhist but he never ever stated once that Buddhism should change. He said “Buddhists should be more aggressive” because of his ignorance which is excusable.

    This man Ben Silva on the other hand is worse than his brother, he is suggesting we keep the name “Buddhism” but discard Nibbaana and become militants. This man is not a Buddhist but born again fool who chose to attack Buddhism head on.

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