Whither the Sri Lanka Tamils? By E.A.V.Naganathan in Ground Views of 4th July
Posted on July 5th, 2013

Mario Perera, Kadawata

 The objective of Naganathan’s article is put in focus in his second paragraph. “If we claim to be a nation-in-waiting we must think in territorial and historical terms. The Ilankai Tamil claim to statehood is sui generis. For those interested in learning about the founding of the Tamil state in 1215 AD, I would recommend reading webpage “The Kingdom of Jaffna” on www.google.com which is accompanied by a formidable bibliography plus maps, illustrations of historical monuments, genealogies etc.”

The gist of his contention can be presented as follows: We once had a kingdom. It was a solid historical entity consolidated by links with the former colonial powers. We now have every right to reclaim that heritage. To do so we need external help, of powerful foreign nations. The onus of seeing this Tamil dream realized rests on the United States.

Commentator ‘yarlpadi’ gives a cogent reply:  “He should get his co-thinkers in this move to advice many others in the world in this revanchist enterprise. For example he and the high-powered lawyers in his cohort should advice the Iroquois Confederacy to re-establish their sovereignty in New York .They could follow it with persuading the original inhabitants of Australia to reclaim their land too. Then they can agitate for the restoration of the Mayan empire in South America. Why stop there? He could persuade the Saxons to restore their ancient kingdom and expel the Normans. They “”…” and the Tamils of Ceylon should disregard all the historical developments of last several hundred years, pretend that time has stood still, and go back to the pristine times of old.”

These reflections also apply much nearer home, to India which was nothing more than an amalgam of kingdoms and principalities before being brought under one rule by the British. What if they all claim a return to their pristine status? They certainly had a much longer duration and were much more stable duration than the so-called ephemeral Kingdom of Jaffna!

Indeed the attempt to make a river flow backwards leads to utter even inconceivable absurdities. Such an endeavour can only be termed apocalyptic and should be limited to visionaries with heads up in the sky, their brains swathed with clouds, their feet nowhere near the ground, and their hands frenetically trying to keep their pants in place.

What is astonishing is that the writer calls himself a ‘historian’ while taking a Nelsonian look at the past. When such writers get lost in the clouds they lose sight of ground realities. The history of a country first and foremost deals with ‘home’ truths. Authors who like drowning men have no straw to cling on resort to the strategy of dwelling interminably on things conceived as occurring in other times in other climes while being blind to what transpired at home. So does the author do a mental trip through 18th century Europe trying to bolster his claim. What he forgets is that the process of nation formation in Europe is a very recent process, that occurred a few centuries ago, and not in the least applicable to an age old civilization and country such as Sri Lanka, a country with one of the most ancient written recorded histories.

Suffice it to say that this much vaunted Kingdom of Jaffna was a fiefdom of the sovereign who ruled in the South. As late as the 15th century a prince (Sapumal) son of the overlord reigning in Kotte fought the king of Jaffna, conquered him and in a scene reminiscent of the Iliad, bound to him his chariot and dragged him across the city in a display of utter contempt. Such was the esteem the subjects of the conquered kingdom had for Sapumal, they even divinized him as “ƒ”¹…”Sapumal Perumal’.

The author requests that foreign archives be scrutinized to dig out proof of links that existed between the kingdom of Jaffna and former colonial powers. When the Portuguese arrived in Lanka, the country was divided into several kingdom. Each kingdom entertained relations with foreign countries, as the puppet king of Kotte did with Portugal. Sitawaka also maintained foreign relations. Kandy too did so, much more than the others. Just think of the absurd idea of each of these kingdoms claiming independence based on such relationships.

The kingdom of Jaffna was never a stable one. Its only claim to stability was based on the infighting going on between the kingdoms of the South, in short on the vagaries of history. Such were those times. The vassal nature of the ‘Kingdom of Jaffna’ is all the more brought into evidence considering that the elite Tamils of the pre and post Independence era never even gave an iota of consideration to it. The author rues that fact calling it an oversight! Let him however be mindful that they were men of greater stature than what he could ever imagine himself to be.

Recreating this nebulous past is an imaginative exercise and would confirm the Latin adage: quot capita tot sententiae (as many opinions as there are heads). The author would do his kinsmen a great favour by focusing his mind on the PRESENT. As with the case of Humpty-Dumpty, all the kings horses and all the kings men cannot resurrect the past he so fondly evokes.

There is however one aspect of this trend, as represented in this article, that should catch our attention. The fight for Ealam has gone beyond our shores and is being fought in foreign arenas. The clamouring, the shouting, the saber rattling is now occurring abroad. The endeavour is the search for foreign “ƒ”¹…”mercenary governments’ to take over from where the LTTE left, and indeed the seekers of easy booty are many. He foresees the USA as the eventual champion of the Ealam cause now clothed as the lost heritage called the Kingdom of Jaffna.

In his own words: “But why seek an alliance with another strong state? “¦. Our sole purpose would be simply for enlisting our ally’s sponsorship and active support for causing a UN administered plebiscite to be held in the Tamil areas to ascertain the free and democratic wishes of the Tamil peoples regarding their future political status, thereby facilitating their historical claim to recovery of the sovereignty lost in 1619.” Coming to think of it the LTTE too resurrected that “ƒ”¹…”kingdom’ for a while with many white nations fighting their cause in international forums. No need to probe into archives for all that happened under the midday sun.

In an often quoted line Marx remarked, “history repeats itself first as tragedy, second as farce”. History did repeat itself as a tragedy, which as Naganathan knows, took hundreds of thousands of human lives. So when he talks about “ƒ”¹…”Tamil nationhood’ he is re-enacting the same drama, and re-igniting the same fire, in “ƒ”¹…”its phase of a farce’. Henry Ford, said wisely “we want to live in the present and the only history that is worth a tinker’s damn is the history that we make to-day.” That history, which was made today was enacted before the eyes of the whole world on the banks of the Nandikadal lagoon.

Like “ƒ”¹…”John Brown’ the kingdom of Jaffna long lies molding in the grave. Yet “ƒ”¹…”historians’ like Naganathan and others are ensuring that its soul goes marching on strengthened by the Christian words of comfort: fear not those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul! The stance of the author therefore should not be taken lightly and should open our eyes to the content and impact of words such as “ƒ”¹…”Reconciliation’ which are sugar coated poison thrown as food for the gullible. As long as the soul marches on it will seek what it considers to be its corresponding body to resurrect.

Mario Perera

Kadawata

 

 

21 Responses to “Whither the Sri Lanka Tamils? By E.A.V.Naganathan in Ground Views of 4th July”

  1. Lorenzo Says:

    What Tamilians try to do is OBVIOUS now.

    They claim 1215 started their BS kingdom.

    In another 2 years it will be 2015. 800 years since their so called BS start.

    So they plan to have their full Elam in 2 years. We have to stop this madness.

  2. Sirih Says:

    Naganathan’s rambling come from the lunatics fringe which has no identity or cultural heritage to be proud of.. Washing dishes, selling women and drugs now may have taken them into extreme excess..

  3. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    In 1805 Capt.Robert Percival of British army in Jaffna wrote in his book “An account of the island of Ceylon” that the majority in Jaffna peninsula were Moors who wore a little white round cap on their shaven heads. Second largest community was Malabars, who had migrated to Lanka after the Portugese period, from the Coromandel coast of South India. They appeared different to the South Indians in Jaffna. Capt. Percival also recorded in his book that there were more foreigners in Jaffna than the people who were native to Jaffna. These “foreigners” were those Malabars who came from the Coromandel coast to grow tobacco. The legacy of the tobacco boom in Jaffna was reflected in the thousands of odd wells that have been used and are still being used for irrigation. Even after the big massacre of the Sinhalese in Jaffna in 1478, third largest community in Jaffna at that time was the Sinhalese. The South Indian community who had arrived as merchants and invaders, was smaller than all the above three communities.
    From the 13th century when migration of Vellalar to Jaffna took place, Tamil Nadu has seen a decline in the traditional power of Vellalar. Successive colonial powers in Sri Lanka found Vellalar useful where Brahmins were not forthcoming. The Vellalar were not only cultivators, but a section of them which had developed scribal skills, provided the local officials, interpreters and accountants.
    In 1847, Kandar Arumukampillai(aka Arumuga Navalar) left the Jaffna Central College where he was a teacher because a ‘low caste’ Tamil student from the Nalavar caste was admitted to the school by the principal Peter Percival. Three decades later when a famine hit Northern Sri Lanka, Kandar Arumukampillai worked tirelessly to provide food and medicine to Vellalar only.
    In 1871, Caste clashes erupted between Vellalar, Dhoby caste and Barber caste in Mavittapuram when Dhoby caste people refused to wash the clothes of Barber caste people. Vellalar were blamed for the violence.
    September 1923 in Suthumalai, Vellalar attacked lower caste people who had hired drummers for a funeral alleging that lower caste people had no right to employ drummers for their funerals as they were ‘low caste’. In 1931 a similar violent riot took place in Chankanai where Pallar were attacked by Vellalar people for hiring drummers for a funeral.
    Do Tamil speaking Sri Lankans need to be reminded that they did not allow low castes to enter any place that Vellalar frequented? In June 1929 caste riots broke out again in Jaffna in response to the ‘equal seating directive’ of the government which was applicable to grant-aided schools. Under this directive ‘low caste’ students were allowed to sit on the bench. Until then they sat either on the floor or outside the classroom. This was how Tamil speaking Sri Lankans treated their own! Resultant riots bunt a large number of houses mainly of low caste Tamils. Their children en masse were stopped from attending schools. Repeated petitions were made to the government by Vellalar begging to cancel the directive! Ponnambalam Ramanathan went to request the Colonial Office in London to encode caste into legislative enactments.
    In 1931 the Vellalar attacked the lower castes for hiring drummers for funerals. The message of the Vellalar was clear – no low castes could hire drummers for funerals!
    Even after Independence, the Sinhala speaking Sri Lankans hardly knew of the existence of the lowwe caste Tamil speaking Sri lankans. As far as the Sinhala speaking Sri Lankan leaders were concerned the Tamil speaking Sri Lankans whom they met in Colombo, the leaders of Tamil Congress and the Federal Party, the Tamil speaking professionals and academics, and the Tamil speaking public servants were the real Tamil speaking Sri Lankans, indeed they were only Vellalar!
    It was S.W.R.D Bandaranaike who opened the doors for low caste Tamil speaking Sri Lankans to attend schools & temples – places that were taboo to them by their own Tamil speaking brethren.
    The Social Disabilities Act No. 21 was passed in the parliament in 1957 giving lower castes of Tamil speaking Sri Lankans the right to attend schools & temples as the part of S.W.R.D Bandaranaike’s plan was to penetrate into the “low caste” votes of Tamil speaking Sri Lankans.
    Lower castes Tamil speaking Sri Lankan children could attend school regularly only after this act. A reawakening happened in the north among previously marginalised lower caste Tamil speaking Sri Lankans.
    No sooner Vellalar realized the dangers of SLFP government led by S.W.R.D Bandaranaike courting the low caste Tamil speaking Sri Lankans, Vellalar devised their response. It was to create the best division possible. A rift between the Tamil speaking Sri Lankans and Sinhala speaking Sri Lankans which would strike better success than low caste – Vellalar divisions among Tamil speaking Sri Lankans. It is important to note that the satyagrahas, the tarring of Sinhala letter “SRI” instead of English letters on vehicle licence plates launched by the Veluppilai Chelvanayagam led Federal Party and G.G Ponnambalam led Tamil Congress – both Vellala high class political parties happened a year after making Sinhala the official language. Why did Federal Party and Tamil Congress not cry foul over the Sinhala Only Act in 1956 but oppose the Social Disabilities Act on 1957 with such venom? It is because Tamil speaking Sri Lankans wanted to deprive their own.
    Wijeyananda Dahanayake who was the Minister of Education in 1957, gave teaching appointments to many lower caste Tamil speaking Sri Lankans who had three credit passes in the S.S.C Exam (equivalent to current G.C.E O/L). Appapillai Amirthalingam who was a Federal Party MP then, opposed this move under the pretext that it would bring down educational standards.
    Similarly, when the Sirimavo R.D.Bandaranaike led SLFP Government introduced university standardization in 1973 those that opposed were those who were against equitable distribution. The schools in thirteen out of twenty two districts did not produce a single engineering or medicine student until 1974. Students from Colombo and Jaffna who had been privy to education opposed opportunities that would be enjoyed by students from Mannar, Monaragala, Vavuniya, Ampara, Kilinochchi & other less developed districts. While the composition of the ethnicity did not change entrance, for Tamil speaking Sri Lankans it meant not only the Vellalar but lower caste Tamil speaking Sri Lankans too would gain university entrance. This was why Vellalar opposed the 1973 university standardization introduced by Srimavo Bandaranaike led SLFP Government.

  4. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Jaffna Tamils lost their social culture since they started supporting political murders. Prabhakaran led LTTE was intensely fascinated by death and dead bodies. Tamil Diaspora is yet to reform and still suffering from victim-hood mentality.
    South Indian settlements were widespread in the western region and in the north-eastern coastal belt of Sri Lanka during the early period of the Christian era. They enjoyed political authority both in Anuradhapura kingdom and in other regions and played a significant role in the trade between South India and Sri Lanka.
    The development of the Dravidic tribes gave rise to Kingdoms like Pallava, Pandiya, Chola, Chera and Vijayanagara. Chola Empire was encompassed the entire region up to the Ganges in Northern India, the Maldives to the south to Malaya and Sumathra in the east.The political socio-economic and cultural impact and influence of these Dravidian Kingdoms had a lasting political socio-economic and cultural impact and influence on Sri Lanka and in the region to a very great extent.
    Mercenaries from South India settled in and around Anuradhapura from 400 CE to 700 CE when rulers of Sri Lanka brought mercenaries from South India to fight on their behalf.During the latter part of this period the Northern Sri Lanka was used as the staging post for attacks on Anuradhapura by Indian Kingdoms including Sirinaga, Manavamma and Pandyan king Sri Mara Sri Vallabhaon who attacked and took control of Northern Sri Lanka before proceeding to Anuradhapura. South Indians migrated to the northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka from Anuradhapura when the kings of the second Lambakanna dynasty curbed the influence South Indians enjoyed in the Anuradhapura kingdom. In 900s CE South Indian in and around Anuradhapura had increased heavily that a levy of a separate impost had to be imposed on them.
    Magha of Kalinga of Orissa invaded the Rajarata Kingdom in 1215 CE with his South Indian troops and destroyed the economic underpinnings of the old hydraulic civilization that had been weakened by earlier Chola onslaughts. Magha of Kalinga’s invasion prompted majority of the Sinhalese of Jaffna Peninsula to move southwards. Jaffna Peninsula under Magha of Kalinga’s rule was the worst marauding regime that had existed in Sri Lanka. In 1247 CE Chandrabhanu – a Java King from the Malacca Straits region – invaded Sri Lanka with the aid of Indian armies from the Malayan peninsula and inflicted heavy damages on the Magha of Kalinga domain. Although Chandrabhanu’s invasion was repulsed in 1263 CE he managed to capture Jaffna Peninsula that were then under Magha of Kalinga.
    Chandrabhanu attacked Dambadeniya in 1258 CE which was ruled by Parakramabahu II (1236-1270 CE) but was repelled with the help of Pandyans who had developed a cordial relationship with Parakramabahu II. Pandyans allowed Chandrabhanu to continue his rule of the Jaffna Kingdom as he agreed to be a tributary to them. Place names like Chavakachcheri (Javakachcheri) denote the settlements created by Chandrabhanu.The Pandyan invasions during Chandrabhanu’s and his son’s periods brought in a fresh influx of South Indian immigrants with all their slaves and dependents who mostly settled in places like Thirunelveli, Mailiddi, Tellipalai, Inuvil, Puloli, Pachchilaippalli, Tholpuram, Koyilakandi, Irupaalai, Neduntivu and Pallavarayankaddu.
    Chandrabhanu recruited an army from South India and attacked Dambadeniya again. Parakramabahu II appealed to the Pandyan King Virapandya for help. The Pandyan king Virapandya invaded Jaffna, defeated Chandrabhanu and appointed Chandrabhanu’s son Tambralinga to the throne. But soon Tambralinga attacked Dambadeniya. The Pandyan King sent an army led by Kulasekaran who defeated Tambralinga in 1262 and appointed Kulasekaran as the King of Jaffna. Kulasekaran took the throne name Pararajasekeran and the title Ariyachakravarthi and ruled from 1262 to 1284 CE.
    Kulasekaran was succeeded by his son Kulothungan who took the throne name Segarajasekeran and ruled from 1284 to 1292 CE. Kulothungan repelled an invasion by Yapahuva king Bhuvanekabahu who tried to seize the pearl fishery in Mannar. Kulothungan’s son Vikrama succeeded him and ruled under the throne name Pararajasekeran II and ruled from 1292 to 1302 CE. Vickrama repelled insurgency by Sinhalese living in Jaffna led by Punchi Banda by beheading 17 leaders of the insurgency including Punchi Banda and arresting several others.
    Varothayan who ruled the Jaffna Kingdom under the throne name Segarajasekaran III from 1302 to 1325 CE settled the dispute between the Sinhalese and Tamils of Jaffna Peninsula by addressing the grievance of the Sinhalese. Varothayan restored the privileges of Sinhalese. Parakramabahu IV who ascended the throne in 1302, the same year Varothayan became king ruled from Kurunegala. Varothayan accumulated wealth by raiding Anuradhapura, exacting tributary payment from many minor rulers in Vanni and north central and northwestern parts of Sri Lanka and from the pearl fishery, which he dominated and fostered. In 1323 Madurai came under the Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Varothayan helped the Pandyan king during their struggle against Malik Kafur. Malik Kafur captured and looted Pandyan King’s capital Madurai in April 1311 CE and subsequently Sultans of Delhi raided Madurai.
    Marthandar Perumal, succeeded his father Varothayan in 1325 CE and ruled from 1325 to 1348 CE under the throne name Pararajasekeran III continued his father’s policy of expansion. Iban Battuda, the Muslim traveller, who had been earlier in the Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s court and had traveled through Madurai to Sri Lanka, has recorded with astonishment Marthandar Perumal’s immense wealth, the hundreds of ships that crowded the harbour and the mighty navy he had at his command. Marthandar Perumalcontrolled the northern trade routes to India and China.
    During that time Bhuvanekabahu IV who ruled from 1341 to 1351 CE shifted the capital to Gampola from Kurunegala.
    Before the early 1400s CE rise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya Kingdom of Warangal, the Pandyan Empire of Madurai, and the tiny kingdom of Kampili had been repeatedly invaded by the Sultans of Delhi, and by 1336 CE they had all been defeated by Alla-ud-din Khilji and Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Sultans of Delhi. When the Pandyan empire in Tamil Nadu collapsed as a result of the Muhammad bin Tughlaq dynasty waves of immigrants from Tamil Nadu moved to Jaffna peninsula and Vanni.
    Marthandar Perumal’s son Gunapushanan ruled the Jaffna Kingdom from 1348 to 1371 CE under the name Segarajasekeran IV. In 1353, Gunapushanam, invaded Gampola and captured Four Korales and other northern portions of the Gampola Kingdom and had effective control over the north-west coast of Sri Lanka up to Puttalam. The King Vikramabahu III who was in power in Gampola. fled but later agreed to be a tribute-paying subordinate. Vikramabahu III’s minister Alakesvara led the resistance to Gunapushanan’s army. Alakesvara was a descendent of Nissanka Alagakkonara who came to Sri Lanka from Kanchipuram following the invasion of Delhi Sultans and embraced Buddhism and served in the courts of the Sinhalese kings.
    Though abandoned by the King Vikramabahu III, Alakesvara stayed back and took over the resistance to the Gunapushanan’s army. Alakesvara raised an army, built forts including the one at Sri Jayavardhanapura, Kotte.
    The Vijayanagar Dynasty started in Kannada speaking Mysore grew into a powerful empire within five decades and its rulers captured Madurai from the Muslim Delhi Sultan in 1371 CE and annexed it to its vast kingdom that embraced the most of the South India.
    Gunapushanan died in 1371 CE and Virothayar who assumed the throne name Pararajasekeran IV succeeded him. Upon succeeding Gunapushanan, Virothayar had to face the threats from the Vijayanagara Dynasty and from Alakesvara. The king, Bhuvanekabahu V, who succeeded Vikramabahu III in 1371 was the King at Gampola at that time Alakesvara wielded actual power.
    Alakesvara provoked the Virothayar by arresting and killing his tax collectors and by attacking the Virothayar’s army posts in Gampola and Kotte. Enraged Virothayar sent the army overland to Matale and the navy to Panadura but both army and navy were defeated Alakesvara.
    Virothayar was also embroiled the Vijayanagara Dynasty who demanded tribute from the Jaffna Kingdom to which Virothayar agreed.
    Jayaviran ascended the throne upon the death of his father Virothayar in 1380 CE and assumed the throne name Segarajasekeran V. In the meantime Bhuvanekabahu V attempted to take control of the pearl fishery and Jayaviran sent a large army to Gampola and the navy to Kotte. The army marched to Gampola and camped there. The navy landed troops at Panadura and the soldiers proceeded to Sri Jayavardhanapura and set up guard points around it. The king, Bhuvanekabahu V fled and it was left to Viravahu, son-in-law of Alakesvara to defeat the Jayaviran’s army. Viravahu captured the crown and proclaimed himself the ruler. Gunaviran who ruled Jaffna Kingdom from 1410 to 1446 CE ascended the throne in 1410 CE as Pararajasekeran V. in 1411 CE Parakramabahu VI was crowned the King of Kotte. Parakramabahu VI sent his adopted son Senpaga Perumal (aka Sapumal Kumaraya) to capture the Jaffna Kingdom. Senpaga Perumal accomplished his task in many stages. Initially, Senpaga Perumal conquered the Vanni chieftains, the tributaries to the Jaffna Kingdom. Then Senpaga Perumal tried to march to Jaffna but Kanagasuriyar who succeeded Gunaviran in 1446 CE and ruled under the name Segarajasekeran VI repelled Senpaga Perumal. Senpaga Perumal mounted a second invasion in 1450 CE which succeeded. Kanagasuriyar fled to South India with his family.
    Harihara II, the second son of Bukka Raya I of Vijayanagara Dynasty consolidated the Dynasty beyond the Krishna River and brought the whole of South India under the Vijayanagara rule. The next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Orissa and undertook important works of fortification and irrigation. Deva Raya II (aka Gajabetekara) succeeded to the throne in 1424 CE and was the most capable of the Sangama dynasty rulers. He quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Calicut and Quilon in the south. Deva Raya II invaded Sri Lanka. The administration of most parts of South India was done by Telugu speaking officials during the rule of Vijayanagara Kingdom and migration of immigrants from Tamil Nadu into the Jaffna peninsula and Vanni increased during the Vijayanagara Kingdom.

    Senpaga Perumal ascended the throne in the name Sri Sanghabodhi Bhuvanekabahu rebuilt the Nallur temple, and built palaces and houses in Panadra Vallavu and Sankili Thoppu area and promoted Hindu worship. Jaffna Peninsula was again occupied by Sinhalese under Senpaga Perumal.
    The conquest of Jaffna ended 1467 CE when Senpaga Perumal appointed Vijayavahu as the king of the Jaffna Kingdom abd hurriedly returned to Kotte in when he heard about Parakramabahu VI’s death and about the coronation of Parakramabahu VI’s grandson Jeyaweera. Senpaga Perumal before he returned to Kotte.In Jaffna, Kanagasuriyar and his two sons, Pararajasekeran and Segarajasekeran, returned with their army, killed Vijayavahu and regained their lost kingdom. Pararajasekeran played a vital role in winning the battle. Kanagasuriyar ruled until his death 1468. Kanagasuriyar’s elder son Pararajasekeran ruled from 1468 to 1519. Pararajasekeran beautified the Nallur, renovated several Temples including Sattanathar, Veyilukantha Pillaiyar, Kailasanathar, and Veeramakali Amman. Pararajasekeran’s younger brother Segarajasekeran established schools and villages and wrote a book on astrology and a book on medicine. The famous Sanskrit work Megathoothu written by Kalidasa was translated into Tamil during this period by their brother-in-law Arasakesari.
    In Kotte Senpaga Perumal defeated Jeyaweera in 1469 and ascended the throne under the name Bhuvanekabahu VI. Senpaga Perumal’s son ascended the throne under the name Panditha Parakramabahu VII succeeded him but was killed by his uncle Ambulugala Raja who adopted the name Vira Parakramabahu VIII. Ambulugala Raja was succeeded by his son ascended the throne under the name Dharma Parakramabahu IX. His brother Vijayabahu VI ruled a portion of the kingdom as his co-ruler. They were in power when the Portuguese arrived in 1505.
    Pararajasekeran had two principal wives and a number of concubines. His first wife, Rajalaksmi, had two sons, Singhabahu and Pandaram. Pararasasegaram second wife was Valliammal, bore him Paranirupasingham. Another concubine bore him a son named Sankili and a daughter named Paravai. Following tradition Pararajasekeran named the eldest son Sinhabahu as his successor but he died of poisoning. Pararajasekeran then appointed his second son Pandaram as the crown prince but was stabbed and killed while he was walking. Sankili took over the kingdom and ascended the throne in 1519 under the name Sankili Segarajasekeran. Sankili wielded real power behind the throne and resisted all contacts with the Portuguese and even massacred about 700 Parava Catholics in the island of Mannar who were brought from India to Mannar by the Portuguese to take over the lucrative pearl fisheries. Sankili was removed from power due to a local uprising that led his son Puviraja Pandaram take nominal power. Puviraja Pandaram lost power to Kasi Nainar and Periyapillai. Periyapillai with the help of Tanjore Nayak help mounted an attack on the Portuguese fort in the Mannar to regain territory lost during Sankili’s rule but he was defeated. After the death or abdication of Periyapillai in 1582, Puviraja Pandarm was nominated as the king for the second time. During his second tenure Puviraja Pandaram attempted to wrest the control of the Pearl rich Mannar Island from the Portuguese by attacking the fort by sea and land. Puviraja Pandaram was defeated in both attempts.
    Puviraja Pandaram was killed in 1591 during the second Portuguese expedition led by André Furtado de Mendonçaled by André Furtado de Mendonça in 1591.
    Puviraja Pandaram’s son Ethirimanna Singam was injured in the battle and was saved by a Portuguese captain Simão Pinhão. Eventually Ethirimanna Singam was installed as client monarch under the conditions that Catholic missionary activity to be freely allowed and the Elephant export monopoly to be handed over to the Portuguese as well as the tribute to paid by the Kingdom was increased.
    Ethirimanna Singam who became the king under the name Parasasekaran VII interrupted the Catholic missionary activities and the Portuguese monopoly on Elephant exports. Ethirimanna Singam carried out an undercover campaign against the Catholic missionaries and did not look with favor on converts. Ethirimanna Singam interfered with the passage and shipping of Elephants of the Portuguese government through his territories thereby securing advantageous terms for his Elephants. By 1595 the King of Portugal had issued an order to remove Ethirimanna Singam but colonial authorities in Goa did not oblige as Ethirimanna Singam was not overly disruptive to Portuguese colonial interests.
    Ethirimanna Singam helped Kandyan Kings Vimaladharmasuriya I and Senarat to secure help from South India to resist the Portuguese.
    With the death of Ethirimanna Singam in 1617, there were three claimants to the throne. One was Sankilikumaran (Sankili II), a nephew of the king. The other the claimants were Ethirimanna Singam’s young son and a group of proPortuguese Mudaliyars. Eventually Sankili II became the king under the name Segarasasekaran VIII through a palace massacre. As Sankili II was not able to get the Portuguese authorities in Mannar or Colombo to agree to his over rule and regency due to opposition for him from the pro Portuguese Mudaliyars, Sankili II invited the Tanjore Nayaks to send military help. Sankili II also allowed corsairs from Malabar to use a base in Neduntivu that posed a threat to Portuguese shipping through Palk Straight. The last king of the Jaffna Kingdom Sankili II was defeated by the by Phillippe de Oliveira led Portuguese forces in 1619 and was taken to Goa and hanged.

  5. Lorenzo Says:

    “As long as the soul marches on it will seek what it considers to be its corresponding body to resurrect.”

    WELL SAID MARIO!!

    At least someone has come to understand the REAL game plan.

    Consider alongside the following statement by Tamilian leaders – Not a country without Tamils but not country for Tamils.

    So there are plenty of Tamil “pirasu” and “pisaasu” souls flying about looking for a body (homeland). If there is anything we can learn from them it is their DETERMINATION.

    Now the war is diplomatic. SL’s top DIPLOMATIC COMMANDER at Geneva was later found to be a LTTE agent!!

    And oh! I forgot.

    SL’s attorney general during the killing of Duraiappa, Vada-kundi resolution, 1983 white July riot, LTTE bomb attacks from 1983 to 1987, Endian invasion and 13 amendment was LATER found to be a LTTE agent. Siva Pasupathy!! Govt. was SHOCKED to see him as part of the LTTE delegation.

    BOTH SLFP Sirima and UNP JR were paying tributes to him!! He scr*wed BOTH!

    LOVELY!

    We hand over our chickens to foxes in the name of reconciliation.

  6. Christie Says:

    Tamils in Sri Lanka is the only breed of people who can claim that they lived 20 miles across the sea for more than five centuries and have the same culture, language, religion of 70 million Tamils across the ocean. Even the English does not have such claim. Can anyone tell me about such groups of people. Almost all the Tamils and other Indian in the island nation arrived in the country on the back of the British as Sepoys, Coolies and administrators. They are not different to Indian colonial parasites in all the Indian dominions including Sri Lanka.
    It is the Indian colonial parasites that build the British-Indian Empire, mow the Indian Empire. These colonial parasites sucked the blood of the locals and gave the British a bit. They still do it. Where does the wealth of these Indian colonies end up? Why are the subjects of Indian Empire are poor?

  7. Christie Says:

    Tamils in Sri Lanka is the only breed of people who can claim that they lived 20 miles across the sea for more than five centuries and have the same culture, language, religion of 70 million Tamils across the ocean. Even the English does not have such claim. Can anyone tell me about such groups of people. Almost all the Tamils and other Indian in the island nation arrived in the country on the back of the British as Sepoys, Coolies and administrators. They are not different to Indian colonial parasites in all the Indian dominions including Sri Lanka.
    It is the Indian colonial parasites that build the British-Indian Empire, mow the Indian Empire. These colonial parasites sucked the blood of the locals and gave the British a bit. They still do it. Where does the wealth of these Indian colonies end up? Why are the subjects of Indian Empire are poor? The best example of an Indian colonial parasite is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi who made his political and economic fortunes from Black Africa.

    It is time these Indian colonial parasites give up their privileges, live in peace with the non-Indians or return back to India.

  8. Fran Diaz Says:

    Is Mr E.A.V. Naganathan anyone of Luxmi Naganathan ?
    Luxmi Naganathan was Ambassador to Germany from Sri Lanka during JRJ’s time. The trumped up 1983 Riots were filmed (quite purposely done with heavy cine-cameras of that time). These Riots were artificially created for the purpose of an Exodus of Tamil people to the west, after demands of Tamil Separatism and killing of army soldiers in the North.
    Some Rioters were drugged and wore white ‘jatawas’ and tucked up white sarongs as in the time of the ancient Sinhala people. We saw them ourselves. They were dressed up for filming purposes as if to show that ‘Sinhala people were attacking innocent Tamils’. These films were shown in the west to western VIPs by Luxmi Naganathan (Germany), Moorthy (Ambassador, UK), and Balachandran (France). That was the start of the downfall of the Nation of Sri Lanka – all artificially created for the film world. Sad to say that some 300 plus Tamils were killed in these riots, almost all poor Hindus and a few Buddhists.

    Tamil leaders are fighting their Caste/poverty Wars initiated in Tamil Nadu, in Sri Lanka. Interested others are making use of it. These wars have to stop. Remove the 13-A : it only gives hopes to create the mythical Eelam. If at all, Eelam should be in the Tamil Homeland of Tamil Nadu, in the salubrious Nilgiri Mountains.

    Tamil leaders should make life livable for Tamils there in Tamil Nadu itself. Sri Lanka can take care of Tamils of Lanka. They already have the same rights as the others of Lanka, or even more in some sectors of society. There are no grounds to claim a separate homeland for Tamils in Lanka.

  9. Mr. Bernard Wijeyasingha Says:

    What an illuminating article. Now I know much more about the claim made by Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils to their “right” for a homeland based on the existence of a Tamil Kingdom. One of the worst ideologies to be born in the 20th century is “self determination” by the edicts of Woodrow Wilson and his fourteen points. Using that ideology it has given credence to use the flimsiest excuse to demand a separate homeland as India has experienced. The only weapon against self determination is hyper nationalism that would crush the resurgent movement for Eelam as mentioned in the article.

  10. Lorenzo Says:

    Due to this racist conduct of SOME Tamils the entire race is getting the bad name.

    http://www.topix.com/forum/world/australia/T7JAKVAJT92C0A2M6

    How to improve Tamils’ image abroad?

  11. Christie Says:

    A friend of mine posted a copy of my comment on “Ground Views”. Unfortunately it has not appeared yet. There policy is something to do with civil society and freedom of expression and human rights and alternative policies. Looks like they are doing well with alternative policies for the civil society and freedoms.

  12. aloy Says:

    NarayananSwamy is making statements from Indian prime ministers office that there is a binding agreement between two sovereign nations and that one party cannot abrogate it or make changes unilaterally. They created the problem, brought in the 13A, did not fulfill their obligations to disarm LTTE a stated in the agreement. Even when Vardarajaperumal declared independence what did they do?. They allowed him to stay in India under their protection. When are we going to put an end to their bluff. Our parliament is discussing how to change 13A. Politicians are only talking about elections and crossovers.
    What will GOSL do if there is going to be another parippu drop?. Will GOSL will face the same music as JR did?. Who will come to our help militarily or are we ready to defend ourselves?.

  13. AnuD Says:

    ” When are we going to put an end to their bluff”

    Aloy:

    Educate voters and elect a president who knows what he is doing and one who has a vision for Sri Lanka. That is the answer for your above question.

    Educate the voters. that is the first step.

  14. Fran Diaz Says:

    The problem is NOT with the Presidents (any President) of Sri Lanka. The problem in Sri Lanka is the TAMIL PROBLEM which is an imported Caste/poverty problem from Tamil Nadu (INDIA).
    Thanks to colonists importing vast numbers of indentured Tamil Labor, Sri Lanka is trapped in the Tamil Nadu problems.

  15. Ancient Sinhalaya Says:

    All this ‘very very long history’ is in books or internet only. No ancient buildings to support their claims anywhere in the country. Either their ancestors were bad builders or the present lot are liars.

    Sinhalese, in their own country, are not supposed to live in the north and the east while they can own Colombo. Tamils been living in Canada, Australia, etc, etc now and in few hundred years they will demand separate states in those countries?

  16. aloy Says:

    No leader except DS and Preme could see their bluff and all others were fooled. They were both eliminated. Perhaps Gota knows, but he is powerless. Is BBS the answer for this too?. Indian expansion and domination continues. No Indian who came here to work or business either from South or North ever went back.

  17. aloy Says:

    What Ancient Sionhalaya says is also true. Is there anything similar to what we see in Anuradhapura exist anywhere in India. I think what mahavansa says in its first chapters is also a lie; It has been written by a tamil. We are not relatives of Indian people. Perhaps a few were from Pakistan area.

  18. Lorenzo Says:

    Aloy,

    Mahavamsa was NOT written by a Tamil!!!

    To my knowledge the story about VIJAYA is QUOTED from an Endian book called Ramayanan which contains DISGUSTING things including bestaiality, incest, etc.

    NONE of SL history accounts contains such DIGUSTING DIRT.

    It was WRONG to quote that BS as SL history.

  19. Ancient Sinhalaya Says:

    ‘Ancient Tamil kingdoms in Sri Lanka’ exists in books and internet only. No remains of any buildings to be seen anywhere in the country. They are mythical kingdoms indeed!

  20. Fran Diaz Says:

    Looking at all the existing evidence (historical, archeological), it seems that there was no real Kingdom of Jaffna, mostly some sort of Fiefdom area held by invaders, similar to the Elara era in the Anuradhapura area. These invaders came and went, whilst the truly indigenous people held on. Those left behind after invasions integrated into mainstream of life in the island, same as in Britain, France, etc. after various invasions there.

    Illegal migration is the real danger for Sri Lanka as we are too closely located to heavily populated, Caste/poverty bound Tamil Nadu as well as Maldivians & others looking for safer sanctuary. Lanka authorities will have to take a very strong stand on illegal migration and deport them all.

  21. aloy Says:

    Anud,
    “” When are we going to put an end to their bluff”

    Aloy:

    Educate voters and elect a president who knows what he is doing and one who has a vision for Sri Lanka. That is the answer for your above question.”

    I was actually referring to what the Indians (MAN Mohan and the southerners) are doing and not our people. As for the situation in SL, lets cross the bridge when we come to it; it is a long way away and a lot of water would have passed under it by the time we get there. Look at the drama being played by various actors including SF. As of now, no need to panic as they seem to be taking action on that bluff.

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