If Tamils can live in the South why can’t Sinhalese live in the North?
Posted on August 19th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

The very organizations and individuals ever ready to pull out the red card of international human rights and laws have been chanting the chorus of a “sinhalization” of “historical Tamil areas” totally ignoring that it is the right of any citizen to live within the territory of the State in addition to the inability to even prove of anything called a “historical homeland”. With more Tamils living outside a fictitious “Homeland” and amongst the Sinhalese further nullifying claims of discrimination the Sri Lankan Authorities should not allow political pressures to deny the right of every citizen to live where they like while also delaying resettling all Sinhalese and Muslims who had been chased out by LTTE and the families of those who had been ethnically cleansed in the North. If the Tamils can live with the Sinhalese in the South why can’t Sinhalese live with Tamils in the North of Sri Lanka and if Navi Pillai is bringing up this item on her agenda this question needs to be posed directly to her to answer.

What do those professing the theory of “Sinhalization” of the North have to say about the

·         RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT enshrined in Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

·         RIGHT TO RESIDENCE enshrined in Article 12 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which reads “everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that territory, have the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence”

·         RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT under the Sri Lankan Constitution (Chapter 3- Fundamental Rights) (h) the freedom of movement and of choosing his residence within Sri Lanka.

The Tamils are exercising their right to freedom of movement and residence, if so why are the majority Sinhalese that comprise 14.8million of a 20million population being denied this right? Why have the Sinhalese been chased out of their homes in the North and why are they not been allowed to resettle while other Sinhalese who now wish to start life in the North are also being denied their Constitutional right? What right does a party like the TNA sitting in Parliament thanks to the LTTE have to make objections to any citizen of Sri Lanka wanting to own land, run business and live in the North? Who gave them any right to declare the North as their own even if they have managed to put a retired Supreme Court judge to making the eviction calls?

Many of the Sinhalese living in the North were removed from their original dwellings during the 2002 Cease Fire Agreement for which the UNP Government and the present Foreign Minister must be held accountable.

Many of these Sinhalese families have deeds to prove their land ownership but it appears malpractices taking place are purposely attempting to deny them their right to live in the North. Even without the deed it is a right of every citizen to live wherever they like in the territory of Sri Lanka. Therefore it is not just a question of resettling Sinhalese (who speak Tamil having lived there for decades) and Muslims displaced ever since the outbreak of terror and defacto rule of LTTE but it is for the Government to make a public ruling that EVERY CITIZEN IS ENTITLED TO LIVE WHERE THEY LIKE and no one can object to it. While resettling the 165,000 Sinhalese evicted from the North and East as well as the Muslims, the Sri Lankan Government must put its foot down and say that TNA, Western Governments, Tamil Diaspora, India, Tamil Nadu, its Chief Minister or humanitarian agencies have no right to use slogans of “sinhalization” to put pressure on the Sri Lankan Government to not allow Sinhalese or Muslims to settle in the North.

Politics and political decisions cannot be determined on submission of myths just as foreign nations and international organizations cannot put pressures upon a legitimate government based on those unsubstantiated myths. Moreso, the Tamils finds the origins of its culture continuing unabated across the Palk Straits in Tamil Nadu. It is in Tamil Nadu that the Tamil ethnic cultural originates and where the real Tamil Homeland is found, why is it that the parties claiming to help Tamils find their original homeland do not look where it is already running as a state, Tamil is official language and where virtually all are Tamils.

The myths have gained false credibility in the light of Sri Lankan Tamil political parties, some Tamil intellectuals putting their qualifications on line to falsify history and media ever ready to publish anything for money.

Some of the lies are obvious:

·         Why has the number of Tamils leaving the North to settle amongst the Sinhalese in the South throughout LTTE reign increased if we are to accept the notion of “ethnic discrimination by Sinhalese against the much publicized version that LTTE was the savior of Tamils?”  – statistical evidence can prove this.

·         It is also proved by the fact that the Tamil politicians themselves live amongst the Sinhalese and not amongst their own people especially during the LTTE reign where TNA claimed LTTE was the sole representative of the Tamil people.

·         This is also proved by the increase in Tamil businesses, land ownership by Tamils, increase in Tamil schoolgoing children and number of Tamils in employment in Sinhalese majority areas.

·         In contrast, while the elite Tamils nicely made their way out of the North the ordinary people who were left behind became the guinea pigs of the LTTE to be used as suicide bombers, combatants, child soldiers, civilian messengers and to serve in LTTE’s administration and other logistics units.

No Tamil Nation in Sri Lanka “”…” Tamil Nation is in India

·         There is and was NO Tamil nation in Sri Lanka “”…” that Tamil nation exists in Tamil Nadu where Kaweri valley is the center of Tamil civilization. Sri Lanka’s North or East were never a center of Tamil civilization. 

·         To define an area as a homeland there has to be a distinct civilization emerging from that region, a politically autonomous entity has to exist over a length of time, a long continued habitation of the same people, concept of homeland must prevail in the minds of the people, the cultural landscape must reflect the culture of the people with credible evidence “”…” none of these criterions can be proved in the North or East of Sri Lanka except perhaps the last but Tamil Nadu meets all these criteria for a  Tamil Homeland and given that 65million of the world’s 72million Tamils already live in Tamil Nadu it is the Homeland of the Tamils.

No independent Tamil Kingdom in Sri Lanka or Traditional Tamil Homeland in North or East

·         If such a kingdom existed on its own where is evidence of such when in comparison to Sinhalese-Buddhist hydraulic civilization binding these two provinces?

·         The British demarcated provinces based on easy access to coast, administrative convenience and cartographic convenience. The British did not demarcate provinces based on any Tamil Homeland! If so there should be separate agreements/treaties signed between the colonials and Tamils.

·         While no distinctive Tamil civilization existed in Sri Lanka the Sinhala Buddhist civilization spread throughout the island and never was the North and East ONLY inhabited by Tamils.

·         Toponymy (place names) indicate that original Sinhalese names have been translated to Tamil (not the other way round). Refer Prof. Chandre Dharmawardana – http://dh-web.org/place.names/ The Government of Sri Lanka must ensure that these original names continue to prevail.

·         Records of Portuguese, Dutch and English amply proves that the North and East were under the Sinhalese Kings.

Tamils were not the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka to claim inheritance

·         While Tamils accept the existence of the tribes Yaksha, Naga and Deva they also claim to be original inhabitants of Sri Lanka but are at a loss when asked to prove their historical continuity with archeological, documentary or even oral-tradition evidence.

·         However there are over 600 ancient Buddhist shrines all over the North and East provinces (most of these evidences have been destroyed by TULF and LTTE). People continue to worship sacred Buddhist places in North “”…” Nagadipa, Seruwila, Dighawapi, numerous stone inscriptions of Sinhalese-Buddhist kings are found in the 2 provinces.

·         Tamils did arrive when South Indians invaded Sri Lanka “”…” which makes them invading immigrants. Tamil settlements started only in the 12th century “”…” but there was no distinct Tamil-Hindu civilization different to that of Tamil Nadu. The Sinhalese have however formed a distinct language-culture-civilization which does not exist anywhere else in the world.

Tamils have Freedom of Movement but Sinhalese do not

·         Tamils were always moving throughout the country even at the height of LTTE terror but the Sinhalese could not

Tamils have political freedom proved by

·         Registration of Tamil political parties

·         Tamil political parties contesting elections

·         Tamil political parties in Sri Lanka’s Parliament/Tamil MPs/Tamils in Cabinet/Tamil Deputy Ministers/Tamil Provincial Councilors/Tamils in local government bodies

·         Tamils voting throughout the country

·         Thus there are no Sinhalese Governments proved by minorities holding Government portfolios.

·         Both the 2 main political parties in Sri Lanka are multi-ethnic parties whereas Tamils and Muslims have mono-ethnic political parties. The 2 multi-ethnic parties have even nominated minorities for electorates where Sinhalese Buddhists are majorities.

·         Sinhalese have grievances is proved by the appointment of a Sinhala Commission to look into the grievances of the Sinhalese.

·         No Government has supported the Sinhalese, promoted or protected Buddhism, the Sinhalese language or the Sinhalese culture since post-independence. This is proved by the fact that Sinhalese are economically below minorities, traditional Buddhist sites are not protected or given exclusivity and minorities would not be allowed to bargain with Sinhala Buddhist ethos “”…” in France, the majority are called French so why is Sri Lanka not referred to as Sinhaladesa

Have we forgotten the Sinhalese who lost their lands/lost their lives?

·         Did the Accelerated Mahaweli Development project not result in over 200,000 Sinhalese losing the ancestral lands in the prosperous valleys of Teldeniya and Kotmale Oya and were settled in System C and B of Mahawelia?

·         Did the British after the Uva Rebellion in mid 1800s selectively kill Sinhalese in the central highlands and converted them to plantations and settled Tamils brought from India as slave labors?

·         While Tamils live in Sinhalese areas no Sinhalese or Muslims were allowed to live in LTTE controlled areas.

·         Over 400 Buddhist monks had been killed by LTTE terrorists.

·         Over 300 Sinhalese babies were killed in their villagers by LTTE terrorists

It must also be reiterated that contrary to the discrimination that is being used as a punchline in practice it is quite the contrary.

Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims go to the same restaurants, travel in the same buses, use the same public utilities and live and work amongst each other.  However both Tamils and Muslims demand separate schools, separate mediums in schools and universities, no sooner an area becomes populated with more Tamils or Muslims the area is turned into an exclusive area where only their Kovils/Mosques, eating places etc must prevail. How just is this if they claim to be integrating with communities and desiring peaceful co-existence?

The lies being promoted are many : from a mythical homeland, to being treated as second class citizens, Sinhala extremism and intolerance, discrimination. oppression under “Sinhalese” governments, “Sinhalese” army occupying “Tamil Homeland” are all stories being used to facilitate the goal of creating a separate state.

But it is ridiculous to claim a separate state when 2/3 of the Tamils live outside of their supposed “Tamil Homeland”. BUT, we do empathize that with 72million world Tamils it is unfair that they do not have a State of their own while the 14.8million Sinhalese have a state but cannot call it a Sinhalese state because it is not politically correct! Nevertheless, it is upto India given that India became India after the British put territories and boundaries together to form it and therefore Tamil Nadu has every right to demand to separate and Sri Lankan Tamils should go there where they would be happier than feeling like “second class” citizens. If they are unhappy in Sri Lanka (but happier to be amongst the Sinhalese rather than live in the North) it is best that they go to a place where they are happier.

Sinhalese Buddhists need to be proud of their culture, heritage and civilization

·         Ancient sites under excavation at Pattherajawala dates back 120,000 years

·         The Pahiyangala rock findings date back 35,000 years where the people dug 35feet in stone where food was stored (depicting agriculture existed) even housing prevailed 30,000 years ago http://www.sinhalaheritage.org/Pahi yangala_caves.html

·         Evidence of agriculture dating 17,000 back as well as production of barley and wheat dating 12,000 BC found in Maha Eliya (Horton Plains) “”…” the same was found in Sumer Iraq around 6000BC only.

·         Concept of Medicine initiated over 10,000 years ago “”…” Rawana had written 7 medical books which continue to be published in India. He found 444 diseases and said that eating beef made a person vulnerable to 93 diseases.

·         First hospitals (Mihintale, Medegiriya)

·         Use of mircolith technology used 35,000 years ago is in par with South Africa while the Indian subcontinent was 15,000 and Europe 12,000

·         American and Swiss archaeologists confirm that acupuncture was founded in Ceylon 34,000 years ago

·         Necklaces and earrings dating 30,000 years back have been found in the Central province

·         First and only ancient people to use wind power technology (to produce non-rusting steel) by 1500BC and exported. The technology was investigated by Jill Juleff and sites can be seen in Samanalawewa. Development of a new technique called wootz steel as far back as 300BC. The ancient steel swords made in Lanka found in the Bangalore National Museum even after 3500 years have not rusted!

·         Use of pump as early as 300BC “”…” to water the Jasmine flowers on the Maha Stupa but the West has attributed that invention to the Greeks in 100BC, shows how Eastern inventions are purposely being shunned.

·         First use of hydro technology “”…” invention of valve pit (Bisokotuwa), spray jets and spa centers in Ranmasu Uyana before the Romans

·         In 1st AD the Roman tax collector Annius Piocamus was stranded at sea and was rescued by Sinhalese ships and thereafter the Sinhalese king sent a mission to Rome (Vol VI Pliny the Elder) reveals that the Romans had never seen ships as big as the Sinhala ships (also confirmed by Chinese records)

·         The Great Jetawana Dagaba built by King Mahasen in 4th century was described by the Romans as the 3rd wonder of the world (400ft high “”…” 3rd largest monument of the ancient world and biggest brick monument of the ancient world)

·         Dr. Hawkeys of Arizona State University claims dental traits of Indus Valley People match the Austro-Asiatic tribes of North East India (Naga) and the Sinhala of Lanka. The DNA from both have been found on Egyptians and ancient Nubians (Ethiopia) Her findings are supported by Cornell University that the first anatomically modern humans in South Asia are from Sri Lanka (this opposes the Out of Africa theory) which can be contested with the discovery of the 35,000 year old Balangoda Man whose traits are found in both the Veddahs and the Sinhela communities (Dr. Shiran Deraniyagala) This clearly puts to rest that Sinhela’s trace their origins to arrival of King Vijaya and Sri Lanka’s Government needs to promptly change all school text books that are giving a distorted historical version to future generations of children.

These are just a handful of achievements by the Sinhalese which Sri Lankan Tamils cannot even match to prove a separate civilization existed to even justify a claim. In every aspect of life the ancient Sinhalese civilization has left remnants for us to put together how they lived. Moreover, there are no other civilization similar to the Sinhalese elsewhere in the world. Anyone visiting the recently concluded SHILPI exhibited at the BMICH would have found further evidence of why the Sinhalese refuses to give up their civilization, their culture and their heritage though a handful are willing to betray their ancestors for multicultural remunerations.

The importance of the Sinhalese civilization can best be described in the words of the Tamil philosopher Ananda Kumaraswamy who, while testifying at the Manning Commission under the British invaders in 1906, said “Take anything from this country. But please don’t corrupt or destroy that beautiful Sinhalese culture that survives in villages. Because someday when you, with your greedy and selfish policies, destroy this world both materially and spiritually, the answer to rebuild that ruined world can only be found in that beautiful Sinhalese philosophy.”

 For trying to protect for future generations the Sinhala civilization, the Sinhalese are branded as racists, chauvinists, warmongers and what not by those who have a history of nothing to be proud of. What the world should ideally do is to help the Sinhalese preserve its ancient civilization not attempt to destroy it.

32 Responses to “If Tamils can live in the South why can’t Sinhalese live in the North?”

  1. Susantha Wijesinghe Says:

    SHENALI !! I really admire your input on this subject, but what I see is that the Wigless New Raja, will kick all the Sinhalese out of the North, and establish a Tamil Homeland. President will be powerless. I foresee mass revolt. A MIRACLE HAS TO TAKE PLACE, AND SURE IT WILL.

  2. Lorenzo Says:

    ABSOLUTELY!

    IF Sinhalese are not living in the north, Tamils MUST NOT be living in the south.

    This is the bottomline. It must be effected by good or bad means. Otherwise the disaster is WORSE. We are evaluating between 2 disasters one is worse than the other. We must pick the lesser disaster if pushed to no option.

  3. jayasiri Says:

    Shenali Waduge!!.Thanks very much for the detailed analysis of events that have occured since & during British colononial times.

    I am sure you have quite eloquently addresed similar issues, dealing with Tamils, LTTE, & present day sympathisers, under the cloak of TAMIL FORUMS, TG or whatever distorted TITLES they use to hide the fact that THEY STILL want another war. Isn’t that enough for these parasites. They want us to FINISH them off once & for all.??

    As I mentioned in a reply to an aricle at Lankaweb, ALL TAMILS & INDIANS from Colombo should be transfered FIRST to NORTH & EAST. Muslims too can go to East as their major populus live there. Colombo belongs to Sinhalese & if others live here, they mus agree to go back to their area in North & East FIRST gradually.

    Living in Colombo and neighbouring cities is NOT acceptable to Sinhalese. I know the Supreme court made a ruling against sendingTamils to North. But we have to govern our country to benefit Sinhalese FIRST, that is NOT discrimination that is WE are helping our majority race & that majority is dwindling due to MASSIVE encroachement by Indians, Tamils from Norh & Muslims from East.

    NEXT send massive population of Sinhalese & others who wish to go to North & East, so that there will be NO Major Tamils or Muslims areas. This also will help to curtail Tamils trying to evict Sinhalese from long established colonization schemes in the North.

    Internal matters of our country are NO BUSINESS of India or USA. They got burned in Tunisia, EGYPT, Iraq & ofcourse in Afghanistan. Now they are so CONCERNED about Gampha corner where shortage of water had occured. MY GOODNESS even Superman cannot handle such issues in a small country like ours, SOMEONE from the great USA is CONCERNED twice in one week.

    Don’t the US govt, have enough problems with their economy & helthcare & dwindling resources, to worry about Sri Lanka, out odf all places?..Are these people so infefficient in running their own countries, HOW can they assist Lanka, EXCEPT to interfere & create problems.

    I am sure many others will repond to Shenali positively, BUT in this hour THE problem is NOT 13th amendment or CHOGM being held in Lanka, BUT the TAMIL menace is eroding the livlyhood of Sinhalese in Colombo & the southern provinces………Thank you all………Lets solve Colombo Tamils & Muslims problem FIRST, then others can be handled without much effort………Another expat mouthing off as usual……..~ J

  4. Sooriarachi Says:

    Those who use the term ‘sinhalisation’ to achieve their goal of ethnic cleansing of Sinhalese and Muslims from regions selected by them to create a monoethnic Tamil state, are merely continuing from where the terrorist leader Prabakaran was stopped by the security forces. The difference is, Prabakaran used murder & violence to evict the Sinhalese, whereas, these people use false propaganda, NGOs and other hostile forces to bolster their campaign. Sri Lankan Govt should not fear these racists and instead guarantee the right of all citizens to live wherever they want to, and give priority to allow the return of residents evicted by the Terrorists with the support of TNA and Tamil separatists diaspora..

  5. cw Says:

    Thanks Shenali for the detailed analysis. I wish those comrades who were barking at the top of their voice after the war read this wonderful piece if journalism. Ensure they take a copy of this when they meet the TIGRESS Pillay.

  6. ranjit Says:

    Shenali as always you are marvelous. Our leaders must open their eyes.This is Sinahlese country and nowhere we Sinhalese can live other than Sri Lanka. We must have the freedom to live anywhere we prefer or we like. Nobody cany deny our right. Why this difference attitude towards us. Be like DS & Sir John kick their ass out all filthy terrorists who demand land only for them saying their territory. I hope Gota will have more brains and atleast give homes and facilities to our Sinhala heros who are doing their duties to settle down in every corner of our homeland. Tamils and Muslims have all the freedom they want, to live and have businesses but not for Sinhalese that’s absurd and funny.

    Like CW says show this and question the black witch when she arrives here. No need for any cover ups let her see from her OWN black eyes the truth. We must watch out for traitors who will tell her or show her negative things while she will be here. Our President must not allow minority section of our society to dance as they please.This is one country and one law should be respected by all. Sinhalese “NO FEAR” or giving in to any terrorist or terrorist organization to raise their heads again NEVER. We will fight to death to save our land of birth.

  7. Fran Diaz Says:

    After Colonisation of some nearly 500 yrs, the Sinhela people appear to have lost their land. Just make sure we are not re-colonised via neo-colonisation with west + Tamil leaders. Sinhela people must UNITE and recover their spirits. After reading through the List of Achievements of the indigenous people of ancient Lanka, we can indeed be proud of our ancestors, and lift our heads high and say with pride : “I am a Sinhela person”.

    Tamil & Muslim people can live in harmony with us or migrate to any place of their choice. No special large ethnic or religious areas for anyone in Sri Lanka – that is true Democracy. Build up of ethnic or religious enclaves ought to be discouraged.

    N and NE and the rest of Lanka for ALL Sri Lankans. Mr Wigneswaran was a lawyer – he ought to know that better than us !

    * DEPORT ALL ILLEGAL MIGRANTS.
    * Discourage build of large families through less government help for larger families.

    Tough times need tough laws to govern the land.

  8. S de Silva Says:

    Thank you Shenali for stating the obvious!! – But sadly it is not quite you and I who need to utter these words. These words have to be uttered formally and repeatedly by the High and Mighty of the GoSL – starting with the President and the Foreign Minister and formally and routinely issued to all the foreign embassies. SL should also prepare a statement on these lines for issue to foreign media visa applicants to sign up to before granting a visa – S de Silva – London

  9. Fran Diaz Says:

    Sinhela people got divided during the period of Colonisation of nearly 500 yrs. Also, further divisions happened during the times of the Cold War, capitalism vs communism.

    It is time for the Sinhela people to get together again to put the country on a ‘war footing’ to prevent neo-colonisation.

  10. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    “Tamil Exclusiveness” concept is one of the main causes for ethnic tension in our motherland. This is likes omeone saying that “Tamils are Tamilizing Sinhala areas of Wellawatta”. Mono ethnic enclaves should not be encouraged. That’s the reason to non-tolerance of other cultures. Everyone should have a common Sri Lankan identity. Sri lanka is for every son and daughter of the soil, whether speaking in English, Tamil or Sinhala. Equality,liberty and freedom to exercise one’s religion, language and culture is all that matters.

    Time has come to stop all this nonsense of being Tamil and Sinhalese. We are all Sri Lankans and Sri Lanka belongs to all its children. Every Sri Lankan citizen has to be treated equally, should be allowed to move around freely without any restrictions and when they do so they should be encouraged to procure these assets at market prices. If the Tamils can live other parts of Sri Lanka, then why Sinhalese don’t have the same right. Please do not create mono ethnic enclaves. There are no ethnic homelands in Sri Lanka… only Sri Lankans and Sri Lanka.

    Sri Lanka is a free country; Anybody from Dondra Point should be able to live in Point Pedro and vice versa as well. Co-inhabitant is the best solution to national integrity and makes different ethnic groups to understand each other.

    Do people call Kandy, Nuwaraeliya or Milagiriya Sinhala Towns? Why this ethnically designated towns only in the North? Who ‘colonized’ Wellawatte and Milagiriya?

    Given that millions of Tamils are living in the South and South is too cramped with people so we must say it is okay to allow new settlements (no matter what race are they) in the North and East.While population of the rest of the country increased rapidly, with some once small towns like Galle and Matara becoming mega cities with population bursting at the seams, the population in the North has dropped by more than half.
    Tamils know that Sinhalese are great neighbours and even better than German, French, Italian or British. Tamils are living in harmony with Sinhalese in the South. In Sri Lanka there are many LAWS in the books. Kandyan Law, Mukkuwa Law, Islamic Law, Roman-Dutch Law, Low Country Sinhala Law and Thesawalamai.

    Why we have Islamic Law but no Buddhist or Hindu Law?

    “Thesawalamai” is not practiced much in Jaffna. If that is practiced people from Pungudutivu or any low castes cannot buy lands in Jaffna!

    Now that the Tamils are relocating to Canada, UK, Australia, France, Swiss, Norway, Denmark, etc etc Sinhalese should relocate to the vacant areas left by the Tamils.

    In Singapore EIP – Ethnic Integration Policy – is enforced to balance ethnic composition. Any Sri lankan should be able to live where ever they want, as long as the law of the country is respected and follwed. When racists use “Tamil Areas” it implies that there are some areas exclusive for Tamils.

    According to the Tamil Dictionary published by University of Madras, Eelam is a Pali word – not a Dravidian word!!! Eelam has the same meaning as Hela and Sinhala!!!!

    Until the 9th century AD, with the exception of the megalithic remains of Pomparippu and the possible exception of those of Kathiraveli, there is no definite evidence regarding and Dravidian settlement in our country. It is possible that there were some Tamil settlers in the Batticaloa district from the 13 century AD onwards.

    Several writers on the history of Jaffna, basing their studies on the traditional legends found in the late Tamil chronicles, have put forward certain theories claiming the establishment of Tamil settlements in Jaffna in the period of the Anuradhapura rulers. These theories are not accepted by serious students of history as they are not based on trustworthy data. Many of these have been convincingly dismissed by scholars in recent years.

    According to the Pali chronicle the port of Jambukola (Camputturai), on the eastern cost of the peninsula, was the main port of embarkation to Tamralipti in Eastern India from at least the time of King Devanampriya Tissa (250-210 BC). The two embassies from the island to the court of Ashoka embarked on their voyage from Jambukola. Sangamitta arrived with the Bo-sapling at this port.

    The Samudda-panna-sala, commemorating the arrival of the Bo sapling, and the Jambukola Vihara were built there by Devanampriya Tissa. The northern most part of the island was under the suzerainty of the Anuradhapura king in the 3rd century BC and that Buddhism had begun to spread by that time in that part of the island as in the other parts.

    The language of the gold plate inscription from Vallipuram, the earliest epigraphic record discovered in the Jaffna peninsula, is the early form of Sinhalese, in which inscriptions of the time in other parts of the island were written. Sinhalese were settled in the Jaffna peninsula, or in some parts at least, in the second century AD. There were Tamil speaking traders in the port of Jambukola but there is no evidence that points to Tamil settlements in the peninsul a at that time

    The gold plate from Vallipuram reveals that there were Buddhists in that part of the peninsula in the 2nd century AD. At the site of this inscription the foundations are in the premises of a modern Vishnu temple. There is little doubt that the Vishnu temple was the original Buddhist monument converted in to a Vaishnava establishment at a later date when Tamils settled in the area.

    Such conversion of Buddhist establishments into Saiva and Vaishnava temples was a common phenomenon in the Jaffna peninsula after it was settled by Dravidians.

    In the premised of another Vishnu temple at Moolai in Vaddukoddai were discovered some ‘vestiges of ancient remains of walls’ and a broken sedent Buddha image. Again in a Saiva temple at Mahiyapitti a Buddha image was found under a stone step in the temple tank. A lime-stone Buddha image and the remains of an ancient dagaba were unearthed at Nilavarai, in Navakiri.

    Among the debris were two sculptured fragments of shaped coral stones with a stone railing design. The dagaba can be dated at least to the 10th century AD. Near these ruins are the foundations of an ancient building and in the middle of thesis a modern Shiva temple. The old foundations are those of the vihara attached to the ancient dagaba.

    Buddha images have also been discovered in Uduvil, Kantharodai and Jaffna town. Kantharodai has yielded very important Buddhist establishment in the region in early times. Such artifacts as the glazed tiles and the circular discs discovered here have helped to connect the finds with those of Anuradhapura.

    The Sinhala Nampota, dated in its present form to the 14th or 15th century, preserved the names of some of the placed of Buddhist worship in the Jaffna peninsula, Kantarodai is mentioned among these places. The others are Nagakovila (Nakarkovil), Telipola (Tellippalai), Mallagama (Mallakam), Minuwangomu Viharaya (Vimankaram). Tanjidivayina (Tana-tivu or Kayts), Nagadivayina (Nakativu or Nayinatovu). Puvangudivayina (Punkutu-tivu) and Kradivayina (Karaitivu). Of the Buddhist establishments in these places only the vihara and Dagabo at Nakativu have survived to this day. It is justifiable to assume that the Nampotalist dates back time when the Buddhist establishments of these places were well known centres of worship. This was probably before the 13th century, for after this date the people of the Jaffna peninsula were mainly Saivas.

    In the Anuradhapura period, and possibly till about the 12th century AD, there were Buddhists in the Jaffna peninsula.

    Although it may appear reasonable to presume that these Buddhists were Sinhalese like those in other parts of the island, some have tried to argue that they were Tamils. While it is true that there were Tamil Buddhists in South India and Ceylon before the 12th century AD and possibly even later, there is evidence to show that the Buddhists who occupied the Jaffna peninsula in the Anuradhapura period were Sinhalese.

    The toponymic evidence unmistakably points to the presence of Sinhala settlers in the peninsula before Tamils settled there. In an area of less tha 2,500 sq km covered by Jaffna peninsula, there occur over a thousand Sinhalese place names which have survived in a Tamil garb. The Yalppana-vaipava-malai, the Tamil chronicle of Jaffna, confirms this when it states that there were Sinhalese people in Jaffna at the time of the first Tamil colonisation of the area.

    The survival of Sinhalese elements on the local nomenclature indicates a slow and peaceful penetration of Tamils in the area rather than violent occupation. This is in contrast with the evidence of the place names of the North Central Province, where Sinhalese names have been largely replaced by Tamil names. The large percentage of Sinhalese element and the occurrence of Sinhala and Tamil compounds in the place names of Jaffna point to a long survival of the Sinhala population and an intimate intercourse between them and the Tamils.

    This is also, borne out by the retention of some territorial names, like Valikamam (Sinhala- Waligama) and Maratchi (Marachchi-rata), which points to the retention of the old territorial divisions and tell strongly against wholesale extermination or displacement of the Sinhalese population.

    In the 9th and 10th centuries some villages in Rajaratta accommodated Tamil settlers but these were by no means numerous. There were many Tamil settlers in the Jaffna peninsula or in any part of the island other that the major ports and the capital city before the 10th century. The earliest evidence regarding the presence of Tamils in the Jaffna peninsula is from the Tamil inscription of Parakramabahu I (1153 – 1186) from Nainativu. Evidences also point to minor settlements of Tamils in important ports as Mahatitha (Mannar) and Gokanna(Trincomalee) as well as in Anuradhapura There were Tamil traders in the ports of Jambukola and Uratota, in the Jaffna peninsula.
    The Sanskrit inscription from Trincomalee, discovered among the ruins of the Koneswaram temple, refers to a personage names Cadaganga (Kulakkottan) who went to Ceylon in 1223. The inscription is fragmentary and is engraved on a part of a stone door jamb. Among the decipherable words is the name Gokarna, the ancient name of Trincomalee and the root from which the name of the temple is derived (Gokarnesvara).

    In the Tamil Vanni districts only a few Dravidian style Saiva temples of the 13th century have been found. Among these the temples at Thirukkovil, Kapuralla, and Nallathanni-irakkam and the Saiva remains at Uruththirapuram and Kurunthanaru notable. These certainly indicate the existence or Tamil settlements in those places in the 13th century.

    Materials from Buddhist structures were used in the building of Saiva and Vaishnava temples. Monumental remains of a different type attest to the destruction wrought by the invaders and the conversion of Buddhist institutions in to places of Saiva worship, effected by the new settlers. The many scattered ruins of Buddhist monasteries and temples all over the Vanni region preserve the memory of the Sinhalese Buddhist settlements that once covered these parts.
    Several of the pilima-ges (image houses) attached to the monasteries in places like Kovilkadu, Malikai, Omanthai, Kanakarayan-kulam, Irasenthiran-kulam, Chinnappuvarasan-kulam and Madukanda were converted into Saiva tempels, often dedicated to Ganesha.
    Buddha images or inscribed slabs from the Buddhist structures were used to make the Ganesha statues.
    A number of small Saiva shrines have been found in association with Buddhist remains. The destruction of several of the Buddhist edifices and the conversion of pilima-ges into Saiva temples may have begun at the time of Magha.
    In the North Central Province on Minneriya Road, close to Polonnaruwa, were discovered a few Saiva edifies which were build of materials from Buddhist structures.
    A door jamb from one of the Saiva shrines there was found to bear part of an inscription of Parakramabahu 1.
    A broken pillar shaft with Sinhalese writing of the tenth century was recovered from the enclosing wall of another shrine.
    In one of the Vishnu temples of Polonnaruwa, fragments of Nissankamalla’s stone inscriptions were found. In the same place, two fragments of a broken pillar with Sinhalese writing about the 10 century AD served as steps of one of the Vaishnava shrines.
    A pillar in the mandapa of Shiva Devale # 5 at Polonnaruwa was discovered with a Sinhala inscription of the 11th century AD on it. In Shiva Devale # 7 a square stone asana with an inscription of Nissankamalla was used as a base for a “Lingam”.
    Another of the Saiva shrines unearthed at Polonnaruwa yielded a pillar with a Sinhalese inscription of Jayabahu 1.

    The invasion of Kalinga Magha with the help of Kerala and Tamil mercenaries was far more violent than the earlier invasions. Its chief importance lies in the fact that it led to the permanent dislodgement of Sinhalese power from northern Ceylon, the confiscation by Tamils and Keralas of lands and properties belonging to the Sinhalese and the consequent migration of the official class and many of the common people to the south western regions.

  11. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Though LTTE used Tamil speaking Sri Lankans as human shields, killed them, denied them food and medicines watched without a hum by the Tamil Diaspora and Tamil politicians, ,it was the Sri Lanka Army often referred to as “Sinhala Army” by the Tamil Diaspora and Tamil politicians that braved LTTE attacks and mines to save 294,000 Tamil speaking Sri Lankans. These brave soldiers are the rightful owners of our motherland.

  12. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Hindi is the official language of the Indian Union (although it also recognises 15 or 16 other regional languages as official). Still, it is the native language of only about a third of all Indians. Those who don’t grow up speaking Hindi must learn it at school. Very little Hindi is spoken in the south of India, where the dominant languages are completely unrelated to those of the north.

    Urdu is the official language of Pakistan. It is also the official language of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and one of the two official languages of the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

    Like Hindi, Urdu is not the native language of most Pakistanis. For only about 10% of Pakistanis, primarily those living in Karachi and other cities of the Sindh province, speak it as their mother tongue. The remaining Pakistanis grow up speaking Punjabi, Sindhi, Baluchi, Pashtu, Kashmiri or other languages and must learn Urdu at school. In fact, India has about ten times the number of native speakers of Urdu as Pakistan.

    But this situation is changing because the Pakistani state has so thoroughly suffused the country with Urdu. Many of today’s young Pakistanis for whose parents Urdu is not the mother tongue, have grown up speaking Urdu as though it was.

    Similarly a majority of Sri Lankan kids with Tamil speaking parents are now living in traditionally Sinhala speaking areas and growing up speaking Sinhala as well. Language will not become a subject of racist division in few years if all the Sri Lankan children learn Sinhala and Tamil.

    It has been the proud privilege of the Sri Lankans to live in harmony with one another. That has been the basis of Sri Lanka’s culture from the days of Asoka, 2300 years ago. This has been repeatedly declared and practiced. Let us endeavour to rebuild the brotherhood that once existed between the Sinhala and Tamil speaking Sri Lankans. It is the only way forward to usher in peace and prosperity once more to this beautiful country of ours that has been torn apart by war and strife.

  13. Fran Diaz Says:

    LANGUAGES used widely in any country will profoundly affect the CULTURE of that country. Sinhela people are identified through their Language & Religion which brings forth their Culture. Already Buddhism is amalgamated with Hindu practices. If the Tamil language too is brought in as a main language here, what would be the result for Sri Lanka, particularly noting the presence of Tamil Nadu close by as an almost monolingual Tamil speaking state with about 65 Million Tamil people ?

    Here is an article on the topic of Language & Culture :

    Language and Culture

    There are many ways in which the phenomena of language and culture are intimately related. Both phenomena are unique to humans and have therefore been the subject of a great deal of anthropological, sociological, and even memetic study. Language, of course, is determined by culture, though the extent to which this is true is now under debate. The converse is also true to some degree: culture is determined by language – or rather, by the replicators that created both, memes.
    Language as Determined by Culture

    Early anthropologists, following the theory that words determine thought, believed that language and its structure were entirely dependent on the cultural context in which they existed. This was a logical extension of what is termed the Standard Social Science Model, which views the human mind as an indefinitely malleable structure capable of absorbing any sort of culture without constraints from genetic or neurological factors.
    In this vein, anthropologist Verne Ray conducted a study in the 1950’s, giving color samples to different American Indian tribes and asking them to give the names of the colors. He concluded that the spectrum we see as “green”, “yellow”, etc. was an entirely arbitrary division, and each culture divided the spectrum separately. According to this hypothesis, the divisions seen between colors are a consequence of the language we learn, and do not correspond to divisions in the natural world. A similar hypothesis is upheld in the extremely popular meme of Eskimo words for snow – common stories vary from fifty to upwards of two hundred.
    Extreme cultural relativism of this type has now been clearly refuted. Eskimos use at most twelve different words for snow, which is not many more than English speakers and should be expected since they exist in a cold climate. The color-relativity hypothesis has now been completely debunked by more careful, thorough, and systematic studies which show a remarkable similarity between the ways in which different cultures divide the spectrum.
    Of course, there are ways in which culture really does determine language, or at least certain facets thereof. Obviously, the ancient Romans did not have words for radios, televisions, or computers because these items were simply not part of their cultural context. In the same vein, uncivilized tribes living in Europe in the time of the Romans did not have words for tribunes, praetors, or any other trapping of Roman government because Roman law was not part of their culture.
    Our culture does, sometimes, restrict what we can think about efficiently in our own language. For example, some languages have only three color terms equivalent to black, white, and red; a native speaker of this language would have a difficult time expressing the concept of “purple” efficiently. Some languages are also more expressive about certain topics. For example, it is commonly acknowledged that Yiddish is a linguistic champion, with an amazing number of words referring to the simpleminded. (The Language Instinct by Steven Pinker, p.260.)
    Culture and Language – United by Memes

    According to the memetic theorist Susan Blackmore, language developed as a result of memetic evolution and is an example of memes providing a selection pressure on genes themselves. (For more on Blackmore’s theory visit The Evolution of Language.) The definition of a culture in memetic theory is an aggregate of many different meme sets or memeplexes shared by the majority of a population. Using memetic reasoning, it can be seen that language – itself created by memes and for memes – is the principal medium used for spreading memes from one person to another.
    As Blackmore states in The Meme Machine, memes were born when humans began to imitate each other. According to her theory, this event preceded – indeed, had to precede – the development of language. When imitation became widespread, producing selection pressure on genes for successful imitation, memes began to exploit verbalizations for better and more frequent transmission. The end result of this complex process was language, and the anatomical alterations needed for its successful use.
    Language, created by memes as a mechanism for ensuring better memetic propagation, has certainly been a success. Today, the vast majority of memes are transmitted via language, through direct speech, written communication, radio or television, and the internet. Relatively few memes are transmitted in a non-linguistic way, and those that are have very specific, localized purposes, such as artwork and photography. Even these media, though nonlinguistic in themselves, assume language and very rarely appear without some sort of linguistic commentary. This might take the form of a critical analysis of an artwork, a caption for a photograph, a voice-over for a video, etc.
    Language as Part of Culture

    For many people, language is not just the medium of culture but also is a part of culture. It is quite common for immigrants to a new country to retain their old customs and to speak their first language amid fellow immigrants, even if all present are comfortable in their new language. This occurs because the immigrants are eager to preserve their own heritage, which includes not only customs and traditions but also language. This is also seen in many Jewish communities, especially in older members: Yiddish is commonly spoken because it is seen as a part of Jewish culture.
    Linguistic differences are also often seen as the mark of another culture, and they very commonly create divisiveness among neighboring peoples or even among different groups of the same nation. A good example of this is in Canada, where French-speaking natives of Quebec clash with the English-speaking majority. This sort of conflict is also common in areas with a great deal of tribal warfare. It is even becoming an issue in America as speakers of standard American English – mainly whites and educated minorities – observe the growing number of speakers of black English vernacular. Debates are common over whether it is proper to use “Ebonics” in schools, while its speakers continue to assert that the dialect is a fundamental part of the “black culture”.

  14. Fran Diaz Says:

    Languages used in the States adjoining Tamil Nadu use the following languages :

    Andrapradesh – Telugu (official language) with sub-official Urdu.

    Kerala – Malayalam (official) with sub-official English.

    Karnataka – Kannada (official) with use of other languages as minor languages.

    Please note that except for Kerala, both the other sub-states are far larger in size compared to the WHOLE of Sri Lanka.

    We would like to promote Sinhela language (main language) with English as a strong link language, and Tamil as a sub-language for official purposes.

  15. Fran Diaz Says:

    Re Language : Put it in a Referendum to the people of Lanka and ask them which language they would prefer as a second language, English or Tamil. Let the people decide.

    English is a world language and will enable anyone in Lanka to study & work abroad, acquire knowledge in any subject, use libraries anywhere, computers, etc.

    Does Tamil Nadu (motherland of the Tamil language) even offer a single job to a Sri Lankan ? It is Sri Lanka that offered/s some jobs to Tamils of Tamil Nadu.

    Tamil Nadu uses Lanka as a sales spot for goods produced in Tamil Nadu, pharmaceuticals in particular. What goods does TN buy from Lanka ?

  16. Senevirath Says:

    TAMILS CAN LIVE IN SINHALA AREAS BECAUSE SINHALESE ARE STUPID TO HAVE THEM THERE.TAMILS KNOW WHAT TO DO TO CREATE A HOME LAND FOR THEM

    UNDER A MUSLIM GOVT: ONLY MUSLIM ISLAMISTS CAN LIVE. NOT EVEN SINHALA ISLAMISTS OR TAMIL ISLAMISTS WHEN U CONVERT TO ISLAM U HAVE TO LIVE LIKE A MUSLIM… EAT DRINK AND DRESS LIKE A MUSLIM

    IF ANYBODY WANTS TO GO TO PARADISE AND HAVE MORE SEX WITH VIRGINS BY KILLING OTHERS IT IS GOOD FOR THEM TO BE AN ISLAMIST.

  17. Lorenzo Says:

    “Re Language : Put it in a Referendum to the people of Lanka and ask them which language they would prefer as a second language, English or Tamil. Let the people decide.”

    Brilliant idea.

    People have ALREAY chosen Sinhala to be the FIRS language and OFFICIAL language in 1956.

    NO ONE can deny that.

    Let them now decide the second language.

  18. Lorenzo Says:

    We should also PROMOTE ARABIC.

    This way we can DIVIDE Tamil speaking Muslims away from Tamils.

    When 10% speak Arabic and 10% speak Tamil NO ONE of them can be SIGNIFICANT.

  19. Lorenzo Says:

    Now even elephants from the south cannot live in Tamil homeland!!!

    “[TamilNet, Tuesday, 20 August 2013, 17:43 GMT]
    At least 23 resettled Tamils have been killed in Batticaloa district by wild elephants that have been brought into the jungles close to Tamil villages by genocidal Colombo’s Forest Department after 2009. Disregarding the repeated objections of the people, the SL Forest Department has brought in more wild elephants from Hambantota where Rajapaksa government recently launched ‘Mattala Rajapaksa International Airport’. The resettled people have been complaining to the SL Police and civil officials each time a person is slain by the wild elephants brought in from the South.

    Good job Chingalam elephants. Reclaim your traditional homeland from aliens.

  20. Lorenzo Says:

    Sinhale elephants, mosquitoes, mosquitoes, mosquitoes, snakes, dogs, etc. should reclaim their traditional homeland from south Endian invaders.

    Take the lead from Dutugumunui king’s elephant warrior.

    Tamilnut brings this stupid news right in time when the Dalada Perahera stages elephants to demonize elephants.

  21. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    பாரம்பரிய நிலம்பற்றி அதிதீர வீரத்துடன் பேசி வந்த தமிழ்த் தேசியவாதிகள் சிங்கள மக்களின் பாரம்பரிய நிலமான மலையகத்தில் தமிழ்த் தேயிலைத் தோட்டத் தொழிலாளர்கள் குடியேறியது பற்றி என்ன கூறுவர்? கிழக்கில் சிங்கள மக்களுக்குக் குடியேற தமிழர் பாரம்பரியப் பிரதேசம் என்ற வாதம் தடையாக இருக்குமாயின் மலையகத்தில் குடியேறிய தேயிலைத் தொழிலாளர்களுக்கு எதிராகச் சிங்கள இனவாதத்திற்கும் ஒருவாதம் கிடைக்கும். எப்படித் தென் இலங்கையிலும் கொழும்பிலும் தமிழ் மக்கள் பரந்து வாழும் உரிமை உண்டோ அதே உரிமையும் மனிதப் பொது அடிப்படையும் சிங்கள மக்களுக்கு வடக்கிலும் கிழக்கிலும் உண்டு. சிங்கள மக்கள் தமிழர்களின் பாரம்பாரியப் பிரதேசம் எனப்படுவதில் குடியேறியதிலும் பார்க்க தமிழர்கள் சிங்கள மக்களின் பாரம்பரியப் பிரதேசங்களில் குடியேறியமை என்பது ஓப்பீட்டுரீதியில் அதிகமாகும். இனவாதம் எப்பொழுதும் இத்தகைய உண்மைகளை நேர்மையான பார்வைகளைக் கொன்று தின்றுதான் வளர்ச்சியடைகிறது. கிழக்குத் தமிழ் முஸ்லீம் மக்களினதும் மட்டுமல்ல, சிங்கள மக்களினதும் அன்னை பூமியாகும் . கிழக்கில் சிங்கள மக்களின் குடியேற்றத்தை எதிர்ப்பவர்கள் தென்னிலங்கையில் தமிழ் மக்களின் குடியேற்றத்தை எதிர்ப்பதில்லை என்பது அவர்களது இரட்டை இனவாத அரசியல் நிலைப்பாடாகும். தமிழர்கள் தம் தாய் நிலத்தில் மட்டும்தான் வாழ்கிறார்களா? வாழ வேண்டுமா? இலங்கை முழுவதும் பரந்து வாழும் உரிமை தமிழ் மக்களுக்கு வேண்டாமா? அவர்கள் வடக்குக் கிழக்கில் மட்டும் வாழ்வது சாத்தியமல்லவென்று யதார்த்தம் நிரூபித்துக் காட்டவில்லையா? உத்தேசத் தமிழீழம் புத்தளம் அம்பாறை உட்பட 9 மாவட்டங்களின் இலங்கையின் மொத்த நிலப் பரப்பில் கிட்டத்தட்ட 40 வீதத்தை உள்ளடக்குகின்றது. அதாவது இலங்கையில் மொத்த சனத்தொகையில் 8%மான தமிழர்கட்கு இது உரிமை கோரப் படுகிறது. சிங்கள முஸ்லீம் மலையக மக்களின் சனத்தொகையைவிட குறைந்தவர்களாக, நாலாவது சிறுபான்மையினராக தமிழர்கள் உள்ளனர். கிட்டத்தட்ட 20 மில்லியன் மக்கள் தொகையில் இலங்கைத் தமிழரின் தொகை 2 மில்லியனாகும். முஸ்லீம் மக்கள் 12%மாகவும் மலையக மக்கள் 10%மாகவுமுள்ளனர்.

    சிங்களக் குடியேற்றம் தமிழ் நிலம் பறிப்பு போன்ற கருத்தியல்கள் தமிழ் தேசிய வாதிகளால் கடந்த 50 வருடத்திற்கு மேலாகத் திரும்பத் திரும்பச் சொல்லப்பட்டு, ஆளமாகப் பதிந்துள்ளன. இவை அறிவுபூர்வமாக உண்மைகளையும் புள்ளி விபரங்களையும் துணையாகக் கொண்டு ஆராயப்படாமல், இனவாத அடிப்படையில் மட்டுமே விளக்கப்பட்டு வந்துள்ளன. தமிழர்களின் நிலப் பறிப்பை நோக்காகக் கொண்ட சிங்களக் குடியேற்றங்கள் டி.எஸ் சேனநாயக்க காலத்தில்தான் தொடங்கப்பட்டது என்ற சொல்லாடல் தமிழரசுக் கட்சியால் பல ஆயிரம் தடவைகள் மந்திரம் மாதிரித் திரும்பத் திரும்ப உச்சாடனம் செய்யப்பட்டு வந்துள்ளது.

    1909ல் இலங்கைத் தேசாதிபதியாக இருந்த மக்கலம் யாழ்ப்பாணம்-வன்னி பிரிட்டிஷ் கால நிர்வாகிகளான மணியகாரர், முதலியார்மார் மற்றும் கிழக்கின் வன்னிபங்கள் உட்பட முழு இலங்கையினதும் அரச நிர்வாகிகளைக் கூட்டி குடியேற்றத் திட்டங்கள், பாழடைந்த குளங்களைத் திருத்துவது, நீர்ப்பாசன வசதிகளை ஏற்படுத்துவது,விவசாயிகளுக்கான வங்கிகளை ஆரம்பிப்பது பற்றி ஆய்வு செய்தார். அப்போது யாழ்ப்பாண விவசாயிகளுக்கு நிலம் போதியளவு இருக்கவில்லை. சனத்தொகை அதிகமாக இருந்தது. ஆனால் மன்னார் வவுனியா திருகோணமலை ஆகிய பகுதிகளில் செய்கை பண்ணப்படாத பெரும் தொகை நிலமும் மிகக் குறைவான சனத்தொகையும் காணப்பட்டது. சுகாதார வசதியின்மை, வறுமை, போக்குவரத்து வசதியின்மை, காட்டு நுளம்பு என்ற குறைபாடுகளும் அங்கிருந்தன. எனவே பாழடைந்துகிடந்த இரணைமடு, அக்கிராயன் குளம் ,கட்டுக்கரைக் குளம் ஆகியவைகளைத் திருத்தி அதைச் சூழவுளுள்ள, காடாகிப் போன இடங்களை அழித்து, மக்களைக் குடியேற்றுவது பற்றி, இக் கூட்டத்தில் மக்கலம் ஆராய்ந்ததுடன் மணியகாரர், முதலியார்மார் ஆகியோரின் கருத்துக்களையும் கேட்டார்.

    இக் கூட்டத்தில் தமிழ் பகுதிகளுள் காடாக உள்ள நிலங்களை குறைந்த விலையில் ஏலத்தில் விற்கவும் விளைச்சலில் நாலில் ஒருபங்கைக் கொடுத்து காணிக்கான கடன்களை அடைக்கவும் இந்தக் குடியேற்றத்திட்டத்தில் யாழ்ப்பாணத்தவர்களுக்கு முன்னுரிமை வழங்கும் திட்டத்தை மக்கலம் அறிவித்ததுடன் நிலங்களைக் கொள்வனவு செய்ய சிங்களவர்கள் உட்பட ஏனைய மக்களிடமிருந்தும் விண்ணப்பங்கள் வந்துள்ளதாகவும் நிலங்கள் பெருமளவு இருப்பதால் மிகுதியாக இருக்கும் காணிகளில் தென்னிந்தியாவின் சனத்தொகை கூடிய கிராமங்களிலிருந்து மக்களைக் கெண்டுவந்து குடியேற்றும் திட்டம் பிரிட்டிஷ் அரசிடம் இருப்பதாகவும் அவர் குறிப்பிட்டார். ஆனால் யாழ்ப்பாணத் தலைமைக்காரர்களான முதலியார்மார் மணியகாரர் என்போர் யாழ்ப்பாண மக்களை மன்னார் வுவனியா திருகோணமலை போன்ற பகுதிகளில் குடியேற்ற முடியாது என்றும் யாழ்ப்பாண விவசாயிகள் கடுமையான முயற்சி உடையவர்களாக இருந்த போதிலும் அவர்கள் சொந்த ஊரில் அதிகப் பற்றுடையவர்கள் ஆதலால் அங்கிருந்து நீங்கி வேறு இடங்களுக்குப் போய்க் குடியேற மாட்டார்கள் என்றும் கூறினர். அவர்கள் ஏழைகளாகவும் கடனாளிகளாகவும் இருப்பதால் குளம் மற்றும் நிலங்களைத் திருத்தி அமைக்கவும் அவர்களிடம் பணம் இருக்காது என்பதால் இத்திட்டங்களை நடைமுறைப்படுத்த முடியாது எனக் கூறினர். விவசாய வங்கிகளை அமைத்து விவசாயிகளுக்கு வட்டிக்குப் பணங் காடுப்போரின் கொடுமையிலிருந்தும் சிறுவிவசாயிகட்கு உதவும் திட்டங்களையும் தேசாதிபதி மக்கலம் வெளியிட்டபோது அது சிங்கள மக்களின் மத்தியில் இருந்துவந்த தலைமைக்காரர்களால் ஆதரிக்கப்பட்ட செய்தி சி.பத்மநாதன் எழுதிய இலங்கைத் தமிழர் தேச வழமைகளும் சமூகவழமைகளும் என்ற நூலில் குறிப்பிடப்பட்டது. 1914 இல் முதலாம் உலக யுத்தம் மூண்ட காரணத்தினாலேயே தென்னிந்தியாவிலிருந்து இப்பகுதிகளுக்குத் தமிழர்களைக் குடியேற்றும் திட்டம் நின்று போனது. ஏனெனில் பெருந்தொகையாக இருந்த உபரித் தொழிலாளர்கள் பிரித்தானிய இராணுவத்தில் சேர்க்கப்பட்டதால் அது நிறுத்தப்பட்டது என்பதை நாம் விளங்க முடியும்.

    ஆக இலங்கையின் முதலாவது நீர்ப்பாசனத் திட்டம் குடியேற்றம் பிரிட்டிஷ் ஆட்சிக் காலத்திலே தொடங்கி விட்டது. அப்போதைய திட்டங்களே சுதந்திரத்தின் பின்பு செயல் வடிவம் பெற்றன என்று கூறவும் முடியும். முதற் குடியேற்றங்கள் நீர்ப்பாசனத் திட்டங்கள் தமிழ் பகுதிகளில் அல்ல சிங்கள மக்களின் புராதான நிலங்களிலேயே தொடங்கப்பட்டன. அது புவியியல் ரீதியில் கிழக்கு மாகாணத்திற்கு அருகாமையில் என்பதை நாம் காண முடியும். 1925ம் ஆண்டில் பிரித்தானிய ஆட்சிக் காலத்தில் தபோவா 1933ல் நச்சக்கமுவ மின்னேரியா, காகம(பழையது ) நீர்ப்பாசனம் மற்றும் குடியேற்றத் திட்டங்கள் தொடங்கப் பட்டன. 1939ல் எலகர, மினிப்பே என்பனவும் 1940ல் பெரகம, 1942ல் பராக்கிரம சமுத்திரம், 1943ல் ரெயிபிந்தில என்பன தொடங்கப்பட்டன. இரண்டாம் உலக யுத்தச் சூழலின் உணவுத் தட்டுப்பாடு, பங்கீட்டு முறை என்பன பாரிய விவசாயத் திட்டங்கட்கும் குடியேற்றங்கட்கும் உடனடிக் காரணமாக இருந்தது.

    பராக்கிரம சமுத்திரம், தபோவா, நச்சக்கமுவ, பெரகம, ரெயிபிந்தில என்பன பொலநறுவ, குருநாகல், அம்பாறைப் பகுதிகளுக்கு அருகே இருந்தன. அனுராதபுரப் பகுதியிலுள்ள இலங்கையின் ஆகக் கூடிய குளங்களின் புனரமைப்பும் 1950களில் தீவிரமாக நடந்தது. இப்பகுதிகள் புராதன காலத்தில் மக்கள் தொகை அதிகமாக வாழ்ந்த நுகரகளாவி என்று அழைக்கப்பட்ட பிரதேசமாகும். பெருங்கற்காலப் பண்பாடு நிலவிய காலத்திலேயே அனுராதபுரத்தில் குளங்களில் நீரைத்தேக்கி நெற்செய்கை செய்யும் முறை ஆரம்பிக்கப் பட்டது. இவை பிற்காலத்தில் மலேரியா, அம்மை, கொலேரா போன்ற தொற்று நோய்களாலும் இடைவிடாத தென்னிந்தியப் படையெடுப்புகளாலும் அழிந்தன. 1948ன் பின்பு நீர்ப்பாசனத் திட்டங்கள் தீவிரமடைந்தன.

    1948ல் கிழக்கு மாகாண எல்லைப் பிரதேசங்களையும் உள்ளடக்கிய கந்தளாய், பதவியா, அல்லை போன்ற குடியேற்றத் திட்டங்கள் ஆரம்பமாயின. C.P.D.சில்வா விவசாய அமைச்சராக இருந்த காலத்தில் முப்பது ஆண்டுத் திட்டமாக மகாவலி கங்கையை வடக்குக்குத் திருப்பும் திட்டம் தொடங்கப்பட்டது. உடனே தமிழரசுக் கட்சி மகாவலிகங்கையை வடக்கே யாழ்ப்பாணம் வரை கொண்டுவந்து தமிழ் பகுதிகளில் சிங்களவர்களைக் குடியேற்றப் போகிறார்கள் என்ற பிரச்சாரத்தைத் தொடங்கியது. மகாவலிகங்கையை வடக்கே திருப்புதல் என்பது அனுராதபுரம் தம்புல்ல பகுதிக் குளங்களுக்கு நீர் கொண்டுவரும் திட்டமாகவேயிருந்தது. இத்திட்டத்தின் ஒரு பகுதியாக மகாவலிகங்கை நீரின் ஒருபகுதி மின்னேரியாக் குளத்துடன் இணைக்கப் பட்டது.

    இப்பகுதிகளில் குடியேற்றப்பட்டவர்கள் தின்று திமிரெடுத்த உயர்வர்க்கச் சிங்களவர்கள் அல்ல. மாறாக நிலமற்ற ஏழைச் சிங்கள மக்களும் விவசாயிகளுமாவர். அந்நியர் ஆட்சிக் காலத்தில் தேயிலை ரப்பர் பயிர்ச் செய்கைக்காக நிலம் பறிக்கப்பட்ட ஏராளமான சிங்கள மக்களின் சந்ததிக்கு நிலம் வழங்கவேண்டிய தேவை சுதந்திரத்திற்குப் பின்னரான இலங்கை அரசுக்கு இருந்தது. தேயிலை ரப்பர் தோட்டங்கள் சிங்கள மக்களின் பாரம்பரியப் பிரதேசமான வளமான பிரதேசங்களில் உருவாகியதும் அங்கே மலையகத் தோட்டத் தொழிலாளர்களின் குடியேற்றமும் சிங்களமக்களின், மக்கள் தொகைப் பெருக்கத்திற்கேற்ப நிலம் வழங்கமுடியாத நிலமையை ஏற்படுத்தியது என்பதைச் சிந்திக்க முடியாதவர்கள் பிற்காலக் குடியேற்றங்களின் உண்மைத் தன்மையை ஒருபோதும் விளங்க முயற்சிக்க மாட்டர்ர்கள்.

    1950களில் தென்னிலங்கையில் நிலம் இல்லாப் பிரச்சனை பெரும் அரசியற் பிரச்சினையாக இருந்தது. சிங்கள விவசாயிகள் நிலம் கோரிப் போராட்டங்களை நடாத்திக்கொண்டிருந்தார்கள். இன்றுங்கூட சிங்கள மக்களுக்கு நிலமில்லாப் பிரச்சனை மிகப் பெரும் சமுதாயப் பிரச்சனையாகும்.

    1950 கள் வரை கிட்டத்தட்ட 12 குடியேற்றத் திட்டங்கள் இலங்கையில் எழுந்தன. இதில் வடமாகாணத்தில் தமிழ் பகுதியில் அமைந்த இரணைமடுக் குடியேற்றத் திட்டமும் அடக்கம். மொத்தமாக இத்திட்டங்களில் 26,000 ஏக்கர் நிலம் நிலமற்ற விவசாயிகளுக்கு வழங்கப்பட்டது. இது 1955களில் 61,000 ஏக்கராகவும் தொடர்ந்து வளர்ந்து 1960களில் 139301 ஏக்கராகவும் அதிகரித்தது. இக்குடியேற்றத் திட்டங்களில் பெரும்பகுதி சிங்கள மக்களின் பாரம்பரிய பிரதேசத்தை உள்ளடக்கியதாகும். பிற்காலக் குடியேற்றத் திட்டங்கள் கிழக்கின் கரையோரப் பகுதிகளை உள்ளடக்கியதாக வளர்ந்தன. கிழக்கின் முஸ்லீம் தமிழ் மக்கள் இதை எதிர்க்கவில்லை. அவர்களுக்குப் போதிய நிலம் இருந்தது. மக்கள் தொகையுடன் ஒப்பிடுகையில் கிழக்கின் பரப்பளவு மிகப் பெரியாதாக இருந்தது. எனினும் கிழக்கில் குடியேற்றங்கள் நிகழ்ந்த போது அவைகளை அண்டியுள்ள தமிழ் முஸ்லீம் மக்களுக்கே முன்னுரிமை வழங்கப் பட்டது. உதாரணமாக கல்லோயாவில் 44 குடியேற்றக் கிராமங்கள் அமைக்கப்பட்டபோது 6 கிராமங்களில் மட்டுமே தமிழர்கள் வந்து குடியேறினர். மட்டக்களப்புக் கச்சேரியில் நடந்த காணிக் கச்சேரிக்கு; வந்திருந்தவர்களில் 5%ங் கூடத் தமிழர்களாக இருக்கவில்லை.

  22. Lorenzo Says:

    NT copied from SHOBASAKTI website.

    Please give the source when you copy paste.

  23. Mr. Bernard Wijeyasingha Says:

    To quote the article:”If the Tamils can live with the Sinhalese in the South why can’t Sinhalese live with Tamils in the North of Sri Lanka and if Navi Pillai is bringing up this item on her agenda this question needs to be posed directly to her to answer”
    I fully agree. I found that any article on Sri Lanka that appears in the Times of India there are many comments of Singhalese “taking over” Tamil “homelands”. The very use of the term “homelands” by the Tamil national alliance keeps alive that Tamils have an exception to the general population that Tamil dominated provinces have been and should continue to be called homelands which would simply be a prelude to claim Eelam again.
    If there is anything Colombo has learned from the civil war is that all Sri Lankans have the full right to live in any part of that nation as is common in any nation. It is also time to take on the Tamil National Alliance that by using the term “homeland” it is offensive to the majority Singhalese (the same tactic Jayalalithaa is using to prevent the movie Madras Caffe from being aired in Tamil Nadu because it shows the LITE in a bad way) and is inciting divisionist movements and if they keep using that term their party will be disbanded as a rogue party.
    Not only should Singhalese be allowed to live in any part of the island the Buddhist Sanga should be allowed to build their Viharas for the Singhalese Buddhists. The Tamils should show respect and gratitude to the Sri Lankan military who saved them from the clutches of the LITE and as Sri Lankan citizens this feeling should not be in question and the army has the right under “eminent domain” to buy the land to build their bases as again is the case in any nation.
    It should be now obvious that Mrs Navi Pillay the leader of the UNHRC who plans to meet an ex LITE leader is already prejudiced and she will demand the impossible from the Rajapakse government. She needs to be put in her place as an objective leader and not use her ethnicity to push issues that are contravene to Sri Lanka’s security and integrity.
    This should also apply to the Muslim problem. In the past Sri Lanka has face almost complete oblivion of Buddhism by European powers and has managed to fight back. One of the best examples is the Panadura Debate which the Buddhists won over Christianity. Sri Lanka has also faced many invasions by South Indian Hindu kings determined to annex the nation and make it a Hindu land and again Sri Lanka’s Kings have repelled them and kept the Buddhism alive. If one goes by Sri Lanka’s past including the civil war then it is time that the Singhalese including the Buddhist Sanga and the military take control of a post war Sri Lanka where the Tamils who lost the war are now using new diplomatic tactics to gain Eelam. Time to remind the Sri Lankan Tamils, Chennai and the leader of the UNHRC that what is good for Sri Lanka will be determined by her leaders and not by outsiders.

  24. Mr. Bernard Wijeyasingha Says:

    In addition in this psychological and diplomatic war it would be in keeping to erect a large statue of President Rajapakse in Jaffna town for there is no reason for any Sri Lankan Tamil to construe this as offensive since President Rajapakse ended the war and saved their lives.

  25. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Lorenzo!
    My Hypertext Markup Language encoding for the above post with the link to the site did not work.
    The actual link is http://www.shobasakthi.com/shobasakthi/?p=79

  26. Fran Diaz Says:

    BW,

    NO statues of Pres. MR in the North yet, please. Statues can be broken when absurd demands are not met. Breaking of statues is an easy way to insult and vent anger- we know the Northern mindset. Dicey move to build statues of Southern leaders in the North at this point in time – not wise.

    Sri Lanka should stop building all places of worship. We have just too many of them with no real practice of religion. Barbaric and ignorant ancient practice of animal slaughter to please ‘gods’ is still taking place here. Better to build Unitarian MEDITATION Centres where Meditation is taught and anyone can walk in as a student as well do Meditation in peace.

  27. Fran Diaz Says:

    We are told that PRAYER is us TALKING to God and that MEDITATION is us LISTENING to God. At this point in time, it is important that we Listen to God, rather than talking to God, which we have been doing for a long time., through rituals and prayer. Unitarian Meditation Centres are important for the unity, peace and wellbeing of a Nation.

  28. Senevirath Says:

    SINHALA LANGUAGE SHOULD BE A COMPULSORY – MAKE MANDATORY–SUBJECT TO ALL STUDENTS IN SRI LANKA–
    THAT IS THE MOST LOGICAL THING BECAUSE75% ARE SINHALESE AND 85%- 95% CAN SPEAK AND WORK IN SINHALA

    TAMILS AND MUSLIMS HAVE TO WORK IN SINHALA AREAS. THEN WHY NOT THEY LEARN. IF THEY DONT LEARN THAT MEANS THEY DONT WANT TO SERVE THE COUNTRY

    THE MOST FOOLISH THING TO DO IS WASTING MONEY TO TEACH TAMIL TO 75% SINHALESE WE CAN USE THAT MONEY FOR SOME OTHER PURPOSE

    IF TAMILS AND MUSLIMS WANT TO LIVE IN PEACE AND HARMONY THEY HAVE TO LEARN SINHALA. HATING TO LEARN SINHALA MEANS THEY ARE TRAITORS.

    IS THERE A SINGLE POLITICIAN WITH A BACKBONE TO SAY THIS

  29. Naram Says:

    Thank you Shenali, for bringing out thi. Let me please add that e greatness of Sinhala culture is due to its flexibility to absorb many cultures, religions, belief systems into its fold gradually developing a her own unique personality. Reverend Mahinda 50 years ago, Mohideen Begg and our own Augustus Vinayagaratna(m) shining examples among many valuable contributions folks have made over the years. Nonsense of separate laws for land ownership, marriage etc. depending on ethnic group, religious group, one for Up country and another for low country etc. are relics of colonial times, just like the Bantustan South Africans used to devise for tribes. In the 19th century the countries like Siera Leone and Liberia were promoted for Blacks by US after abolishing slavery but not quite accepting that blacks can live alongside whites as equals and that was followed with what are known as Jim Crow laws to keep Blacks out of education. With this Homeland concept LTTE and TNA want to bring back a similar system for the North and the e East with privileged castes of established Vellala residents forming a high caste. In short TNA and LTTE yearn for the caste ridden society that used to be Jaffna which was OK for westernised elites with connections, passports to good education but mono lingual mono ethnic hell for the rest.

  30. Dilrook Says:

    There is no sign the government will abrogate 13A based pseudo-federal governance structure soon. In this case, ethnic Sinhalese must get accustomed to the pseudo-federal governance structure without refusing to work with it. This is not about accepting 13A which must be rejected. However, if it is not going away, 13A must be used to protect Sinhala interests.

    For instance we fought against British colonial rule in 1818 and 1848 and lost. Then we conformed to the British colonial rule; learned their language, followed the law, studied in schools, etc. It was not the ideal but it was the best we could do. Ananda College educated students to enter Cambridge University while Jaffna schools educated their students to go to Madras University. Top Buddhist schools taught English, the western dress code, western sports, western curriculum/sciences, etc. Through this conformity, Sinhalese managed to survive though few found it difficult to reverse back when the colonials left. Had we continued to agitate as in 1818, Sinhalese would have perished in the island and lost out economic opportunities.

    The danger of the Northern Province following the Indian federal model and the Western Province not following it is Sinhalese losing out. Under the Indian federal model, Gujarati have their own language based, state just like Tamils have theirs. In Sri Lanka there is a Tamil governed province and Sinhalese must make comparable claims to the Western Province. Since Tamil language is the sole de facto language in the Northern Province, Sinhala language must be the sole language in Western Province. The danger of 13A is it offers all the benefits of Indian federalism to the Tamils but doesn’t offer the protections contained in the Indian Constitution to Sri Lanka or to the Sinhalese. Sinhala must be the sole (emphasised) regional language outside the northern and eastern provinces as Tamil is the de facto sole regional language in the north.

    Since 13A is here to stay for a long time, a proper regional language and ethnicity based governance policy must be introduced throughout the country not just in the north. If Tamils and Muslims have a province each (northern and eastern), Sinhalese must have the rest of the provinces administered in Sinhala only. Otherwise the Sinhalese will lose both the north and the south.

  31. Lorenzo Says:

    The only solution is to SCRAP 13 amendment. FULLSTOP.

    NO plaster solutions.
    NO smoke and mirrors.

  32. Fran Diaz Says:

    Agree with Lorenzo.

    No half baked, short sighted solutions for any problems we have in Sri Lanka. We want long term solutions and solid thinking to go into future Laws that will govern Sri Lanka. After all, the present day laws of Lanka are made of Roman/Dutch Law (Civil Law) and British Law (Criminal Law), and we now have the Democratic right to make it suitable for Sri Lanka so that all can live in relative peace, safety and prosperity.

    More and more Sinhala/Buddhists should study the Law of the land and help keep the country whole and wholesome for all. Buddhists priests should study Law (as well as Sc&Tech, other languages), and help keep the Unitary status of the island.

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