උතුරේ සිදුවන වෙනස කුමක් කරයි ද? ( විමසුමක් )
Posted on September 17th, 2013

 ¶° ¶¸ ·Å  ¶¸ ·’ ¶Å¡  ¶‘ ·Æ’ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ·” ¶¸ · ¶»

2013.07.17
 ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ¶­ ·Å   ¶» · ¶¢ ·Å - ¶º ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶”¹ ¶¯ ·â„¢ ·Æ’ ·  ·â‚¬ ·”  ·Æ’ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ¶¯ ·Å  ¶°  ·Æ’ ¶§ ¶±  ¶´ ¶» · ¶¢ ¶º  ·â‚¬ ·” ¶¸  ¶‘ ¶Å¡  ¶± · ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·” ¶¸ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶´ ¶¸ ¶± ¶º ·’.  ¶¯ · ¶± ·Å   ¶” ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·Å  ¶§  ¶± · ·â‚¬ ¶­  ¶… ·â‚¬ ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶® · ·â‚¬  ¶½ · ¶¶ ·’ ¶½ ·  ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·â‚¬ ·  ¶¡ ¶± ·Å  ¶¯  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶­ ¶¸  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¢ · ¶­ ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ·Å - ¶» ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ·’  ¶… ¶» ¶Å ¶½ ¶º  ¶´ ¶«  ¶´ ·Å ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å  ¶±.
 ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·”  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶… ¶½ ·” ¶­ ·Å   ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶±  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Æ’ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·” ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶¸ ·’ ¶± ·Å   ¶­ ·’ ¶”º ·â„¢ ¶± ·â‚¬ ·. 2013.09. 21  ¶± ·Å   ¶´ ·Æ’ ·”  ¶… ¶´  ¶¸ ·” ·”ž ·” ¶«  ¶¯ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡  ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ·” ¶º  ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶± ¶º ·Å¡  ¶… ¶½ ·” ¶­ ·Å   ¶´ ¶» ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶» ·Å  ¶­ ¶± ¶º ¶Å¡ ¶§ ¶º ·’.  ¶¸ ·â„¢ ·”ž ·’ ¶¯ ·’  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· ·  ¶Å¡ ·Å - ¶» ¶¸ ¶º ·Å¡  ¶± ·’ ¶º ¶¸  ¶¸ ·” ·”ž ·” ¶« ·” ·â‚¬ ¶»  ¶… ¶´ ¶§  ¶¯ · ¶Å¡  ¶Å ¶­  ·”ž · ¶Å¡ ·’ ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·Å ¶­ ·Å   ¶‘ ¶º  ¶”° ¶­ ·  ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ¶Å ¶­ ·Å .  ¶Å¡ ·Å ·”ž ·Å ¶¸  ¶± ¶¸ ·” ¶­ ·Å   ¶­ ·â‚¬ ¶¯ ·” ¶» ¶§ ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ·’ ¶”š ·”ž ¶½  ¶» ¶¢ ·Å - ¶º ¶º,  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶º  ¶”º ·â„¢ ¶¯ · ·”ž · ¶» ·” ¶¸  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·” ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶±  ¶‘ ¶Å¡ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶± · ·”ž ·.  ¶‘ ·”ž ·â„¢ ¶­ ·Å   ¶Å¡ · ¶½ ¶º · ¶Å ·Å¡  ¶”¡ ·â‚¬ ·‘ ¶¸ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶¶ ¶½ ¶º  ¶”º ·â„¢ ¶¯ ·  ¶± ·Å ·”ž · ¶»  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶§ ·” ¶¸ ¶§  ¶± ·Å ·”ž · ¶Å¡ ·’  ¶Å¡ ·’ ·Æ’ ·’ ¶º ¶¸ ·Å   ¶… ¶½ ·” ¶­ ·Å   ¶´ ¶» ·’ ·â‚¬ ¶» ·Å  ¶­ ¶±  ¶º ·” ¶Å ¶º ¶Å¡ ¶§  ¶… ¶´  ¶Å ¶¸ ¶± ·Å   ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶¸ ·’ ¶± ·Å   ·Æ’ ·’ ¶§ ·” ¶¸  ·Æ’ ·” ¶·  ¶½ ¶Å¡ ·” ¶± ¶Å¡ ·Å .

 ¶¸ ·Å¡  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ·â‚¬ ¶« ¶­ ·  ¶­ ·” ·…  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·Å¡  ¶Å¡ ·” ¶¸ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·” ·â‚¬ ·Å¡ ¶¯  ¶º ¶± ·Å  ¶±  ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ¶Å ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ·’ ¶­ ·” ¶¸ ¶Å¡ ·’.  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·Å¡  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· ·  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶º  ¶Å¡ ·â‚¬ ·Å  ¶» ·”  ¶¢ ¶º  ¶Å ¶­ ·Å  ¶­ ¶¯  ¶‘ ·”ž ·’  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¶ ¶½ ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶º  ¶Å¡ · ¶½ ¶º  ·Æ’ ¶¸ ¶Å¸  ·”ž ·” ·â‚¬ ¶¸ · ¶» ·” ·â‚¬ ¶±  ¶Å¡ · ¶» ¶« ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å .  ¶¯ ·” ¶¶ ¶½  ¶”  ¶Å¡ · ¶» ¶º ¶§  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·’ ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ·’  ·”ž ·
 ¶¢ · ¶­ ·’ ¶Å¡ ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ·’  ¶´ ¶¯ ¶± ¶¸ ·’ ¶± ·Å   ¶Å¡ ·’ ·Å - ¶» ¶º ·  ¶Å¡ ¶½ ·”ž ·Å ¶­ ·Å   ¶‘ ¶º  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¶ ¶½  ¶± ·Å ·â‚¬ ¶± ·”  ¶”¡ ¶­.  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¶ ¶½  ¶”  ¶Å¡ · ¶» ¶º ¶§  ·Æ’ ¶¸ ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶®  ¶» ¶§ ·Å¡  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·’ ¶Å¡ ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ·’  ¶´ ¶¯ ¶± ¶¸ ·Å   ¶­ ·Å¡ ¶» ·” ¶¸ ·Å   ¶Å ¶± ·’ ¶¸ ·’ ¶± ·Å   ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¶ ¶½ ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶”¡ ¶­ ·’ ·â‚¬  ¶Å ¶¸ ¶± ·Å   ¶Å¡ ·… ·”ž ·Å ¶­ ·Å   ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¶ ¶½  ¶Å ¶¸ ¶± ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶”  ¶» ¶¸ ·Å  ¶·  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶±  ¶´ ·” ¶½ ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å .
 ¶½ ¶”š ¶Å¡ · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶±  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶… ¶° ·’ ¶Å¡ · ¶» ·’ ¶º  ¶º ¶± ·”  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶° · ¶º ¶Å¡  ¶¢ ¶± · ¶° ·’ ¶´ ¶­ ·’  ¶­ ¶± ¶­ ·” ¶» ¶º ·’.

 ¶¸ ·â„¢ ·”ž ·’  ·â‚¬ ·’ · ·Å¡ ·”š ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶º  ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡  ¶¸ ·Å¡  ¶­ ¶± ¶­ ·” ¶» ¶§  ¶¶ ¶§ ·”ž ·’ ¶»  ¶» · ¶¢ ·Å - ¶º ¶º ¶± ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶» ·” ¶¯ ·Å  ¶° ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶º  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶Å¡ · ·  ¶± ·Å ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶» ·’ ¶¸ ¶º ·’. 1978  ·”ž ¶³ ·” ¶± ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·  ¶¯ ·” ¶± ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶° · ¶º ¶Å¡  ¶¢ ¶± · ¶° ·’ ¶´ ¶­ ·’  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶­ ¶½ ·â‚¬ ¶½ ¶§  ·â‚¬ ¶© · 18  ·Æ’ ¶”š · · ¶° ¶± ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ·”ž ¶³ ·” ¶± ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·  ¶¯ ·” ¶± ·Å   ¶¢ ¶± ¶´ ¶­ ·’  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶­ ¶½  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¶ ¶½  ¶¶ ·â‚¬  ¶­ ·Å¡ ¶» ·” ¶¸ ·Å   ¶Å ¶­  ¶º ·” ¶­ ·” ¶º ·’.  ¶¸ ·Å¡  ¶… ¶± ·” ·â‚¬  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶»  ¶¯ ¶¸ ·’ ·…  ¶¶ ·”ž ·” ¶­ ¶»  ¶´ ¶Å¡ ·Å  ·”š  ¶¯ ·’ ¶± ·  ¶Å ¶­ ·Å  ¶­  ¶¯  ¶” ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·Å  ¶§  ¶Å¡ ·…  ·”ž · ¶Å¡ ·’ ·â‚¬ ¶± ·”  ¶”¡ ¶­ ·Å  ¶­ ·Å¡  ·Æ’ · ¶Å¡ ¶  ·Å  ¶¡ ·  ·Æ’ ¶³ ·”ž ·  ·â‚¬ · ¶© ·’  ¶Å¡ · ¶½ ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶¸ ·’ ¶© ¶”š ¶Å ·”  ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶» ·’ ¶¸  ¶´ ¶¸ ¶± ¶º ·’.  ¶’  ¶´ · ¶­ ·Å  ¶­ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶¶ · ¶½ ·” ·â‚¬ ·Å ¶­ ·Å   ¶¸ ·Å¡  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬  · ·” ·Å - ¶»  ¶½ ¶”š ¶Å¡ · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶… ¶± ·â„¢ ¶Å¡ ·” ¶­ ·Å   ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· ·  ·Æ’ ¶”š ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶Å¡ ·Ëœ ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶¸ ·’ ¶¯ ·” ¶« ·”  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·” ¶¸  ·Æ’ · ¶Å¡  ·Æ’ ·”ž ·’ ¶­ ¶º.  ¶¸ ·â„¢ ·”ž ·’ ¶¯ ·’  ¶”¡ ¶­ · ¶¸ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ¶» ·” ¶« ·”  ¶… ¶­ ¶»,  ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ¶Å ¶­ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ¶» ·” ¶± ¶Å¡ ·Å   ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·’ ¶Å¡ ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ¶º  ¶¸ ¶­  ¶Å ·Å ¶© ¶± · ¶Å ·â„¢ ¶±  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·Å¡  ¶¯ ·Å - ¶» ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶©  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶­ ·’ ¶» ·” ¶´  ·Æ’ ·”ž  ¶¯ ¶Å¡ ·” ¶± ·Å¡  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶”š ·”ž ¶½  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·’ ¶Å¡ ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ·’  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶­ ·’ ¶» ·” ¶´  ¶± · ·â‚¬ ¶­ ¶­ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ¶½ ¶‘ ·… ·’  ¶¶ · ·Æ’ ·” ¶¸ ¶º ·’.

 ¶”° ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ·’ ¶º · ·â‚¬  ¶¸ ·Å¡  ·Æ’ ¶¸ ·Å  ¶¶ ¶± ·Å  ¶° ·â‚¬  ¶¯ · ¶© ·’  ¶… ·â‚¬ ¶° · ¶± ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ·Æ’ ·’ ¶§ ·’ ¶º ¶­ ·Å ,  ¶½ ¶”š ¶Å¡ · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶… ¶» ·Å  ¶¶ ·” ¶¯ ¶º ¶§  ·Æ’ ·Ëœ ¶¢ ·” ·â‚¬  ¶¸ · ¶¯ ·’ ·”ž ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·” ¶¸ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶± ·Å ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶± ·”  ¶”¡ ¶­.  ¶” ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·Å  ¶§  ¶”¡ ¶­ ·’  ¶± ·’ ¶½  ·Æ’ ·”ž  ¶± ·Å ¶½ ¶± ·’ ¶½  ¶¶ · ¶° ¶Å¡ ¶º  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶° · ¶º ¶Å¡  ¶¢ ¶± · ¶° ·’ ¶´ ¶­ ·’  ¶° ·” ¶» ¶º ¶º ·’.  ¶”° ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ·’ ¶º · ·â‚¬  · ·” ·Å - ¶» ¶½ ¶”š ¶Å¡ · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶¯ ·”  ¶… ¶´ ·Å¡ ¶Å¡ ·Å  ·”š ·  ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶±  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·’ ¶Å¡ ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ·’  ¶± · ¶º ¶Å¡ ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶º  ¶… ¶¯ ¶­ ·Å   ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¶ ¶½ ¶º ·’. 1987  ¶¯ ·”  ¶”° ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ·’ ¶º · ·â‚¬  ¶½ ¶”š ¶Å¡ · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶° · ¶º ¶Å¡  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶º ¶§  ¶‘ ¶» ·â„¢ ·”ž ·’ ·â‚¬  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶º  ¶´ · ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶  ·Å  ¶  ·’  ¶Å¡ ·…  ·”ž · ¶§ ·’  ¶… ¶´ ¶§  ¶¸ ¶­ ¶Å¡ ¶º.  ¶‘ ·”ž ·’ ¶¯ ·’  ¶½ ¶”š ¶Å¡ · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶´ ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·’ ¶±  ¶¯ ¶» ·” ¶« ·”  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶”š ·”ž ¶½  ¶¯ ·â„¢ ¶¸ ·…  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·’ ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ¶º ¶§  ¶”° ¶¶ ·’  ¶º ¶­ ·” ¶» ·”  ¶¯ · ¶¸ ·” ¶¸ 13  ·â‚¬ ¶±  ·Æ’ ¶”š · · ¶° ¶± ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·” ¶Å¡ ¶½ ·.  ¶‘ ¶º  ¶… ¶¯ ¶§  ¶¯  ¶‘ ·Æ’ ·Å¡ ¶¸ ¶º ·’.  ¶‘ ¶º  ¶Å¡ ·… ·Å¡  ¶”° ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ·’ ¶º · ·â‚¬ ¶º ·’.  ¶Å¡ ·â„¢ ·Æ’ ·Å¡  ¶± ¶¸ ·” ¶­ ·Å ,  ¶”° ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ·’ ¶º · ·â‚¬  ¶½ ¶”š ¶Å¡ · ·â‚¬  ·Æ’ ¶¸ ·Å  ¶¶ ¶± ·Å  ¶° ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶¸ · ¶¯ ·’ ·”ž ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶±  ·Æ’ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶» ·” ¶´ ¶º  ¶¯ · ¶± ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Æ’ ·Å   ¶º.  ¶½ ¶”š ¶Å¡ · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·”  ¶± · ¶Å ·â„¢ ¶± ·”ž ·’ ¶»  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶½  ¶… ¶± · ¶Å ¶­ ¶º  ¶­ ·” ¶» ¶« ¶º ·â‚¬ ¶±  ¶”  ¶Å¡ · ¶» ¶º  ·â‚¬ ·Å - ¶º ·â‚¬ ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶® · ¶´ ·’ ¶­  ¶Å¡ ·Å ¶§  ¶”¡ ¶­ ·’ 13  ·â‚¬ ¶±  ·Æ’ ¶”š · · ¶° ¶± ¶º ·Å¡  ¶´ · ·”ž · ¶¯ ·’ ¶½ ·’  ¶Å¡ ¶»  ¶­ ·’ ¶¶ ·Å¡.

 ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· ·  ¶Å¡ ·Å - ¶» ¶¸ ¶º  ¶¯ · ¶± ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·Æ’ ¶» 25  ¶Å¡ ¶§  ·â‚¬ ¶© ·  ¶´ · ¶» ¶« ·’ ¶º ·’.  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·” ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶½ ·  ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡  ¶Å¡ ·” ¶¸ ¶Å¡ ·Å  ¶¯?  ¶¢ ¶± ¶­ · ·â‚¬ ¶§  ¶¢ ¶º ¶Å ·Å - ¶» ·”ž ¶±  ¶… ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·”  ¶± · ¶­.  ¶´ ·” ¶» ·â‚¬ · ·Æ’ ·’  ·Æ’ ¶¸ · ¶¢ ¶º  ¶¶ ·’ ¶³  ¶¯ ¶¸ ·  ¶¡ ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ¶¯ · ¶º ¶Å¡  ·Æ’ ¶¸ · ¶¢ ¶º  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶  ¶« ·Å  ¶© ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶º ¶§  ¶´ ¶­ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶½ ·  ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·â‚¬ ·.  ·Æ’ ·’ ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶½ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶¸ · ¶¢ ¶º  ¶¸ ¶­  ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶±  ¶”  ¶¯ ·’ ¶´ ¶­ ·Å - ¶º  ¶Å ·Å ¶© ¶± ¶Å ¶½ ·.  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· ·  ¶Å¡ ·Å - ¶» ¶¸ ¶º  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶° · ¶º ¶Å¡ ¶º  ¶º ¶§ ¶­ ¶§  ¶´ ¶­ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶½  ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·â‚¬ ·.  ¶¯ ¶Å¡ ·” ¶« ·Å¡  ¶¯ ·’  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶º ·… ·”  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·” ¶± ·Å   ¶’ ¶Å¡ ¶§  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶» · ¶° ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶¯ ¶Å¡ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶½ ·  ¶± · ·”ž ·.  ·Æ’ ·‘ ¶¸  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·’ ¶Å¡  ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶±  ¶´ ¶Å¡ ·Å  ·”š ¶º ¶Å¡ ¶¸  ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶Å¡ ¶º ·’ ¶± ·Å   ¶­ ¶¸  ¶¶ ¶©  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶º ¶­  ¶» · ¶Å¡  ¶Å ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶° · ¶±  ¶”  ¶¯ · ¶º ¶¸ ·Å   ¶¸ · ¶» ·Å  ¶Å ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶Å ·â„¢ ¶±  ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·â‚¬ ·  ¶¸ ·Å¡  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· ·  ¶Å¡ ·Å - ¶» ¶¸ ¶º.  ¶¸ ·Å¡  ·â‚¬ · ¶» ¶¯ ·’  ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶±  ¶· · ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶­ · ·â‚¬  ¶» ¶§  ¶… ¶Å · ¶° ¶º ¶§  ¶´ ¶­ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶½ ·  ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·â‚¬ ·.  ¶… ¶¯  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶º ¶½ ·”  ¶¸ ·”ž ¶¢ ¶±  ¶± ·’ ¶º · ¶¢ ·’ ¶­ · ¶º ¶­ ¶± ·â‚¬ ¶½ ¶§  ¶´ ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡  ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶­ ·” ·Å - ¶»  ¶¯ ·” ·”š ¶Å¡ ¶º ¶± ·Å  , ¶¸ ·’ ¶± ·’ ¶¸ ¶» ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å ,  ¶”° ¶© ¶¸ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ·Å ¶½ ·Å  ¶½ ¶Å¡ ¶» ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å   ¶Å¡ ·” ¶© ·” ¶Å¡ · ¶» ¶º ¶± ·Å   ¶¢ · ·â‚¬ · ¶» ¶¸ ·Å  ¶Å¡ ¶» ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å   ·â‚¬ · ¶± ·’  ·Æ’ ¶¸ · ¶¢  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶» · ¶° ·’  ¶Å¡ ¶§ ¶º ·” ¶­ ·”  ¶± ·Å ¶¶ ·’ ¶º ·â‚¬  ¶Å¡ ·…  ·”ž · ¶Å¡ ·’  ¶° ¶± ¶¶ ¶½ ¶º  ¶± ·’ ¶½  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶º  ·”ž ·’ ¶¸ ·’  ¶´ ·’ ¶» ·’ ·Æ’ ·Å .  ¶¸ ·Å ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·Å   ¶… ¶¯  ¶Å¡ ·’ ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·”  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·’ ¶· ·Å¡ ¶¯  ¶´ ¶¯ ¶± ¶¸ ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶± ·Å   ¶­ ·Å ¶» ·â‚¬  ¶± · ¶Å ·â„¢ ¶± ·”ž ·’ ¶» ¶¯ ·” ¶­ ·Å   ¶¯ ¶Å¡ ·” ¶« ·Å¡ ¶¯ ·” ¶­ ·Å   ¶¶ ¶½  ¶¸ ·” ·… ·”  ¶Å · ¶± ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶½  ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·â‚¬ ·.  ¶» ¶§ ·Å¡  ¶± ·” ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·Å¡  ¶”  ¶¯ ·’ ¶´ ¶­ ·Å - ¶º ¶º  ¶¸ ·â„¢ ·”ž ·â„¢ ¶º  ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡  ¶… ¶¯  ¶” ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡.  ·â‚¬ ·’ · ·Å¡ ·”š ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·”  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬ ¶§  ¶´ ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶±  ¶´ · ¶½ ¶Å¡  ¶´ ¶Å¡ ·Å  ·”š ¶º  ¶‘ ¶Å¡ ·”  ·â‚¬ ·’ ·”š ¶¸ · ¶  · ¶» ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶¸ ·’ ¶¯ ·”  ¶Å¡ ¶§ ¶º ·” ¶­ ·”  ¶Å¡ ¶» · ·â‚¬ ·’  ¶º ¶± ·Å  ¶±  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶­ ·  ¶Å ¶­  ¶± ·Å ·”ž · ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶º.

 ·Æ’ ¶¸ ·”ž ¶»  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶§  ¶”° ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ·’ ¶º · ·â‚¬  ·Æ’ ¶¸ ¶Å¸  ·â‚¬ ·’ · ·Å¡ ·”š  ·Æ’ ¶¶ ¶³ ¶­ ·  ¶”¡ ¶­ ·’ ¶Å¡ ¶»  ¶Å · ¶± ·” ¶¸ ¶§  ¶¯  ¶´ ·” ·… ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å   ¶‘ ·Æ’ ·Å¡  ·â‚¬ ·” ·â‚¬ ·”ž ·Å ¶­ ·Å   ¶‘ ¶º  ·â‚¬ · ·… · ¶Å¡ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶º  ¶± ·Å ·”ž · ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶º.  ¶‘ ·â‚¬ · ¶± ·’  ¶… ·â‚¬ ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶® · ·â‚¬ ¶Å¡ ¶¯ ·’  ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å  ¶¸ ¶± ·Å   ¶”  ¶« ·Å  ¶© ·” ·â‚¬  ¶¯ ·â„¢ ·â‚¬ ¶±  ¶¸ ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ·’ ·Å - ¶»  ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ·”ž ¶» ·”ž ·  ¶¸ ·â„¢ ¶» ¶§  ¶¸ · ¶­ ·’ ·â‚¬ ¶» ¶«  ¶Å¡ ·Å - ¶» ¶¸ ¶º  ·Æ’ ¶”š · · ¶° ¶± ¶º ¶§  ¶½ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ·Å ¶§  ¶¯ ·â„¢ ¶¸ ·…  ¶¸ ·” ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶½ ·’ ¶¸ ·Å   ¶”  ¶¯ ·’  ·Æ’ ·” ·… ·”  ¶¢ ¶±  ¶Å¡ ·Å ¶§ ·Æ’ ·Å   ¶Å¡ · ¶¶ ·’ ¶± ¶§ ·Å   ¶¸ ¶« ·Å  ¶© ¶½ ¶º  ¶­ ·” ·… ¶§  ·Æ’ ¶¸ ·Å  ¶¶ ¶± ·Å  ¶°  ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶» ·” ¶¸  ¶Å¡ ·… ¶º ·” ¶­ ·”  ¶¶ ·â‚¬  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶¯ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å   ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶±  ¶´ ¶» ·Å  ¶º ·Å¡ ·”š ¶Å¡ ¶º ·’ ¶± ·Å   ¶´ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·  ¶¯ ·”  ¶­ ·’ ¶”º ·â„¢ ¶± ·â‚¬ ·.

 ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·Å¡  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶¯ ·â„¢ ¶¸ ·…  ¶¢ ¶± ¶­ · ·â‚¬ ¶§  ·Æ’ · ¶° · ¶» ¶« ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶”° ¶§ ·” ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶º  ¶º ·” ¶­ ·” ¶º ·’.  ¶‘ ¶º  ¶” ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·Å   ¶¯ · ¶© ·’  ·â‚¬ ¶Å ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶¸ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶º ·” ¶­ ·” ·â‚¬  ¶”° ¶§ ·” ¶Å¡ ¶½  ¶º ·” ¶­ ·”  ·â‚¬ · ¶©  ¶Å¡ ·Å ¶§ ·Æ’ ¶Å¡ ·Å .  ¶‘ ·Æ’ ·Å¡ ¶¸  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶»  ¶¢ ¶º  ¶Å ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·  ¶´ · ¶» ·Å  · ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶º  ¶‘ ¶¸  ¶¢ ¶º  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ¶­ ·Å   ¶» · ¶¢ ·Å - ¶º ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·” ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶… ¶¯ · ·…  ¶Å¡ ¶»  ¶Å ¶­  ¶º ·” ¶­ ·”  ¶± · ·”ž ·  ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶º ¶½ ·  ¶­ ¶¸ ¶º ·’  ¶¸ ¶Å ·Å¡  ¶… ¶¯ ·”ž ·Æ’.  ¶‘ ·â‚¬ · ¶± ·’  ¶¯ ·â„¢ ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å  1977  ¶¯ ·”  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·”  ·â‚¬ ·” ¶« ·.

 ¶”¹ ¶´ ·” ¶§ ·  ¶Å · ¶± ·” ¶¸ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶”  ¶» ¶¸ ·Å  ¶· ¶º

‚  ¶¸ ·”ž  ¶¸ · ¶­ ·’ ·â‚¬ ¶» ¶« ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶‘. ¶¢ · ¶´. ¶º 6/5 ¶Å¡  ¶¶ ·”ž ·” ¶­ ¶» ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶½ ¶¶ ·  ¶Å ·â„¢ ¶±  ·â‚¬ ·’ · · ¶½  ¶¢ ¶º ¶Å ·Å - ¶» ·”ž ¶± ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶… ¶­ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶Å ¶­ ·Å   ¶… ¶­ ¶»  · ·” ·Å - ¶» ¶½ ¶± ·’ ¶´ ¶º  ¶”  ·Æ’ ¶± 8  ¶Å¡ ¶§  ·Æ’ ·” ¶¸ · ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶¸ ·’ ¶± ·Å   ¶… ¶± ·Å  ¶­  ¶´ ¶» · ¶¢ ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶… ¶­ ·Å  ¶Å¡ ¶»  ¶Å ¶­ ·Å  ¶­ ·Å¡ ¶º.  ¶‘ ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶§  ¶´ · ¶» ·Å  ¶½ ·’ ¶¸ ·Å¡ ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ·” ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶´ ¶Å¡ ·Å  ·”š ¶± · ¶º ¶Å¡  ¶° ·” ¶» ¶º  ¶¯ ·Å - ¶» ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶©  ¶‘ ¶Å¡ ·Å  ·Æ’ ¶­ ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶¸ ·” ¶Å¡ ·Å  ¶­ ·’  ¶´ ·â„¢ ¶» ¶¸ ·” ¶« ¶§  ·”ž ·’ ¶¸ ·’  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶º.  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶´ ¶Å¡ ·Å  ·”š ¶± · ¶º ¶Å¡  ¶° ·” ¶» ¶º  ¶½ ¶¶ · ¶Å ¶­ ·Å   ¶… ¶¸ ·” ¶» ·Å  ¶­ ¶½ ·’ ¶”š ¶Å ¶¸ ·Å   ¶¸ ·”ž ¶­ ·  ¶´ · ¶» ·Å  ¶½ ·’ ¶¸ ·Å¡ ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ·” ·â‚¬ ·Å¡ ¶¯ ·”  ¶´ ·… ¶¸ ·” ·â‚¬ ¶±  ¶» · ·Æ’ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·” ¶¸ ·Å¡  ·Æ’ ¶³ ·”ž ¶± ·Å   ¶Å¡ ·… ·Å¡  ¶¯ ¶¸ ·’ ·…  ¶¢ ¶± ¶­ · ·â‚¬  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ¶¸  ¶» · ¶¢ ·Å - ¶º ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶³ ·”ž ·  ¶­ ¶¸ ¶± ·Å  ¶§  ¶¢ ¶± ·â‚¬ ¶» ¶¸ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶½ ¶¶ ·  ¶¯ ·”  ¶”¡ ¶­ ·’  ¶¶ ·â‚¬ZZ  ¶º ¶± ·Å  ¶± ¶º ·’.

 ¶”¹ ¶´ ·” ¶§ ·  ¶Å · ¶± ·” ¶¸  ¶… ·â‚¬ ·Æ’ ¶± ·Å 

 · ·” ·Å - ¶»  ¶½ ¶”š ¶Å¡ · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶¢ ¶± ·â‚¬ · ¶» ·Å  ¶Å ·’ ¶Å¡  ¶Å · ¶§ ·… ·” ·â‚¬  ¶´ ·’ ·… ·’ ¶¶ ¶³  ¶”° ¶­ ·’ ·”ž · ·Æ’ ¶º 1833- 1940  ·â‚¬ ·’ ·… ·’ ¶¯ ·”  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶Å¡ · · ¶±  ¶´ ·’ ¶§ ·” ·â‚¬ 34  ¶‘ ¶º  ¶‘ ·Æ’ ·Å¡  ·â‚¬ ·” ·â‚¬ ·”ž ·Å ¶­ ·Å   ¶” ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·Å   ¶¯  ¶± · ·â‚¬ ¶­ 80  ¶º ·” ¶Å ¶º ¶§  ¶­ ¶½ ·Å  ¶½ ·” ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶±  ¶´ ·” ·… ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å .  ¶¸ ·Å¡  ·â‚¬ ¶§ ¶´ ·’ ¶§ · ·â‚¬  ¶­ ·” ·…  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·Å¡  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬  ¶§ ·” ¶‘ ¶± ·Å . ¶’  ¶¯ ·’ ¶± ·” ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å  13  ·â‚¬ ¶±  ¶”  ¶« ·Å  ¶© ·” ¶Å¡ ·Å - ¶» ¶¸  ·â‚¬ ·Å - ¶º ·â‚¬ ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶® · ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶”¹ ¶´ ¶» ·’ ¶¸  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶­ ¶½  ¶½ ¶¶ ·  ¶Å · ¶± ·” ¶¸ ¶§  ¶‘ ¶Å¡  ¶» · ¶º ·’ ¶± ·Å   ¶¶ ¶½ · ¶´ ·Å ¶» ·Å ¶­ ·Å  ¶­ ·”  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶±  ·”ž ·Å ¶³  ¶± · ·”ž ·.  ¶Å  ¶§  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶® ¶¸  ¶” ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶° · ¶º ¶Å¡ ¶º  ·Æ’ ¶¸ ¶Å  ¶Å ¶« ·” ¶¯ ·â„¢ ¶± ·”  ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶» ·” ¶¸ ¶§  ¶Å¡ ¶§ ·” ¶Å¡  ¶Å¡ · ¶½ ¶´ ¶» ·’ ¶  ·Å  ¶¡ ·â„¢ ¶¯ ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶½ · ¶”º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ¶§  ¶´ ·” ·… ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å .  ¶¯ · ¶± ·Å   ¶¯ ·â„¢ ¶¸ ·…  ·Æ’ ¶¸ · ¶¢ ¶º  ¶­ ·” ·…  ·Æ’ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ¶¯ ·Å  ¶°  ¶´ · ¶» ·Å  · ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶± ·Å ¶¸ · ¶­ ·’  ¶± ·’ ·Æ’ ·  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶º  ·Æ’ ¶³ ·”ž ·  ¶Å¡ ·Å¡ ·â‚¬ ¶½ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶± ·Å  ¶±  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡  ¶Å¡ · ¶½ ¶º ·  ·Æ’ ¶¸ ¶Å  ¶´ ¶¸ ¶± ¶º ·’.  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶± ·Å  ¶±  ¶Å¡ ·Å ·… ¶¹  ¶± ¶Å ¶»  ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬  ¶‘. ¶¢ ·. ¶´ ¶º  ¶¢ ¶º  ¶Å ¶­ ·Å  ¶­ ¶­ ·Å   ¶’ ¶Å¡  ·”ž ·Æ’ ·” ¶» ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡‚   ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å  ¶¸ ¶± ·Å   ¶”  ¶« ·Å  ¶© ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å¡.  ¶’ ¶Å¡  ¶­ ¶¸ ¶º ·’  ¶½ ¶”š ¶Å¡ · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶±  ·â‚¬ ¶§ ¶´ ·’ ¶§ · ·â‚¬.  ¶¸ ·Å¡  ¶º ¶±  ¶”  ¶Å¡ · ¶» ¶º  ¶¯ ·’ ·”ž ·  ¶¶ · ¶½ ·”  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶§  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·”  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬ ¶§  ¶Å¡ ¶§ ¶º ·” ¶­ ·”  ¶Å¡ ·… ·”ž · ¶Å¡ ·Å  ¶Å¡ ·Å¡  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶° · ¶º ¶Å¡ ¶º  ·”ž ·  ·Æ’ ¶¸ ¶Å · ¶¸ ·’ ·â‚¬  ¶± ·Å ·â‚¬ ·Å¡.  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶° · ¶º ¶Å¡ ¶º  ¶º ¶§ ¶­ ·Å¡ ¶º ·’.  ¶‘ ¶º  ¶Å · ¶§ ·… ·” ¶Å¡ · ¶» ·’  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶º ·’.

 ¶­ ·â‚¬ ¶¸ ¶­ ·Å   ¶» ¶§  ¶­ ·” ·…  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¢ · ¶­ ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ·Å - ¶» ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ·”  ¶¸ ·” ¶½ ¶° ¶» ·Å  ¶¸ ¶º ¶± ·Å   ¶º ¶§ ¶­ ·Å¡  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¢ · ¶­ ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ·Å - ¶» ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ¶º  ¶”  ¶» ¶Å¡ ·Å  ·”š · ·â‚¬ ¶±  ¶´ ¶» ·’ ·Æ’ ¶» ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶± ·’ ¶» ·Å  ¶¸ · ¶± ¶º  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶½ ·  ¶± ·‘.  ¶¸ ·” ¶½ ·’ ¶± ·Å  ¶¸  ¶» ¶§ ·Å¡  ¶¯ ¶Å¡ ·” ¶« ·Å¡  ¶¶ ·”ž ·” ¶­ ¶»  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¢ · ·â‚¬  ·Æ’ ¶­ ·” ·â‚¬  ¶± ·” ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·Å¡  ¶”  ¶¯ ·’ ¶´ ¶­ ·Å - ¶º  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¢ · ¶­ ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ·Å - ¶» ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ¶º  ¶­ ·”ž ·â‚¬ ·” ¶» ·”  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶½ ·  ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶±  ¶”¢ ¶± ·.  ¶‘ ·Æ’ ·Å¡  ¶± ·Å ¶¸ · ¶­ ·’ ·â‚¬  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·Å¡  ¶´ ¶¸ ¶± ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¢ · ¶­ ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ·Å - ¶» ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ¶º  ¶”° ¶½ ·Å  ¶½ ·” ¶¸ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶´ ¶½ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡  ¶± ·‘.  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶”š ·”ž ¶½  ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶±  ¶´ ¶Å¡ ·Å  ·”š  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶º  ·Æ’ ¶³ ·”ž ·  ¶¸ ·’ ¶± ·” ¶¸ ¶» ·  ¶Å ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·  ¶”  ¶Å¡ · ¶» ¶º  ¶¯ · ¶© ·’  ¶½ ·â„¢ ·Æ’  ·Æ’ · ¶½ ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶½ ·Å  ¶½ ¶§  ¶Å ¶­  ¶º ·” ¶­ ·” ¶º ·’.  ¶´ ·Æ’ ·” ¶Å ·’ ¶º  ¶Å¡ · ¶½  ¶´ ¶» ·’ ¶  ·Å  ¶¡ ·Å¡ ¶¯ ¶º  ¶­ ·” ·…  ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å  ¶¸ ¶± ·Å   ¶”  ¶« ·Å  ¶© ·” ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶Å¡ ·’ ·Å - ¶» ¶º · ¶Å¡ ·… · ¶´  ¶´ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·” ¶¸ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ·… ·Å¡,  ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡  ¶¯ ¶Å¡ ·” ¶« ·Å¡  ¶¢ ¶± ¶­ · ·â‚¬ ¶Å ·Å¡  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¢ · ¶­ ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ·Å - ¶» ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ¶º  ·”ž ·  ¶¢ ·” ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·” ¶¸ ·Å¡  ¶… ¶º ·’ ¶­ ·’ ¶º  ¶”¹ ¶¯ ·” ¶» ·  ¶Å ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·Å  ¶° ·” ¶± ·Å .

 ¶¸ ·Å¡  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·Å  ¶° ·’ ·â‚¬ ¶½  ¶º ¶® · ¶» ·Å  ¶­ ¶º  ¶¸ ·Å ¶Å¡ ¶Å¡ ·Å  ¶¯ ?  ¶¸ ·Å¡  ¶» ¶§ ·Å¡  ¶¶ ·”ž ·” ¶­ ¶»  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·” ¶± ·Å  ¶§  ¶± ·Å ¶¸ · ¶­ ·’  ¶± ·’ ¶¯ ·”ž ·Æ’ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·Å¡  ·Æ’ ·” ·… ·” ¶¢ ¶±  ·â‚¬ · ·Æ’ ·’ ¶º · ¶§  ¶½ · ¶”º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡  ¶Å¡ ·â„¢ ·Æ’ ·Å¡ ¶¯  ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶º ¶½  ¶± ·Å¡ ¶¯?  ¶¸ ·Å¡  ¶± ·’ ·Æ’ ·  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·’ ¶± ·Å   ¶… ·… ·” ¶­ ·Å   ¶Å ¶¸ ¶± ¶Å¡ ¶Å¡ ¶§  ¶´ ¶« ·’ ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶© ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶¸ ¶­ ·” ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶±  ¶´ ·” ·… ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å .
 ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·Å¡  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬ ¶§  ¶Å¡ ·… ·”ž · ¶Å¡ ·’  ·Æ’ ·” ·â‚¬ ·’ · ·Å¡ ·”š  ¶Å¡ · ¶» ·Å  ·Å - ¶º ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶­ ¶¸ ¶º ·’.  ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å  ¶¸ ¶± ·Å   ¶¢ ¶± · ¶° ·’ ¶´ ¶­ ·’  ¶­ ·” ¶¸ · ¶Å ·Å¡  ¶‘ ¶½ ·Å  ¶‘ ¶½ ·Å  ¶”  ¶» ·Å  ·Æ’ ·”  ·â‚¬ · ¶» ·Å  ¶­ · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶± ·’ ¶» ·Å  ¶¯ ·Å¡ ·  ¶± ·’ ·Æ’ ·’  ¶´ ¶» ·’ ·Æ’ ·’  ¶Å¡ ·’ ·Å - ¶» ¶º · ¶­ ·Å  ¶¸ ¶Å¡  ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶» ·’ ¶¸ ¶§  ¶Å¡ ·Å - ¶» ¶¸ ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å   ·â‚¬ · ¶© ¶´ ·’ ·… ·’ ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶½ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶Å¡ ·’ ·Å - ¶» ¶º · ¶­ ·Å  ¶¸ ¶Å¡  ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶» ·’ ¶¸.  ¶¸ ·Å¡  ¶­ ·” ¶½ ·’ ¶± ·Å   ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ·” ¶º ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å   ¶¢ · ¶­ ·Å - ¶º ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ¶» ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·’ · · ¶½  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶´ ·‘ ¶¸ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶» ¶¢ ¶º ¶§  ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶» ·” ¶¸ ¶§  ¶” ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·Å  ¶§  ·”ž · ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶º · ·â‚¬  ¶½ · ¶”º ·â„¢ ¶± ·â‚¬ ·.  ¶” ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·Å   ¶¸ ·” ·”ž ·” ¶«  ¶¯ ·â„¢ ¶±  ¶Å · ¶§ ·… ·”  ¶¯ ·â„¢ ¶¸ ·…  ·Æ’ ¶¸ · ¶¢ ¶º  ¶­ ·” ·…  ¶Å · ¶¹ ·” ¶» ·”  ¶¸ · ¶­ ·Ëœ ¶Å¡ ·  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶±  ¶´ ·” ·… ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å . ¶”° ¶© ¶¸ ·Å   ¶´ ·Å - ¶» · ·Å  ¶±,  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶Å ¶­  ·â‚¬ ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å  ¶Å ·Å¡  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» · ·Å  ¶± ¶º,  ¶» ¶§  ·”ž · ¶» ¶º ¶± ·Å  ¶± ¶± ·Å  ¶Å ·Å¡  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» · ·Å  ¶± ¶º,  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶»  ¶Å ¶­ ·â‚¬ ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å  ¶Å ·Å¡  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» · ·Å  ¶± ¶º  ·Æ’ ·”ž  ¶… ¶­ ·” ¶» ·” ¶¯ ·”ž ¶± ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·” ·â‚¬ ¶± ·Å  ¶Å ·Å¡  ¶´ ·Å - ¶» · ·Å  ¶±  ¶”  ¶¯ ·’ ¶º  ¶”° ¶­ ·  ¶”° ¶Å¡ ·Å  ¶¸ ¶± ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·’ ·Æ’ ¶³ ·” ¶¸ ·Å   ¶¯ ·â„¢ ¶¸ ·…  ·Æ’ ¶¸ · ¶¢ ¶º  ¶”° ¶½ ·Å  ¶½ ¶º ·’.

 ¶¯ ¶Å¡ ·” ¶«  ·Æ’ ·”ž  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶»  ¶­ ·” ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ·”  ¶­ ·” ¶» ¶«  ¶Å ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·  ·Æ’ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶» ·” ¶´ ¶º  ¶… ¶± ·” ·â‚¬  ¶¶ ·Å ·”ž ·  ¶Å · ¶§ ·… ·”  ¶¶ ·Å ·”ž ·  ·â‚¬ · ¶¯  ·â‚¬ ·’ ·â‚¬ · ¶¯  ¶¸ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶¸  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·Å - ¶º ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ¶»  ¶¶ ¶½ ¶´ ·‘ ¶¸ ·Å   ¶¯  ¶”¡ ¶­ ·’  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶º  ·”ž · ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶º.  ·â‚¬ ·’ · ·Å¡ ·”š ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶¸  ¶”° ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ·’ ¶º · ¶± ·”  ¶”¡ ·Æ’  ¶­ ·’ ¶º ·” ¶« ·”  ¶¸ ·” ·”ž ·” ¶« ·â‚¬ ¶» ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶Å ¶± ·”  ¶”¡ ¶­.  ¶Å¡ ·” ¶¸ ¶± ·Å   ¶´ ¶» ·’ ·Æ’ ¶» ¶º ¶Å¡ ¶¯ ·’  ·â‚¬ ·” ·â‚¬ ¶¯  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·Å¡  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬ ¶§  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ¶­ ·Å   ¶» · ¶¢ ·Å - ¶º ¶Å¡ ¶§  ¶º · ¶¸ ·Å¡  ·â‚¬ ·Å - ¶º ·â‚¬ ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶® · ¶¸ ¶º  ¶”° ¶© ¶Å¡ ¶© ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶¸ ¶§  ¶± ¶¸ ·Å   ¶´ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ·Å¡  ¶± · ·”ž ·.  ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å  ¶¸ ¶± ·Å   ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶±  ·â‚¬ ¶§ ¶´ ·’ ¶§ · ·â‚¬ ·Å¡ ¶¯ ·”  ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ·” ¶º ·â‚¬  ·”ž ·  ¶¢ · ¶­ ·Å - ¶º ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ¶» ·â‚¬ ¶­ ·Å   ¶‘ ¶º ¶§  ¶Å¡ ·’ ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·”  ·Æ’ ·”ž ¶º · ¶Å ¶º ¶Å¡ ·Å   ¶… ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·Å¡  ¶º · ¶º ·’  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶­ ¶± ·Å  ¶±  ¶¶ · ·”ž ·.

 ¶Å¡ ·â„¢ ·Æ’ ·Å¡  ¶± ¶¸ ·” ¶­ ·Å ,  ¶¸ ·  ¶¯ ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶±  ¶”  ¶Å¡ · ¶» ¶º  ¶… ¶± ·” ·â‚¬  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·Å¡  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·” ·â‚¬ ¶±  ¶´ · ¶½ ¶± ¶º ·Å¡  ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Æ’ ¶§  ·Æ’ ¶¸ · ¶±  ¶… ·â‚¬ ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶® · 1994  ¶¯ ·”  ·”ž · 2000  ¶¯ ·’  ¶¸ ¶­ ·”  ·â‚¬ ·” ¶± ·.  ¶’  ¶­ ¶¸ ·  ·â‚¬ ·Å - ¶º ·â‚¬ ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶® · ·â‚¬ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶´ ¶» ·’ ¶· · ·”ž ·’ ¶» ·â‚¬  ¶¸ ·”ž ¶¢ ¶±  ¶¡ ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ¶º ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å   ¶… ¶Å ¶¸ · ¶­ ·’  ¶­ · ¶» ·  ¶´ ¶­ ·Å  ¶Å¡ ¶»  ¶Å · ¶± ·” ¶¸ ¶Å¡ ·Å   ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·” ·â‚¬ ·” ¶¸. 1994  ¶¯ ·”  ¶  ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ·Å - ¶» ·’ ¶Å¡ ·  ¶¸ · ¶­ ·’ ¶± ·’ ¶º  ¶… ¶Å ¶¸ · ¶­ ·’ ¶± ·’ ¶º  ¶½ ·â„¢ ·Æ’  ¶´ ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·”  ¶… ¶­ ¶»,2001  ¶‘. ¶¢ ·. ¶´ ·â„¢  ¶» ¶± ·’ ¶½ ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶Å¡ ·Å - ¶» ¶¸ ·Æ’ ·’ ¶”š ·”ž  ¶¸ ·”ž ¶­ ·  ¶… ¶Å ¶¸ · ¶­ ·’  ¶½ ·â„¢ ·Æ’  ¶´ ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ·” ¶¸. 1994  ¶¯ ·”  ¶¢ ¶± · ¶° ·’ ¶´ ¶­ ·’ ·â‚¬  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶§ ·’  ¶© ·”. ¶¶ ·”. ·â‚¬ ·’ ·â„¢ ¶¢ ·Å  ¶­ ·” ¶”š ¶Å  ¶¸ ·”ž ¶­ ·  ¶”¹ ·Æ’ ·Æ’ ·Å   ¶´ ·Å - ¶» ¶¢ · ¶­ ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ·Å - ¶» ·â‚¬ · ¶¯ ·’  ¶» · ¶¸ ·” ·â‚¬ ¶Å¡  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶§  ¶Å¡ ¶§ ¶º ·” ¶­ ·”  ¶Å¡ ·’ ¶» ·” ¶¸  ¶± ·’ ·Æ’ ·  ¶’  ·â‚¬ ·Å - ¶º ·â‚¬ ·Æ’ ·Å  ¶® · ¶¸ ¶º  ¶… ¶» ·Å  ¶¶ ·” ¶¯ ¶º  ¶Å · ¶§ ·” ¶¸ ¶Å¡ ¶§  ¶Å ·’ ¶º ·Å¡  ¶± · ·”ž ·.  ¶± ¶¸ ·” ¶­ ·Å  2001  ¶» ¶± ·’ ¶½ ·Å   ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶Å¡ ·Å - ¶» ¶¸ ·Æ’ ·’ ¶”š ·”ž  ¶¸ ·”ž ¶­ ·  ¶… ¶Å ¶¸ · ¶­ ·’  ¶½ ·â„¢ ·Æ’  ·â‚¬ ·’ ¶° · ¶º ¶Å¡ ¶º  ·”ž ·  ·Æ’ ¶¸ ¶Å · ¶¸ ·” ·â‚¬  ¶´ · ¶½ ¶± ¶º  ¶Å¡ ¶» ¶Å ·â„¢ ¶±  ¶Å ·’ ¶º ·.  ¶’  ¶… ¶­ ¶»  ¶¸ ¶Å  ¶¶ ¶½  ¶¯ ·Å¡ · ¶´ · ¶½ ¶± ¶º ·Å¡  ¶¸ ¶­ ·”  ·â‚¬ ·”  ¶… ¶» ·Å  ¶¶ ·” ¶¯ ¶º  ·”ž ·Å¡ ¶­ ·”  ¶Å¡ ·Å ¶§  ¶Å ·â„¢ ¶±  ¶‘ ¶¸  ¶´ · ¶» ·Å  ¶½ ·’ ¶¸ ·Å¡ ¶± ·Å  ¶­ ·” ·â‚¬  ·â‚¬ ·’ ·Æ’ ·” ¶» ·” ·â‚¬ ·  ·”ž · ¶» ·” ¶¸ ¶§  ¶  ¶± ·Å  ¶¯ ·Å - ¶» ·’ ¶Å¡ ·  ¶¸ ·”ž ¶­ ·Å  ¶¸ ·’ ¶º  ¶Å¡ ¶§ ¶º ·” ¶­ ·”  ¶Å¡ ¶½ ·.  ¶¸ ·Å¡  ¶”  ¶Å¡ · ¶» ¶º ¶§  ¶”¹ ¶­ ·” ¶» ·Å¡  ¶´ ·… · ¶­ ·Å   ·Æ’ ¶· · ·â‚¬ ¶§  ¶¯  ¶… ¶» ·Å  ¶¶ ·” ¶¯ ¶Å¡ · ¶» ·’  ¶­ ¶­ ·Å  ¶­ ·Å  ·â‚¬ ¶º ¶± ·Å  ¶§  ¶¸ ·” ·”ž ·” ¶«  ¶¯ ·â„¢ ¶± ·Å  ¶± ¶§  ·Æ’ ·’ ¶¯ ·” ·â‚¬ ·Å¡ ·â‚¬ ·’.

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