JAFFNA UNDER FOREIGN RULE

June 4th, 2016

KAMALIKA  PIERIS

Jaffna was a part of the Sinhala kingdom up to the 12th century .  Around    1247 or so, a Malay (Javaka) ruler, called Chandrabanu from the Buddhist kingdom of Ligor (now Nakon Sri Thammarat in Thailand)  invaded the Dambadeniya kingdom. He was defeated by Parakrama Bahu II (1236-70). There is reason to believe that Chandrabanu  did not return to Malaya but ended up in Jaffna. Chandrabanu’s coins have been  found in the north and there are place names such as Chavakaccheri in Jaffna peninsula .

Around 1258,   Jatavarman Sundara Pandya from the  neighboring Tamil kingdom  attacked Chandrabanu  and levied tribute. Then in 1263, Jatavarman Vira Pandya invaded, killed Chandrabanu and placed Chandrabanu’s son as a vassal ruler in Jaffna.  P.A.T Gunasinghe, researching into this period, said that there is little doubt that a ruler other than the Ariyachakravarti ruled in Jaffna before the last two decades of the 13th century. Gunasinghe also suggested that the Chandrabanu period could be considered a period of Buddhist rule in Jaffna.

In 1286, the Pandyas invaded again and placed the first of the ‘Ariyachakravarti’ rulers in charge in Jaffna. The first Ariyachakravarti was believed to be a leader in the Pandya king’s army. Gunasinghe pointed out that unlike most kings, the Ariyachakravarti rulers left no inscriptions. The tradition of leaving inscriptions was there at the time. There was one in Kegalle, but none in Jaffna.  The Kegalle inscription indicated that this kingdom was not an independent one but was a part of the   Pandya kingdom. Jaffna became, according to Vernon Mendis “a Pandyan principality”.  The Pandya kingdom in  India  was weakened by Malik Kafur’s  Muslim invasion in 1310. Jaffna may also have been affected. In 1344, Ibn Batuta, arriving in the island, was told that Ariyachakravarti of Jaffna was an ally of a Muslim power in south India. The coins of Ariyachakravarti exhibit on one side the bull and on the other the crescent.

I think that the Pandyas were merely using Jaffna as a base from which to annex the Sinhala kingdom.  Ariyachakravarti successfully attacked Vikramabahu III (1359-74) and exacted tribute. Vickramabahu’s powerful minister, Nissanka Alagakkonara defeated Ariyachakravarti and the tribute ended. Historians are definite that the Sinhala kingdom did not go under Jaffna rule  during this period. Ariyachakravarti invaded again in the reign of Buvanekabahu V (1374-1408) and was defeated.

Around 1364, the Tamil kingdom in South India was conquered by the Vijayanagara kingdom of Karnataka. Jaffna also, as a Pandya principality was made to pay tribute and when it tried to rebel, Prince Virupaksha invaded and brought Jaffna under Vijayanagara control. This is indicated in his inscription dated 1365 Even in 1507, Jaffna it appears was yet under Vijayanagara. There was a Vijayanagara invasion into the Gampola kingdom,    which apparently was repelled. There is no record of the Gampola kingdom ever coming under Vijayanagara rule.

Jaffna went under Sinhala rule for a brief period. Parakrama bahu VI (1412-1467) sent Sapumal Kumaraya to conquer the peninsula. Jaffna became once again a part of the Sinhala kingdom. G.V.P. Somaratne says there were Sinhalese in Jaffna when Sapumal entered. Sapumal kumaraya ruled in Jaffna for 14 years from 1450.  Sapumal when he became king as Buvaneka Bahu VI (1469-77) was not interested in retaining Jaffna and Jaffna reverted to its earlier state.

Jaffna was the weakest and poorest of the   political units in the island in the 16th century, said K.M. de Silva. It was defended by mercenaries from south India . C.R. de Silva said that both Vijayanagara (Karnataka) and Travancore were claiming Jaffna at this time, and it is possible that Jaffna accepted the nominal over lordship of Vijayanagara. All transactions, whether salaries or trade was in cash, said Abeysinghe..  According to a 17 century Portuguese document, its revenue was about one fourth that of Kotte.

The Portuguese wanted Jaffna only because Jaffna could be used to control the sea route between India and Sri Lanka. In 1560, they forced a treaty on Jaffna ruler Cankili I (1519-61).  P.E.Pieris says the treaty was signed in Sinhala and Portuguese. In the same year they also took over Mannar Island. Cankili was deposed by his son, Puviraja Pandaram, who was deposed by another, who was over thrown by a third.  Puviraja regained the throne in 1582. He opposed the Portuguese, so the Portuguese replaced him with Ethirimanna Cinkam (1591-1616). Ethirimanna was succeeded by Cankili II who tilted towards the kingdom of Tanjore. Tanjore was a small, weak kingdom inside the former Tamil kingdom of South India.  In 1619, the Portuguese packed Cankili off to Goa and took over Jaffna.   The ruler of Tanjore tried to push the Portuguese out in 1620, but failed.

Unlike Sitavaka and Udarata who resisted the Portuguese fiercely, Jaffna succumbed to Portuguese rule without much opposition. Jaffna had converted readily to Catholicism  and the proportion of Catholics in Jaffna was eventually far greater than in the rest of Sri Lanka. The Portuguese churches selected for inclusion in ‘The architecture of an island’, (1998) are from Jaffna and Mannar. They are located at Chankanai, Myladdi, Vadukoddai, Paisala and Mannar. Jaffna Catholics supported the Portuguese throughout their period of conquest. They prevented Cankili from getting aid from Tanjore. The Portuguese never had such support from Catholics in Udarata.

The Portuguese transferred the Jaffna capital from Nallur to Jaffna in 1621. It was easier to defend Jaffna than Nallur. Work on the Jaffna fort started in 1625 and was still continuing in 1637. Kayts also had a fort. Both forts were by the sea. The Udarata king, Senerat invaded Jaffna in 1628. The Udarata army entered Jaffna unopposed and set fire to the churches there. 30 churches were destroyed  together with other external symbols of Christianity, such as crosses. The Portuguese regained Jaffna in 1629. Pieris notes that the Portuguese and Dutch never had a good word for the people of Jaffna, unlike for the Sinhalese.  D.G.B.  de Silva says Jaffna had more foreigners than locals.

Jaffna and Mannar went under the Dutch in 1658. The Dutch said that Jaffna, Mannar and Vanni had come to them as a direct conquest from Portuguese, who had taken these from the independent ruler of Jaffna. The islands     around Jaffna got Dutch names, Karaitivu was Amsterdam, and Neduntivu was Delft. Pieris says that the Dutch missionary Baldeus created a name for Mannar, from two Tamil words signifying sand and river. Dutch got down Tamils from South India for tobacco and indigo cultivation in Jaffna.  Portuguese officers were replaced by Tamil mudaliyars.

The public have been told that there was an indigenous kingdom in Jaffna known as the ‘Kingdom of Jaffna.’ Jaffna has no historical records which confirm the existence of such a kingdom. S. Pathmanathan in his ‘Kingdom of Jaffna’ says that the local Tamil chronicles don’t give a clear account of the beginning of the kingdom or its rulers. The main historical source for this bogus ‘kingdom’ is the ‘Yalapana Vaipava Malai’ written in 1736 at the request of the Dutch governor. Pathmanathan says that this document is defective in chronology and genealogy. No specific contributions any king is recorded in it.

Of the ten kings who are said to have ruled till 1450, only 4 are known in sources other than in Yalpana Vaipava Malai.  K.M. de Silva gives a list of 17 ‘Kings of Jaffna’ in his History of Ceylon.  He is able to give dates only for the last six starting from 1478 but says even these dates are uncertain. He says it is difficult if not impossible to work out who ruled in Jaffna. That is not surprising. Because instead of turning into a ‘kingdom,’ Jaffna had became a vassal state of the Pandya kings of south India.

WE CONDEMN THE ABUSE DIRECTED TO THE RANA VIRUVO AND THE NATION AT LARGE

June 4th, 2016

Ranjith Soysa Media Spoekman For Global Sri Lankan Forum

1 st June 2016 .

Within a very short period of seven years, the politicians have forgotten that they are today living in peace, in particular in the North and the East provinces because of the sacrifices of the heroic armed forces. The NPC Chief Ministers Wigneswaran and EPC Chief Minister Nazeer can hold portfolios because of the supreme sacrifices made by Armed Forces. These politicians would never have carried out their political activities freely and independently if not for the armed forces who wiped out the LTTE Tamil terrorism in the North and the East.

Seven years after the elimination of Tamil terrorism, those who feared the LTTE are coming out roaring like wounded tigers at the Rana Viruvo who created the opportunity for them to exercise the very freedom of expression. We, at Global Sri Lankan Forum- GSLF, will stand up against all parties and individuals who direct pot shots at the Armed Forces.

Unfortunately, some of those who laughed at Rana Viruvo when victory was within their reach are presently ruling the country perhaps with an anti-Rana Viruvo mind set.

The recent verbal attack of the NPC Chief Minister on the defense forces, trespassing of SLA camp by the Opposition Leader; pro-LTTE Tamil political party TNA leader R Sampanthan and his unruly followers, frequent abuses by NPC Chief Minister who is promoting separatism would not have occurred if the present government had taken the appropriate action at the appropriate time. GSLF, strongly believe, no such aggression towards the armed forces would have taken place if a far thinking leadership ruled the country.

Over 30,000 men mainly from the armed forces sacrificed their lives including tens of thousands who were disabled for life in the war against the Tamil terror not to enable a few power hungry politicians to hand over the country on a platter to the separatists again.

These incidents should not to be viewed in isolation. Some of the politicians are presently behaving in a manner not acceptable to the healthy functioning of democratic governance presumably at the dictates of the interfering foreign politicians, INGOs and LTTE fronts. In this connection the GSLF wishes to seek answers for following:

1. Why are the strategic entry points and the land areas which are important for the Nation’s defense are being selectively targeted to be handed over without giving consideration to the national security issues?

2. Why are some of the intelligence defense personnel being locked up without any valid legal reason?

3. Why did the government downgrade the military victory to a cultural show while allowing LTTE sympathizers to hold remembrance ceremonies when it was clearly for them to mourn LTTE terrorists?

In view of above, while strongly condemning the rude and the brutish behavior of EPC Chief Minister of SLMC towards the heroic armed force member(s) Global Sri Lankan Forum requests the government to take serious action against the EP’s Chief Minister Naseer Ahmed and take necessary but effective and meaningful action to protect the dignity of the Rana Viruvo and the Nation.

Your Sincerely,
Ranjith Soysa
Media Spoekman For Global Sri Lankan Forum

UN Rapporteurs give us the dead rope

June 4th, 2016

By Ranjit Abeywardena

There is an easy solution to make the Sri Lankan Airlines viable again! The government needs to be thinking seriously about making it a charter service to ferry American and British politicians, government and military officials between Colombo, London and Washington. Judging by the current volume of traffic, the Colombo-London-Washington route is likely to provide a life-saving bonanza for any struggling airline; All they have to do is to get the British Commonwealth and foreign offices, and the travel department of the US state department to subscribe, and the struggling Sri Lankan will fly again!

The president, just back from David Cameron’s “coalition of the committed” summit against-corruption must be still glowing in the aftermath of a glove-less handshake in London; Chandrika Kumaratunga has been seen pressing flesh with Samantha Power in New York, curiously representing Sri Lanka at a UN talkfest on Peace and Security. There must be an ‘army’ of US Army, Navy and Air force generals restructuring our military from the US embassy eavesdropping post directly opposite Temple trees. This never-ending procession of British and American officials visiting Colombo is supplemented with ‘invitations’ to self-serving gatherings such as the recent “anti-corruption” summit – the non-event of the century.

To focus for a moment on the almost comical anti-corruption summit of David Cameron, his call at the opening for “the British Crown dependencies to move to publish full lists of beneficial ownership of offshore companies” was rebuffed by The British Virgin Islands even before the morning coffee break at the summit. Panama did not participate at all. In the meantime, Sri Lanka, moved by domestic political considerations no doubt, enthusiastically subscribed to The Global Forum for Asset Recovery that will meet in the US next year to discuss returning assets, supported by the UN and the World Bank. Good luck on that!

Cameron’s corruption award however, should go to US Secretary of State John Kerry who claimed of ‘shock’ at the extent of corruption in the world. His claim raises questions about his age because he would not have found anything so shocking if he was alive during the 2008 Global Financial Crisis precipitated by his Wall Street friends Goldman Sachs, Lehman Brothers and Merrill Lynch! Proving that he feigned shock, Kerry refused to sign up to the pledge of the summit participants to share registers of beneficial ownership; Kerry will continue to provide the US state of Delaware as a safe haven for anyone with a spare billion or two that needs a comfortable resting place.

It is of great concern that the Sri Lankan government has not paused to ask themselves the question as to what justifies such intense British and American interest on ‘our’ little island, 8700 and 15,000 km away from London and Washington respectively. Sri Lanka appears to keep falling for such blatantly dishonest tricks of the Yankees and the British unlike many other developing countries; this is the reason why they keep coming for us!

After showering us with countless ‘goodwill’ visits, they also drag our government leaders and officials in to the neocolonial net being woven by the UN and its busybody human rights protection mafia. This is the context to the recent visits by the so-called UN “Special Rapporteurs” – on the independence of judges and lawyers, and on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment – to Sri Lanka. The fact that the Rapporteurs were ‘invited’ by the government shows an unbelievable level of gullibility.

The Special Rapporteur conspiracy

The network of Special Rapporteurs (a French word meaning ‘reporter’) is part of the international system the Americans created at the UN in the last three decades or so, as a means of hauling the nations resisting their designs over the coal under bogus charges of human rights violations; The rapporteurs – collectively referred to in UN language as “mandate-holders” – and the western Government funded NGOs operating in developing countries are the foot soldiers of an elaborate UN infrastructure they created under various guises.

The mandate holder network comes within the scope of procedures – “1235” and “1503” – that form the “Special Procedures” mechanisms of the UN, established by the western governments at the Human Rights Council (HRC), the predecessor of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). From its dubious, western-sponsored beginnings the special procedures mechanisms have evolved in to a monstrous tool used to take developing country governments to task over flimsy charges of ‘human rights violations’. Currently, there are 41 thematic and 14 country specific mandates. Not surprisingly, the list of countries with mandate holders appointed to conduct inquisitions against them is the same as those resisting Western dictates:

The special rapporteurs are not duly appointed UN employees. They serve in their personal capacities, and do not represent their countries of citizenship. They do not receive financial compensation from the UN, but receive secretarial support and an air ticket from the OHCHR to a designated location, often paid for by multi-national corporations and shady groups like George Soros’ Open Society Foundation, seeking political clout to push their nefarious agendas.

The purported charter of the mandate holders is to address either ‘specific country situations’ or ‘thematic issues’ relating to human rights globally. The methods they adopt include ‘discussions and confidential proceedings’ on alleged human rights violations. In essence, the “mechanisms” provide a formal avenue for individuals (paid agents) and western-funded NGOs in developing countries to clandestinely lodge complaints of ‘human rights abuses’ against national governments.

Consistent with the overall objectives of the scam, the rapporteur’s job is an ‘internship’ opportunity for those with an NGO track record and right UN contacts to build a lucrative future career as ‘human rights professionals’. The appointment procedure of rapporteurs is scandalous: NGOs and other human rights bodies, and powerful individuals can ‘nominate’ candidates to be mandate holders. Resolution 16/21 of the OHCHR adds national human rights institutions that comply with the Paris Principles to the list of entities able to nominate candidates. A Consultative Group then proposes a list of candidates – taking into account the views of “stakeholders”, including the outgoing mandate holder – to the Human Rights Commissioner. Vacancies are filled subject to the mere formality of approval by the Member States.

A brief look at the bio data of the two rapporteurs who just visited Sri Lanka – Juan E. Méndez and Mónica Pinto – is the best means of demonstrating the in-bred nature of the entire special procedures mechanism: Mendez has been The UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment since 2010. An Argentinian national, he works as a Professor of Human Rights Law at the American University – Washington, with previous associations with the neocon foreign policy meccas, the Georgetown Law School and the John Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. He was Special Advisor to the disgraced Prosecutor of the now-defunct International Criminal Court, and to Kofi Annan. Crucially, he was a Scholar-in-Residence at the Ford Foundation in New York, a name board with an extremely dubious agenda and funding history. Prior to that, he worked with George Soros’ Human Rights Watch for 15 years; UN could have sent the other George Soros operative Alan Keenan of the International Crisis Group to save trouble!

Mónica Pinto, also an Argentinian national, was appointed Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers in August 2015. She has been a veteran mandate holder and ‘independent expert’ on the situation of human rights in a number of Latin American countries, and – like Mendez – has been on the Advisory Committee on Nominations for the now-defunct International Criminal Court. She also sits at the administrative tribunals of the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank! These two Argentinians are continuing the role previously played by the mandate holder Gabriela Knaul who would have ‘nominated’ them.

Due to developing country protests over the methods used by special rapporteurs, especially their alliances with anti-government elements in the countries they focus on, the HRC in 1997 adopted a Code of Conduct for special procedures mandate holders, and disallowed them to address the media. Article 3 (f) of the Code orders that mandate holders, “Neither seek nor accept instructions from any Government, individual, governmental or non-governmental organisation or pressure group whatsoever.” But the practice is continued by the rapporteurs, with impunity as Mendez and Pinto did on 11 May in Colombo.

The UN Special Rapporteurs’ sing for their supper

The preliminary observations and recommendations of the two special Rapporteurs Mónica Pinto and Juan E. Méndez are the most revealing of the ugly face of the traps being launched by the neocolonial forces hiding behind the benign-faced UN: their sharp criticism of alleged operational inadequacies of the judicial and other systems of Sri Lanka – disguised as preliminary observations – ignores the operation of a robust legal and judicial system in the country under trying conditions; Worse still, their harsh criticism of issues such as staffing shortages within the judicial system and inadequate inmate space in the jails shows a stupid and callous disregard for the dire economic situation the country is facing. Their recommendations are patronising in the extreme.

The extensive nature of the two rapporteurs’ scandalous observations shows that they have landed in Colombo with pre-framed reports; They simply could not have been able to visit all the locations they did, interview people, analyse and write a report encompassing all aspects of the justice system (including access to justice, diversity, independence, transparency, accountability, delays, education and training, Transitional justice, the roles of the Attorney-General and the Police) after just a week in Colombo, travelling most of the time. It is no secret that they have their own, largely INGO and UN sources for obtaining such information primarily adverse to the target government. Their observations lack credibility.

The level of intrusion by these two individuals in to matters strictly of Sri Lanka’s internal administration is unbearable: they start by pointing out that Sri Lanka is at a crucial moment in its history, and it is ‘critical and urgent’ to replace the legal framework with sound democratic institutions and legal standards – presumably ones modelled along their prescriptions; Patronisingly, they remind us of the constitutional commitment and international treaties we have ‘voluntarily ratified’; They ask us to forget the challenges of terrorism and organised crime and get cracking on a fundamental rights and civil liberties agenda of their preference. They don’t forget to get in to internal politics of the country either, as demonstrated by the overt reference to January and August 2015 elections that brought “an opening in the democratic space”. They go on to prod with the reminder that more reforms are “expected”, without specifying “by whom”.

Preliminary observations and recommendations of Mendez are even more forceful: he commands that the Government “should” repeal the current Prevention of Terrorism Act; He goes on to command that the Government “must” ratify and implement the Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture (OPCAT) as a matter of national urgency. (In extreme arrogance, he has forgotten to check the meaning of the word ‘optional’ in the dictionary!) What is to be expected in their final report to the OHCHR due next year is not hard to guess.

The preliminary observations of the two mandate holders clearly amount to overtly seeking political intervention without specific references to any violations: they need to urgently revisit the OHCHR guidelines on admissibility of communications related to a violation of human rights including the requirements that they should not have manifestly political motivations and should contain factual description of the rights which are alleged to be violated.

In Sri Lanka, Constitution reigns supreme

Dwelling at length on the patronising waffle of these two individuals on the minutiae of Sri Lanka’s justice system and its operation is not worth the effort. It needs to be impressed upon the skulls of these busybodies that Sri Lanka has a functioning democracy based on a constitution, and has a clear legal view on its apposition with the so-called international law. They need to accept that in Sri Lanka, the country’s Constitution holds sway: the situation is not different to America where the Supremacy Clause of the US Constitution declares them to be supreme law of the land.

As recently as 2009, the US Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor explicitly stated during her Senate confirmation hearings that “American law does not permit the use of foreign law or international law to interpret the Constitution and that there is no debate on that question.” Also, Florida House Representative Sandy Adams introduced a bill to forbid the US Supreme Court from ever citing or using any precedent from international law. During her tabling of the Bill, Ms Adams said, “The Constitution laid the foundation for our nation’s judicial system, and allowing foreign law to supersede it in any capacity leads to its erosion. Not only is using international precedent a transparent disregard for the Constitution, but it could be used to advance a judge’s personal political agenda over the best interests of the nation.” Sri Lanka chooses to adopt the same stance.

Sri Lankans can well remember that several international enterprises sought to unduly intervene in the crucial domestic battle against terrorism, under the guise of protecting human rights that went against the definition of sovereignty and the basic principles of Article 2 of the UN Charter that emphasises the importance of respect for sovereignty and the principle of non-intervention.

As to the interface between domestic law and the ‘international law’ bugbear cited by Mendez and Pinto, the best evidence of the basic rule that treaties are not directly enforceable in domestic law come from the Australian jurisdiction:

Australia’s supreme legal institution, the Australian High Court established in “(Minister for Immigration & Ethnic Affairs v Teoh (1995) 183 CLR 273) that a treaty which has not been incorporated into the country’s municipal law cannot operate as a direct source of individual rights and obligations under that law. The Teoh doctrine exempted the government decision-maker from conforming to the treaty obligations. There have been executive statements that negated all treaty-based expectations following this judgement.

In another case, (AMS v AIF (1999) 199 CLR 160) the Australian High Court ruled that the provisions of the Constitution are not to be construed as subject to an implication said to be derived from international law, and that “If a statute is clearly in conflict with international law, then the statute prevails”. In (Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292) the Court declined to change the common law to recognise a new right introduced through international human rights law.

Not surprisingly, Mendez also accused Australia of violating the rights of asylum seekers on multiple fronts under the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, concluding that “the government fails to fully and expeditiously cooperate” with the Human Rights Council’s mandate. The report prompted the former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott’s retort that “Australians are tired of being lectured to by the United Nations”.

It is unlikely that such protests would come from the current, boot licking Sri Lankan government.

ජාතික විමුක්ති අරගලයකින් සමාජවාදය උදාකිරීමට ‘පෙතියෝ’ 41ක් මරාදැමූ ජවිපෙ කැරලිකරු මෙන්න!

June 4th, 2016

ධර්මන් වික්‍රමරත්න         

මෙය ජාතික විමුක්ති අරගලයකින් සමාජවාදය උදාකිරීමේ උපායමාර්ගික ගමන්මඟ අනුව ක්‍රියාවට නැගූ ජවිපෙ 2වැනි කැරැල්ලේදී ඝාතන 41ක් සිදුකල අයෙකුගේ කථාවකි. කොන්දේසි විරහිතව අසීමිත ප්‍රේමයකින් ජවිපෙට සහ ජවිපෙ අරමුණවලට ආදරයකල ඒ ප්‍රේමය නිසාම පොදු මිනිස් සංහතියේ සතුරන්ට එරෙහිව උතුරායන වෛරයකින් පිරීගිය මිනිසෙකුගේ කථාවකි. ඒ ආදරය මෙන්ම වෛරයද ජවිපෙ ඉහළ නායකත්වයේ දෘෂ්ටිමය මඟපෙන්වීමකට යටත්ව ප්‍රායෝගිකත්වය ක්‍රියාවටද නැගූ මිනිසෙකුගේ කථාවකි. එපමණක් නොව ද්‍රරිද්‍රතාවය සහ සමාජ පීඩනය නිසා රැඩිකල් දේශපාලනයට එක්වන තරුණ පරපුරේ ඇතමෙකුගේද කථාවද මෙයට බොහෝ දුරට සමානවිය හැකිය.

Dharman Wickremaratne2ධර්මන් වික්‍රමරත්න විසිනි.

පහලමුල්ලගේ ලයනල් රණසිංහ උපන්නේ 1962දීය. හොරණ මූණගම ජාතික නිවාස සංකීර්ණයේ පදිංචිව සිටි ඔහු ගාමිණී නොහොත් මහින්ද නොහොත් ජයතිලක ලෙසද හැදින්විණි. රත්නපුරේ කුරුවිට උපන් ඔහු පවුලේ වැඩිමලාය. පියා දෛනික කුලීවැඩ කරන කම්කරුවෙකි. මව ගෘහනියකි. ඔහුගේ මල්ලී වන සුනිල් ඔහුට වඩා වසරකින් බාලය. දෙදරු පියෙකුවූ ලයනල්ගේ පියා ලයනල් කුඩා කාලයේදීම මිය ගියේය.

වැන්දඹුවක්වු ලයනල්ගේ මව යළි විවාහවී හොරණ මූණගමට සංක්‍රමණය වූවාය. ලයනල් සහ මල්ලී සුනිල් රත්නපුර කුරුවිට පිහිටි මිත්තණියගේ නිවසේ තවදුරටත් වාසය කළෝය. ලයනල් සහ සුනිල් පාසැල් ගියේ කුරුවිට මහා විද්‍යාලයටය. විෂයන් 7 ක් සම්මාන සමාර්ථ හතරක් සමඟ අපොස සාමාන්‍ය පෙළ සමත්වූ ලයනල් ඉගෙනීමට දක්ෂයෙකි. අහිංසකයෙකි. එහෙත් නිර්භීතය. කිසිවෙකුට භය නැත. සිය සොහොයුරාට තග් බලය දැමූ තවත් සිසුවෙකුට ලයනල් පහර දුන්නේ පස්වැනි ශ්‍රේණියේ සිටියදී අත්වැඩ කරන කතුරකිනි. ලයනල් සතුන්ට ආදරේය. ඔහු කෑමකන විට කුරුවිට ගෙදර අවට සිටින ලේනුන් දෙතුන් දෙනෙකුම ඔහු ලඟට පැමිණීම සුලඹ දසුනකි. ලයනල් කරාතේ ඉගෙන ගත්තේ නන්ද සිරිවර්ධනගෙනි. කුංෆු ඉගෙන ගත්තේ සීවලී ගුරුතුමා ගෙනි. මෙම පන්ති හොරණ සහ බොරැල්ලේ පැවැත්විණි.

dharman04061602සමාජවාදය ගොඩනැගිම සඳහා දේශප්‍රේමී අරගලය මූලික කරගත් ජවිපෙ 2වැනි කැරැල්ලේ අරමුණු වෙනුවෙන් එයට එරෙහිවු 41 දෙනෙකු පක්ෂයේ උපදෙස් අනුව ඝාතනයකල මුල් පෙළේ කැරළිකරුවෙකුවන ලයනල් රණසිංහ නොහොත් ගාමිණී නොහොත් මහින්ද.

මේ වනවිට ලයනල්ගේ මව දෙවැනි විවාහයෙන් දියණියන් තිදෙනෙකු බිහිකල අතර දැන් ලයනල්ගේ පවුලේ සොයුර සොයුරියන් සංඛ්‍යාව ලයනල් සමඟ පහකි. අපොස සාමාන්‍ය පෙළ හොදින් සමත්විමෙන් පසු ලයනල් සහ සුනිල් යන පුතුන් දෙදෙනා මව විසින් හොරණ නිවසට කැදවාගෙන ආවේ වැඩිදුර උසස් අධ්‍යාපනය ලබාදෙන්නටය. ඒ අනුව හොරණ විද්‍යාරතන විද්‍යාලයට ඇතුළුවූ ලයනල් වාණිජ විෂය ධාරාව හැදෑරීය. මුළු පවුලටම ආර්ථික දුෂ්කරතා රැසක් කෙටි කලකින් උද්ගත වූයේ ලයනල්ගේ මව දරුවන් 5 දෙනෙකු සමඟ යළිත් තනිවීමෙනි. ලයනල් සහ සුනිල් මල්ලී හොරණ නගරයේ මත්පැන් අළෙවිසැලක් අසළ කඩල විකිණීමට ගියේ ජීවනබරට තල්ලුවක් දෙමිනි. ඉදහිට කුලීවැඩටද ගියේය. කේටරින් වැඩවල නිරතවූ මවද පොළේදී එළවළු අළෙවි කිරීමට සහ කඩල විකිණිමටද ඉඩ ඇති අවස්ථාවන්හිදී එක්වූවාය.

හොරණ විද්‍යාර්ථ විද්‍යාලයේ උසස් පෙළ ඉගෙනුම ලබමින් සිටියදී 1978දී ජවිපෙ දේශපාලන පන්තිවලට සහභාගිවු අතර ඒ වන විට ඔහුට අවුරුදු 16කි. ජවිපෙ වෙනුවෙන් ඔහුට කොක්ක ගැසුවේ හොරණ විද්‍යාර්ථ විද්‍යාලයේ ජේෂ්ඨ සිසුවෙකු වූ යාගල පදිංචි ජයසිරිය. හොරණ ශිලරත්න පාරේ පිහිටි ජවිපෙ කාර්යාලයේදී ලයනල්ට ජවිපෙ දේශපාලන පන්ති පවත්වන ලද්දේ යටියන්තොට චන්ද්‍රසිරිය. කොළඹ සරසවියේ මහා ශිෂ්‍ය සංගමයේ 1979/80 සභාපතිවරයාවූ යටියන්තොට චන්ද්‍රසිරි එහි විද්‍යාපීඨ සිසුවෙකුවූ අතර 1982දී උපාධිධාරියෙකු වශයෙන් පිටවිය. ජවිපෙ ජනාධිපතිවරණයට තරඟකර 1982 පරාජයට පත්වීමෙන් පසු ජවිපෙන් ඉවත්වූ චන්ද්‍රසිරි වර්තමානයේ ව්‍යාපාරිකයෙකි.

dharman04061603(002)ජවිපෙ නායක රෝහණ විජේවිර, ලේකම් උපතිස්ස ගමනායක, දේශපාලන මණ්ඩල සභිකයින්වන සන්නද්ධ නායක සමන් පියසිරි ප්‍රනාන්දු සහ ලයනල්ට කලක් උපදෙස් දුන් කොළඹ දිස්ත්‍රික් හිටපු නායක ලලිත් විජේරත්න නොහොත් ජයන්ත, සන්නද්ධ අංශයේ කටයුුතුවලදී ලයනල්ට පුහුණුව සහ මඟපෙන්වීම ලබාදුන් මධ්‍යම කාරක සභික ඊශ්වරගේ ආරියසේන, ගුවන් හමුදා හිටපු කාර්මික නිලධාරි කඩුවෙල පිට්ටුගල කහන්තොට උපන් කෙහෙල්වත්ත ගමරාලලාගේ සිරිපාල, කොළඹ සහ ගම්පහ කලක් සන්නද්ධ ලේකම්ව සිටි යූස්ටස් දිලිප් චන්ද්‍ර ප්‍රනාන්දු නොහොත් පතී, ගම්පහ පහළගම ෂෙල්ටන් රාජපක්ෂ නොහොත් සමන් වීරසිංහ, ලයනල්ද එක්වූ වාද්දුව හමුදා කඳවුරින් ආයුධ පැහැරගැනීමේ සැලසුමේ නායක ශාන්ත බණ්ඩාර, ප්‍රහාරයට සැකපිට අත්අඩංගුවට පත්වූ එම්. ටිල්වින් සිල්වා නොහොත් කළුතර සුසිල්, ප්‍රහාරයේ ආරක්ෂක ඇදුම් සිය නිවසේදී මැසීමේ භාරකරු පානදුරේ අම්බලන්දූව මුස්ලීම් විදුහලේ ගණිත ගුරු අබ්දුල් ජබ්බාර් සහ ලයනල් රණසිංහ ජවිපෙට එක්කිරීමට 1978දී හවුල්වූ අය අතර ප්‍රමුඛයෙකුවූ කොළඹ වෛද්‍ය පීඨයේ එකල සිසු සහ වර්තමානයේ ලෝක සෞඛ්‍ය සංවිධානයේ වෛද්‍ය විශේෂඥයෙකු වශයෙන් සේවය කරන එවකට හොරණ මූණගම පදිංචි නිහාල් අබේසිංහ ඉහළ වමේ සිට මෙහි වේ.

ලයනල් රණසිංහ ජවිපෙට එක්කිරීමට හවුල්වූ අය අතර තවත් ප්‍රමුඛයින් දෙදෙනෙකු වන්නේ කොළඹ වෛද්‍ය පීඨයේ සිසු හොරණ මූණගම පදිංචි නිහාල් අබේසිංහ සහ පොකුණුවිට පදිංචි තිලක්ය. වෛද්‍ය නිහාල් අබේසිංහ වර්තමානයේ ලෝක සෞඛ්‍ය සංවිධානයේ වෛද්‍ය  විශේෂඥයෙකු වශයෙන් විදේශයක සේවය කරනු ලබයි. එකල කොළඹ සරසවියේ ශිෂ්‍ය සභාවේ 1982 සභාපතිවරයාවූ ගම්පහ පදිංචි මහින්ද ආරියතිලක රත්නායකද 82 ජනාධිපතිවරණයේ පරාජයෙන් පසු ජවිපෙන් ඉවත්වූ පිරිස අතර විය. ජවිපෙ පක්ෂ තහනමට සමකල හැකි බිඳ වැටීමට පමණක් දෙවැනිවූ පසුබෑමක් 82 ජනාධිපතිවරණයෙන් පසුව සිදුවිය.

ජවිපෙට පූර්ණකාලීනයෙකු ලෙස ලයනල් සම්බන්ධවන්නේ 1981දීය. අප්‍රේල් 5 විරු සමරුවක් 1983 කළුතර නගර ශාලාවේදී ජවිපෙ ලේකම් ලයනල් බෝපගේ ගේ ප්‍රධානත්වයෙන් පැවති අතර එහි රතු භටයෙක් ලෙස රාජකාරි කළේද ලයනල් රණසිංහය. එහි පසක යෝධ පුවරුවක සටහන්වූයේ ‘’බැඳ දැම්මත් අප අත් යදම් වලින් නැගිටිනවා සිකුරුයි…. ගිගුම් දෙමින් මව්බිම සුරකින රතු බල සේනා මැදින් අපි එනවා…’ යන්නය. විරු සමරුවේ තමා සිටින ඡායාරූප නිවසට ගෙනවිත් පවුලේ අයටද බලන්නට දුන්නේය. ලයනල්ගේ මව පුතාගේ දේශපාලන කටයුතු පිළිබඳව බියපත්ව සිය සොහොයුරාට අයත් කැකිරාවේ හේනකට ලයනල් යැවූවද ඔහු ගොවියෙකු වශයෙන් ජීවිකාව ගෙන ගියේ වසරකට අසන්න කාලයක් පමණි. පෞද්ගලික ආරක්ෂක සමාගමක ආරක්ෂක නිලධාරියෙකු ලෙස පසුව සේවය කළේය.

dharman04061604Aසිය වැඩිමහල් සොහොයුරාවන ලයනල් පිළිබඳව ළමා කාලයේ සිට අවසානය දක්වා ආවර්ජනය කරන එකම සොහොයුරු සුනිල් රණසිංහ.

යළිත් හොරණට පැමිණ 1984දී බ්‍රහස්පතින්දා සහ සිකුරාදා පොළේ එළවළුද සෙසු දිනයන්හිදී රටකජුද විකුණූ ලයනල් ජවිපෙ සන්නද්ධ අංශයට 1986දී එක්වන්නේ බටගොඩ ගමගේ ජයවර්ධන මගිනි. යුධහමුදා ස්වෙච්ඡා බලකායට බැදීම සඳහා ලයනල් වරෙක සම්මුඛ පරික්ෂණයට ගිය අතර ඒ සඳහා තෝරාගැනීමෙන් පසු රපෝර්තු කරන ලෙසට ලිපියක්ද 1987 මැයි 6වැනිදා ලැබිණි. එහෙත් එම දිනයේ ඔහු ජවිපෙට අරමුදල් රැස්කිරීම සඳහා කල මංකොල්ලකෑමක් සම්බන්ධයෙන් පොලිස් අත්අඩංගුවේ පසුවිය.

වරක් ලයනල් ඇතුළු පිරිසක් අත්අඩංගුවට ගැනීමට පොලිසිය සූදානම්වූ අවස්ථාවක පොලිස් නිලධාරින්ට පහරදුන් ඔවුහු පළා ගියහ. පොලිසිය ලයනල් අත්අඩංගුවට ගැනිමට නිවසට පැමිණි අතර ඒ වන විටද ඔහු නිවසින් පැන ගොස් තිබිණි. ඉන් පසු ලයනල් නිවසට මව බැලීමට ආවේ ඉදහිටය. ලයනල් හමුවීමට  නිවසට එන ජවිපෙ කළුතර දිස්ත්‍රික් සාමාජිකයෝද ඉන් පසු නිවසට පැමිණියේ නැත. ලයනල් රණසිංහ ඇතුළු 5 දෙනෙකු ජවිපෙට අරමුදල් සපයා ගැනීම සඳහා කල මංකොල්ලයකදී 1987 අප්‍රේල් 12 හොරණ පොලිසිය මගින් අත්අඩංගුවට ගෙන තිබිණි. හදුනාගැනීමේ පෙරට්ටුවක් සඳහා බන්ධනාගාරයේ සිට ඔවුන් ගෙනයන විට බොල්ගොඩ පාලම අසළදී ජේලර්ලාට පහරදී පළාගියේ පිටතින් ලැබුණ ජවිපෙ සහායද සමඟිනි.

dharman04061605ජනකාන්ත සිනමා නළුවෙකුවන මහජන පක්ෂයේ නායක විජය කුමාරතුංග(ඉහළ වම), ලයනල් විසින් 1988 පෙබරවාරි 16 වැනිදා පස්වරු 12.20ට නාරහේන්පිටදී විජයට වෙඩි තැබීමෙන් පසු(ඉහළ දකුණ) සහ විජයට වෙඩි තබා මොහොතකින් පසු ප්‍රදේශවාසින් සහ හිතවතුන් සිය ගණනක් විජයගේ නිවස ඉදිරිපිට රැස්ව සිටි අන්දම(පහළ)

අවි පුහුණව සඳහා ජවිපෙ අවි පුහණු කඳවුරු කිහිපයකින්ම ලයනල් පුරුදු පුහුණු වී සිටියේය. ප්‍රථමයෙන් 1986 දෙසැම්බර් 13වැනිදා බදුල්ලේ බඹරකන්දේදී සතියක පුහුණුවක්ද, 1987 අප්‍රේල් 12 වැනිදා ශ්‍රීපාද අඩවියේදී සතියක අවි පුහුණුවක්ද 1988 මාර්තු 17වැනිදා රත්නපුර කුරුවිට ශ්‍රීපාද අඩවියේදී නැවත වරක් අවි පුහුණුවක්ද ලබා ගන්නා ලදී. මෙහිදී කටුනායක ගුවන් හමුදා කඳවුරේ ආකෘතියක් තනා එයට පහරදී යටත් කරගෙන අවි පැහැර ගැනිමේදී පෙරහුරුවක්ද පවත්වන ලදී. මෙහිදී හමුදාවෙන් පළා ආ ජවිපෙ සාමාජිකයින් විසින් යුධ පුහුණුව ලබාදුන් අතර ඔත්තු බලන ආකාරය, වෙඩිතැබීම ඇතුළු බොහෝ දෑ උගන්වනු ලැබීය. මෙම පුහුණුව අවසානයේදී ජනතා අයිතීන් වෙනුවෙන් පෙනී සිටින ජවිපෙ වෙනුවෙන් ලාංකීය නිර්ධන පන්තියේ විප්ලවය සඳහා ඕනෑම කැපවීමක් හා පරිත්‍යාගයක් කර ජනතාව වෙනුවෙන් සටන්කරන බව පුහුණුව අවසානයේදී සියල්ලෝම ප්‍රතිඥා දුන්හ. ජවිපෙ 1983 ජුනි 30 රජය මගින් තහනම් කලද ඒ සඳහා නිවැරදි දර්ශනයක් සහ නිවැරදි නායකත්වයක් ඇති බැවින් ඕනැම පරිත්‍යාංගයක් සහ කැපකිරීමක් සිදුකිරීමට සූදානම් බැවින් පක්ෂය ගන්නා ඕනෑම තීන්දුවකට එකඟ වන බවද ඔවුහු එහිදී සපථ කළහ.

ජවිපෙ විසින් මෙවැනි වනගත පුහුණු කඳවුරු රැසක් 1986 සිට ලංකාව පුරා පවත්වාගෙන ගියේය. වනගත පුහුණු කඳවුරු සඳහා සුදුසුම තැන ජවිපෙට සොයාබලා තෝරාදෙන ලද්දේ ආතර් සහ බලංගොඩ වැලිපොතයායේ උපන් පියතිලක නොහොත් වනරාජා විසිනි. ආතර් 1990 මුල් භාගයේදී කල්තොට දියමින්නේදී ජවිපෙම වනගත පිරිසක් විසින් ක්‍රමන්ත්‍රණකාරීව ඝාතනය කල අතර පියතිලක වර්තමානයේ ලුණුගම්වෙහෙරේ ජීවත්වේ.

dharman04061606ලයනල් විසින් කොළඹ සරසවි කොලේජ් හවුස්හි කාර්යාලය තුළදී 1989 මාර්තු 8වැනිදා පෙරවරු 10.10ට වෙඩිතබා ඝාතනය කරන ලද කොළඹ සරසවියේ උපකුලපති මහාචාර්ය ස්ටැන්ලි විජේසුන්දරගේ දේහය අවසන් කටයුතු සඳහා පුත් ශාලිත විජේසුන්දර ඇතුළු පිරිස විසින් රැගෙනයන අයුරු(වමේ) සහ මහාචාර්ය විජේසුන්දර(දකුණේ)

ලයනල්ගේ මිතුරන් වූයේ ටාසන් වීරසිංහ හෙවත් හේරත් හෙවත් තිස්ස, තේ දළු අළෙවි සුළු වෙළෙන්දෙකුවූ නෙළුව මතුගම පදිංචි අබේසිංහ ආරච්චිගේ සුනිල් නොහොත් හේමන්ත,  ජයවර්ධන නොහොත් ඩගි, ගුණතිලක, කැස්බෑවේ ගාමිණී, ආරියදාස, චන්ද්‍රරේ, ඩේවිඩ් ජයලත්, මතුගම රංජිත්, අශෝක, හිඟුරක්ගොඩ රවුම් පාරේ කුමාරගේ විජිත කරුණාරත්න, දේවා, විනී, කොට්ටාවේ මහීපාල(කලක් විජේවීරගේ ආරක්ෂකයෙකු විය. අවසානයේදී ඉසුරුපාය වධකඳවුරේ වධකයෙකු ලෙස බලහත්කාරයෙන් සේවයට යොදවා ගන්නා ලදී), රාගම හලන්දාරුවේ සෝමසිරි(රාගම සෝමේ), දිවුලපිටියේ ධම්මික ඇතුළු කිහිප දෙනෙකි. ලයනල් 1986 සිට 1989 දක්වා කාල සීමාවේ නැවතී සිටියේ කළුතර දෙදිවල, පිලියන්දල එස්.ඕ.එස් ගම්මානය, හොරණ, පිලියන්දල දම්පෙ, නාරහේන්පිට පොල්හේන්ගොඩ, නුගේගොඩ දෙල්කඳ ඇතුළු ස්ථාන කිහිපයකි.

ජවිපෙ විසින් හමුදා සහ පොලිස් ගණනාවකට පහරදී අවි ලබාගැනීමේ ප්‍රහාර ගණනාවකටම ලයනල් ඉදිරි පෙළ ක්‍රියාකාරිකයෙකු වශයෙන් සහභාගි විය. එවැනි මෙහෙයුම් අතර නාගොඩ තල්ගස්වල හමුදා මුරපොලට 1987 සැප්තැම්බර් 28, කහවත්ත පොලිසියට 1987 දෙසැම්බර් 30, බම්බලපිටිය පොලිසියට 1989 ජනවාරි 25, පන්නල යුධ අභ්‍යාස හමුදා කඳවුරට 1988 නොවැම්බර් 1, කටුනායක ගුවන් හමුදා කඳවුරට 1987 ජුනි 4වැනිදා සහ දෙවන ප්‍රහාරය 1988 අප්‍රේල් 22, හොරණ කුඹුකේ ග්‍රාමාරක්ෂක කඳවුරට 1988 ජනවාරි 8වැනිදාද, පාදුක්ක පොලිසියට 1988 ඔක්තෝබර් 28 ප්‍රහාරයද ඒ අතර විය. මෙම ප්‍රහාරයන්හිදී ලයනල් ඇතුළු ජවිපෙ කැරළිකරුවන් විසින් එම කඳවුරුවල නවීනතම අවි පැහැරගැනීමට සමත් විය. වාද්දුව හමුදා කඳවුරට කඩාවැදී අවි ලබාගැනීම සඳහා ප්‍රහාරයක් ලයනල්ගේද සහභාගිත්වයෙන් 1987 අගෝස්තු සිදුවූවද එය සාර්ථක නොවීය. ජවිපෙ දේශපාලන සිරකරුවන් මුදා ගැනීම සඳහා 1988 දෙසැම්බර්13 වැනිදා මැගසින් බන්ධනාගාරයට පිටතින් සහ ඇතුළතින් ප්‍රහාරය එල්ලකර ජවිපෙ රැඳවියන් 221ක් මුදවා ගැනීමේදී ලයනල් වැදගත් මෙහෙයක් ඉටු කළේය.

dharman04061607Aකොළඹ එජාප නාගරික මන්ත්‍රී ජයන්ත මල්ලිමාරච්චි 1989 පෙබරවාරි 15 මැතිවරණයදා මට්ටක්කුලියේදී ඝාතනය කරන ලද්දේද ලයනල් විසිනි. මෙහි කොළ පාටින් රවුම්කර ඇත්තේ ජයන්තය. වම්පස ජයන්තගේ සොහොයුරු ප්‍රවීණ රූපවාහිනී නිෂ්පාදක ජනකද, දකුණු පස මව ප්‍රේමාද වේ. වාඩිවී සිටින්නේ පියාවන අමාත්‍ය වීරසිංහ මල්ලිමාරච්චිය. මෙය 1981 සංවර්ධන සභා මැතිවරණ ජයග්‍රහණයෙන් පසු ගනු ලැබූ ඡායාරූපයකි.

පක්ෂයට අරමුදල් රැස්කිරීම සඳහා මොරටුව කටුබැද්දේ මහජන බැංකුව 1989 ජනවාරි 16වැනිදාද, වැල්ලවත්ත මහජන බැංකුවෙන් රුපියල් දශලක්ෂ 22ක් 1989 පෙබරවාරි 8වැනිදා කොල්ලකැමට ගිය කැරළිකරුවන් කිහිප දෙනා අතර ලයනල්ද ඉදිරියෙන්ම සිටියේය. මොරටුව බැසිල් ට්‍රේඩ් සෙන්ටර්, රටබීම හළ, අතුරුගිරිය ඇතුළු සිගරට් වෑන් වලින් මුදල් කොල්ලකෑම ඇතුළු ගණනාවක් සුළු ප්‍රමාණයේ මංකොල්ලකෑම් ගණනාවක්ද ඒ අතර විය.

ජනකාන්ත සිනමා නළුවෙකුවන මහජන පක්ෂයේ නායක විජය කුමාරතුංග 1988 පෙබරවාරි 16 වැනිදා පස්වරු 12.20ට නාරහේන්පිටදී ඝාතනය කළේද ලයනල් රණසිංහ විසිනි. එසේ විජය කුමාරතුංග ඇතුළු 41දෙනෙකු ලයනල් අවසානයේදී ඝාතනයකර තිබිණි. ඉන් කිහිප දෙනෙකු මෙසේය. එජාප මහලේකම් නන්දලාල් ප්‍රනාන්දු 1988 මැයි 20 දහවල් 11.30ට ඝාතනය කළේ ටී.56 තුවක්කුවකින් අමුතුම ආකාරයකිනි. ලෑලි පෙට්ටියක තුවක්කුව සඟවා එය උඩින් ලි කුඩු දමාගෙන පාපැදියක බැදගෙන පැමිණියේය. වැල්ලවත්ත අනුලා මාවත අසළ කඩයක් ඉදිරිපිට පාපැදියේ රෝදයක හුලං බැස ඇතැයි එහි නතරකල ලයනල් සංඥාව ලැබෙන විට පෙට්ටියෙන් ස්වයංක්‍රීය ගිණි අවිය රැගෙන නන්දලාල් ප්‍රනාන්දු නිවසින් පිටත්ව අනුලා මාවතින් වැල්ලවත්ත මාර්ගයට වාහනය දමනවාත් සමඟම වෙඩිතබා එහි සිටි තවත් කැරළිකරුවෙකු පදවාගෙන පැමිණි යතුරුපැදියෙන් තුවක්කුවද රැගෙන පළා ගියේය. කොළඹ සරසවියේ උපකුලපති මහාචාර්ය ස්ටැන්ලි විජේසුන්දර 1989 මාර්තු 9වැනිදාද, ඇමති වීරසිංහ මල්ලිමාරච්චිගේ පුත් කොළඹ නාගරික මන්ත්‍රී ජයන්ත මල්ලමාරච්චි 1989 පෙබරවාරි 15 මැතිවරණයදා මට්ටක්කුලියේදීද, එජාප නාගරික මන්ත්‍රීවරුන් වූ ලෙස්ලී රණගල බොරැල්ලේදීද, කිරිවත්තුඩුවේ ග්‍රාමෝදය මණ්ඩලයේ සභාපති, ජේෂ්ඨ සහ කණිෂ්ඨ පොලිස් නිලධාරින් කිහිපදෙනෙකු, එජාප ජාතික සේවක සංගමයේ වරාය ඇතුළු ස්ථාන කිහිපයක ඉහළ පෙළේ නිලධාරින් තිදෙනෙකු, ඉන්දියාවේ මුල්පෙලේ ව්‍යාපාරිකයන් 2ක් ඇතුළු පිරිසක් එයට අයත්වූහ.

dharman04061608Aඑජාප මහලේකම් නන්දලාල් ප්‍රනාන්දු 1988 මැයි 20 දහවල් 11.30ට වැල්ලවත්ත අනුලා මාවතේදී වෙඩිතබා ඝාතනය කරන ලද්දේද ලයනල් විසිනි. තුවක්කුව ගෙනආ ලෑලි පෙට්ටියේ ලීකුඩු දමා ඒ යට තුවක්තුව සඟවා එජාප මහලේකම් වාහනයෙන් පාරට පිවිසෙද්දී තුවක්කුව ගෙන වෙඩි තැබිම සිදුකර තිබිණි. නන්දලාල් ප්‍රනාන්දු(වමේ ජායාරූපය) සහ මොහොතකට පසු පොලිසිය පැමිණි අවස්ථාව දකුණේ වේ.

ආරක්ෂක අංශ මගින් කියා සිටියේ ලයනල් ඝාතන 43ක් සිදුකල බව වූවද එජාප සභාපති හර්ෂ අබේවර්ධනගේ සහ ප්‍රචණ්ඩ ක්‍රියා මර්දන කොට්ඨාශයේ අධ්‍යක්ෂක ජේෂ්ඨ පොලිස් අධිකාරි ටෙරන්ස් පෙරේරාගේ ඝාතන සිදුකළේ ඔහු විසින් නොවේ. එජාප සභාපති හර්ෂ අබේවර්ධන 1987 දෙසැම්බර් 23වැනිදා ඝාතනය කළේ බෙලිඅත්තේ ගුණසේන වර්ණපටබැඳි නොහොත් බෙටාය. පොලිසිය ඒ සම්බන්ධයෙන් චෝදනා කලේ ලයනල් රණසිංහ සහ පිළියන්දල ලසන්ත විජේවර්ධන නොහොත් ඩොනල්ඩ්ටය. ටෙරන්ස් පෙරේරා 1987 දෙසැම්බර් 12වැනිදා තලංගමදී ඝාතනය කළේ මුලටියන සීනිපැල්ලේ දහනායකය. දෙයියන්දර උප තැපැල් ස්ථානාධිපතිවරයෙකු වශයෙන් සිටියදී ජවිපෙට 1979දී එක්වූ දහනායක පසුව පූර්ණකාලීනයෙකු විය. ඔහුගේ පියා ගම්බාරේ කෙනෙකි. දහනායක පනාගොඩ යුධ හමුදා කඳවුරෙන් අවි පැහැරගැනීමට යාමේදී 1989 මැයි 2 වෙඩිවැදී ඝාතනයට පත්විය.

ලයනල්ලාගේ පවුලේ සැමට ජවිපෙ දෙවැනි කැරළි සමය වූ 1986 සිට 1989 දක්වා විවිධ තාඩන පීඩනවලට ලක්විය. අයියා ලයනල් ඉල්ලා මල්ලීවන සුනිල් ආරක්ෂක හමුදා මගින් අත්අඩංගුවට ගෙන වසර 2කට ආසන්න කාලයක් මිරිහාන පොලිසියේ කඳවුර, පැලවත්තේ රැඳවුම් කඳවුර, මැගසින් බන්ධනාගාරය ඇතුළු ස්ථාන කිහිපයක රඳවා තබාගන්නා ලදී. ලයනල් රණසිංහ අවසාන වරට පවුලේ අයෙකු හමුවූයේ මරදානේ සුමනදාස පෙරේරාගේ නිවසේදීය.

පශ්චාත් ව්‍යසන ක්ලමථ අක්‍රමතාව පිළිබඳ ප්‍රකට වෛද්‍ය මනෝ චිකිස්සකයෙකුවූ වෛද්‍ය රුවන් එම් ජයතුංග ප්‍රකාශකරන අන්දම ලයනල් රණසිංහ කුඩා කාලයේ පීතෘ වියෝග කාන්සාවට(Paternal Deprivation Syndrome) බෙහෙවින් ලක්ව සිටියේය. පසුකාලීනව ද්‍රරිද්‍රතාවය සහ සමාජ පීඩනය යන කරුණු නිසා පහසුවෙන්ම රැඩිකල් දේශපාලනයේ විශෝධනය මගින් ඝාතකයෙකු බවට පත්කර ගැනීමට හැකි විය. පෙනීයන පරිදි ඝාතන කිහිපයක් කිරීමෙන් අණතුරුව ඔහු ආසක්ත ඝාතකයෙකු (Addictive Killer)  බවට රූපාන්තරණය විය.

dharman04061609ජවිපෙ විසින් 1987 දෙසැම්බර් 23 ඝාතනයට කල එජාප සභාපති හර්ෂ අබේවර්ධනගේ දේහයට ජනාධිපති ජයවර්ධන අවසාන ගෞරව දක්වන අවස්ථාව. හර්ෂගේ වර්ණ ඡායාරූපයක් පහත කොටුවේ වම්පස දැක්වේ. පහත කොටුවේ දකුණුපස සිටින්නේ හර්ෂ ඝාතනය සිදුකල ජවිපෙ ක්‍රියාකාරිකයෙකුවූ බෙලිඅත්තේ ගුණසේන වර්ණපටබැඳි නොහොත් බෙටාය. එහෙත් හර්ෂ ඝාතනය සම්බන්ධයෙන් පොලිසිය චෝදනා කලේ ලයනල් රණසිංහ සහ පිළියන්දල ලසන්ත විජේවර්ධන නොහොත් ඩොනල්ඩ්ටය.

ලයනල් රණසිංහ 1989 මාර්තු 13වැනිදා බිල්ලෙකු බවට පත්වූ කැරළිකරුවෙකුගේ මඟපෙන්වීම අනුව ආරක්ෂක හමුදා අත්අඩංගුවට පත්වූ අතර පසුව අපරාධ පරික්ෂණ දෙපාර්තමේන්තුවට යොමු කරන ලදී. එහිදී එහි අධ්‍යක්ෂක චන්ද්‍රා ජයවර්ධනගේ ප්‍රශ්න කිරිම් වලින් පසු දීර්ඝ කටඋත්තරයක්ද ඔහු ලබාදුන්නේය. විවිධ ප්‍රශ්න කිරීම් වලට ලක්වූ ලයනල් රණසිංහ 1989 ඔක්තෝබර් 4වැනිදා පාදුක්ක වනගත පෙදෙසෙකදී ඝාතනය කරන ලදී. ඒ පිළිබඳව චෝදනා එල්ල වූයේ ජේෂ්ඨ පොලිස් අධිකාරි වාස් ගුණවර්ධනටය. විජය කුමාරතුංග ඝාතනයට ලයනල් සමඟ සම්බන්ධවූ ඉදිරිපෙල කැරළිකරුවෙකුවූ කළුතර ලංගම ඩිපෝවේ රියදුරු කළුතර පයාගල පදිංචි ටාසන් වීරසිංහ නොහොත් හේරත්ද 1990 දෙසැම්බර් 21වැනිදා මොරටුව අගුලානේ නිමල්ගේ නිවස ආසන්නයේදී අත්අඩංගුවට ගත් අතර පසුව 1991 මුල්භාගයේදී ආරක්ෂක හමුදා අතින් ඝාතනයට පත්විය. කලක් කළුතර සිට යටදොල දක්වා ධාවනයවු ලංගම බස්රථයේ රියදුරුවු ටාසන් වීරසිංහගේ බිරිඳ පද්මිණිය.

ඝාතනයට ලක්වන විට ලයනල් අවිවාහකයෙකු විය. ඔහුගේ මව 2007 වසරේදී ජීවිතයෙන් සමු ගත්තාය. වසර 2ක කාලයක් අනේකවිධ වධ බන්ධන වලට ලක්ව ජීවත්වීමට වාසනාව ලැබූ මල්ලී වන සුනිල් රණසිංහ වර්තමානයේ ත්‍රීරෝද රථයක රැකියාව කරන අතර  කේටරින් සේවයේද නිරත වේ. නැගණියක් වන මාලනී අනෝමා මූණගම පදිංචිය. ලයනල් රණසිංහ යනු කුලී මිනීමරුවෙක් නොවේ. ඔහු ජවිපෙ ප්‍රතිපත්ති වෙනුවෙන් පෙනී සිටි 2වැනි කැරැල්ලේදී කටයුතු කල ‘විප්ලවවාදියෙකු’ බව පවුලේ අයගේ මතය වේ.

ජවිපෙ 2වැනි කැරැල්ලේදී විජය කුමාරතුංග ඇතුළු 41 දෙනෙකු ලයනල් විසින් ඝාතනය කලේ ජාතික විමුක්ති අරගලයකින් සමාජවාදය උදාකිරීමේ අරමුණින් බව ලයනල් රණසිංහගේ ජීවිත කථාවෙන් පැහැදිලිය. ජවිපෙ 2වැනි කැරැල්ලේදී  දුබලතා සහ සීමාවන් බොහෝ තිබුණද එම බරපතල වැරදි පවා කැරළිකරුවන් අතින් සිදුවූයේ තමා ඇදහූ පක්ෂය වෙනුවෙන් එහි කාර්යයක නියුතු වීමෙනි. අගතිගාමී නොවී ඒ දෙස බලන පිටස්තර අයට පවා එය ප්‍රතික්ෂේප කල නොහැකි කරුණකි. එහෙත් ඒ කිසිවක් ඔවුන් ඇදහූ දේශපාලන ව්‍යාපාරයන්  පිළිනොගැනීම කැරළිකරුවන්ගේම ඛේදවාචකයක් විය.(ජවිපෙ 2වැනි කැරළි සමයවූ 1986 සිට 1990 දක්වා පළවන මෙම ලිපි මාලාව ලබාගැනීම පිළිබද විස්තර පහත ලිපිනයට ඔබගේ ලිපිනය යොමු කිරීමෙන් ලබාගත හැකිය. ධර්මන් වික්‍රමරත්න, තැපෙ 26, ශ්‍රී ජයවර්ධනපුර. දුරකථනය: 011-5234384 විද්‍යුත් තැපෑල: ejournalists@gmail.com)  The writer is a senior journalist who could be reached at ejournalists@gmail.com OR 011-5234384

සතුන් සමග සංසර්ගයේ යෙදෙන එරික් සෝල්හයිම් ගේ ‘නෑයෝ’ 

June 4th, 2016

Janaka Perera 

දියුණු යයි සම්මත බටහිර ජාතියක් සතුන් සමග සංසර්ගයේ යෙදෙන බව අසා තිබේද? එහෙත් එය ඇත්තකි.  ඒ ජාතිය නම් සාමයේ නාමයෙන් අපට දෙමළ කොටින් සමග ‘සහවාසයේ’ යෙදෙන්නට ආරාධනය කල  නෝවීජියානුවන්ය.   මේ බව මුලින්ම හෙලිකලේ ඔස්ලෝ නුවර පලවන The Journal නම් විද්යා සඟරාවයි. වසර 28කට පසු  නෝවීජියානු රජය මගින් සතුන් සමග සංසර්ගයේ යෙදීම දෙවන වරටත් 2010 දී තහනම් කරන ලද නමුත් එය තවමත් සහමුලින්ම නැවතී නැත.

වසර 2007 ඔක්තෝබර් 7දා අශ්වයකු සමග සංසර්ගයේ යෙදුන මිනිසකු ඉන් වලක්වන්නට පොලිසිය කැඳවන්නට සිදුවිය. එවැනි පහත් ක්‍රියා වලකන නීතියක් එරට නොපැවතීම නිසා පොලිසියට ඊට විරුද්ධව නඩු බැසීමට නොහැකි විය.

The Journal සඟරාවේ  වාර්තාවට අනුව සත්ව සංසර්ගය ප්‍රචලිත කරන වෙබ් අඩවි කිහිපයක්ම එරට ඇති අතර සියයකට වැඩි නෝවීජියානු පිරිසක් ඒවා භාවිත කරන අතර ඔව්හු සිය පහත් ක්‍රියාවන් පිලිබඳ සේයා රූ සහ අත්දැකීම් ඒ හරහා හුවමාරු කර ගනිති. සමහරු සිය බල්ලන් මිනිස් සංසර්ගය සඳහා කුලියට දෙති. සමහර නෝවීජියානු පිරිමි  ගැහැණු-බලු සංසර්ග බලා සිටීමට ආශාවක් දක්වති.

Hundreds of Norwegians have sex with animals

 
           
Hundreds of Norwegians have sex with animals

After 28 years of free flow, sex with animals was re-banned in Norway in 2010. The Journal has found evidence of widespread zoofili. 7th of October 2007, a police o…

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Ali Bumaye

June 4th, 2016

Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge

 

He who looks like a butterfly

Stings like a bee

No scares in his face

He is the champion of champions

ali

When he was drafted

He refused to kill the yellow man

He said they did not call me a nigger

So I will not go to Nam

 

He defeated many boxers

Also fought against injustice

Mohamed Ali is still fighting

This time may be Parkinsonism

 

No matter how long it will take

He has not given up the fight

Still got courage and spirit

To face any type of opponents

 

 

Multi-Faceted Media Culture

June 4th, 2016

By Dr. Tilak S. Fernando Courtesy Ceylon Today 

Media is the creation of just about anything in an organized society which encompasses experiences and sensations at different social levels where discrepancies and dissimilarities create or expose of media institutions, media industries or individuals. Its ultimate character is influenced by the interaction of the media organisation with other social and governmental institutions.

Finally the culture in which it is produced influences the media. Sri Lankan media, for example, are similar to the media of other developing and industrial countries, but there are varying differences between Sri Lankan media and those found elsewhere.

Media form an integral part and confine to one’s own society influenced by it. In other words, if culture did not affect the media, then there would be no difference in every society; for example, TV news in Sri Lanka would be pretty much the same as it is in the United Kingdom, but this clearly is not the case. It is not only TV news, but most other media as well differ in dissimilar forms in content, treatment of content, and even in the assumed relationship writers have with the readership.

 Communication

 In the present context of communication, electronic media are focussed and telescoped to the forefront. Mention the word ‘electronic media,’ the first thing that comes to our mind is the smart phone, radio, television, cinemas, films and of course the computer.

To gain far-reaching knowledge on the development of the electronic media one needs to refer back to the nineteenth century and the ‘telegraph’ which introduced a completely new structural mechanism by observing and identifying the community’s sensitivity on space and time.

Telegraphy in Greek means the long-distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters. A telegraph sends electric pulses in a special code composed out of short and large marks. In 1844 Samuel Morse invented a telegraph using only one wire, thus it was named as the Morse code, in contrast with the existed system of the ‘Pigeon Post.’

Telegraph

The telegraph enabled almost instantaneous transmission of messages across the universe and cultivated a balanced officialdom of time. Synchronization of time around the world gave rise to the standardisation of time sectors of Greenwich Mean Time in the UK to be defined as the correct time at anyplace in the world.

In the process of pigeon post, a special kind of pigeons called “homing pigeons’ was used as a means of communication. The Romans used ‘pigeon messengers” to aid their military over 2, 000 years ago. Julius Caesar used pigeons as messengers in his conquest of Gaul (an ancient part of Europe encompassing modern France, Belgium, the South Netherlands, South and West Germany and Northern Italy). Greeks transferred the names of Olympic game winners to their various cities making use of “homing pigeons.” Pigeons have also been used to great effect in military situations and were called “war pigeons.”

With the dawn of electronic means of communication, instantaneous transportation of messages around the globe became a reality. A new form of empire expanded across space and became possible, according to Harold Adams Innis, the eminent Canadian Professor, who explored the role of the media in shaping the culture and development of civilizations.

American journalists

Traditional critics have been asserting that the media are liberally biased focusing particularly on American journalists of major newspapers and a few well-known TV presenters. Many individual characteristics of mass communicators can indeed influence the content and character of the products they create. For example, at least since the 1960s, women and minority groups have actively argued and worked against their under-representation in the media industry.

American Society of Newspaper Editors (1997) reported that in 1996, only 11 per cent of daily newsroom workers were members of minority groups (5.4 per cent African American, 3.3 per cent Latino, 2 per cent Asian American, and .04 per cent American Indian). Why was it a matter of concern?

For at least two reasons – the desire for the members of minority groups to have equal access to jobs and fair consideration of promotion and advancement and with the belief that minority groups should receive fair and accurate exposure in the news with minorities represented in newsrooms. In other words, this argument led to the personal characteristic of the journalist. Ethnicity or race can make a difference in what news gets covered and how.

In universities when students are ascribed to concentrate on their research papers, first it becomes a startling experience for the student to identify what an appropriate subject would be; its length and the word content; how to go about in his research; organizing and prioritizing data; the length of the complete thesis, assigning of chapters and finally whether a footnote is necessary, with a glossary indicating all the sources that helped the students to complete the thesis.

Guiding Star

Here of course, the professor becomes the guiding star that could elucidate some of the doubtful areas of his students. So he rather expressly advises his students thus: “Choose a subject or an area close to your heart, it should have a minimum of X thousand words, it needs an introduction, your point of view supported by a summary and conclusion.” The professor’s other answers could be open ended.

The writing of the first chapter for students would be confusing, the second chapter becomes somewhat simpler and so forth, until the students begin to learn the procedures and how to go about in the research along with the organising and writing techniques also by conforming to the boundaries of rules and regulations of the university.

The same principle could be applicable to media organizations because not a single journalist ever sits down with a blank sheet of paper or glares at a blank computer screen and asks himself: “What am I going to create for the media today?” Instead, he sits down with a set of ideas, which are governed by the laid down procedures of the organization. The rules, techniques and practices then make the journalist to be constructive and thereby media too becoming creative and efficient.

‘John of Arc, Abraham Lincoln and Mahatma Gandhi, among others, kindle all journalists. Those pundits loved the constructive and the positive, but they also spoke out and struggled against the failings of the rulers. Most of the modern media men and women will always be poor followers of those figures, but let them at least be followers!’

tilakfernando@gmail.com

 

Ignore the outrage, Sri Lankans want to work in Beyonce’s garment factory

June 4th, 2016

By Ravi Ratnasabapathy Courtesy CAPX

June 03 (CAPX) Last week, the Sun newspaper in the UK claimed that a factory in Sri Lanka that produces a line of clothing for a popular singer Beyonce is using sweatshop ‘slaves’. The report attracted little interest in Sri Lanka, partly because attention was more focused on the devastating floods that hit the island.

But perhaps the report also failed to make waves because it simply did not ring true; the mainstream apparel factories in Sri Lanka are seen as responsible and respected employers in the formal sector.

Since the original Sun article, several international media outlets such as Quartz and Vice have published pieces amplifying the story. Whilst some commentators have aired dissenting views, a local perspective may be useful.

The Sun report claims that the basic monthly salary of 18,500 Sri Lankan Rupees received by a seamstress at the factory that produces Beyonce’s Ivy Park clothing line amounts to slave labour. It goes on to claim that the workers earn just £4.30 a day, and then informs its readers what the equivalent (Rs. 902) could be spent on:

A McDonald’s meal: Rs. 650 (£3.07)
A pint of beer: Rs. 200 (94p)
A litre of milk: Rs. 150 (71p)
A pair of Levi jeans: Rs. 3,900 (£18.41).

This might shock readers in the UK, but none of that is what low-income people in Sri Lanka buy. They buy powdered milk (much cheaper), they rarely eat western style fast food (McDonald’s, in particular is several times the cost of a low-end Sri Lankan meal), alcohol is deliberately kept expensive through high taxes, and they are highly unlikely to buy Levi jeans – a local equivalent would cost a third of the price (or less).

A more realistic comparison of living costs is given by Sri Lanka’s National Consumer Price Index (NCPI) based on data from the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES). Based on the March 2016 NCPI, a household (of 3.9 members) would typically spend just Rs. 35,356.96 (£168) per month on all their living expenses.

Let’s look purely at food costs. The World Food Programme Cost of Diet, a method to model the cost of a theoretical, simulated food basket which satisfies all nutritional requirements of a household, estimates that the cost of a nutritious diet for the model Sri Lankan household of five (parents and three children) varies from Rs. 12,208 per month in the Northern Province to Rs.15,371 in the Western Province.

Sri Lanka is not a rich country and wages are low but so are living costs. The Official Poverty line at national level for April 2016 is Rs. 3,943 per person, according to the Department of Census and Statistics.

A nurse in a government hospital would start on a salary of Rs. 15,620, and once promoted would receive Rs. 21,660. Salaries for teachers in the government service is similar, ranging from Rs.13,410 to Rs. 15,540. Like the apparel industry, both professions predominantly attract young women, although nurses naturally require a much higher level of education.

Set against the everyday realities of ordinary Sri Lankans, the basic wages of a sewing operator of Rs.18,500 seem more reasonable. Basic wages also do not include overtime and other benefits afforded to garment workers which could push their earnings well over Rs.20,000, at times going as far as Rs.30,000.

To be sure, these wages are still low and the job is demanding. The workers are undoubtedly poor and life will not be easy, but they are better off than some of their neighbours who eke out an existence in subsistence agriculture, work as maids, or are simply unemployed.

Until the country opened up to trade and investment in 1977, almost a quarter of the labour force lacked jobs. Things have improved since then. According to official figures, around 25% of the labour force is employed overseas as migrant workers, mostly in the Middle East, and many of them women. Women account for half the migrant worker population, the majority of whom work as house maids where conditions can be dangerous. There are cases where workers have been abused, unpaid or not paid as agreed and imprisoned in their countries of employment.

Claims have also been made that Sri Lanka has weak labour protections, when in fact Sri Lanka has comprehensive labour laws. In addition to regulations on hours worked, holidays, overtime and child labour, all employees are also entitled to statutory provident fund contributions by the employer amounting to 15% of their basic pay, which they can withdraw on retirement. Employees with a service in excess of five years are also entitled to statutory gratuity payments if they leave. In addition most of these factories, such as the one producing Beyonce’s Ivy Park range, provide transport, free meals and other welfare and incentive bonus programs.

These benefits do not extend to workers in the informal sector or those who are self-employed, which is where sewing operators are most likely to find work outside apparel factories.

The garment industry has rescued millions of people from poverty all over East Asia; it is labour intensive and provides many relatively low-skilled jobs that are easily learned and transferred, thus ideal for countries at an early stage of development. It forms a stepping-stone to more sophisticated industries and services.

The global development of the industry took place in three waves. The ILO reports that:

“During the first wave of production, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, the territory of Hong Kong and Taiwan achieved excellent results within their own borders, but then began to cut down production and invest heavily in other least-cost countries. As a result, between 1985 and 1990, the production of the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia increased greatly and led the world market in exports.

These countries have in turn begun to invest or redistribute part of their production to a third wave of countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and more recently Laos, Nepal and Vietnam.”

Sri Lanka’s industry started off in the 1970s and has evolved significantly since. It is no longer is it seen as a ‘cheap’ destination but as a ‘quality’ supplier.

The call for better wages by activists based on rich country comparatives is misleading and dangerous. If followed through by the imposition of boycotts in favour of significantly higher minimum wages, it could endanger the very people they intend to help.

Concerned Westerners interested in doing some real good for workers in Sri Lanka and elsewhere should instead lobby their governments to cut tariffs on garment imports.

The greater the demand for clothing from Sri Lanka, the more factories there will be for Sri Lankans to work in. As the choice of jobs increases, salaries will rise and lifestyles will improve. The competition will push employers to increase productivity and the economy will grow. The children of these workers, better fed, clothed and educated than their parents were, will have better opportunities, perhaps even in white-collar jobs.

The Sun, quotes one of the workers interviewed as saying “We had to come and work here because our father could not afford to feed us and there are no jobs there”. The garment industry is the main source of income for many economically marginalised households in rural areas.

Read More:: CAPX (Source)

Homicide Rates Jump in Many Major U.S. Cities, New Data Shows

June 4th, 2016

By ERIC LICHTBLAU and MONICA DAVEYMAY 13, 2016 Courtesy nytimes.com

WASHINGTON — Experts cannot agree on what to call a recent rise in homicides, much less its cause, but new data on Friday that showed a sharp spike in homicide rates in more than 20 cities rekindled debate over whether it was time for alarm.

The data showed particularly significant increases in homicides in six cities in the first three months of the year compared with the same period last year — Chicago, Dallas, Jacksonville, Fla., Las Vegas, Los Angeles and Memphis. But almost as many cities reported a notable decline in recent months.

New York saw a 25 percent drop, while Las Vegas’s homicide total nearly doubled.

Law enforcement officials struggled to explain the numbers and differed over their significance.

homicideinusThe police on Thursday cordoned off an area of Chicago’s South Side, where a man suspected of murder had fired shots at officers. CreditM. Spencer Green/Associated Press

The heroin epidemic, a resurgence in gang violence and economic factors in some cities were all offered as explanations, but the most contentious theory came from an agency that usually does not worry much about local crime: the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

The agency’s director, James Comey, has linked rising crime to less aggressive policing — the “viral video effect,” he called it this week, rejecting the more racially charged “Ferguson effect.” His theory, however, found little support from the White House, law enforcement groups, criminologists or even the group that gave him the new data on Friday.

Mr. Comey said that a string of videos that went viral on the Internet had led some officers to become reluctant to confront suspects. He conceded that he was operating off anecdotal evidence, but such reluctance, he said, could be contributing to the increase in homicides in some cities — an increase that he said left him deeply worried.

“Something is happening,” he said on Wednesday.

But the White House pushed back again on Friday. The White House spokesman, Josh Earnest, said that the increase in homicides in some cities was a concern and that the administration had already taken steps to address it, including a roundup by the Marshals Service last year of some 8,000 fugitives.

But he said that “this is not a widespread phenomenon, at least based on what we know now.”

Regarding Mr. Comey’s theory, Mr. Earnest said: “This administration makes policy decisions that are rooted in evidence, that are rooted in science. We can’t make broad, sweeping policy decisions, or draw conclusions based on anecdotal evidence. That’s irresponsible and ultimately counterproductive.”

Murders and most other types of crime have dropped since an alarming peak in the early 1990s and are now near historic lows. Criminologists said that while a rise in homicides in some cities in 2015 and early this year was potentially worrisome, it was far too early to draw any conclusions.

“A lot of observers are winning Olympic medals for jumping to conclusions,” said Franklin E. Zimring, a criminologist at the University of California, Berkeley.

James Alan Fox, a criminologist at Northeastern University, said the uptick represented essentially a blip in so short a time, and he said it was a reflection of how low the crime rates had dropped.

“What’s basically happening is these cities are becoming victims of their own success,” said Professor Fox. The crime rate “can’t go to zero, and when you hit really low numbers, it can only go up.”

Mr. Fox said Mr. Comey’s idea of a “viral video effect” was contradicted by the many cities that had decreases in homicides, even as police videos continued to emerge.

“A statement like that from the director doesn’t help,” he said. “It takes a very hot issue and pours even more fuel on it, and it takes a politically charged issue and ramps up the debate. I think calmer heads should prevail.”

The idea of a “Ferguson effect” — named for the Missouri city where the police shooting of an unarmed black man, Michael Brown, in 2014 prompted widespread protests — was first cited by the police chief in St. Louis, D. Samuel Dotson III. It took hold in the popular lexicon after a Wall Street Journal column a year ago blamed the phenomenon for the spike in crime.

Document: U.S. Homicide Rates Rise in Early 2016

Some proponents of the theory said the string of police confrontations and widely seen videos that followed the Ferguson shooting had made some officers reluctant to aggressively police their districts.

But the name itself generated a backlash from critics who saw it as blaming the protesters in Ferguson for the rising crime and justifying police misconduct in officers’ confrontations with the public.

New labels for the theory — descriptions less tied to the Ferguson controversy — began to replace it. New York’s police commissioner, William J. Bratton, took to calling it the “YouTube effect.”

Asked what he would call it, Mr. Fox of Northeastern did not hide his skepticism. “The Chicken Little response to Ferguson,” he said.

Richard Rosenfeld, a criminologist at the University of Missouri-St. Louis, who had studied claims of a police stand-down, found that an increase in homicides in St. Louis had actually begun before Mr. Brown’s death, suggesting that other factors were driving the rise.

But he said homicide rates last year indicated that the public focus on police use-of-force incidents might have had some role in the increase in homicides, whether it is because of “de-policing” — a slowdown by officers — or soured police relations with residents. More information, he said, is needed to know for sure.

Darrel W. Stephens, executive director of the Major Cities Chiefs Police Association, which released the data on Friday, said that the rising homicide rate in some cities was cause for concern but that “it’s not something people should be overly alarmed about.”

As for Mr. Comey’s suggestion of a “viral video effect,” he said: “I’m not there yet. I don’t believe so. You may have some who do that, but police officers don’t get into the business to not do the work they’ve been hired to do. They do it well.”

In Chicago, the rise in shootings and homicides — homicides were up 56 percent from last year as of early May — has become an urgent matter.

The homicide rate has slowed since earlier in the year, and police officials over the last month say they have seen hopeful signs, with upticks in gun recoveries, investigative stops and murder arrests. Still, more than 50 people were shot in Chicago last weekend, making it among the most violent weekends in months.

At the other end of the spectrum was New York City, where homicides fell in the first three months of the year to 68 from 85 in the same period last year.

Dermot Shea, the city’s deputy police commissioner of operations, said the force had blended several strategies, including the use of data, technology and collaborating with the community.

“We believe that we are not at the end, we are closer to the beginning,” he said this month. “It is exciting to see, really, how low we can push this crime down.”

Perhaps the brightest trend, however, came in Milwaukee, where homicides were down about 35 percent as of this week, after surging 70 percent last year.

“It’s far too soon to claim grand success,” the city’s police chief, Edward A. Flynn, said, noting that nonfatal shootings were about where they were a year ago. “We’re guarded. We believe we’re having an impact.”

Chief Flynn said the bad publicity for the police nationwide had certainly put his officers “on the defensive” in dealing with the public. But he said that dynamic had changed. “They’re back in the game right now,” he said.

Eric Lichtblau reported from Washington, and Monica Davey from Chicago. Ashley Southall contributed reporting from New York, and Gardiner Harris from Washington.

 

News Item .. Sri Lanka Dockyard incurs a massive loss of Rs 77 Mn – Sad state of a company once flourished.

June 4th, 2016

Concerned Ex Dockyard Worker

If you could  remember the day on which when the new  CEO walked into this company premises in 1994, which was under Japanese Management, discipline was absolutely at a low ebb and company burdened with heavy debts, workers not performing to their fullest capacity, trade unions playing hell, company continuing business without a proper lease agreement with Sri Lanka Ports Authority and worst of all  the workers were not rewarded with 10% of the shares as agreed upon  during the privatization of the company, where 51% shares were takeover by the Japanese Company for a chicken  fee .

Though the workforce was highly skilled but the government owned GOBU was full of cronies of the state and there were no hopes for revival.

A Union leader sacked by the previous CEO for good reasons was stirring trouble insidiously from outside.

It took three years for the management to get back on to feet, discipline was revived safety and Quality Assurance were brought back to international level and the company started making news in the shipping fraternity.

To make matters worse, three Japanese who were supposed to teach our workers in new technology hardly contributed to the efficiency of operations but occupied luxury offices and played golf. Then CEO  had to send them to offices inside the 15 acre yard and requested them to work with the local engineers to improve efficiency and set standards and norms on par with the Japanese industry and international level.

Over 1,200 workforce was getting lunch from the kitchen of Sri Lanka Ports Authority which was a very convenient arrangement, but the previous management decided to start their own kitchen, which has become a unbearable burden for the company overheads.

Workers are given a big breakfast almost free, a two rupee lunch packet and afternoon tea with a bun, which is luxury for a shipyard .Despite all these additional unwarranted expenditure, the company did well building boats for the Navy, Republic of Maldives etc.  Indian Shipping Corporation was giving a lot of business in repair and company moved forward until the trade unions wanted the kill the chicken who laid golden eggs.

They started asking more and more and walked out from work, and started creating problems.

Then the former CEO had to leave for greener pastures and the new management took over the reins in 2001.

Now the sad story begins.

With the appointment of an immature and inexperienced CEO, the trade union leaders have pushed the management to give more and more perks and the notorious leaders were given a labour supply contract to the yard ,who started controlling the company at ransom . This new CEO thought that keeping the trade unions in his good books by giving unconscionable demands was the best way of managing the company. The ultimate result witnessed during the next one and decades was absolutely pathetic. The well experienced and senior engineers were terminated on the mere attainment of 55 years on the premise that their extensions of service beyond 55 years would be an imminent threat to his survival. Senior Engineers who were the live wire of the Company had to leave the Company in batches even before their retirement age unable to bear the harassment of this CEO and the trade union leaders. The physical assault on the engineers whilst on the duty by the trade union leader was blatantly ignored and it came to a situation where the trade union was virtually running the dockyard. Automatically, the front line supervisory arm became visibly weak as they were unable to execute their supervisory role in fear of the retaliation at the hands of the trade union who had the blessings of the inefficient CEO.

Kitchen which was providing food parcels “Bath Packets “ was cooking meals for buffet lunch-locations scattered over the yard .Operation of a  Bakery and a shop has also started .Workers and foremen with engineers were having one buffet lunch station and workers were served with chicken  and sometimes breakfast with crabs and prawns.

(Sad to watch how the 400 Indian labour force doing yeoman service to the company working in Dockyard is being treated, When the permanent staff enjoys a chicken and rice lunch in a Buffet laid feast, Indians consume their lunch sitting on side step of the docks and eating chapatti and dahl and some of them even sleeping along pier .With all these exploitation company is sliding down)

Once a year they were all sent to Singapore or Thailand for a safari on company expenses. These junkets were rusely arranged by the CEO in connivance with the Japanese so that they could conveniently siphon every penny out of the country.

This CEO thought that he could conveniently manage the company as long as the executives and the employees were looked after disregarding the commercial viability of the Company and therefore the salaries of the workforce  were trebled exceedingly the industrial average. Today the Company has realized that it can ill afford the current wage bill in the face of the heavy losses.

Luckily, management managed to get few New Ship Building Contracts for Indian and Singaporean clients with very unattractive financing packages. Initially, the agreement was to obtain a mobilization advance of 20% of the contract sum and the balance 80 % were to be paid  at the completion of the building of the boats. Of course, the cash flow was good for a few years and the Japanese took their 51% in a hurry by declaring  high artificial profits. They have taken back their investment over ten fold of the initial contribution.

Most of the naval architectural work (design of ships) which were done in- house were given to outside companies and this ill-conceived and ill-logical decision paved the way to the brain drain of our cream of designers either to leave the company or to retire at the age of 55. Insiders say the CEO became the financial beneficiary of all these dealings and this ill-gotten money he earned is alleged to have invested in condominiums and lucrative underhand deals in millions and millions.

Most of the equipment and accessories were bought thru a subsidiary of the Japanese owners and another 10-15 % of the revenue was pumped out of the country with the tacit support of the CEO.

For our naïve and misled business circles and the government, the company was the pinnacles of success.

Clients placed the order with Dockyard and carried our speculative market and once they find a buyer they paid the dues to the company .

Now the world is entering into a recession due sliding of oil prices. The clients were not being able find buyers for their ships. The existing buyers for whom ships were being built demanded a high discount which was very unfair and company had to cave in .Few orders have also been cancelled and the artificially generated profit level was exposed as a   farce. The CEO having realized that the results of his misdeeds have begun to expose by way of mismanagement and financial losses and questionable financial packages offered to buyers of new ships) tendered his resignation and joined a leading trade chamber as a CEO (and now to lead the Center for Strategic  Development under the Minister of Strategic Development). .

We see news today that Dockyard is making unprecedented losses and it will not a surprise if Japanese bolt away, leaving the 2000 strong force and 400 Indians working in the yard in a lurch.

 

Concerned Ex Dockyard Worker

Health cards distributed among scribes

June 4th, 2016

By Our Correspondent

Guwahati, June 4: The Narayana Super-specialty Hospital has offered the Journalist Privilege Cards to the member-journalists of Guwahati Press Club.  Over 175 health cards were distributed among the scribes in a function held today at GPC auditorium. Senior officials of the north Guwahati based hospital including Amit G. Choudhury, Shantanu Bhattacharjee with other workers were present on the occasion. The first health card was symbolically presented to senior GPC member-journalist Rupam Barua. Today’s program was conducted by GPC secretary Nava Thakuria.

The privilege card will enable the scribes with their spouses for discounts on MRI, CT Scan, X-ray, Ultra Sonography and various laboratory tests besides priority in the admission. The hospital authority has also planned for annual health check-up facilities for the card holders. Free ambulance service is also under consideration subject to the availability, informed the hospital authority.

Mentionable is that Narayana Super-specialty Hospital in northeast India was commissioned in December 2013 with 185 beds, under a 30 year public-private partnership initiative with Assam government. The hospital extends medical supports to the patients under the category of cardiac science, neuroscience and orthopaedics.

The hospital authority now plans to extend the benefits to the scribes based in other parts of the region.  The GPC program was recognized as the starting point for the hospital’s mission to support the media persons working in the alienated part of India.

Kinds of Noble Persons and their numbers.

June 4th, 2016

By Ven. K. Ariyarathana

“Those eight individuals praised by the virtuous, [(or) Those individuals numbering one hundred and eight praised by the wise] those couples are four (in number); those disciples of the Enlightened One are worthy of offerings;” ……….. (SN, 11.1)

Noble Individuals are categorised in different ways in different contexts. Most frequently, we see four kinds of Noble Persons, each one is a pair (caŧŧāri purisa yugāni). And then as eight individuals (attha purisa puggalā) or one hundred and eight individuals (attha saŧanpasaŧŧha).

These are the four couples.

(i) The Stream-enterer,

(ii) The Once-returner,

(iii) The Non-returner,

(iv) The Full Enlightened One.

They become eight persons when considered as individuals as each of the four noble persons is divided into pairs: one person realising (i) the Path of Stream-entry, (ii) the Fruition of Stream-entry, (iii) the Path of Once-return, (iv) the Fruition of Once-return, (v) the Path of Non-return (vi) the Fruition of Non-return, (vii) the Path of Full Enlightenment, (viii) the Fruition of Full Enlightenment.

Now let us see how they become one hundred and eight individuals.

  1. a) Stream-Enterers

They become free from these three fetters: (i) personality belief, (ii) sceptical doubt, and (iii) clinging to mere rules and rituals.

They are threefold according to their future existence: (i) One who is born only once more (ēkabīji), (ii) one who is passing from one noble family to another [within two to six births](kōlaṁkola), (iii) one who is born again with seven births at the utmost (saŧŧakkhaŧŧuparama). [Stream-enterers are born again only in the human world or in the heavens and are never born in the hells.]

They are fourfold according to their progress: One who is of: (i) pleasant progress with slow comprehension, (ii) pleasant progress with quick comprehension, (iii) painful progress with slow comprehension, (iv) painful progress with quick comprehension.

They are twofold according to their practice (đūra): (i) one whose practice is based on confidence (saddhā đūra)and (ii) one whose practice is based on Insight (paññā đūra).

Fourfold persons according to their progress are multiplied by twofold practice so that there are twelve Stream-enterers altogether.

  1. b) Once-Returners

They become nearly free from [weaken] these two fetters: (iv) sensual craving and (v) Ill-will. They are born again only once in the human world.

They are threefold according to their births in the spheres: (i) Persons who enter once return in the sensual sphere (kāma bhavesu ađhigaŧaphalā), (ii) persons who enter once return in the fine material sphere (rūpa bhavesu ađhigaŧaphalā),(iii) persons who enter once return in the immaterial spheres (arūpa bhavesu ađhigaŧaphalā).

They are also fourfold according to their progress and twofold according to their practice as in the stream entry. In this way, there are twelve Once-returners altogether.

  1. c) Non-Returners

They do not come back to sensual sphere but are born in the pure abodes (suđđhavāsa) and attain Enlightenment from there.

They are completely free from all the five fetters mentioned above, including the two which the Once-returner could only weaken. They are freed from five lower fetters (ōrambhāgiya saṁyōjana)

They are fivefold according to their attainment: One who (i) reaches Enlightenment early in his next life(anŧarā parinibbāyi) [without having gone beyond the half lifetime], (ii) reaches Enlightenment in the second half  of his next life(upahacca parinibbāyi) [having gone beyond  half of the lifetime],(iii) reaches Enlightenment with exertion or prompting [pađhāna] (sasankhāra parinibbāyi),(iv) reaches Enlightenment without exertion or prompting(asankhāra parinibbāyi), (v) passes upstream bound for the highest deities(uđđhansoŧa akańitthagāmī).

There are these five individuals in each in the first four pure abodes and they all are named deities not falling away (avihā), untroubled deities (aŧappā), beautiful deities (suđassā) and clear-sighted deities (suđassī). In the fifth pure abode (akańitthakā) there are only four individuals because there is no one who passes upstream to the highest deities.

There are twenty in the first four abodes and four in the fifth. In this away altogether there are twenty-four Non-returners.

  1. d) Fully Enlightened Ones

They are free from the higher fetters (uđđhaṁbhāgiya saṁyōjana), i.e. (vi) craving for fine material existence, (vii) craving for immaterial existence, (viii) conceit, (ix) restlessness, (x) ignorance.

They are never born again. They live with the full extinction of defilements (sōpađisēsa nibbāna).When they pass away, that is the end of life and full extinction of the five aggregates [groups of existence](anupađisēsa nibbāna).

They are twofold according to their way of Enlightenment [vehicles]: (i) one who has bare Insight as Vehicle (suđđha vipassanā yānika) [without having attained any of the eight absorptions], (ii) one who has Concentration as Vehicle (samaŧha yānika). In this way there are two kinds of Fully Enlightened Ones altogether.

They are also fourfold according to their progress and twofold according to their practice, as in Stream-entry.

In this way there are twelve individuals in Stream Entry and Once Return. There are twenty four individuals in Non- Return. And there are two individuals in Fully Enlightenment. Then they are altogether fifty individuals of the noble ones. We need to add four individuals of the paths so that there are fifty four in number. Now we need to multiply all of them by their twofold practice. So the number becomes one hundred and eight.

By Ven. K. Ariyarathana.

 

Lawyer issues notice on President: Wants “abuse of tax revenue” stopped

June 4th, 2016

Courtesy The Island

N. Kodituwakku & Co., Attorney-at-law (SL) & Solicitor (UK) has issued notice on President Maithripala Sirisena urging him to “stop the abuse of tax revenue with permits issued  to MPs granting full waiver of all forms of tax normally charged on motor vehicles”.

Attorney Nagananda Kodituwakku says that with 19A coming into force, immunity granted to the President under Article 35 of the Constitution has been removed for all Right Violation Petitions.

It is in this backdrop that he has issued notice on the President and given him given 14 days to stop this abuse.

This abuse falls within Section 70 of the Bribery Law (abuse of office by those holding public office to favour themselves or any other person), he said.

It is observed th at further to a ‘policy decision’ taken by the Yahapalana administration, all 225 MPs have been issued with permits to import vehicles (Diesel or Petrol) with noengine capacity specified up to the value of US$ 62.500.00, absolutely free from any tax, the notice issued on the Preident noted.

It further said: “Already the required tax exemption has been gazetted in this regard (No 1965/ 2 of 02 May 2016) by the Minister of Finance Ravi Karunanayake.

“The tax component of such a vehicle (charged at the rate of 30 0%) is well over 30 mlliion rupees and thus there is a heavy demand for this permit in the car market, which fetches a price tag between 20 to 22.5 million rupees.

“It is also leant that vehicles valued up to £100,000.00 are also imported on these permits with a false value declared for Customs purposes approved by the committee appointed to determine the value of these vehicles.

“It is common sense that selling of these permits and sharing the defrauded tax revenue with car importers is not only legally but morally wrong as it amounts to abuse of office of MP for unjust enrichment, a punishable act under Section 70 of the Bribery Act.

“Therefore, keeping with your constitutional duty to uphold the Rule of Law according to the Constitution and the Law, you are hereby requested to take following corrective measures straightaway to stop this abuse of defrauding th e government revenue, whilst other citizens are charged with heavy tax of various kind imposed on essential commodities including hospital bills.

a) Impose a condition that no vehicle imported on permits issued to MPs can be disposed of for a period of 5 years from the date of importation. the violation of which in any manner, would result automatic forfeiture of the vehicle by the Director General of Customs (DGC) .

b) Direct the DGC to seize and confiscate any vehicle imported under this permit scheme with false declaration value for customs purposes, which is an offence under Section S2 of the Customs Ordinance.

c) Direct the Registrar of Motor Vehicle (RMV) to stipulate a condition against the disposal of such vehicles in the Vehicle Registration Certificate for a period of five years from the date of first registration.

Attorney Kodituwakku says he has already reported th is abuse to the Corruption Commission on Dec. 11, 20 14 requesting the Commission to enforce the law against the fraudster elements. Yet the Commission is of the view that this loss caused to the government resulted from the implementation of the government policy, and therefore, refused to initiate action against the perpetrators.

He said that when the refusal of the Corruption Commission was challenged in the Supreme Court which exercises people’s judicial power absolutely on trust, the Court too declined to intervene, citing the same reason and the application made to the Court for revision of the said Order on the basis that it has been made per incuriam was also refused by the Chief Justice.

The people removed President Rajapakse for reasons; that was mainly due to condoning and encou rag ing of all forms of corruption, he noted.

During the 2015 election campaign to the Office of the President, Maithripala Sirisena promised people a ‘Yahapalana’ administration free from corruption, but the situation has now become much worse with no hope for justice for the people against the gross abuse of their sovereign powers, the Attorney said.

හාල් ගණන් වැඩි කලේ බත් කන්න නුසුසුදු අය බත් කන නිසා – මෙන්න ‘පොඩි මල්ලියි.. චුටි මල්ලියි’Chooty Malli Podi Malli (Ganan Giye Ai)(ගණන් ගියේ ඇයි)

June 4th, 2016

Shenali Waduge article on Norway

June 3rd, 2016

Prof.Hudson McLean

Norway denies official recognition to Buddhism while preaching freedom of religion & human rights in Sri Lanka Posted on June 2nd, 2016  Shenali D Waduge

Although I have not been active as a scribe, I do read LankaWeb daily, and noted content.

Since I do not reside in Sri Lanka, after the new government of the Sri Lankan Triad came into power, I decided to be an observer, till Gotabhaya Rajapaksa comes into power, with my greatest Icon Hon. Mahinda Rajapaksa stands with Gota.

Having read many of Shenali Waduge and HLD contributions, when I saw the article above, I felt that I had to support Shenali Waduge.

We have an old British question.  “If the garbage cleaner, or in the old days in Sri Lanka, as Lorenzo would say, “the Bucket Carriers”, swear at you, would you swear back or simply ignore and walk away?”

Now to the Norwegians.

I have known Norwegians for a long time, and even had a close relationship with a rich beautiful Norwegian girl, who fell in love with me and offered me Comfort, Love and a Job in her family company in Oslo.  Perhaps by now I would be a very wealthy Baron in Norway.

I am glad that I refused.

Over the past years, I was really disgusted to learn about the Norwegian love affair with Tamils and LTTE Tamil Tiger Terrorists.

Erik Solheim who led the efforts, was  bought by Prabhakaran, and Solheim enjoyed an over-inflated lifestyle with Tamil illegal funds from Narcotics-Money Laundering-Prostitution etc.

Later he was booted from the government.

Then with the sudden oil wealth, Norway got greedy to become a sort of New Colonial seeking opportunities anywhere. Hence Sri Lanka, with the potential of South Asian Maritime Strategic location, possibility to tap into Oil and minerals, lucrative Tuna Belt, etc, Norway got married to Tamil Tigers.

However, mentally, Norwegians suffer from low-level intelligence. They are being laughed at by Swedes no end.  According to Swedes, the Norwegian male has one head. And that is not on his shoulder! But between his legs.

And then, with lots of beautiful blue eyed Norwegian girls, the Norwegian men turns to animal sex  This is public knowledge and it is legal to have sex with a horse, a dog or any animal.

See the Links below-;

https://ivarfjeld.com/2012/03/26/hundreds-of-norwegians-have-sex-with-animals/

Does one need to say more?

Question: How can any one respect a religion when one’s mind is not on its head above the shoulder?

The Resolution To Establish A National Government

June 3rd, 2016

By Neville Ladduwahetty  FEATURES THE ISLAND – JUNE 1, 2016

May 31, 2016, 7:22 pm

The Hansard of September 3, 2015 under the heading “DETERMINATION UNDER THE CONSTITUTION: NUMBER OF MINISTERS OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENT”, cites the following Resolution:

“Whereas the United National Party which obtained the highest number of seats in Parliament has formed a National Government, Parliament determines in terms of Article 46 (4) of the Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka that the number of Ministers in the Cabinet of Ministers shall not exceed 48 and the number of Ministers who are not Cabinet Ministers and the number of Deputy Ministers shall not exceed 45” (p. 97).

An intense debate followed the tabling of the above resolution. The position of the Government was that according to Article 46 (4) when a “… recognized political party or independent group which obtains the highest number of seats in Parliament forms a National Government”, the Constitution authorizes Parliament to determine the number of Ministers of the Cabinet of Ministers, the number of Ministers who are not Cabinet Ministers and the number of Deputy Ministers. And because it is Parliament that makes such a determination a challenge would amount to a beach of Parliamentary privilege (The Island, May 26. 2016).

Judging by the variety of opinions expressed in Parliament the single question that dominated the debate related to the criteria needed to qualify for the formation of a National Government. The opinions of some were that since Article 46 (5) states: “National Government means, a Government formed by the recognized political party or the independent group which obtains the highest number of seats in Parliament together with the other recognized political parties …” a National Government must include all recognized political parties represented in Parliament. Others maintained that since the Article 46 (5) specifically does not state that a National Government means a Government formed together with “all” recognized political parties or the independent groups it could mean one or more recognized political parties. Yet others were insistent that Parliament should seek an opinion from the Supreme Court not only because of the lack of clarity but also because of the implications involved.

NEED for INTERPRETATION

During the debate The Hon. (Dr.) Wijeyadasa Rajapakshe stated:

“When we obtained that interim order, there had been a lengthy debate in the House. After considering all the legal provisions and submissions, the Hon. Anura Bandaranaike delivered a historical, landmark judgment that when it comes to affaires which are to be regulated within the House itself, it is purely a matter to be determined by the Hon. Speaker; it is not a matter within the purview or the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court” (The Hansard, September 3, 2016, p. 110).

“I can remember when there was a Resolution with regard to the impeachment of the former Chief Justice, then Speaker, the Hon. Chamal Rajapaksa also, by following the landmark Ruling of the Hon. Anura Bandaranaike, came to the same conclusion that when it comes to matters within the purview of the House it is to be regulated by the House itself and that the court need not interfere and the court should not interfere” (Ibid).

“Therefore, the question as to whether there has to be any determination from the Supreme Court with regard to the interpretation of the National Government is completely out and there is no relevance, no bearing whatsoever. Therefore, I would humbly like to inform the Hon. Speaker that this Determination is well within the purview of Parliament and it has to be finally determined by the Hon. Speaker” (Ibid).

The Hon (Dr.) Jayampathy Wickramaratne quoting from a section that was included in the Draft version of the 19th Amendment stated: “If at the conclusion of the General Election held immediately after the coming into force of this Article, the recognized political party or the independent group obtaining highest and the recognized political party or the independent group obtaining the second highest number of seats in Parliament agree to form a Government of national unity…”.

However, the concept of a Government of “national unity” in the original draft was evidently abandoned and instead the final version incorporated the concept of a “National Government”. This reflects the difficulties the Drafters of the 19th Amendment had in providing for an arrangement in the event no party secured an outright majority to form a Government. Also, the statement of The Hon. (Dr.) Wijeyadasa Rajapakshe that an interpretation of a National Government from the Supreme Court is “completely out” must mean that such an interpretation would be made by Parliament alone. However, a fact that should not be overlooked is that while this may apply to Governments that function under Parliamentary systems, it does NOT apply in Presidential Systems that operate under provisions of Separation of Powers. This Separation of Powers is the bedrock of Presidential Systems under which Sri Lanka operates.

RELEVANCE of RULINGS by FORMER SPEAKERS

The precedents cited by Hon. (Dr.) Wjeyadasa Rajapakshe relate to Supreme Court interventions in respect of the impeachment of former Chief Justices. Indeed the Supreme Court does not have jurisdiction over issues relating to the conduct of members of the Judiciary. Such tasks are entirely within the domain of Parliament as stated in Article 107 (2) of the 1978 Constitution which states:

“Every such Judge (Chief Justice, the President of the Court of Appeal and every other Judge of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeal from 107 (1)) shall hold office during good behavior, and shall not be removed except by an order of the President made after an address of Parliament…”. In the absence of any ambiguity in Article 107 (2) there is no dispute that issues relating to the conduct of senior members of the Judiciary are solely within the purview of Parliament; a fact obvious to ordinary laymen. Under the circumstances, apart from the considerable body of reference material in the 25 page report, one might question whether the ruling really reaches the threshold of being a “historical land mark judgment”.

A further matter of relevance is that the references cited by former Speakers are mostly British opinions that are relevant ONLY in a Parliamentary system of Government. Since under such systems Parliaments are supreme the opinions cited have relevance to Sri Lanka ONLY up to and until the introduction of the 1978 Constitution. The current Constitution is based on Separation of Powers. The COMMONWEALTH PRINCIPLES ON THE ACCOUNTABILITY OF AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT Section (ii) Parliament and the Judiciary state: “Relations between parliament and the judiciary should be governed by respect for parliament’s primary responsibility for law making on the one hand and or the judiciary’s responsibility for the interpretation and application of the law on the other hand”.

Based on the above principles, the functions of each branch of Government are governed by the provisions in the Constitution. Article 125 unequivocally states that the task of interpreting the Constitution is assigned to the Judiciary, thus: “The Supreme Court shall have sole and exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine any question relating to interpretation of the Constitution…”.

Therefore the arguments advanced during the debate and the opinions cited to justify that an interpretation by the Supreme Court is “completely out”, are flawed. On the other hand, it is abundantly clear that an interpretation is needed as to whether the current formation of the Government meets the Constitutional provisions of a “National Government”. The only authority constitutionally authorized to do so is none other than the Supreme Court.

CURRENT FORMATION of the GOVERNMENT

The resolution presented to Parliament states that the “United National Party which obtained the highest number of seats in Parliament has formed a National Government”. This is a self-proclaimed declaration. Therefore, there is a need to explore whether the current formation of the Government meets the test of a “National Government”.

The current Government formation is made up of the UNP with its 106 members who were elected to Parliament together with a section of the UPFA that contested the General Election of August 17, 2015 and secured 95 Parliamentary seats. The rest of the UPFA are in the Joint Opposition. Consequently, the UPFA is divided between those that are with the so called National Government and those of the UPFA that are with the Joint Opposition.

The current formation of the Government is not a “Government of national unity” as referred to by Hon. (Dr.) Jayampathy Wickramaratne because it is not made up of the first and second political parties to secure the highest number of seats at the August 17th Election. Nor, is the current formation a traditional coalition where one or more political parties represented in Parliament come together in their entirety to form a majority Government.

Furthermore, it is not a National Government, whether such a Government is described as one made up of all or some of the political parties represented in Parliament. This is because a National Government is formed when the political party with the highest number of seats joins “with the other recognized political parties” to form a Government. In such a formation, whether one or more recognized political parties join to form a National Government is not the overriding issue. Instead, the more compelling issue is that the entirety of a recognized political party or parties commits to be part of the National Government. However, since the current Government is made up of the 106 members of the UNP together with ONLY a SECTION of a recognized political party, the UPFA, while the rest is with the Joint Opposition, the current formation is not a National Government. Therefore, the current formation is in violation of the constitutional provisions in Article 46 (4) and (5) of the Constitution.

The reason for a section of the UPFA being with the Government with the rest being in the Joint Opposition is because of purported “understandings” reached between the leaderships of the UNP and the UPFA. This has violated the Franchise of the voter who voted for the UPFA. Furthermore, because of the “understanding”, the section of the UPFA identified as the Joint Opposition is unable to function as a legitimate Opposition in a Democracy. These developments are not the result of individual action of some members of Parliament joining a Government, but due to the administrative action of the leadership of the party to which these members belong. Therefore, the UPFA leadership is responsible for violating the Franchise and through it the Sovereignty of the electors who voted for the UPFA.

CONCLUSION

The Resolution under the Heading “DETERMINATION UNDER THE CONSTITUTION: NUMBER OF MINISTERS OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENT” states that the UNP which obtained the highest number of seats in Parliament at the August 17, 2015 General Election “has formed a National Government”. This self-declaration entitles the Government to determine the number of Ministers in the Cabinet of Ministers, the number of Ministers who are not Cabinet Ministers and Deputy Minister beyond the limits set in Article 46 (1), which is a total of 70, with the approval of Parliament.

A challenge to the self-declaration is seen as a threat to the privileges of Parliament. The reason for such a perception is based on the notion that a determination made by Parliament cannot be challenged because Parliament is supreme. The evidence presented in support of the supremacy of Parliament during the debate on Sept. 3, 2015, was the ruling given by a former Speaker, Hon. Anura Bandaranaike. However, this ruling and nearly all citations that accompanied the ruling were based on the practices and precedents in the UK, which is the mother of Parliamentary systems of Government. Although this ruling is acclaimed as a landmark judgment, what it overlooked was that when the ruling was given Sri Lanka did not have a Parliamentary system of Government, but had a Presidential System that operates on Separation of Powers. Consequently, Parliament is but one of the 3 Branches of Government. And interpreting the Constitution is exclusively assigned constitutionally by Article 125 to the Supreme Court.

Therefore, in the name of Good Governance there is a compelling need to seek an interpretation from the Supreme Court as to whether the current formation of the Government is in fact a National Government, because the current Government is formed by the UNP that obtained the highest number of seats in Parliament together with ONLY a SECTION of a recognized political party that contested the August 2015 General Election while the rest is with the Joint Opposition. This division has caused the Franchise and therefore the Sovereignty of ALL the People who voted for the UPFA to be violated.

The opportunity to seek an interpretation from the Supreme Court is provided ONLY under provisions of Separation of Powers unlike when all power is vested in a single body, the Parliament, and the fortunes of the People are at the mercy of a Parliament alone. The exercise to determine whether the current Government is a National Government presents an opportunity that should not be missed by those currently engaged in Constitution making to decide which form of Government would best protect the interests and sovereignty of the Peoples of Sri Lanka.

LTTE’s financial network of support still operating – US

June 3rd, 2016

Courtesy Adaderana

June 3, 2016  06:02 pm

 The US State Department says that Sri Lankan security services’ focus on a possible LTTE resurgence affected the government’s attention to emerging threats, such as reports of Sri Lankan foreign terrorist fighters joining the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).

The US State Department on Thursday issued a long report in which details of terror activities in various countries is given, including Sri Lanka.

In July, Sri Lanka saw the first confirmation that Sri Lankans had joined ISIL when social media announced the death of Sharfaz Shuraih Muhsin, an ISIL fighter from Sri Lanka, after he was killed in coalition airstrikes in Syria.

“Thauqeer Ahmed Thajudeen – Muhsin’s brother-in-law and fellow Sri Lankan national – was later identified as a member of ISIL in Syria. According to media reports quoting Turkish government sources, 10 members of Muhsin’s family went to Iraq through Turkey,”

Sri Lankan Defence Secretary Karunasena Hettiarachchi said that although there were reports of Sri Lankans joining ISIL, there was no concrete evidence to suggest the group was operating in Sri Lanka.

Regarding the now-defunct Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), the report said that  the terrorist organisation’s financial network of support continued operations in 2015; the group used its international contacts and the large Tamil diaspora in North America, Europe, and Asia to procure weapons, communications, funds, and other needed supplies.

“The group employed charities as fronts to collect and divert funds for its activities.”

According to the report, there have been no known attacks in Sri Lanka that could verifiably be attributed to the LTTE since the end of the war, but a total of 13 LTTE supporters, several of whom had allegedly planned attacks against U.S. and Israeli diplomatic facilities in India, were arrested in Malaysia in 2014.

Additional LTTE members were arrested in Malaysia and India in 2015, one of whom was accused of exhorting other Sri Lankans to fund and revive the LTTE.

On April 30, a Court of Appeals sentenced five members of the Dutch chapter of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers. The five persons (aged between 43 and 60) were convicted of participation in a terrorist organization, having a leadership position in the Dutch chapter of LTTE, and raising funds for LTTE (often through coercion).

The suspects were acquitted of recruitment, extortion, and incitement. The prosecutor appealed the incitement ruling. The prison sentences range from nineteen months to six years and three months, slightly higher than the 2011 district court ruling.

– See more at: http://www.adaderana.lk/news.php?nid=35534#sthash.zUUUVJlj.dpuf

OPEN LETTER TO HON MALIK SMARAWICKRAMA AND CENTER FOR DEVELOPMENT Bureaucracy and lethargic attitude of   state agencies is an impediment to development …………..

June 3rd, 2016

Dr Sarath Obeysekera

Main Issue

After returning from  UK leaving a very lucrative job in Oil and Gas Industry to work in Sri Lanka I  sought  approval from SLPA to establish a shipyard in Galle Harbour to undertake repair and building of Yachts ,Pleasure Crafts and other small boats ,under the Master Plan of Galle Harbour development .

After two years of struggle with the state Bureaucracy, from 2011 to 2013 to get all state approvals and we signed the Business Agreement with SLPA with an Investment from Saudi Arabia .

Due to various incidents happening in the country against Middle Eastern people ,investor pulled out and a new investor in Sri Lanka has expressed interest to continue with the project .

A local blue chip company has undertaken to invest 25 million dollars and sought approval from SLPA to revive the project with blessings from the BOI .

It is almost another one year since the revival program was submitted and the government is dilly dallying in granting permission to re-commence the investment program.

Reason given by SLPA is that new management is planning to hand over the harbour to a new investor to start a marina and the shipyard land given to our investor   is included in the new proposal.

One wonders how can SLPA survive on charging few dollars from Yacht owners ( who survive on Malu Paan from Chun Pan Tuk Tuks’s) coming in few numbers to the Gall Harbour ??

Another Issue

We have also   acquired a 100 perches of land outside the Galle Harbour Shipyard Project Land ,with a different investor and under new company  to commence some boat  building until the Shipyard project materialises.

When the building approval plans were submitted to Galle Municipal Council ,we have been told to get approvals from following agencies.

  • Central Environment Authority ( CEA)
  • Coat conservation Department ( CCD)
  • Sri Lanka Ports Authority ( SLPA )
  • Urban Development Authority ( UDA)
  • National Building Authority ( NBRO)
  • Fishery Corporation
  • Road Development Authority (RDA )

Even though most of the above agencies have no real relevance to the approval and the Land is outside SLPA premises except CEA ,These agencies impose rules to delay the project and not  to allow such an investment to go ahead and taking many weeks to consider approval .

I got EDOB ( ease of doing business ) under the Minister Ravi Karunanayake to intervene regarding RDA involvement but notyhing substantial happened

Dear Minister

We have written many letters and attended meetings but nothing is materialising.

This is a project of national importance which will provide many jobs and generate much needed foreign currency.

Can you Centre for Development call a meeting and help us to proceed with the investment

Dr Sarath Obeysekera

නන්දන වින්දන

June 3rd, 2016

ධර්මන් වික්‍රමරත්න

ශ්‍රී ලංකාව වනාහි සියලු සම්පතින් අනුන අපූර්තම නිර්මාණයක් ලෙස හැදින්විය හැකි රටකි. පුරාතනයේ වෙළදාමේ යෙදුන වෙළදුන් මෙම දිවයින සෙරන්ඩිප් යනුවෙන් නම් කළේය. ග්‍රීක සහ රෝම වෙළදුන් විසින් මෙය තැප්රොබේන් නම් විය. පසුකලෙක සිලෝන්ද විය. එවැනි අභිමානවත් සහ පෞඬ ඉතිහාසයක් ඇති රට මෑතකදී පටන් ‘ජෝන් බාස්ට’ ගොසිනි. 

ජනතාව බොහෝ දේශපාලඥයින්ට කියන්නේ පගාකාරයා කියාය. දූෂකයා කියාය. මගෝඩිස්තුමා කියාය. වැඩකාරයා කියන අවස්ථාද ඉදහිට නැත්තේ නොවේ. මොළකාරයා කියන්නේ අපහාස උපහාසයට නොව ප්‍රසංසා මුඛයෙන්ය. එවැනි දුර්ගුණ සමාජය අගයනු ලැබීම එයට හේතුවය. එලෙස බැලූ කල මාර්ග නීති කඩකර සෘජුව හෝ වක්‍රව බේරුණ බොහෝ දේශපාලඥයින් මොළකාරයින්ය. එහෙත් මින් පෙන්නුම් කරන්නේ සමාජය වර්තමාන ඇද වැටී ඇති ඛේදජනක තත්ත්වයයි.

dharman03061601ජවිපෙ ප්‍රචාරක ලේකම් විජිත හේරත් පැදවූ රථය රාත්‍රී 12ට පමණ රාජගිරියේ අනතුරට පත් අවස්ථාවේදී එහි දර්ශනයක් මැද සේයාරුවේ දැක්වේ. විජිත හේරත්, සිය රථයේ ගැටී යතුරුපැදි කරුවෙකු ඝාතනයට ලක්කිරීමේ චෝදනාවට 2015 ලක්වූ ගාලු දිස්ත්‍රික් මන්ත්‍රී මනූෂ නානායක්කාර, නියෝජ්‍ය ඇමතිවරයෙකු වශයෙන් සිටියදී 2014 අධික වේගයෙන් ධාවනයවූ සිය රථයට දඩ කොලයක් ලිවීම නිසා පොලිස් නිලධාරිවරයෙකුට බැන වැදීම සහ පොලිස් නිලධාරියාගේ රථය ගිණිතැබීම පිළිබඳව චෝදනාවට ලක්වූ වැලිගම හේමාල් ගුණසේකර, ගල්ගමුවේදී සිය රථය අනතුරට ලක්වී 2008 මරමුවට පත්වූ ගම්පහ දිසා මන්ත්‍රී ශ්‍රිපති සූරියආරච්චි වමේ ඉහළ සිට මෙහි  වේ. මෑතකදි ආන්දෝලනාත්මක රිය අනතුරක් පිළිබඳ චෝදනා ලැබූ ඇමති චමිපික රණවක, 1992 පාද යාත්‍රාවට ගොස් එද්දී සිය රථයට යටවූ අයෙකු මියයෑම පිළිබඳව චෝදනාවට ලක්වූ නසසප නායක ආචාර්ය වික්‍රමබාහු කරුණාරත්න, අධිවේගී මාර්ගයේ පැමිණෙද්දී 2014 රිය අනතුරකට ලක්ව එක් පාදයක් අහිමිවූ ගම්පහ දිසා මන්ත්‍රී අජිත් මාන්නප්පෙරුම, රථයේ රියදුරු බීමත්ව රිය පදවමින් සිටියදී වාද්දුවේදී 1996දී අනතුරට පත්ව මරණයට පත් ලිබරල් පක්ෂයේ නායක චානක අමරතුංග දකුණේ ඉහළ සිට පහළ ඡායාරූපයන්හි දැක්වේ

රටක දියුණුව මනින්නේ රටවැසියන්ගේ දියුණුව අනුවය. ආහාර, ඇදුම්, වාසස්ථාන එම ප්‍රධාන කරුණුය. එම ලිප්ගල් තුනට අමතරව තවත් දෙයක් කලක සිට එක්වී ඇත. ඒ බීමය. බොන්න වතුර තිබේ. තේ, පේන්ටිද තිබේ. අලියා හෝ සිංහයා බීමද තිබේ. රා හෝ සුදුවාද තිබේ. දෙවියන්ට ගහන්නට නම් පොල්ය. බල්ලන්ටනම් ගල්ය. විස්කි, බැන්ඩ්‍රි සහ ෂැන්පේන්ද ලොකු ලොක්කන්ට තිබේ.

ජනතා විමුක්ති පෙරමුණේ(ජවිපෙ) ප්‍රචාරක ලේකම් සහ ගම්පහ දිස්ත්‍රික් පාර්ලිමේන්තු මන්ත්‍රී විජිත හේරත් අපරික්ෂාකාරි ලෙස රිය පැදවීම පිළිබඳව බැලූ බැලූ අත විවිධ මති මතාන්තරය. බීලා කියා එක් පිළක් පවසන අතර අනෙක් පිල මේවා මඩ බව හතර අතේ දිවුරමින් කියා සිටී. වාසනාවකට හෝ අවාසනාවකට තවමත් කඩපොලේ, ලිදේ පිලේ, බෝක්කු මංමාවත් වල පෝස්ටරයක්නම් නැත. විජිත හේරත් බීවාද නැතද යන්න රටට අදාළ නැත. හේරත්ගේ ඇල්කොහොල් මට්ටම මැනීම සහ කීම අදාළ අංශ වලින් අධිකරණය හමුවට ගෙන ගියේය. රටේ ජනයාගේ කුකුස මත්පැන් ගඳක් වහනයවන අතිරේක අධිකරණ වෛද්‍ය නිලධාරි කේ.කේ. ජුසාර් ඔහුගේ වාර්තාවේ සඳහන්කර තිබුණද විජිත හේරත් මත්පැන් බී සිටීයේදැයි අධිකරණ වෛද්‍ය වාර්තාවේ සඳහන් නොවීය. ඒ අනුව මත්පැන් බි සිටියේයැයි ප්‍රමාණවත් සාක්කි නැතැයි මහේස්ත්‍රාත්වරයා ප්‍රකාශ කළේය. අනතුරක් වලක්වා නොගැනීමට දඩය රුපියල් 1,500කි. රාජගිරියේ දෙකට නැමුණු ලයිට් කණුවට වූ අලාභය රුපියල් 17,423කි. මෙය පොලිස් නිල ඇඳුම විහිලුවට ලක්වූ තවත් එක් අවස්ථාවක් බව ඉතිහාසයට එක්වී හමාරය.

ජවිපෙ 1965 මැයි 14 ආරම්භ කල අවස්ථාවේ සිට දුම්පානය, මත්පැන් මෙන්ම අයථා ප්‍රේම සම්බන්ධතාද අනුමත නොකළේය. එය තහනමක් නොවේ. සරළව කිවහොත් නීතියක් නොව ඊතියකි. සමාරම්භක සාකච්ඡාවට මීට 51වසරකට පෙර සහභාගිවූ 11 දෙනා වූයේ රෝහණ විජේවීර, විජේසේන විතාන නොහොත් සනත් බොරළුකැටිය, ඩබ්ලිව් ටී. කරුණාරත්න, මාබෝලේ එච්. මිල්ටන්, සතොසේ ටී.ඩී. වෝල්ටර්, රුවන්වැල්ලේ විල්සන්ඩ් දැඩිගම, ලංගම සේවය කල තිස්සමහාරාමයේ සිරිපාල අබයගුණවර්ධන, අක්මීමන ඩබ්ලිව්.ටී. අමරතුංග, පානදුරේ ටී.බී.සී ප්‍රනාන්දු, නාවික හමුදාවේ එච්.එම්. තිලකරත්න සහ කොළඹ සරසවියේ උපාධි අපේක්ෂක දෙවුන්දර මුතුමාලය. ආරම්භයේදීම පානදුරේ ප්‍රනාන්දු අල්ලපු ගෙදර තරුණියට ලිපිනය දීම නිසා ඔහු කපා හැරියේය. දෙවුන්දර මුතුමාල තදින් දුම්පානය කල අයෙක්වූ අතර එකල ජනප්‍රිය සිගරට්ටුව වූ ‘ආඩත්’ අතහැරීමේ කොන්දේසියට ඔහු එකඟ නොවීම නිසා ගෞරවාන්විතව පසුදින සමුගෙන පිටව ගියේය.

ජවිපෙ වැනි වාමාංශික දේශපාලන පක්ෂ ක්‍රියාත්මක වන්නේ මාක්ස්-ලෙනින්වාදය පොතේගුරුවාදයක් බවට පත්කර ගනිමින් නොවේ. එය මූලධර්මවාදයක් බවට පත්කරගෙන සාමාජිකයන් සිරකරුවන් බවට පත්කරගෙනද නොවේ. එහෙත් අන් පක්ෂවලට වඩා ජවිපෙ තුළ විප්ලවවාදී විනය හේතුවෙන් එවැනි සදාචාර සීමාවන්වල කඩඉම් ඇත. දේශපාලන දැක්ම අතින් දුර්වල වූවෝ සහ ඉච්ඡා භංගත්වයට පත්වූවෝ තුළින් එවැනි අකැප වැඩයැයි සිතන දෑ කඩවු අවස්ථාවන්ද නැතුවා නොවේ. එළියේ වැඩකිරීමේදී ‘අඩි-පුඩි’ මෙන්ම සිරගෙවල් තුළදී ‘ගල-මල’ පරිහරණය කිරීම දක්වා තල්ලුවී ගොස් පිරිහීම් ප්‍රදර්ශනය කල අය දුලභ නැත.

ජවිපෙට එරෙහි අවලාද ඇයි? සම්මන්ත්‍රණ කිහිපයක් ඉකුත්දා පැවැත්විණි. එහි උණුසුම යන්නටද මත්තෙන් තවත් අවලාද ගොඩකි. කවර ව්‍යාපාරයක වුවද සාමාජිකයන් එකා මෙන් තබාගත නොහැක. එය ව්‍යාපාරයට ප්‍රශ්ණයක් වූවද පොදුවේ රටට ප්‍රශ්ණයක් නොවේ. රටට ප්‍රශ්ණයක් වන්නේ එමගින් නීති පද්ධතියට හානි කලහොත් පමණි.

බොන මිනිස්සු පාර්ලිමේන්තුවේත් සිටිති. රජයේ කාර්යාලවලත් සිටිති. මාධ්‍ය ආයතනවලත් සිටිති. මෙකී නොකී බොහෝ තැන්වල සිටිති. රටේ ආදායමෙන් වැඩි හරියක් සොයා දෙන්නේ ඔවුන්ගේ ක්‍රියාවන්ට අදාළ බද්දෙනි. රාජකාරි වෙලාවේ හෝ පොදු ස්ථානයකදී හැර බීමේ තහනමක් නැත. සෞඛ්‍යයට පමණක් නොව පොකැට්ටුවටද එය හානිකර නිසා ඇතමෙක් ඉන් වැලකෙති. සූර්වී වාහනයක ගමන් කිරීමද ප්‍රශ්නයක් නැත. නීතියට එරෙහි වන්නේ බීමත්ව සුක්කානම අතට ගැනීමෙන් පමණි.

සාමාන්‍ය ක්‍රමවේදය වන්නේ බීමත්ව රිය පදවා ඇති බවට චෝදනාවක් පොලිසිය විසින් උසාවියට ඉදිරිපත් කරන බී වාර්තාවට දමන්නේ එය වෛද්‍ය වාර්තාවෙන් තහවුරු වූ විට පමණි. එහෙත් එම චෝදනා ඔප්පු කිරීමට වෛද්‍ය වාර්තා උසාවියට ඉදිරිපත් කල යුතුය. ප්‍රශ්ණය ඇත්තේ එතැනය. බීමත්ව රිය පැදවූ බොහෝ දෙනා උසාවියට ගොස් වරද පිළිගෙන මාස 6ක පමණ රියදුරු බලපත්‍රය තාවකාලිකව අහිමිකර ගෙන දඩයකටද යටත් වෙති. ආණ්ඩුවේ නිල වාහනවල බොහෝමයක නිල ලාංඡනයක් නොමැත. ඔවුනට රිසි සේ ගමන් බිමන් යයි. විජිත හේරත් ගමන් කල වාහනයද ආණ්ඩුවේ බව කියති. රථයේ අංකය නොපෙනන පරිදි වසා තිබුනේ ඒ නිසාය. එහි සත්‍ය අසත්‍යතාවය ඔහු ප්‍රකාශ කල යුතුය. ඉහත රිය අනතුරවූ පසු බඩුත් හාමුදුරුවන්ගේය. නඩුත් හාමුදුරුවන්ගේය. මයි කාර්, මයි ප්‍රෙට්ටෝල්ය.

අතේ රෝල් නඩුහබ නිසා කඩුවෙල දැන් නඩු-වෙලය. වසරේ ජනප්‍රියම පොලිසිය පිහිටි නිසා වැලිකඩ දැන් වලි-කඩය වී ඇත. ‘එම්බල පොලිස් රාලහාමි, කටින් මත්පැන් සුවඳ වහනය වන්නේනම් රියදුරා ඇතැම්විට රාත්‍රී භෝජනයෙන් පසු ජලය වෙනුවට මිදියුෂ පානය කර ඇත්ද?’ අසන්නට අපට අවසර නැත. එම්බල අධිකරණ වෛද්‍ය නිළධාරිතුමනි, අධිකරණ වෛද්‍ය විද්‍යාව ඔබ බොර කරන්නෙහිද? වැසිකිලි පෝච්චියේ ඇනකොන්ඩා දකින අයට හැර සෙසු අයට මේවා ප්‍රශ්නය.

ජවිපෙද මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂට අතේ රෝල් ගසමින් අපහාස, උපහාස සහ අවලාද සිදු කළේය. මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂට අයිති වතු, කොම්පැණි, හෝටල්, රත්තරං අශ්වයින්, විදේශීය බැංකු ගිණුම් පිළිබඳ චෝදනා කෙප්පරක් කීවද ඒවා දැන් ගල් පැලෙන බොරු බවට පත්වී ඇත. ඒවාද සිදුකළේ විජිත හේරත්ගේ හෝ අනුර කුමාරගේ ප්‍රශ්න පිළිබඳව සමාජ ජාලා වෙඩ් අඩවි වර්තමානයේ සිදුකල විවේචන හා සමානය. දිට්ටධම්මවේදනීය කර්මය පළ දෙනවායැයි කියන්නේ මේවාටය. කර්මය එන්නේ රිය සක මෙනි. බලයෙන් වෙරි වුවද, සුරාවෙන් වෙරි වූවද ආනිසංශය එකමය. තුට්ටුවක රාබී පනම් 12ක වෙරිගත් අයෙකු සේ ඇගට දැනුනු වෙරියටත් වඩා වැඩි වෙරියක් මෙම ගොඩින් නොව මඩින් එන සටන් වලින් ඔවුනට විදීමට සිදුව ඇත.

පාර්ලිමේන්තු මන්ත්‍රීවරුන් සම්බන්ධවූ විවිධ රිය ගැටුම්වලට අනේකවිධි අර්ථකථන ලැබුණි.  ඇමති චම්පික රණවකගේ රථයට යටවී තරුණයෙකු බරපතල රෝගී තත්ත්වයෙන් තවමත් ලෙඩ ඇදේය. එය පදවාගෙන ආවේ ඇමති චම්පික නොව ඇමති රියදුරා බව පොලිසිය අධිකරණයට වාර්තා කළේය. එහෙත් රිය පැදවීමේ චෝදනාව ආවේ ඇමති චම්පික රණවකටය. එදා විපක්ෂයේ පාද යාත්‍රාවට සහභාගිවී පැමිණෙද්දි නසසප නායක ආචාර්ය වික්‍රමබාහු කරුණාරත්නගේ රියට තරුණයෙක් යටවී මිය ගියේය. එය පදවාගෙන ආවේ ආචාර්ය බාහු බවට චෝදනා කලද ඔහුගේ රියදුරා වරද භාරගත්තේය. ගාල්ල දිස්ත්‍රික් මන්ත්‍රී මනූෂ නානායක්කාරගේ රියට 2015 අගෝස්තු ඉමදූවේදී 76 හැවිරිදි යතුරු පැදිකරුවෙකු යටවී මිය ගියේය. වරද භාරගත් රියදුරා අත්අඩංගුවට ගත්තේය. පැදවූයේ මන්ත්‍රී මනූෂ බවට චෝදනාවක් විය. අවසානයේ ඔළු හේදිමට ගිය ඔහුට සිදුවූයේ ‘යහපාලන’ ආණ්ඩුවේ අහවල් තැන සේදීමටය. නියෝජ්‍ය ඇමති හේමාල් ගුණසේකරගේ රථය 2014 මැයි 20වැනිදා දක්ෂිණ අධිවේගී මාර්ගයේදී වේගසීමා උල්ලංඝණය කිරීම නිසා පොලිස් කොස්තාපල් සුමින්ද සමන් දඩ කොලයක් ලියා දුන්නේය. රියදුරා රථය පැදවූ අතර පසුපස සිටියේ නියෝජ්‍ය ඇමතිවරයාය. පසුව කිසියම් පිරිසක් පොලිස් කොස්තාපල් සුමින්දට 2014 මැයි 30 කළුතර දොඩම්ගොඩ බෝම්බුවලදි පහරදී ඔහුගේ මෝටර් රථය ගිනි තබා තිබිණි. 

ගම්පහ දිසා මන්ත්‍රී අජිත් මාන්නම්පෙරුම අධිවේගි මාර්ගයේ රථයකින් යද්දී දොඩංගොඩ ප්‍රදේශයේ 2014 සැප්තැම්බර් 7වැනිදා අනතුරකට පත්විය. පසුව ඔහුගේ දකුණු පාදය ශල්‍යකර්මයකින් ඉවත් කරන ලදී. එය රියදුරාගේ නොසැලකිල්ලෙන් සිදූවූවක් බව ප්‍රකාශ විය. ගම්පහ දිසා මන්ත්‍රී ශ්‍රීපති සුරියආරච්චි 2008 පෙබරවාරි 9වැනිදා ගල්ගමුව මැදගම ප්‍රදේශයේ රිය අනතුරකින් මරණයට පත්විය. එකල විවිධ කථා ඒ වෙනුවෙන් පැතිරිණි. පසුව මෙය රියදුරාගේ නොසැලකිල්ලෙන් සිදුවූ රිය අනතුරක් බව තහවුරු විය. ලිබරල් පක්ෂයේ නායක චානක අමරතුංගද සිය මිතුරෙකු සමඟ මත්පැන් පානය කොට රථයකින් පැමිණෙද්දී වාද්දූව ප්‍රදේශයේ 1996 අගෝස්තු 1වැනිදා අලුයම අනතුරකට ලක්වී මරණයට පත්විය. රිය අනතුරුවලදී අන් අය මෙන් නොව දේශපාලඥයෝ සුරංගනා කථා කියති. රූන් පෙත්ත කැරකී හැප්පෙන්නේ අහිංසකයෝය. පසුව ගොරකා දඩමස් කරති. මේවා නන්දන වින්දන කථාය.

සති කිහිපයකට ඉහතදී ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ විදේශ වාර්තාකරුවන්ගේ සංගමය සෞඛ්‍ය ඇමතිවරයා සමඟ සාකච්ඡාවකදි කන බොන අන්දම ගැනද ඡායාරූප පෙලක් සමාජ ජාලාවල සැරිසරනු පෙනිණි. මාධ්‍යවේදී කනබොන බව විවෘත රහසක් වූවද ඒවා එසේ පළකිරීම දෙකේ කාසියට වැටීමකි. විදේශ වාර්තාකරුවන්ගේ සංගමය 1987 මාර්තු ආරම්භ කිරීමෙන් පසු අමල් ජයසිංහගේ නායකත්වයෙන් හොද සේවාවක් කලද වර්තමානයේ මාසික රැස්විමක් තබාගැනිමට මෙසේ දේශපාලඥයින්ගේ දත් ගැලවීමනම් හත්පොලේ ගා ගැනීමකි.

දුප්පත් මිනිසාගේ වාහනය වන ත්‍රීවිලයේද මිල ලක්ෂ 4කින් වැඩිවිය. අවසානයේදී ෆොක්ස්වැගන් පෙන්නා ත්‍රීවිල් එකටත් කෙළියේය. නොතෙමී යන්නට වාහනයක් ගන්නට පෙරුම් පුරාගෙන සිටි ටොයි නංගීට නම් හරි පව්ය. ලැබෙන පනම් හතර රැකගන්නට ලද දෙයින් ඇය දැන් සතුටු වනවා ඇත. ඉස්සර හිටියේ බැට් මෑන්ය. දැන් ඉන්නේ වැට් මෑන්ය. චුයින්ගම්, බ්‍රේස්ලට්, ලැප්ටොප්, ෆී වයිෆයි වැනි දෑ  හිරු දුටු පිනි මෙන් වියැකී ගොසිනි.

දූෂණ වංචා සම්බන්ධයෙන් සැකකරුවෙකු වන හිටපු මන්ත්‍රී සජින් වාස් ගුණවර්ධනටද ප්‍රභූ ආරක්ෂක අංශයේ නිලධාරින් තිදෙනෙකුගේ සේවය ලබාදි ඇත.  මන්ත්‍රීධූරයක් අහිමි අයෙකුට ප්‍රභූ ආරක්ෂාව ලබාගත හැක්කේ කෙසේදැයි විමතියක් නොවන්නේ සජින් වාස් ද දැන් ‘යහපාලන’ ආණ්ඩුවේ හවුල් කරුවෙකු බැවිනි. සෞඛ්‍ය ඇමති රාජිතගේ මන්ත්‍රී පුතා කියන ආකාරයට ඇතැම් දොස්තරලා නිවටයින්ය, ගෙවලයින්ය. කාමාතුරයින්ය.

නැගෙනහිර මහ ඇමති නසීර් අහමඩ්ගේ පොටොකොල් එකේ හුටපටයෙන් ඉකුත් සතිය ගෙවී ගියේය. මේ සතියේ විජිත හේරත්ගේ බොනපාට් නාටකය විය. සියල්ල මැද යටපත්වන්නේ ‘යහපාලන’ ආණ්ඩුවේ ජනතාවට විනකරන ආටක නාටකයන්ය.  මේ සියල්ල මැද එජාප ආණ්ඩු විරෝධී පාක්ෂිකයෝ එක ධජයක් යටතට එක් රොක් වෙමින් සිටීම සතුටට කරුණකි.

හැම තැනම මිල වැඩිවීම්ය. ආත්මය පරඩැල්ය. විඩාපිරි මුවවල්ය. ගත පුරා ගිනිදැල්ය. ගැටගැසුනු ඇගවල්ය. වැට් එක්ක කන බඩවල්ය. පොටොකොල් සහ බොනපාට් නන්දන වින්දන නිසා ආණ්ඩුවට මඟුල්ය. ජනතාවට උගුල්ය. අනේ කාලේ වනේ වාසේ කියන්නේ මේවාටය.  (The writer is a senior journalist who could be reached at ejournalists@gmail.com OR 011-5234384)

ධර්මන් වික්‍රමරත්න

ejournalists@gmail.com

Norway denies official recognition to Buddhism while preaching freedom of religion & human rights in Sri Lanka

June 2nd, 2016

Shenali D Waduge

When Norway returns to the political scene and little noise is made either people have forgotten Norway’s illicit past or people’s views are being shut out by a sepoy media that is now realizing what ‘no media freedom’ really means. Be that as it may, this evangelical preaching nation has returned to poke its nose again into the internal affairs of Sri Lanka playing faithful servant to the West’s global agenda with the mission to destroy the ethno-religious identities of Asia, convert as many locals as possible en route to the end post China. Norway joins the rest of the EU nations that is dishing out their bags of trouble to an appeasing government that is willing to do anything so long as it can stay in power. Let’s look at Norway’s own records and how qualified Norway is to preach about equality and freedom.

shenali02061601

Norway has a population of 5.1million (July 2014) 75% of the population are members of the Church of Norway (national Statistics Bureau)

  • Firstly, Norway does not recognize Buddhism as an official religion. Can such a country be preaching to us about freedom of religion and human rights?
  • Norway’s Constitution is the oldest still in force in Europe dating back to 1814 but rights of national minorities are not even included in its constitution.
  • The 2012 US state department report on religious freedom in Norway reads: “The constitution now states that the country’s values are based on its Christian and humanist heritage.  The Evangelical Lutheran Church (ELC), the state church prior to passage of the constitutional amendment, still receives some benefits not available to other religious groups.”
  • Church staff are still considered public employees (Church employees are State employees). The report also states that the Evangelical Lutheran Church receives benefits not available to other religious groups and that the Norwegian state supports the Church FINANCIALLY and the law regulates clerical salaries and pensions! And this very nation is preaching to Sri Lanka to remove the historical place Buddhism has.
  • Then there is the Christian Knowledge and Religious and Ethical Information (CKREE) course – which is offered in grades 1 to 10 (ages 6 to 16) which cites the country’s Christian history. The CKREE course devotes extensive time to studying Christianity. This course is MANDATORY – there are no exceptions to other religions and non-religious groups! How do you like that!
  • While Sri Lanka has religious holidays and stamps for minorities and minority leaders and minority events the only national religious holidays in Norway are –Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Easter Sunday, Easter Monday, Ascension Day, Pentecost, Whit Monday, Christmas Day and Saint Stephen’s Day.
  • Norway’s laws bans the production of kosher meat in Norway, which means the same applies to halal and Jewish community has to import kosher meat!
  • The US report also cites this example “There was strong debate about prayer rooms (for both Muslim and Christian students) in schools in September, when an Oslo school permitted such a room on school premises.  Conservative and populist politicians threatened to withhold funds for the Oslo budget if the prayer room was permitted.  The school consequently withdrew its plans for a prayer room.” In Sri Lanka minorities only have to scream and shout and their will becomes law!
  • According to a December 2010 police report, approximately 11% of 240 hate crimes registered in 2009 were religious motivated … and Norway is preaching to us!
  • The country that is striving to remove the Buddhist identity of Sri Lanka on behalf of the West has political parties with the Christian name – The Christians Party, Christian Unity Party, Christian Democratic Party, Christian Conservative Party
  • What about Norway’s place for minorities (not immigrants) – The Kingdom of Norway is founded on the territory of two people – the Norwegians and the Sami people. The Sami people is at the same time an indigenous people and a minority. The Sami people is the only minority protected by a special article in the Norwegian Constitution – article 110a introduced only in 1988 “”It is the responsibility of the authorities of the State to create the conditions enabling the Sami people to preserve and develop its language, culture and way of life.” http://tribunalconstitucional.ad/sites/default/files/documents-ponencies/H-NORWAY.pdf
  • In 1970 there were only 3500 people living in Norway from the non-Western world. That amounted to 0.1% of the population. The rise in immigrants started in 1987. By 2008 the number of non-Westerners and their dependants reached 246,529 or 5.2% of the population. 1 in 5 resident in Oslo is a non-Western immigrant. (The Political Representation of Immigrants and Minorities: Voters, Parties .Karen Bird). Voting rights in Parliament remains restricted to naturalized citizens. The 1st minority representative to be elected at national parliamentary level was in 2001. The 2nd such minority leader to be elected was in 2005. There have only been 2 minority representatives in the history of the Norwegian Parliament…. How many minority leaders are there in Sri Lanka’s Parliament?
  • Out of a total of 11,000 representatives in municipal councils elected in 2007, only 120 had an immigrant background from Asia, Africa, or Latin-America. Minority representation at local level in Norway is just 1.1%. In 2003 there were only 106 representatives!
  • The 4 main recipients of Norwegian Government aid are Norwegian Church Aid, Norwegian Refugee Council, Norwegian Red Cross, Norwegian People’s Aid. These agencies have often been accused of missionary and regime change and that’s not all in 2006 Norwegian Church Aid was accused of raping girls in Laos. Akha villagers in Northern Laos testified on video that Norwegian Church Aid staff coming to their villages to do various projects had demanded village girls to rape on repeated occasions. Village headmen told how they were unable to stop the rapes in their villages, girls who tried to run away were told by NCA staff that they would be beaten if they did not comply. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2006/4/7/200207/- The Afghanistan Government suspended the work of Norwegian Church Aid accusing it of proselytizing.

Norway’s LTTE links (questions asked by Dr. Kamal Wickremasinghe) http://www.island.lk/index.php?page_cat=article-details&page=article-details&code_title=143658

  • Why did Norway elevate the LTTE to the “sole representative of the Tamil community”
  • Why did Norway always attempt to treat the LTTE and the Sri Lankan government as ‘equals’
  • Why did Solheim and Norway work covertly to build up LTTE in to a military force comparable in strength to the Sri Lankan armed forces?
  • Why did Norway provide sophisticated satellite communication equipment to the LTTE during the 2002 ceasefire?
  • Why did the Norwegian Head of the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission, Major (SLMM) General Trond Furuhovde instruct the LTTE, in October 2003, to claim that the LTTE attack on the Chinese ship was by a “third party with stolen uniforms”?
  • Why, in October 2003,did Tryggve Tellefsen (the then head of the SLMM) forewarn the LTTE arms vessel about the impending Navy attack?
  • Why did Norway help the LTTE establish relations with Eritrea, organised purchases of arms, ammunition and other military equipment from a number of sources, using Eritrean end-user certificates?
  • Why did Norway facilitate the training of LTTE sea tigers in Thailand?
  • Why did Norway facilitate travel to Europe for LTTE leaders prior to the EU proscription in 2006, and arrange meetings with European politicians under the cover of “fact-finding missions”?
  • Why did Norway allow Norwegian Government-funded NGOs like the Norwegian People’s Aid to ‘donate’ heavy earth-moving vehicles, trucks, electricity generators, water pumps, tents, and other equipment to the LTTE?
  • Why did Norway fund publications like Professor Kristian Stokke’s “Building the Tamil Eelam State”, Third World Quarterly 27 (2006), which purported to ‘examine’ the ‘new state’ institutions, pre-empting the formal division of Sri Lanka?
  • Why did Norway allow the Icelandic diplomat Bjarni Vestmann enter the country on a tourist visa in October 2007, and arrange a clandestine meeting with S. P. Tamilselvan?
  • Why did the SLMM and Norway ignore morethan 3000 cease-fire violations and serious human rights violations, including child soldier recruitment, committed by the LTTE?

Is the present government just plain daft to invite Norway to play a key role in Sri Lanka again to stir trouble or are they also part of the problem?

What is clear in reading the above is that Norway or any other nation cannot even match what Sri Lanka has given the minorities. Using the minority card to take away the Sinhala Buddhist identity appears to be the gameplan and it is time the Sinhala Buddhists woke up and realized that it is not that minorities have no rights, it is easier for these scheming nations and the UN to use the minority grievance card to penetrate into and destroy the Sinhala Buddhist identity thus disintegrating the entire nation.

Shenali D Waduge

 

‘SINHALA TRIUMPHALISM’

June 2nd, 2016

KAMALIKA PIERIS

 The Government of Sri Lanka defeated the LTTE in Eelam war IV on 18th May 2009.  There was a spontaneous outpouring of joy  at the crushing defeat of the ‘invincible army’. People showed their joy island wide. The entire island erupted in jubilation.  On 22nd May an estimated 150,000 people converged on Colombo for a mass celebration. They came from all parts of the country, including remote villages. Senior citizens, toddlers and   disabled persons took part in the celebrations.

President Rajapakse held a banquet for the officers of the armed forces. Journalists who had reported on the war were felicitated by the Thunhela National Movement. There was all night pirit at Sri Lanka embassy in Moscow, to invoke blessings on President, government, citizens and the war heroes. Monks were conducted to the venue in a colorful perahera.

The victory celebrations had started well before the war ended in May 2009.  The public watched the war closely on the website run by the Defence ministry. When Kilinochchi, the headquarters of the LTTE fell on 2nd January, the website received 13 million hits within a few hours, the highest number of hits ever received by a locally hosted website. The public knew the importance of Kilinochchi.There were firecrackers throughout the country. The loudest crackers I heard at my home were for Kilinochchi.

Three days later, citizens across the country hoisted national flags and observed two minutes silence for the fallen heroes of Kilinochchi. A large crowd including Buddhist monks, gathered as the entrance to Parliament to praise the security forces for taking Kilinochchi. In Akuressa town, they celebrated with kiribath made of 500 kilos of rice.

In Nuwara Eliya they gathered in the town, chanted slogans praising the soldiers, let off a 150 meter line of fire crackers and listened to the Maha sangha at the Post Office. In all state schools pupils observed two minutes silence.  In Kandy, teachers and pupils went in procession along Dalada veediya and gathered before the Dalada Maligawa. Academic and non academic staff of University of Peradeniya observed two minutes silence. Unichela garment factory workers at Pannala   sang the national anthem and observed two minutes silence for Kilinochchi.

Durand Appuhamy observed that the victory celebrations in May 2009 were spontaneous.  The sense of liberation and gratitude was so overwhelming that it needed spontaneous celebrations, with dansalas and kiribath at street parties, he said. It was an instinctive appreciation of the work of the armed forces. Why should one restrain such joy?  Why cannot people give vent to their emotions in a positive way? he asked.  N.A. de S Amaratunga said Sinhala nationalism has a history of self preservation rather than aggression.  It is this sense of nationalism that is on display in the celebrations, ‘resisting successfully everything that Tami separatism could throw at it locally and internationally’.

Sinharaja Tammita Delgoda says one of the most strking things about Eelam War IV was the chorus of derision and condemnation in which the operation was conducted. No other fighting force had faced this kind of ridicule during a campaign. Bogollagama noted that the war was fought in an unhelpful and hostile background.  The army was winning, but it was publicly ridiculed by a section of the political elite.  But this did not deter the armed forces. They were determined to win.

Certain sections of the media  supported Eelam. They said that LTTE could not be militarily defeated, the army could not hold liberated areas, and the ‘international community’ would not allow the government to defeat the LTTE. The media protested when INGOs, NGOs, and UN agencies were asked to leave LTTE held territory and alleged that the Sri Lanka Air Force had used cluster ammunition and had targeted civilians including schools.  ‘It was a shock to all that the LTTE was defeated on its own territory,’ said Shenali Waduge. The Eelam war was categorized as an unwinnable war.  It was always the Sri Lanka government that had to offer compromises, the LTTE got away with countless crimes.

The victory celebrations  in 2009 and after were criticised as ‘triumphalism’. Kumar David titled his weekly essay ‘Sinhala nationalism’s triumphal moment.’’  Sri Lanka was asked not to engage in triumphalism. Those opposing Tamil separatism pointed out that the Eelamists had also shown ‘triumphalism’ whenever the LTTE won. Eelamists were upset about Sinhala ‘triumphalism’ because the LTTE lost.  ‘In their despair, they are arbitrarily pinning on the Sinhalese a non-existent ‘triumphalism’. ‘Victory Day’ celebrations were also  opposed by those who supported the LTTE. They questioned the annual Victory Parade. Anti-Eelamists replied that  Russia  annually celebrates its victory over Nazi Germany. No one speaks of triumphalism.  World War II  Victory Day was  still celebrated in Europe.

Tamil National Alliance wanted the Tamils to mourn Victory day, May 17, 2010 as “a day of catastrophe.”  Dayan Jayatilleke said that victory day was just that, it was ‘victory day’. It cannot be also a day of mourning. It commemorates a historically significant triumph over a cruel foe. The heroism the armed forces and our citizens who did not capitulate to terrorism and separatism. It celebrates the spirit of resistance of our nation. It salutes the memory of the service of the soldier sailors and airmen and their families. It was a glorious day of liberation and reunification of a divide state. It must stand alone.

Nalin de Silva observed that Eelam War IV was undoubtedly a great victory. The government of a small country had defeated a terrorist outfit supported and sponsored by the western powers. Col. C.R.Hariharan said LTTE has been outwitted, out-gunned and out-strategized by the Sri Lanka army, this must be accepted. Dayan Jayatilleke said that by defeating the Tigers so completely and utterly, Sri Lanka and its armed forces made a contribution to regional and global security. ‘We have got precious little thanks for making the region a little safer’ he added. Gotabhaya Rajapakse suggested that other countries facing terrorism should follow Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka had shown that terrorism could be defeated.

The  victory  against Eelam   was due also to  the  patriotism of the general public. Two minor employees of Sri Lanka Ports Authority detected two frogmen carrying explosives near the Jaya container Terminal. They alerted authorities and prevented an attack on Colombo Port in 1996. .

Christians, Moors, Malays and Tamils  played a very valuable role in the victory. Roshan Goonetilleke, Commander of the Sri Lanka Air Force was a staunch Christian. Rear Admiral A.H.M. Razeek, Northern Naval area commander  was appointed  Chief of staff in 2000. The Pabbatha operation of 1990 was under Captain Razeek. He had recommended the Pabbatha crew for a very high gallantry medal. The commanding officer of Deep Penetration intelligence Unit at Batticaloa was Captain S. H. Nilam supported by Major T. N. Muthalif. Helicopter squadron no 4 included Faizal Cazeer.

Parama Veera Vibhushana, the highest gallantry award was awarded posthumously to Colonel Fazly Laphir. He has been the commanding officer of the first Special Forces regiment and played a major role in developing this regiment from the original Combat Tracker team. He was killed in 1996 during a rescue mission he led when Mullaitivu army base was attacked by LTTE. An auditorium at Diyatalawa Military Academy was named after Colonel Fazly Laphir.

Lt.   Travis Sinniah, who is Tamil  and Christian, was instrumental in the detection of the LTTE boat Kadalpura in 1987. It had 18 LTTE leaders on board and was proceeding towards India. Trawler was fitted with radar, modern equipment and a range of weapons. When challenged they got ready to shoot. They were not going to stop.  Sinniah and leading seaman Prematilleke leaped into the boat, commandeered it and brought it back to Kankesanturai.

Travis Sinniah is described as one of the finest officers produced by the Sri Lanka Navy. He led the naval task force responsible for hunting down and blasting all but one of the seven LTTE arms carrying ships, an achievement which was crucial to the country’s victory. Sinniah retired after the war, with the rank of Commodore.  Sinniah’s valuable contribution is now in the public domain.

“TORTURE OF WILD ELEPHANTS AND DISTRUCTION OF THE WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMNT”

June 2nd, 2016

Sarath Wijesinghe Solicitor / Attorney- at- law and a former Ambassador

 Magistrate as an owner of an Elephant

“Tilina Gamage” is a pleasant young non-controversial magistrate, who was charged with public property act, and for the possession of a baby elephant valued at 6.9 million allegedly without a valid licence. It is also alleged that he has been avoiding / evading the courts awaiting the outcome of his application for anticipatory bail. His defence is said to be the possession of a valid receipt from the person he has bought the Elephant calf from. Many other cases are pending with more wrongdoings and inquires which is shelved and under the carpet due to obvious reasons. Another owner of an Elephant Calf has been a powerful member of legislature of the previous regime who has become a multi milliner within few years and it is unlikely his matter will come to the surface because he has agreed to cross over and divulge information. “Thillina’s” matter is given wide publicity as the other case of a famous Buddhist Monk allegedly possessing an Elephant Baby unlawfully. Presumably he may have crossed the path in some way to get into this soup unlike many other illegal Elephant owners unconcerned and unaffected. There are cases pending and our area of discussions are limited and restricted to general information and facts that are of public interest. Wide publicity is given to this case and the facts which is somewhat unusual which concerns environmentalists, activists, professionals and media. Whether a magistrate could afford to purchase and maintain the Young Elephant Calf is a matter left to him, but whether he has complied with the Fauna and Protection ordinance 1937 amended in 2009 is the main issue to be considered. Section 23 of the act states that any Elephant which has not been registered under S/ 23, shall be presumed to be taken or removed without lawful authority such Elephants deemed to be public property. Elephant needs 150 kg of food and 150 litres of water per day and the cost of maintained with the caretaker is extremely expensive for an average citizen. These facts are common to all involved in the illegal trade still flourishing with the help of the rich and powerful.

Elephants are Intelligent Social Animals

Elephants are intelligent, social, society inclined, socially complex animals living in herds with a leader and bonded together in loving and peaceful environment. They keep away from other animals and other animals keep Elephants at arm’s length except tigers, and scavengers taking immature calves as pray with ferocious resistance from the mother. They are full of family bonds, social and lovable harmless animals unless they are threatened and habitat is disturbed. They are a part of the environment preserving the environment, strength and the beauty of the jungle and jungle life. Elephants are connected to the Sri Lankan culture and customs and during Kings the wealth was assessed by the ownership of the number of elephants. This system trickled down for generations considering Elephant as a symbol of social status. Kings and the rich only could own Elephants presented and permitted to be owned by the decree of the King. Situation changed after colonisation when British started to kill Elephants as a sport and to reduce the number for convenience. Due to import of heavy vehicles and the introduction of the train the use of the Elephant was confined to Customary rituals such as “Pereharas” , a status symbol, and  a tourist attraction. Today Elephant has become most expensive merchandise.

Snatching Baby Elephants from the Jungle

Snatching Baby Elephants from the Jungle has attracted the illegal traders due to millions of rupees in the illegal trade as or more lucrative than Drug Trade. It is a simple operation with the help of Politicians, Powerful and rich with the staff of the wildlife Department who are supposed to protect the Elephants and the wildlife from rouges. Mother is shot and killed to separate the Calf tied or transported out and veterinary surgeon’s certificate and the birth certificate is taken for the name to be entered in the Elephant registration book which is a controversial book discussed in number of cases against the Leader “Ali Roshan”  (Elephant Roshan) and other illegal Elephant Traders . It is a well-established and invested illegal trade with large acres of land and heavy vehicles for the transport of calves and lot of money to spend on Politicians, Wild Life Department and the cronies in the system which is reported in Ceylon Today and many papers and case records of Ali Roshan and other members of the group are accused of other cases which has been given wide publicity. Vijitha Vijumuni Soysa has been the wild life Minister for a considerable period until he crossed over to Yahpalanaya” Good Governance for safety absolving himself of any wrong doings. He said most Elephants in Sri Lanka are illegal and will take steps to make it legal. He makes funny and controversial statements now and then on the matter.

Way Forward

Elephant is our treasure and a symbol of culture from the time of Kings who respected and protected the animal, which is a part and parcel of our environment and wealth. They go through torture in captivity with no food and additional torture during transit and living with conditions below standard. Methods used for captivity are barbarous torturous and illegal. Human Elephant conflict is due to the invasion of their habitats by unplanned deforestation and developments. We are proud to have 8873 Elephants which is decreasing rapidly due to Human Elephant conflict and lack of coordination and implementation of the act and the preventive measures. Organized groups snatch Elephant Calves from the Jungle to sell for millions with forged papers which are controversial with information of loss and alteration of the Elephant Registration Book. We do not need outsiders to ruin us and our culture. We ruin over selves, our environment, and our cultural heritages in Temples and wild life with the most uncommon animals in the Globe. Historically foreigners invaded us to ruin us. Now we ruin ourselves. It is time to demand Zero elephant private ownership and minimize the use of Elephants in Pereharas in the interest of the future of the Nation in grief. Thickly Elephant populated areas such as Habarana to be declared areas for elephants with protected wires and providing the Chena cultivators alternative land. One must read the campaign for Elephants welfare in the countries with no Elephants or greenery. We do not realise the value of the Elephant and the culture and environment connected to because we are fortunately to possess this rare environments beauty and the animals as a part of our wealth. Citizen is not concerned or worried about the cases and the parties involved, but if something good is the outcome of the cases they will be happy and contended. Citizen wishes and prays this message will reach the powerful people in power.

Writer could be reached on ( sarath dw28@gmail.com)

RE: Pro-Christian Constitution aimed at stripping Sri Lanka’s Buddhist Land & Heritage

June 2nd, 2016

Vajiragnana

Don’t be so pedantic, today we are a nation of “bastards”! There’s no one with “pure Sinhala blood” running in our veins. From the time the colonists landed the country they “screwed” the natives spare-ring none! It is too evident even in the same family you fine siblings of different skin tones! So, it’s in namesake we talk of being “Sinhala and on top of it Bauddha”. Ranil has a cabinet that only knows to say “we accept” your proposal “SIR”. He is the man who was hell bent on celebrating 500years of Portuguese influence in Sri Lanka.

Anyway don’t give up that easily there’s the “yellow brigade” to keep everything in order, don’t cry in advance! However I doubt very much that the young who sacrificed their lives in vain to free the country from a mistakenly labeled movement called “LTTE” TERRORISTS (World has excepted them as “Cuddly” pussycats) will care two hoots just to defend few “lines in the constitution” this time!

All you say on Maldives is true, “was once a Buddhist nation. Today the Buddhist history has been expunged from its history books and whatever remains of Buddhist architecture is being targeted and destroyed even by attacking the museum where these relics are kept. Everywhere ground is dug some Buddhist remain appears and each time that historical monument is destroyed.  “They have effectively erased all evidence of our Buddhist past,” a senior museum official told”. That should happen wherever there appears to have presence of Buddhism!

Just wear your thinking cap for a short while, we were told in the profound teachings of the Exalted Thathagatha that it is the task of every Bodhisattva to find the lost Dhamma, so in a future Planet where there is no Dhamma a Bodhisattva will have to struggle hard to discover the ultimate truth to become Buddha! Just like there are no free lunches!

Then if you are fortunate enough I shall appear as “Prince Diyasena”  to become “Maith3Buddha! to settle all the ills of the World!

I cannot agreemore on all you have said here, but the country is in decline, so have patience till I am born again, unfortunately my early exit was prevented by my GP fixing my Triple bi-pass!

Vajiragnana

Pro-Christian Constitution aimed at stripping Sri Lanka’s Buddhist Land & Heritage
Shenali D Waduge
When out of 19 members selected by the Prime Minister only two (Kushan de Alwis & M K Nadeeka Damayanthi opposes the removal of Article 9  it revealed beyond doubt the objective. 70% comprise Buddhists in Sri Lanka and only 2 stood for the sacrosanct status of the country’s historical ethos. The composition of the committee was clearly aimed to be a transit constitution enroute to fulfilling the unfulfilled goal of Christian colonial rulers. This constitution is nothing but a betrayal of our history, it is a conspiracy against Buddhism and the proposals to change the… -Full Story-
(LankaWeb – 02/06/16)

Pro-Christian Constitution aimed at stripping Sri Lanka’s Buddhist Land & Heritage

2016.06.02 ජානිපෙ මාධ්‍ය හමුව.-එක වැකියයි.. Chapter Close.. දොස්තරලාගේ බ්ලූ ෆිල්ම් තියාගෙන ඉන්න රාජිත පුතාට විමල්ගෙන් පිළිතුරු…

June 2nd, 2016

මහ බැංකුවේ ධනය තම සුඛවිහරණය

මහ බැංකුවේ ධනය තම සුඛවිහරණය සඳහා යොදා ගත් එමෙන්ම මහ බැංකු බැදුම්කර ක‍්‍රියාදාමය තම බෑණාගේ සමාගමට මුදල් ඉපයීම සඳහා වූ උල්පතක් බවට පත්කර දුන්, 2016 ජූනි 30 වැනිදායින් ධුර කාලය අවසන් වන මහ බැංකු අධිපතිවරයා යළි පත් කරන්නේදැයි ජාතික නිදහස් පෙරමුණේ නායක, පාර්ලිමේන්තු මන්ත‍්‍රී විමල් වීරවංශ මහතා ජනාධිපති මෛත‍්‍රීපාල සිරිසේන මහතාගෙන් විමසා සිටී.

මෙයට ලබාදෙන උත්තරය අනුව, මෛත‍්‍රීපාල සිරිසේන මහතා මේ රටේ සැබෑ ජනාධිපතිවරයාද? නැද්ද? යන්න ජනතාවට තහවුරු වනු ඇති බව ද විමල් වීරවංශ මහතා පෙන්වා දුන්නේය.

ජාතික නිදහස් පෙරමුණේ පිටකෝට්ටේ පිහිටි ප‍්‍රධාන කාර්යාලයේ පැවැති මාධ්‍ය හමුවකදී ඒ මහතා මෙසේ අදහස් දැක්වීය.

එහිදී වැඩිදුරටත් අදහස් දැක්වූ විමල් වීරවංශ මහතා, මෙසේ ද පැවසීය.

‘‘සාමාන්‍ය ජනතාවගේ ජීවිතවලට මේ වන විට රටේ ආර්ථික අර්බුදය ඉතාමත් තදින් දැනෙන තත්වයක් ඇති වෙලා තිබෙනවා. මේ ආර්ථික අර්බුදයේ ප‍්‍රධානම වගඋත්තරකරුවකු වන්නේ මහ බැංකු අධිපතිවරයා වන අර්ජුන මහේන්ද්‍රන් මහත්තයායි. අද ඉතිහාසයේ ප‍්‍රථම වතාවට රුපියල ඩොලරයට සාපේක්‍ෂව 149.35ක මට්ටමකට වැටිලා තිබෙනවා. රුපියල මේ තරමට බාල්දු වූ අවස්ථාවක් ලංකා ඉතිහාසය තුළ දැකගත හැකි වන්නේ නැහැ. ඒ වගේම අද මහ බැංකුවේ සංචිත ඇමෙරිකන් ඩොලර් බිලියන 05ට වඩා අඩු මට්ටමකට ඇද වැටිලා. එමගින් පෙනී යන්නේ රටේ තීරණාත්මක ආර්ථික මර්මස්ථානයක් වූ මහ බැංකුව තමන්ගේ භූමිකාව අත හරිමින් සිටින බවයි. රුපියල බාල්දුවීම නතර කර ගන්න බැරි, විදේශ වත්කම් සංචිත ආරක්‍ෂාකර ගැනීමට බැරි මහ බැංකුව, අද මහ බැංකු අධිපති අර්ජුන මහේන්ද්‍රන්ගේ සුඛවිහරණය සඳහා පාවිච්චි කරන තිප්පොළක් බවට පත් වී තිබෙනවා.

‘මහ බැංකු අධිපති ක්‍රෙඩිට් කාඩ්පතින් කාපු හැටි’

මේ මහ බැංකු අධිපතිවරයා 2015 පෙබරවාරි සිට 2015 දෙසැම්බර් දක්වා වූ මාස 11ක කාලය තුළ ඔහුට එම ආයතනයෙන් ලබාදී තිබෙන ක්‍රෙඩිට් කාඞ්පත භාවිතා කළ අන්දම ඇතුළත් වාර්තාව මා සතුව තිබෙනවා(එම වාර්තාව මාධ්‍ය වෙත පෙන්වයි* එම ක්‍රෙඞ්ට් කාඞ්පත උපයෝගීකරගෙන අර්ජුන මහේන්ද්‍රන් තමන්ගේ පෞද්ගලික වියදම් සඳහා පමණක් රුපියල් මිලියන 14.5ක්, එනම් රුපියල් ලක්‍ෂ 145ක් වැයකොට තිබෙනවා. මේ රටේ ජනතාවගේ මුදල් තමයි ඒ විදියට තමන්ගේ පෞද්ගලික සුඛවිහරණය සඳහා යොදා ගෙන තිබෙන්නේ. මහ බැංකු ඉතිහාසය තුළ වෙනත් කිසිදු මහ බැංකු අධිපතිවරයකු මෙවැනි විශාල මුදලක් තමන්ගේ සුඛවිහරණය සඳහා යොදාගෙන නැහැ.

‘අර්ජුන මහේන්ද්‍රන් මුදල් කාබාසිනියා කළ අන්දම’

මේ රුපියල් මිලියන 14.5 තුළ අර්ජුන මහේන්ද්‍රන්ගේ හෝටල් බිල් පමණක් තිබෙනවා, රුපියල් මිලියන 4.7ක. කෑමට පමණක් ගිහින් තිබෙනවා. රුපියල් මිලියන 3.6ක්. ගතවූ මාස 11ක කාලයෙන් මේක බෙදලා බැලූවොත් දළ වශයෙන් දිනකට ජනතා මුදලින් රුපියල් 10,000.00ක් කාලා තිබෙනවා. ඒ විදිහට කෑමබීම, ඉඳුම් හිටුම්වලට අමතරව විනෝදාස්වාදය සඳහා පමණක් මිලියන 1.7ක යොදවලා තිබෙනවා. ඒකත් දින ගණනෙන් බෙදලා බැලූවොත් මහ බැංකු අධිපතිවරයා මහ බැංකුවේ මුදලින් දිනකට රුපියල් 5,000 බැගින් අරන් විනෝද වෙලා තිබෙනවා. ඒ විතරක් නොවෙයි මෙයා අභ්‍යන්තර ගමන්, එනම් රට තුළ ගමන් සඳහා රුපියල් ලක්‍ෂ හයහමාරක් වැය කොට තිබෙනවා. අපි දන්නා විදිහට අර්ජුන මහේන්ද්‍රන් මේ මාස 11ක කාලයෙන් රට තුළ සිටියේ ඉතාමත් කෙටි කාලයයි. වැඩි කාලයක් සිටියේ විදේශගතවයි. මේ රටේ හිටපු ඒ කෙටි කාලය සඳහා ගමන් බිමන් සඳහායි මේ ලක්‍ෂ හය හමාර වියදම් කොට ඇත්තේ. ‘යාල හෙලිකොප්ටර් සවාරි’ යන්න වියදම් කළ මුදලත් මෙතැන තිබෙනවා. රජයේ හොලිකොප්ටර් මහ බැංකු මුදලින් මිලදී අරගෙන සවාරි ගහපු මහ බැංකු අධිපති ගැන එදා ‘බේබිලාගේ හෙලිකොප්ටර් සවාරි’ ගැන කට උල් කරන් කෑගහපු අයට පෙනෙන්නේ නැහැ.

‘ලක්‍ෂ 21ක අපූරු ඇඳුම’

ඒ විතරක් නොවෙයි අර්ජුන මහේන්ද්‍රන් මහත්තයා විදෙස්ගත වෙලා සිටි අවස්ථාවක ඔහුගේ ඇඳුම් වෙනුවෙන් රුපියල් ලක්‍ෂ 21ක මුදලක් වැයකොට තිබෙනවා. අපි අහනවා, ‘මේ ඇඳුම සකසා තිබෙන්නේ රත්තරනින්ද? කියලා. එවැනි ගණනක් ඇඳුමේ බිල හැටියට ආවාට අපට ආරංචි විදිහට වෙනත් කටයුත්තක් සඳහා තමයි මේ මුදල වැය කරලා තිබෙන්නේ. ඒ බව මහ බැංකුවේ බොහෝ නිලධාරීන් දන්නවා. ඒ මුදල කා වෙනුවෙන්ද වැය කළේ කියා හොයාගන්න එතුමාගේ මහ බැංකු කාර්යාලය ඇතුළට ගියාම අපහසු වන්නේ නැහැ.

‘මේක හොරාකෑම නොවෙයිද?’

මාස 11ක කාලයක් තුළ තමන්ගේ සුඛවිහරණය සඳහා පමණක් රුපියල් මිලියන 14.5ක මුදලක් යොදවපු මහ බැංකු අධිපතිවරයකු සිටින රටක ආර්ථිකය දියුණු වෙන්නේ කොහොමද? ‘රාජපක්‍ෂ ආණ්ඩුව හොරා කෑවා’ කියන මන්තරය ? දවල් දෙකේ ජප කරමින් මේ කන්නේ කවර කෑමක්ද? කවරකුවත් නොකාපු කෑමක් කාපු මේ මහ බැංකු අධිපතිවරයාගේ ධුර කාලය 2016 ජුනි මස 30 වැනිදා අවසන් වෙනවා. ‘මොහු නැවත පත් කරනවාද? නැද්ද?’ යන තීරණය එවිට මේ ආණ්ඩුවට ගන්න වෙනවා. මහ බැංකු අධිපතිවරයා පත් කරනු ලබන්නේ රටේ ජනාධිපතිවරයා විසිනුයි. ලංකා ඉතිහාසය පුරා මහ බැංකුව තිබුණේ මුදල් අමාත්‍යවරයා යටතේයි. එහෙම තිබුණු මහ බැංකුව ඉතිහාසයේ ප‍්‍රථම වතාවට අගමැතිවරයා යටතට පත්කළේ ඇයි? අගමැතිගේ ගජමිතුරාට මහ බැංකු අධිපතිකම ලබා දීමටයි. එමගින් අර්ජුන මහේන්ද්‍රන්ට සැප විඳීමට ඉඩ ලබා දීම සහ ඔහුගේ බෑණාගේ සමාගමට(පර්පචුවල් ටෙ‍්‍රෂරි* බැඳුම්කර ගනුදෙනු මගින් අතිරේක වාසි ලබාගෙන අයථා මුදලක් උපයා ගැනීමට ඉඩ ලබාදීම අගමැතිවරයාගේ අරමුණ වුණා.

‘ටයි – කෝට් හොරකම්’

පසුගිය මාර්තුවේ මහ බැංකුව විසින් රුපියල් බිලියන 77ක බැඳුම්කර නිකුත් කළා. මින් රුපියල් බිලියන 26ක්ම ගත්තේ කවුද? අර්ජුන් මහේන්ද්‍රන්ගේ බෑණාගේ සමාගම වූ පර්පචුවල් ටෙ‍්‍රෂරි සමාගම. මහ බැංකුව බැඳුම්කර හැටියට බිලියන 77ක ණයක් ගන්න හදන කොට දකුණු ආසියාවේ විශාලම අරමුදල වන සේවක අර්ථසාධක අරමුදලත් (EPF) ණය දෙන්න එනවා. මේ රුපියල් බිලියන 77ම ණය හැටියට මහ බැංකුවට ලබාදීමට තරම් සේවක අර්ථසාධක අරමුදල ශක්තිමත්. නමුත් EPF එකෙන් ගත්තේ බැඳුම්කර හැටියට බිලියන 2.5ක ණයක් විතරයි. නමුත් බෑණාගේ සමාගමෙන් බැඳුම්කර හැටියට බිලියන 26ක ණයක් ගන්නවා. ඒක නිකුත් කළ සම්පූර්ණ බැඳුම්කර මුදල වූ බිලියන 77න් 34%ක මුදලක්. නමුත් 2015 ජනවාරි 08 වැනිදාට කලින් කවදාවත් මේ සමාගමෙන් මෙවැනි විශාල මුදලක් මහ බැංකුව ණයට ගෙන නැහැ. මේවා සාමාන්‍ය ජනතාවට තේරෙන්නේ නැහැ. මේවාට කියන්නේ ‘ටයි – කෝට් හොරකම්’ කියලයි. මෙවැනි මහ බැංකු අධිපතිවරයකු තවදුරටත් ධුරයෙහි තබා ගත යුතුද?

මේ කෙටි කාලය තුළ මහ බැංකු බැදුම්කර සදහා වූ පොලී අනුපාතිකය 6%කින් ඉහළ ගොස් තිබෙනවා. 2014 – 2015 කාලය සන්සන්දනය කළාම මාස 03 බැඳුම්කර ණය සඳහා පොලිය වැඩිවීමේ ප‍්‍රතිශතය 54.2%යි, මාස 06 ණය සඳහා 64.3%යි, මාස 12 ණය සඳහා 67.2%යි, අවුරුදු 05 ණය සඳහා 73.0%යි, අවුරුදු 08 ණය සඳහා 66.2%යි, මේ විදිහට ‘බැඳුම්කර ණය සඳහා සියලූ පොලී අනුපාතිකයන් මේ කෙටි කාලය තුළ ඉතා විශාල ප‍්‍රතිශතයකින් ඉහළ ගොස් තිබෙනවා. මේක තමයි බෑණාට අතිරේක ලාභ උපයන්න හදලා දුන්නු ක‍්‍රමය.

අපි දුටුවා ජනාධිපති මෛත‍්‍රීපාල සිරිසේන මහතා අවස්ථා කිහිපයකදීම ප‍්‍රකාශ කොට තිබෙනවා, ‘මේ පුද්ගලයා මේ තනතුරට නුසුදුසු බවයි මගේ හැගීම. මම අගමැතිවරයාටත් යෝජනා කළා මේ පුද්ගලයා ඉවත් කරන්න, කියලා. නමුත් මම කීවාම අගමැතිවරයා ඊට එකග වුණේ නැහැ. කියලා. ඒ අනුව ජනාධිපතිවරයා පිළිගන්නවා, ‘මේ පුද්ගලයා පත් කිරීම නුසුදුසුයි’ කියලා. නමුත් මේ නුසුදුසු පුද්ගලයා තවමත් තනතුරේ සිිටිනවා. ‘ටයි-කෝට්’ හොරකම තවම කරනවා. කරුණාකරලා මේ බව පත්තරේ දාන්න. එතකොටවත් ජනාධිපතිතුමා ඒ බව දැන ගනීවි.

‘මහ බැංකුවේ ධනය තම සුඛවිහරණය සඳහා යොදා ගන්න, මහ බැංකු බැඳුම්කර ක‍්‍රියාදාමය තම බෑණාගේ සමාගමට මුදල් ඉපයීම සඳහා වූ උල්පතක් බවට පත්කර දී තිබෙන මේ මහ බැංකු අධිපතිවරයා ජූනි මාසයේ 30 වැනිදායින් පසු යළි පත් කරනවාද? කියා අපි ජනාධිපතිවරයාගෙන් අහනවා. කරුණාකරලා උත්තර දෙන්න. මේක තමයි මෛත‍්‍රීපාල සිරිසේන මේ රටේ ඇත්තටම ජනාධිපතිද? නැද්ද? කියා උරගා බලන ප‍්‍රධානතම අවස්ථාව. අගමැතිවරයාට අවශ්‍ය වෙලා තිබෙනවා මේ දූෂිත මහ බැංකු අධිපතිතුමා යළිත් ගෙන ඒමට. අපට මතකයි ජනාධිපතිවරයාගේ උපදේශකයකු වන ශිරාල් ලක්තිලක මහතා පළමු මහ බැංකු බැඳුම්කර වංචාව සිදු වූ අවස්ථාවේදී ප‍්‍රසිද්ධියේ පැවසුවා, මේක දැවැන්ත හොරකමක් කියලා. ජනාධිපතිතුමාගෙන් අහන්නේ නැතිව මෙහෙම දෙයක් ජනාධිපති උපදේශකයකු ප‍්‍රසිද්ධියේ කියන්නේ නැහැනේ. අපි යළිත් ජනාධිපතිතුමාට කියනවා, සොරකම් සිදු වූවා කියලා පිළිගන්නවා නම් කරුණාකරලා රටේ ආර්ථිකය බිල්ලට දෙන මේ පුද්ගලයා යළි මහ බැංකු අධිපති ලෙස පත්කරන්න එපා කියලා.

‘රනිල්ගේ ගජමිතුරාට සුදුසුකම් නැහැලූ’

මේ අවස්ථාවේ රට හමුවේ තැබිය යුතු තවත් කරුණක් තිබෙනවා. ලංකා පුත‍්‍ර සංවර්ධන බැංකුවේ සභාපති ධුරයට පත්කොට ඇත්තේ ලසන්ත ගුණවර්ධන නම් වූ අගමැති රනිල් වික‍්‍රමසිංහගේ ඉතාම කුළුපග මිතුරෙක්. ඒ වගේම ඔහු එජාප කෘත්‍යාධිකාරී මණ්ඩල සාමාජිකයෙක්. මහ බැංකුවේ බැංකු අධීක්‍ෂණ දෙපාර්තමේන්තුවට බලය පැවරී තිබෙනවා ‘විශේෂ බලපත‍්‍රලාභී බැංකුවක සභාපතිවරයකු එම තනතුර සඳහා අවශ්‍ය මූලික සුදුසුකම් සපුරා තිබේද?’ යන්න සොයා බැලීමට. ඒ අනුව සොයා බැලීම් කළ මහ බැංකුවේ බැංකු අධීක්‍ෂණ දෙපාර්තමේන්තුවේ අධ්‍යක්‍ෂවරයා ලසන්ත ගුණවර්ධන මහතා මෙම තනතුරට නුසුදුසු බව 2016 මාර්තු 24 වැනිදා දන්වා තිබෙනවා. ඒ අනුව ලසන්ත ගුණවර්ධන මහතාට එම තනතුර දරන්න බැහැ. නමුත් විශේෂ බලපත‍්‍රලාභී බැංකු පාලන පනත උල්ලංඝනය කරමින් මේ තැනැත්තා තවමත් ධුරයේ සිටිනවා. ඔහු ඉවත් කිරීමට මෙතෙක් කිසිදු පියවරක් ගෙන නැහැ.

‘දුමින්ද සහ සරත් ෆොන්සේකා’

ඒ වගේම මේ ආණ්ඩුව කිසිදු මූල්‍ය විනයක් සහිතව කටයුතු කරන ආකාරයක් පෙනෙන්නට නැහැ. දුමින්ද දිසානායක කෘෂිකර්ම ඇමතිවරයා විගණන විමසුම් නොතකා හරිමින් රුපියල් කෝටි 98ක පමණ මුදලකට අමාත්‍යාංශය සඳහා ගොඩනැගිල්ලක් කුලියට ගෙන තිබෙනවා. ඒ කටයුත්ත නැවත්තුවා කීවාට වසර 2ක අත්තිකාරම් මුදල මේ වන විට ගෙවා අවසන්. තමන්ගේ අමාත්‍යාංශය යටතේ කිසිදු ආයතනයක් ගැසට් කරලා නැති, නියමිත රාජකාරියක් නොමැති, ලියලා දුන්නොත් පාර්ලිමේන්තුවේදී කොලය බලාගෙන හිටපු ජනාධිපතිතුමාට බැන වැදීමේ රාජකාරිය පමණක් පවරපු සරත් ෆොන්සේකා අමාත්‍යවරයා කටයුතු කරන අන්දම බලන්න. ඔහු අමාත්‍යාංශය සඳහා යැයි කියමින් කුන්ඩන්මාල්ස් නැමැති ව්‍යාපාරයට අයත් ගොඩනැගිල්ලක් කුලියට ගෙන තිබෙනවා. අත්තිකාරම් ලෙස පමණක් ගෙවා ඇති මුදල රුපියල් මිලියන 310ක්. අගමැතිට කෝටි 60ක වාහන, කෘෂිකර්ම අමාත්‍යවරයාට රුපියල් කෝටි 98ක ගොඩනැගිල්ලක්, ඒ වගේම සරත් ෆොන්සේකාට ගොඩනැගිල්ලක් සඳහා කෝටි 31ක අත්තිකාරම් මුදලක්, අනුමත කළ කැබිනට් මණ්ඩලයක් සිටින මේ ආණ්ඩුව ජනතාවට කියනවා ‘කැප කරන්න’ කියලා. පසුගිය ආණ්ඩුවට බොරු චෝදනා එල්ල කරමින් බලයට ආපු මේ ආණ්ඩුව පසුගිය පාලන කාලයේ පමණක් නොවෙයි, මේ රටේ කිසිදු පාලනයක් යටතේ සිදු නොවුනු ආකාරයේ වංචා, දූෂණ, හොරකම් ප‍්‍රමාණයක් එළිපිටම සිදු කරමින් සිටිනවා. මේවා ගැන කතා කරන කොට අපට FCIDයට, උසාවිවලට, තවතවත් යන්න වෙනවා. ඒක තමයි මේ ආණ්ඩුවේ ක‍්‍රමය.

‘GMOAට අපේ ගෞරවය පුද කරනවා’

මේ ආණ්ඩුව ආර්ථික පරිහානියට රට ඇද ගෙන යන ආකාරයට අදාළව කළ පැහැදිලි කිරීම්වලට අමතරව අපට කීමට තවත් කරුණක් තිබෙනවා. ඖෂධ නියාමන අධිකාරියේ සභාපති මහාචාර්ය ලාල් ජයකොඩි මහතා මේ වන විට ඉල්ලා අස් වී ඇති බව අපි කවුරුත් දන්නවා. රජයේ වෛද්‍ය නිලධාරීන්ගේ සංගමය පෙන්වා දෙන අන්දමට අද සෞඛ්‍ය අමාත්‍යාංශය කියන්නේ පවුල් පාලනයක් තිබෙන තැනක්. මම දැක්කා සෞඛ්‍ය ඇමතිවරයාගේ පුත‍්‍රරත්නය ඉතාම අශෝභන ආකාරයෙන් ‘නිවටයින්, ගෙවලයන්, කාමාතුරයන්’ යැයි කියමින් මේ රටේ වෛද්‍යවරුන්ට පරිභව කරනවා. මම දන්නේ නැහැ, ‘තාත්තා වෛද්‍යවරයකු නිසා ඒ පුතාට ඒ විදියේ අදහසක් සමස්ත වෛද්‍යවරුන් සම්බන්ධයෙන් ඇති වුණාද? කියලා . වෛද්‍යවරුන්ට නොවෙයි කිසිදු සේවකයකුට නිග‍්‍රහ නොකළ යුතු අන්දමින් මේ ඇමති පුත‍්‍රරත්නය වෛද්‍යවරුන්ට නිග‍්‍රහ කළා. අවසානයේදී කුමක්ද වුණේ? රජයේ වෛද්‍ය නිලධාරීන්ගේ සංගමයේ සාධාරණ ඉල්ලීම්වලට යටත් වෙලා සීමාවාසික වෛද්‍යවරුන්ගේ පත්වීම් ලේඛනය යළි සකස් කිරීමට ඇමතිවරයාට සිදු වුණා. තාත්තයි – පුතයි වෛද්‍යවරුන්ට හතර වටේට පහර ගැසුවාට, අවලාද ගුවාට අන්තිමේදී සිදු වුණා රජයේ වෛද්‍ය නිලධාරීන්ගේ සංගමයේ වෘත්තීය සමිති ක‍්‍රියාමාර්ගය ඉදිරියේ දණ ගහන්න.

‘එකාවන්ව සමගිව කටයුතු කළොත් ඇමතිවරයකු පමණක් නොවෙයි, මේ ජනතාදෝහී ආණ්ඩුව වුණත් දණ ගස්වන්න පුළුවන්’ කියලා රජයේ වෛi නිලධාරීන්ගේ සංගමය ඔප්පු කොට පෙන්වා තිබෙනවා. ඒ නිසා අපි රජයේ වෛද්‍ය නිලධාරීන්ගේ සංගමයට අපගේ ගෞරවය පුදකර සිටිනවා’’

මෙම මාධ්‍ය හමුවට ජාතික නිදහස් පෙරමුණේ නියෝජ්‍ය ලේකම්, නීතිඥ කපිල ගමගේ මහතා ද එක්ව සිටියේය.

අනුරුද්ධ බණ්ඩාර රණවාරණ
මාධ්‍ය ලේකම්,
ජාතික නිදහස් පෙරමුණ

Arjuna Mahendran spends in millions – Wimal

June 2nd, 2016

Arjuna Mahendran spends in millions – says Wimal Weerawansa.

ඒ කාලේ බේබිලාට හෙලිකොප්ටර් කියපු අය අද නෑ… වත්මන් මහ බැංකු අධිපතිවරයා ගැන විමල් වීරවංශ අදහස් දක්වමින් පවසයි.

THE “HUMANITARIAN OPERATION” OF EELAM WAR IV

June 1st, 2016

KAMALIKA  PIERIS

The LTTE delayed its defeat for four months, In Eelam War IV, by hiding behind 200,000 Tamils as hostages. These hostages were taken by the LTTE first to Mulangavil, then Kilinochchi, Dharmapuram, Vishvamadu and finally Puthumathalan, from where they were rescued by the army. The hostages said that they were forced to leave their homes and proceed to Nanthikadal area, where the LTTE instructed them to abandon their vehicles and join the LTTE. The LTTE were using them as human shields. They were probably instructed to do so. The buses, lorries, tractors, motorcycles and push cycles in which they came were left abandoned in large numbers at Nanthikadal. Exposing  civilians deliberately to  army fire in order to increase the scale of civilian casualties could   be considered a war crime.

The Humanitarian operation of the Sri Lanka army was well planned. The army infiltrated LTTE held area and then fought their way out to clear a path for the civilians to escape. The army prepared carefully for the rescue operation. One unit was to cross the lagoon, while other units captured a three kilometer long earth bund on the banks of the lagoon. They were to launch their operations from three directions, then link up. The divisions rehearsed about 30 times,  including at night, with emphasis on crossing the lagoon.

Commando and Special Forces carried out several deception drills and targeted the weakest section of the earth bund. The Infantry   dug trenches in the No fire Zone, crawled in and waited for orders.   The army crossed the lagoon at midnight of April 20, 2009 using rafts built of local material. They suffered casualties but still crossed the lagoon. Thereafter, the Commandos attacked from one side, Special Forces from another side and the rest of the army infiltrated in between. The intention was to confuse the LTTE, so that a safe route could be opened for civilians to cross the lagoon.

When the heavily mined LTTE embankments were opened up, the hostages came streaming out. ‘It was like hitting a ‘meevadaya’. Before the day was over, army had rescued around 80,000 civilians including the parents of Prabhakaran and Daya Master. By following morning 174,564 more had come in. Hundreds of LTTE cadres had dropped their weapons and joined the large crowd fleeing across the lagoon.  The LTTE had fired heavy machine guns at the fleeing civilians. When the civilians stepped into the lagoon to avoid the gunfire, three LTTE cadres ran to them and exploded themselves”.

The navy had launched a cordon off the Mullaitivu coast to stop the LTTE from escaping.  Some ‘hostages’ started escaping in fishing craft. The LTTE could also have decided to come with them, in suicide craft. Despite this, the navy, at the risk of their lives, helped transfer escaping civilians to government held areas.

Around 300,000 civilians were rescued. On our television screens, we saw them running eagerly towards the armed forces. We also saw how the soldiers compassionately carried across the hostages who could not walk and helped others who could.  The civilians were then counted, registered and taken to the shelters prepared for them. They were not abandoned. The army looked after them. These Tamil refugees had deposited a total of 390 million rupees in the banks. They had carried across millions of rupees in cash and gold securely wrapped in pottanis.

This magnificent rescue has not been given the recognition it deserves. The Defence Ministry called this operation the world’s largest hostage rescue mission. Foreign military officers who attended the international seminar ‘Defeating terrorism, Sri Lanka experience’ in 2012, said that Sri Lanka armed forces were among the best in the world specially considering the way they handled the humanitarian operation.  Concerned observers ask, ‘why is Sri Lanka army’s epic hostage rescue ignored. Can any other country boast of a comparable rescue?’

Sarath Amunugama commented that more publicity should have been given to this heroic rescue operation, particularly the operation at Puthumathalan at the final stage. At Puthumathalan,  He said,  our forces were able to cross the Nanthikadal lagoon, take the opposite bank, go past the man groves, reach the bund and allow the people forcibly held by the LTTE to cross over to freedom.  This was done at the sacrifice of armed forces who died in the process. The army could have finished the war much earlier if not for the hostages.

Sri Lanka army’s epic hostage rescue is a feat of heroism and dedication. Military authorities repeatedly stated that the operation was done at the sacrifice of soldiers who died in the process. This hostage rescue was achieved at tremendous cost to the army, they said, soldiers lost their lives, limbs and eyesight. The army went to the extent of taking losses in a bid to minimize loss of Tamil civilian life. The earth bund behind which the hostages were held was breached at great sacrifice by the army. Many died in the process. Troops assigned to clear civilians rushing to the government held areas had also done so at the risk of their lives. Army officers pointed out that the Tamil civilians owed their lives to the bravery of our soldiers.

The government took note of the International Humanitarian Laws, particularly the Geneva Convention of 1949, (which Sri Lanka had signed) and Protocol II (which it had not signed). The international conventions on war say war must be won without harming civilians caught in the war. Civilians must be protected even when they are in the middle of the fighting. If anything happens to them then it is a ‘war crime’. War, however, is not   a crime. UNP MP Palitha Ranga Bandara declared in Parliament, that the government should go all out to finish the battle, with no restriction on artillery, mortars, air and naval assets. He pointed out that withholding these would mean casualties in the frontline fighting units.

The government   however,   imposed stringent conditions on the army in order to avoid civilian casualties and be charged with ‘war crimes’.  President Rajapakse ordered a halt to air and artillery strikes against the LTTE, despite heavy LTTE resistance.  This made the frontline troops very vulnerable, without air and artillery support. Government also banned the use of heavy weapons.  For the Puthumathalan raid even small arms were restricted.  The army was ordered to cross the lagoon without the necessary weapons, regardless of consequences.   The soldiers were risking their lives, but could only to carry small arms.  Sarath Fonseka stated that the army had to pay a very heavy price for not having the liberty to use heavy weapons against the LTTE for about  four and a half months because of eternal pressure, relating  to Tamil civilians. This confirms that the ‘human shield’ was a pre-planned maneuver. The result was unprecedented losses when fighting under extremely difficult circumstances.

These Tamil ‘hostages’, in their turn, were clearly supportive of the war.  They could have resisted and helped the Sri Lanka army, throughout the long period of war, but they never did.  They must be treated as part of the separatist war. The Penal Code of Sri Lanka says that ‘whoever abets the waging of war’, for instance, by joining an insurrection against the state, has committed an offence against the state and is liable for punishment (section 144). After the war, these hostages promptly voted against President Rajapakse in the presidential elections of 2010 and thereafter in 2015. They were obeying orders once again. As a reward, they are now getting fully detached brick houses with gardens.  The roofs carry the names of the donors, such as Red Cross, Caritas  and Australia aid.

Pro-Christian Constitution aimed at stripping Sri Lanka’s Buddhist Land & Heritage

June 1st, 2016

Shenali D Waduge

When out of 19 members selected by the Prime Minister only two (Kushan de Alwis & M K Nadeeka Damayanthi opposes the removal of Article 9  it revealed beyond doubt the objective. 70% comprise Buddhists in Sri Lanka and only 2 stood for the sacrosanct status of the country’s historical ethos. The composition of the committee was clearly aimed to be a transit constitution enroute to fulfilling the unfulfilled goal of Christian colonial rulers. This constitution is nothing but a betrayal of our history, it is a conspiracy against Buddhism and the proposals to change the flag, the anthem, the Buddhist history, culture destined to be wiped out. Even LTTE would not have gone this far. Is this the outcome that the ranaviro fought and died for? What right do people who played no role in protecting and standing up for the sovereignty of the country have to use their pen to remove centuries of history and heritage? It is upto true patriots to come forward to stop these satanic forces from turning our country towards another South Korea or Philippines.

Why is it that only non-Abrahamic countries are being targeted with the multicultural, multifaith, secular gavel? Why is it only Dharmic countries that must wipe out their historical past and give equal status. How many of these members in the constitutional committee are aware that only Russia and Austria have given Buddhism equal status as a religion?

Has a single Muslim majority nation been tasked to change their constitutions to give equal status to non-Muslims?

Isn’t the Vatican City the only nation that has been created for a religion?

When colonials arrived their main objective was to Christianize all of the territories they forcibly held and wipe out the ancient cultures, values, traditions, customs and systems that were practiced. Decolonization has only meant the creation of a Euro-centric Anglo-American set of rules and laws that are viewed from the spectrum of what the West believes to be right. No respect or due diligence has been given to the ancient laws, customs or values of the Eastern civilizations. How right is this? Now with the strength of the West’s power yielded over politics, trade, AID, human rights and across the floor of the UN, nations that follow Dharmic faiths are being targeted to lay to rest whatever remaining of their historical pride they are trying their best to preserve. It is shocking when local agents of these sinister motives are pushing the neo-colonial agenda of late.

The new constitutional amendments in Sri Lanka is nothing to be surprised about. We knew that the attempt was clearly to remove the colonial objective of wiping out the historical hold Sri Lanka had to preserve the Sinhala Buddhist identity. Clothed in decorated jargon of ‘equality’ the gavel is set to remove the history of Sri Lanka an unfulfilled objective by all 3 colonial invaders. What is never argued is why Sri Lanka cannot maintain equality by law without removing the historical place that must be due to the Sinhalese who built the civilization and the Buddhist faith that was the State religion. All Kings including Indian invader Elara followed the dasa raja dhamma. In fact Elara killed his own son who had killed a calf as the royal decree was that all sentient beings had a right to life. Can anyone argue against the compassion of allowing an animal the right of life?

From North to South, East to West it is only the remnants of the Sinhala Buddhist civilization that exists and affords tourist value. Artefacts clearly showcase the magnitude of the civilization that prevailed. This rich past cannot be matched by any other ethnic group claiming to have a homeland. Those claiming to have had a homeland cannot even prove how they survived and lived when the man-made reservoirs and irrigation works by the Sinhala kings are evidence of how the Sinhalese occupied and ruled the entire island nation.

If a country has a judicial system that any citizen can take their grievance to and be equally treated before the law that is all that should matter. No Western-liberal thinkers tasked with changing the constitution can touch the historical place that the Sinhalese Buddhists have a right to preserve.

The Vatican City was created on 11 February 1911. It is the only religion to be given a whole state to call its own. It is the only official religion that has a member status in the UN. Wherever the Pope travels to he is propagating the Roman Catholic faith. How equal is this? Thousands of non-Roman Catholics visit the Vatican City but will the Vatican City ever consider becoming multicultural or multifaith?

Islam is the State religion in Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritiana, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Tunisia, UAE and Yemen.

In 6 Muslim countries, Islam is the declared state religion, provide no constitutional provision at all concerning religious freedom specifically. Article 8(1A) of the Bangladesh constitution provides that “Absolute trust and faith in the Almighty Allah shall be the basis of all actions.”

Yet, more than half of the world’s Muslim population (estimated at over 1.3 billion) lives in countries that are neither Islamic republics nor that have declared Islam to be the state religion.

Sri Lanka is faulted for fostering and protecting Buddhism while Germany and other European countries deduct Church tax which goes to the upkeep of the Church. €5 billion (us$6.4 billion) was collected by taxpayers in 2011. https://www.thetrumpet.com/article/9936.19.0.0/religion/why-is-germany-collecting-taxes-for-the-catholic-church In 2010 the UK Government gave £5million to the Church of England.

French MP Nadine Morano a member of Nicolas Sarkozy ’s opposition Republican party, said on TV: “We’re a Judeo-Christian country of white race”.

Germany’s leader Angela Merkel, TIME Magazine’s 2015 Person of the Year belongs to the political party, CHRISTIAN Democratic Union. In a 2010 speech, Merkel denounced multiculturalism in no uncertain terms, saying, “Of course the tendency had been to say, ‘Let’s adopt the multicultural concept and live happily side by side, and be happy to be living with each other.’ But this concept has failed, and failed utterly.”

It was in 2015 that Angela Merkel announced without reservation that ‘Multiculturalism is a sham’  “Multiculturalism leads to parallel societies and therefore remains a ‘life lie,’ ” She reiterated that anyone who wished to live in Germany must assimilate to German values and culture, and respect the country’s laws.

David Cameron’s 2015 Christmas message “As a Christian country, we must remember what his birth represents: peace, mercy, goodwill and, above all, hope. “I believe that we should also reflect on the fact that it is because of these important religious roots and Christian values that Britain has been such a successful home to people of all faiths and none.”

In 2016 Cameron declared Britain must defend its Christian values against terrorism and went on to say Christianity had helped make Britain what it is today http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/david-cameron-easter-message-2016-christian-values-christian-country-a6954996.html So if Cameron can say that about Christianity why cannot Sri Lanka speak the same about Buddhism’s place that has a history of over 2600 years? Why should constitutional amendments remove that pride of place?

In 2012 Russia’s Putin argued Multiculturalism “elevates the (idea of the) ‘right of minorities to be different’ to the absolute and, at the same time, insufficiently balances this right with civil, behavioral, and cultural obligations in regard to the indigenous population and society as a whole,” …“This civilizational identity is based on preservation of Russian cultural dominance, which is not only carried by ethnic Russians, but all carriers of this identity regardless of nationality,” He went on to say that multiculturalism creates “closed national and religious communities…which not only refuse to assimilate, but [do not] even adapt.” This is amply seen by the Muslim new dress code which never existed decades earlier and is a means of self-segregation for which they cannot find fault with others. When people cannot see the person they are talking to how can relationships be built?

Constitutional drafters in Sri Lanka have conveniently overlooked ground realities. They ignore that both the Church and Islam are multibillion dollar fundraising entities. The Church has its own military, it has investments in real estate even companies, its assets are worth billions, it is active in the New York Stock Exchange. Its Vatican Bank has assets worth over $8billion. http://money.cnn.com/2015/09/24/news/pope-francis-visit-vatican-catholic-church/

What can the secularists say when the Popes through the churches and local churches are asked to increase their flocks by any means and the work of missionaries in the past are now done through faith-based organizations that are funded by Western-Governments? Bulk of US Government funds are channelled to faith-based organizations. This means the US tax payers most of whom are not Christian are paying to promote Christianity in other parts of the world! http://www.alternet.org/how-religious-organizations-abuse-government-programs-and-duck-taxes

Extremist wahabbi faith is promoted in similar fashion. . Indian intelligence says that in India alone, from 2011 to 2013, some 25,000 Saudi clerics arrived bearing more than $250 million to build mosques and universities and hold seminars. The Wahhabi faith is responsible for the jihadism that is being propagate the world over of late.

Against this backdrop of billions being thrown by Church, the network of mosques, Christian countries, Islamic countries, their institutions etc what does Sri Lanka and 5 other Theravada Buddhist countries have?

They have only their government to foster and protect a religion on whose compassionate concepts their countries were built on. The Buddhists in these countries do not have billions across investments and other assets like Islam and the Church has, this is why Sri Lanka and fellow Theravada Buddhist nations need state patronage. Is it so much to ask that these nations be allowed to continue their identity when clearly what happens the moment that identity is removed can be seen in the examples of two countries – Maldives and South Korea eventually to become Philippines which is named after King Philip II of Spain.

Maldives was once a Buddhist nation. Today the Buddhist history has been expunged from its history books and whatever remains of Buddhist architecture is being targeted and destroyed even by attacking the museum where these relics are kept. Everywhere ground is dug some Buddhist remain appears and each time that historical monument is destroyed.  “They have effectively erased all evidence of our Buddhist past,” a senior museum official told

https://www.jihadwatch.org/2012/02/it-begins-muslims-in-maldives-smash-buddhist-statues-in-national-museum

http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items/2014/06/30/the-maldives-a-forgotten-buddhist-past/

South Korea was once a Buddhist majority nation. Today it is the den of evangelical fanaticism where locals who have been converted want to display their allegiance by even urinating on the Buddha. http://www.koreabang.com/2012/stories/protestant-priest-urinates-on-and-defaces-buddhist-shrine.html

shenali01061601

http://www.sinhalanet.net/attacks-on-buddhist-temples-in-south-korea-ignored-by-unhrc-navi-pillai-and-ban-ki-moon

Name a single country that has given ethno-religious minorities privileges as Sri Lanka has done?

http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items/2016/03/06/name-a-single-country-that-has-given-ethno-religious-minorities-privileges-as-sri-lanka-has-done/

Minorities do not appreciate what they enjoy. Not even India has given 76milion Tamils a Tamil word in India’s national anthem but Sri Lanka’s national flag even gives a place but minorities keep demanding more but what are they giving in return? Tamils enjoy national/public holidays as do Muslims & Christians. What do Buddhists enjoy in other countries? There are stamps issued for minority holidays, minority leaders and various other minority events. Can any other minority build churches, prayer centres, madrassas, kovils as minorities are presently doing if they were living as minorities in other countries? We have never had minorities appreciate or even acknowledge what they enjoy, it is always a case of not having enough or demanding more. The Buddhist space has diminished so much as a result of these demands. Buddhists are fighting to preserve the little they have left and then come a bunch of local sepoys ready to hand over that remaining part also.

In 1926 the golden words of Anagarika Dharmapalathuma must echo in our mind always.

shenali01061602

http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items/2013/03/10/what-anagarika-dharmapalathuma-said-in-1926/

Shenali D Waduge

New Constitutional recommendations – https://www.colombotelegraph.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PRC-Report-English-Final.pdf

 

Purposeful Becoming -The Evolution of Darwinism

June 1st, 2016

Mahinda Weerasinghe  excerpt from his book “Origin of Species According to the Buddha”  Godage Publishers

By the time Darwin came to formulate his On the Origin of  Species, somewhat similar ideas were already simmering in the Western world. Yet, to confront the believers of the Good Book with such hearsay just a few years before, would have been simply suicidal. Finding the ‘soul’ which had been magically inherited, now all of a sudden missing, was not an easy thing to accept. Indeed to have descended from ‘monkeys’ without any elite status, of which they have been assured again and again, was hard to digest. In fact it was not so much the evolution of species that they reacted so violently against, but this onslaught on their comforting self-centredness, this demotion of their cardinal status, conferred by their architect so lovingly.

I am of course referring to the ‘soul’. Though both camps took up the argument heatedly, they avoided confronting each other on the major issue, indeed in this connection, the vital question.

If we then are supposed to have descended from apes, and have evolved from amoeba upwards, are we to assume that Homo sapiens sapiens are also like any other ‘run of the mill’ creatures, devoid of any ‘eternal life giving’ soul substance? Darwin, for one, would not dare leave his stronghold to confront the true believers with a precarious challenge such as this. For it was a query better left unattended. Fittingly so, as it went deep into the heart of all decent God-fearing citizens!

But a general theory of evolution of things was already taking shape some time before Darwin. The geological theories current is a point of fact. James Hutton’s publication of Theory of the Earth in 1795 was indeed food for thought.

Hutton argued that these so-called ‘eternal hills’ are any thing but eternal. They are continually eroding into fragments and then swept out to sea, where they are deposited into beds and in the course of time get consolidated into rocky layers. Thereby inner movements of the earth’s crust can be thrust up to form new mountains, and the process would go on, ad infinitum.

This kind of thinking did not go down so well with those ‘sudden genesis’ enthusiasts, especially when those notables, Dr. Lightfoot of Cambridge and James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, just a few years before had pinpointed to the hour when this sudden genesis had taken place. Yet the protestations were muted; after all, this man was talking about some rocks and stones. In fact, an evolutionary process of mountains and rivers could easily be stomached, for there was definitely no ‘soul essence’ involved, but evolution through natural selection was another matter. People would rather go on living and enjoying life, possessing a ‘soul’ with all its connected prospects, rather than be related to an orang-utan, who evidently was devoid of such an ‘essence’. Apart from the major possibilities of an eternal life, the very idea of an evolution was condemned simply due to its association with such tasteless ideas of otherwise radicalism, sedation, and a feeling of a ‘non status quo’.

Indeed the word ‘evolution’ does not occur in the first edition of the On The Origin of Species, and Darwin did not use it until some years later. But the ideas it denotes had been put forward and debated in Europe for at least a hundred years prior to 1859. It was partly due to Darwin’s own ambiguity and indecisiveness. Owing to his loose use of words, it was never clear from the outset whether ‘my theory’ meant ‘Natural Selection’ or the gradual change of form in plants and animals, which we now term ‘Evolution’. Hence we are apt to believe that every objection to Darwin’s thesis was an objection to evolution, whereas many of the objections were only to natural selection. Not every reader of the On the Origin of Species mistook the one for the other; though after almost one and a half centuries of confusion it is hard to say exactly what single idea it was that ‘triumphed’ with the On the Origin of Species.

In essence, Darwin was proposing that species were in a proc­ess of evolving in order to survive in a competitive surrounding. In the process there was selection of the fittest. Darwin wrote in On the Origin of Species: Chapter IV, Natural selection.

“It may be said that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinising, throughout the world, every variation, even the slightest; rejecting that which is bad, preserving and adding up all that is good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers, at the improvement of each organic being in relation to its organic and inorganic conditions of life. We see nothing of these slow changes in progress, until The hand of time has marked the long lapses of ages, and then so imperfect is our view into long past geological ages that we only see that the forms of life are now different from what they formerly were.”

We are hardly able to escape the major argument Darwin was striving to promote. Even presently most scientists were unanimous in their agreement about it. The whole necessity of the struggle by individuals of a species is aimed at, bringing forth its offspring, and thus ensure ‘the continuation of its types’.

Thus it is possible to isolate the main principle, or a goal, if you insist. Most creatures are keen to produce their prototypes as an all-embracing urge. On the other hand, their very existence is threatened if not adapted to a changing dynamic situation, the so-called ‘competitive exclusion principle’. What emerge as far as I can see are two separate but important laws: First is the law, that the evolution of species was a direct result of a necessity to survive in a competitive world. Hence, by adapting structural changes, each species evolved to meet the new challenges.  The second answers the more central issue: Why this necessity for survival at all? And pat comes the answer, the necessity for the production of its precious prototypes of course, so that the ‘continuation of the species’ is ensured. Yet eventually, the author of On the Origin of Species, had lost all orthodox belief and come to the conclusion, which he retained to the end of his life, those questions of ultimate causes and purposes were an insoluble mystery.

His theory is dominated by the word ‘evolution’, and to any neutral reader, the word conveys the meaning of steady progress. Indeed we think of a chain, joined link by link, a ladder leading on to higher levels of creatures – hence the old missing link concept. Yet the chain metaphor is completely wrong. In the first place, since one species often gives rise to several daughter species, as a result of the sub-divisive process of speciation, the resulting pattern is much similar to that of a tree, a phylogenetic tree with many tiny branches that are terminal (extinct) and do not lead to further species at all.  In the second place, the theo­retical analysis of the relation of the exclusion principle to the processes of extinction and race amalgamation (an analysis that is supported by the factual studies of modern taxonomists) leads us to believe that the fine structure of the phylogenetic tree is almost everywhere a net of sorts.

But the misdirection was not all of Darwin’s doing. He inherited the word evolution with all its ambiguity and uncertainty, and used it without discrimination to promote his idea. In fact it refers not to a single idea but to a complex of analytically distinguishable ideas that are partly inde­pendent of, partly dependent on, each other. The four most essential of these, we may call, are the processes of adaptation, secular change, speciation and extinction.

Though many contest that Darwin, by evolution, did not exactly mean progress but a sense of progress, he has clearly projected an idea of a progressive evolution (anagenesis) of creatures if at all to survive, the ‘competitive exclusion’. This major flaw in Darwin’s theory went mostly uncontested. The results were regrettable, for it was assumed, and rightly so, that if going by Darwin’s theory, there is a steady upward trend, a steady prog­ress, if a species is to survive (for it was assumed, if a species is to survive, it should have bettered itself or be doomed) hence the very necessity in progress.

Aside from such ‘half baked’ and hazy ideas, the ambiguous relation between the individual and the group was confusing. Indeed due to what has been preached since 1859, the race thinking was made possible. In other words Darwinists had shown that the individual did not matter, but what mattered was only the race. But the Darwinians had also shown that races were mutable, not fixed categories.  There must therefore exist a struggle or striving, by individuals for a selective process to be in operation so that one or other race ended up tops.  This argument extended into society and became rather confusing: should a man give up his life for the common welfare, like a nest of termites or a colony of ants? But if we understood the elementary Darwinism his duty first and foremost was to survive at all cost and further his copies.

In direct conflict to Darwin’s contentions, we have creatures at the grassroots level that have not progressed whatsoever. Amoebas, for one, are holding a ‘status quo’ situation, if looked at from Darwinian principles. In fact, the earliest forms of life adapted to survive in their surrounding media, and many do so to this day. Indeed, taking Darwin’s own argument, the sole objective being to produce living forms that could survive and propagate, they were perfect from the inception. We do not see any need whatsoever for a single cell protoplasm to develop more organs, no need for successive appearance of eyes, fins, legs, wings, or any other embellishments, to the primary form. The original forms were quite sufficient to exist and further their prototypes. It was uncomplicated and easy, functioned well, and adaptive to its surroundings, so why should it diversify and expose itself to harsh environments? In point of fact, here you do not find a struggle for survival; there is plain and simple existence.

From Darwin’s days to the present, the main ideas con­cerning evolution of creatures have not changed. Sensory status was, as far as Darwin was concerned, a product of blind chance, a hazy grasping to live in a cold insensitive universe. Indeed, he could not ignore what he saw. To him, there were no clues to existence, no direction or, for that reason, purpose. There was no moral prescription, but only a ‘survival of the fittest’!

Though all agreed as to the process and call it ‘evolu­tion’, for want of a better word, many a scientist hold some reservations about Darwin’s theory. How could one put a label to a species and say they are on the ascendancy or on the verge of extinction?

We know all creatures are transforming and not holding a status quo, but science glosses over why this complicated process ever commenced, or, having begun, what guiding impulses transformed it by such a trial and error process over aeons of time from that rudimentary single-cell organism into the highly complex, though still im­perfect, creatures called humans.

Yet umpteen varieties of species reached blind alleys of extinction, for all their elaborate bodies and minds, whereas the simple cell amoeba still exists. What is it, in fact, that motivates a group of amoebae to start climbing this hazardous evolutionary ladder? Are we to assume that survival in order to “further their types,” is the primary motive for this fanatic urge to change? Let us, for the sake of argument, assume a group of isolated amoebae had started to change (evolv­e) due to food or climatic hazards or be doomed to extinction, which is highly unlikely, as any scientist would inform us. Yet by such a concept we are attributing a highly complex behaviour pattern to a primitive amoeba, whose mental mechanism is almost close to zero.

But then we know that, as a species, amoebae are spreading and existing to this day. This, in turn, begs us to assume that these amoebae were egoistic and highly individualistic, because it’s the individuals in the group who were keen to leave behind its individual stamp on history, by leaving behind a copy of itself. Then, in turn, we have to assume that these are complex entities. Was it eating, sleeping, and, more than anything else, opinionated individuals who had been very keen to leave behind their namesake, who would survive and continue their lineage? Granted all this, then we should naturally pose the next and more primary question; so what was the elaborate plan of this primitive amoeba, that he found it necessary to leave behind a copy of itself (by dividing himself)?

Indeed if we are to accept the one and only thinking that exists in scientific circles that all creatures exist to produce their types in order to further the species, then we have to attribute to this species a compelling motive to act, an aim, an ulterior target, a mystical destiny.

If this be the case, then these amoebae are not only highly complex and motivated creatures, but ones with king-size egos, for indeed they must be conceited individuals who reason thus, “Oh, my descendants should live on; they are indeed pieces of myself and very essential.” We could go on in this vein ad infinitum, but we see no logical outcome to this discussion. If we are to embrace the argument that this ‘continuation of the species’ is the all-encompassing force which fired the imagination of individual members of the species, hence struggling to evolve in a harsh, dynamic, environment, then we must also assume that such primitive creatures had an abstract philosophy, a complicated motive, a target, indeed a destiny determined by ‘forces beyond his control’. If this is the case, then it is still a mystery to the world at large. Personally I haven’t got the foggiest idea what that aim could be. We come across no valid reason or principle, based on Darwin’s explanation, or for that matter any sci­entific theory current, as to what it is that fired the imagination of some individual amoebae that they said to themselves, the time is here when we must seek out and start evolving and acquiring a more elaborate structure, for there is going to be competition for survival millennia ahead.

Acquisition of embellishment to the primary form may be seen by Darwin as a necessity for survival, but there exists another point of view. And, upon closer investigation we cannot help but notice that while the acquisition of superior sensory organs did not contribute materially to the ability to survive, it contrib­uted to its ability, to enjoy.

Apart from the fact that Darwin’s theory does not match reality, it conveys a quality of dense ignorance to the rest of the beings, or to use an expression of a modern author, ‘sur­vival machines’ to do their thing and phase out. They were just pure and simple ‘creatures of chance’. Above all, it ignores the individual in a flock. Future findings will show that creatures are not mo­tivated towards producing their types nor are they keen in furthering their species. Rather all this is subordinated to a more indomitable quest. Each individual creature has a more fundamental and ‘down to earth’ reason for surviving and struggling to do so. Which is, first and foremost to satiate a deep-seated necessity. Hence its actions are geared and motivated by this driving urge.

There is a misunderstanding by the global society that, in our historical past no one has discerned the essential fact that, there exists an evolution of species. Indeed most people are under an illusion that not only no one has penetrated this process, but the causes for it have never been fathomed.

It is in the 2,100 years old Buddhist scriptures we come across, with this unique personality who, to my knowledge, grasped the essentials of this intricately complex process for the first time. Still fantastic, Darwin’s sort of explanations for this evolutionary ­struggle of creatures looked naive, juvenile and immature, when compared with the Buddha’s ideas. If Darwin was extraordinarily exceptional, then the Buddha must have been super-intelligent millennia ahead of his time.

In fact if the scholars are of the opinion that physical evolution of species is not directly mentioned in the scriptures, then they are in for a surprise. The difficulty lay in connecting these legendary sounding quotes concerning evolution of species to the main philosophical body. Obviously the legendary part of the information is jumbled, as we might have expected.

The usual dilutions, colouring, and editing of the original oral traditions when first penned, sounded obscure and even fanciful to the original editors. The information is certainly millennia ahead of its time. In fact such advanced information was hard to be reconciled with reality, so these editors trimmed and added to the material, and stitched it together to make, what they believed to be palatable to the general public.  We are at least able to understand the ancient editors’ reservations, considering the age and the setting, but the present day scientific establishment cannot get away by providing such lame excuses.

Here I would present a more specific and blunt outline from the Buddhist scriptures of a general theory of physical evolution (becoming) of species. This we see in ‘the book of genesis’ of the Pali canon. I have taken the liberty of editing out sentences between specific rational sections. These parts are what I believe to be later commentary, addition, colouring, exaggeration and flourishes of the Hindu legends. Once those are expunged, a spellbinding dialogue of the Buddha emerges. And especially today, with our new found wisdom, we would be in a position to evaluate it critically. In fact it reads like an eyewitness account of this extremely complex physical evolutionary process, starting from the world evolution to how physical evolution of species takes shape. When confronted with parts which begin to be colouring, and which I have expunged, I have dotted to indicate these gaps, as these I assume are later efforts by editors trying to make incomprehensive and abstract material, palatable.

Aggañña Suttanta, No 27 Dīgha Nikāya (D.iii.84); translated from the Pali as (Book of Genesis), The Dialogues of the Buddha Volume III:

There comes also a time, Vāseṭṭha. when sooner or later this world begins to re-evolve. . . .

Now at that time, all had become one world of water, dark, and of darkness that maketh blind.

No moon or sun appeared, no stars were seen, nor day, neither months nor half—months, neither years nor seasons, neither female nor male. Beings were reckoned just as beings only (amoebae?). And to those beings, Vāseṭṭha, sooner or later after a long time, earth with its savour was spread out in the waters. Even as a scum forms on the surface of boiled milky rice that is cooling, so did the earth appear. It became endowed with colour with odour, and with taste. Even as well-made ghee or pure butter, so was its colour; even as the flawless honey of the bee, so sweet was it.…

…Thereupon star-shapes and constellations become manifest. Thereupon night and day became manifest, months, too, and half-months, the seasons and the years. Thus far then, Vāseṭṭha, did the world evolve again.

Now those beings. Vāseṭṭha, feasting on the savoury earth feeding on it, nourished by it, continued thus for a long, long while. And in measure as they thus fed, did their bodies become solid, and did variety in their comeliness become manifest. Some beings were well favoured, some were ill favoured. And herein they that were well favoured despised them that were ill favoured,…

Then, Vāseṭṭha, when the savoury earth had vanished for those beings, outgrowth appeared in the soil. The manner of the rising up thereof was as the springing up of the mushroom, it had colour, odour and taste; even as welt-formed ghee or fine butter so was the colour thereof, and even as flawless honeycomb so was the sweetness thereof. Then those beings began to feast on these outgrowths of the soil. And they, feasting on them, finding food and nourishment in them, continued for a long, long while. And in measure as they thus fed and were thus nourished, so did their bodies grow ever more solid, and the difference in their comeliness more manifest, some becoming well favoured, some ill favoured …. Thereupon creeping plants appeared, and the manner of the growth thereof was as that of the bamboo, and they had colour, odour and taste. Even as well-made ghee or fine butter so was the colour thereof even as flawless honeycomb so was the sweetness thereof.

Then, Vāseṭṭha, those beings began to feast on the creepers. And they, feasting on them, feeding on them, nourished by them, continued for a long, long while. And in measure as they thus fed and were nourished did their bodies wax more solid, and the divergence in their comeliness increase…..

Then those beings feasting on this rice in the clearings, feed­ing on it, nourished by it, so continued for a long, long while. And in measure as they, thus feeding, went on existing so did the bodies of those beings become even more solid, and the di­vergence in their comeliness more pronounced. In the female appeared the distinctive features of the female, in the male those of the male….

Extraordinary thing is, the scientific establishment disregarded such information, as it went against their own, ‘little’ theory. On the other hand, such information could have been so advanced that it was not possible, they assumed, that any one had ever penetrated the truth of evolution.

In fact by itself the idea was so far-fetched considering the age and the society that it was hard to visualise that someone had really grasped this complex evolutionary process of species at such an early date and given an explanation to it. More fascinating, if detached and taken by itself, this section sounded beyond comprehension, and sounded like a tall story. But just place it in the right setting with the rest of the global philosophy of the Buddha, and an intriguing story emerges.

It is my intention to advance this complex and elusive theory of the Buddha, for it seems even the Buddhists have not grasped its essentials. For this purpose I will mainly utilise the two-millennia old Buddhist scriptures (using mainly the Pali Text Society transla­tions). At this early stage, these might appear abstruse, but it should get clearer as we go along. Let us start with the essentials and ask the basic question, what is birth? We see Sāriputta Thera (the foremost disciple of the Buddha) defining:

And what, your reverences, is birth, what its uprising, what its stopping, what the course leading to its stopping? Whatever is the conception, the production, the descent, the coming forth of various beings in various groups of beings (Species) lie appearance of the groups (of grasping), the acquiring of the sense-bases, this, your reverences, is called birth. From the uprising of becoming is the uprising of birth.

Sammādiṭṭhi Sutta, No 9 Majjhima Nikāya (I: 49-50); translated as ‘Perfect View’, [MLS] (I: 62)

A major analysis of this statement at this early stage is still premature. But the meanings of two words need clarification, as this is of paramount importance to the future progress of the subject. The words are ‘becoming’ (bhava) and ‘sense-base’ (āyatana).

The translator has utilised the word ‘becoming’ for want of a more suitable word, and it implies, in a Buddhist sense, a process of change, for the negative or positive, a ‘non status quo’ situation for living beings. We can at this stage equate this word, ‘becoming’ to that of  ‘evolution’ of the scientific establishment, though it would come to mean much, and much more than this, as the future outlining of the work will show.

As we dig deeper into these Buddhist scriptures, we notice that all ‘beings’ were defined as beings who were in a process of ‘becoming’, holding a ‘non status quo’, who are in a process of change. ‘Becoming’ was inherent in all individual creatures. Indeed this change was occurring ‘momentarily’. These ‘momentarily’ transformations may be in a positive and is in a progressive direction, or towards that of a negative or a degenerating one. In fact the word ‘becoming’, gives a more sweeping definition of the individual creatures’ psycho-physical fluctuating status. Interestingly ‘becoming’ not only incorporated the meaning of the word ‘evolution’ but also projected the idea that, change can occur in any direction.

I find that most creeds, science included, have not found it essential to give a lasting definition as to how to differentiate between species. Not so in the Buddhist scriptures. It found it was necessary to give a precise definition how to differentiate between species, i.e. this acquired ‘sensory base’ or sensory apparatus, which helped him in his ‘grasping’. The sensory standing or sensory base was the single most important factor that demarcates one species from another, as we will see.

In the following quote the scriptures give the reason for this acquisition of a sensory apparatus of a being. Spread throughout the scriptures are the following or similar standard statements. Laṭukikopama Sutta, No 66 Majjhima-Nikāya (I: 454), translated as ‘On the Simile of the Quail’ [MLS] (II : 126)

“There are these five strands of sense-pleasure, Udāyin. What five? Material shapes cognisable by the eye, agreeable, pleasant, liked, enticing, connected, with sensual pleasure, alluring. Sounds cog­nisable by the ear … Smells cognisable by the nose… Tastes cognisable by the tongue. – . – Touches cognisable by the body, agreeable, pleasant, liked, enticing, connected with sensual pleasures, alluring. These, Udāyin, are the five strands of sense-pleas­ures. Whatever happiness, whatever joy, Udāyin, arises in consequence of these five strands of sense-pleasures, is called a happiness of sense-pleasures.’’

Most creeds, except the Indian ones, bypassed all creatures as nonentities. And we find in their explanations no specification as to how this demarcation of species should take place. The Judeo-Christian and parallel types of dogmas to separate man from beast shaped a theory of a ‘soul’. Each of us owned one and these meaningless and aimless creatures had none. On the other hand, the Science establishment has yet to come up with a fitting definition to a being and how to demarcate one species from another. To them, these creatures are those that are ‘evolved’ and ‘not so evolved’.

The Buddha’ s views were not so obscure, naive or plain. It was the sensory base that defined the evolutionary standing of creatures. What is more, each one within the species was an individual, interested through the use of their acquired (inherited) sensory equipment to bring about their gratification, thereby, reaping the resultant pleasures of body and mind. Indeed we see him explaining this sensory mechanism and the quest for its gratification in the following quote.

Pariyesanānānatta Sutta, Dhātu Saṃyutta, Saṃyutta Nikāya [SN] II: 141/  XIV, 1, §7, translated as ‘Perception’, Kindred Sayings on Elements’, The Kindred Sayings [KS] (II: 103) by C. A. F. Rhys Davids  and F. L. Woodward:

“Because of the diversity in elements, brethren, arises diversity in perceptions; because of diversity in perceptions arises diversity in aims; because of diversity in aims arises diversity in yearnings; because of diversity in yearnings arises diversity in quest. The diversity in elements, to wit, in the six aforenamed, ye know, and now ye know the causal con­nection in the consequences thereof, true in each of the six”.

The translator found this part of the scriptures abstruse and beyond translation. He was concerned especially with the word  ‘element’, which he had used for want of something better. He comments:

“ ‘Element’ is by no means a good fit for ‘dhātu’ but it is difficult to find any better single word. In itself it may mean what the commentators say it does (cf S.Z.Aung’s note, Compendium, p.254 f.) ‘That which bears its own intrinsic nature’ – an ultimate – or ‘its own characteristic mark’; something not reducible to simpler terms. But in relation to life and conduct, and Buddhist interest, it was limited to that-it seems to mean the wherewithal, the datum, the sine qua non, given which some given experience can be had; any ‘set of conditions’. In this section we are concerned with those ‘conditions’ without which we can have no sense,- or mundane experience”.

But then, with our current knowledge we can discern what the Buddha has been intending to put across. The meaning of this diversity of elements could be narrowed down to the sensory status. Do we find any connection here between sensory status and existence? We read, in the same work:

Sanidāna Sutta, ibid. II: 146 /XIV, 2, §12, [KS] II:105

With causal basis, brethren, arises thought of sense-desires, not without causal basis. With a causal basis arises ill will, not without causal basis. With a causal basis arises cruelty, not without causal basis. How do they so arise? Because of the element of sense-desire arises sensuous percep­tion, because of sensuous perception arise sensuous aims, be­cause of sensuous aims arises sensuous desire, because of sensuous desire arises sensuous yearning, because of sensuous yearning arises sensuous questing. Pursuing a sensuous quest, the untaught worldling practices wrong conduct in three ways: in deed, word and thought.

What precisely did these Scriptures purport to promote, concerning the sensory-base? To the Buddha, it seems, all creatures were individuals with a specific sensory makeup. And he could only specify and differentiate species from their sensory equipment (status). Indeed, even within a species with parallel and like sensory mechanisms, there still exists a difference in potentiality. What comes across most dramatically is that each individual is unique and independent, though it is hard for us to penetrate his actions, which looks instinctive and routine, hence instinctive action could be a smokescreen.

What becomes clear is, to the Buddha survival is not the sole or chief objective. There is a more central quest for his existence, that of sensory gratification.

Then if we go by the Buddhist scriptures, we see biological evolution is subservient to a pleasure principle; the pleasures of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and savour are such experiences cognised with the aid of the instrumentality of the six sense bases; viz. eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. Then it logically follows that activity of stressing and straining the mind body mechanism in order to cater to the sensory needs would result in stretching and extending its sensory apparatus in order to meet those very needs.

Then we arrive at the more vital question; in what particular fashion would such improvements find expression? This again de­pends on the current biological standing (sensory standing, or body-mind mechanism status), geo­physical and ecological situation (opportunity), and also related to its habit formation (conditioned state).

In order to get this complicated concept cast in a proper perspective, and enable us to visualise it easily, I would attempt at a break down of its main individual components.

1)  An individual in a species was defined as a ‘sensory being’, possessing a  specific sensory apparatus, which helps in ‘grasping’ what defined his species (also called mind-body mechanism).

2)  This sensory being is the possessor of desires and urges due to his sensory craving or grasping. These qualities again are relative to his mind-body status (species) and his conditioned state.

3)  The sensory base (mind body apparatus) has defined the species (category of beings) he belongs to.

4)  He has a geophysical and sociological situation which can be equated to a territorial imperative (of the scientific establishment). Could be equally called a field or opportunity.

5)  The sensory  mechanism (being) needs to execute actions, this in order to cater to his sensory desires, which would bring about gratification.

6)  But such actions are again conditional and depend upon:

Sensory standing (species)

Ecological opportunities (territorial)

Conditioned state of his mind (habit formation)

7)  Action entails  resultants,  and  their  effect  has repercussions  on  the actor; these can be positive or negative.

8)  Hence in order to bring about the desired results of gratification, this individual is in a process of committing  acts,  which in turn  stress and strain his sensory equipment.

9)  As a result of the aforesaid activity and repetition of same (as an individual and as a species) there can be stretching and  possible extension of the body and mind (evolution  of the Darwinian model). This extension can be positive or  negative,  and in time to come would assure their survival or degeneration and thereby extinction.

The vital fact that should be stressed here and taken note of is, that the individual creature’s actions are not consciously directed towards the extension of its mind and body mechanism but it is an incidental fallout due to his sensory gratification activities. Otherwise we are attributing to these simple species an abstract philosophy which we ourselves don’t have.

In other words, further extension of its sensory apparatus is ‘conditional’ to a whole series of circumstances.

Equipped with the Buddha’s philosophy, we are able to see clearly not only the larger picture but also its minor details. To be sure, numerous subtle things that the scientific community circumvented, can be now revealed. In fact in order to get a clearer picture, what we ought to consider is, to what use were such advanced senses put by their possessors.

As a matter of fact, investigations regarding creatures have suddenly erupted into major scholarship. Indeed, from Descartes’ contentions of ‘beings without feelings’ and that they ‘react mechanically’ like any ‘common clocks’ made of matter, now they have suddenly erupted into beings with superlative senses. Though research is at its infancy concerning animal senses, the current findings are simply dazzling us—magnetic and electronic sense, heat-registering eyes, butter­fly antennae, image-pattern detectors, electronic instinct, to name just a few in passing. The haziness is still persisting in the scientific circles, for even such revolutionary findings are explained within a narrow Darwinian framework. If we are to assume that development of such extraordinary sensory equipment was necessitated by a sole aim of survival, they go against all common sense. Are we to consider that a species would suddenly wake up one day and exclaim, “Ah, if we acquire image-pattern detecting equipment such a step will aid our species in its survival, in the far distant future; for then our species would find that it has extended and evolved its mind body mechanism to fulfil the necessary criteria and would be fit for the then existing competition and would survive, thus carrying my name for posterity!”

In reality, what the evolutionist should ask is, what was it that foresaw each need and experimented until the needs were satiated? It is to this question that the scientific establishment has not come round as yet, and it might take a few more generations before it does.

Indeed equipped with the Buddha’s concept that it was the want of gratification that dictated a necessity, thus handing over a mandate for the new sensory improvement, we can find our way through clearly.

We find that, while the sensory mechanism (individual of a species), laboured towards its main goal of sense gratification, all the while it fine-tuned and sharpened its sensory- equipment to make same instrumental for the purpose of survival. In other words, while balanc­ing and catering to its necessities, all the while it experimented and specialised to meet a variety of mounting needs. It is only then we can comprehend the reality of the situation. For the sake argument just consider, man’s visual sense!

How are we to account for the evolution of such a complicated organ such as the eye? “The eye to this day gives me a cold shudder”, wrote Dar­win to the American botanist, Asa Gray, in 1860; and long after Darwin ceased to be troubled by this challenge to his theory, his detractors were insisting that it was an unanswerable refutation of his views. Look, they said, if even the slightest thing is wrong, for instance if the retina is missing, or the lens opaque, or the dimensions in error, then the eye fails to form a recognizable image and is consequently rendered useless. Since it must be either perfect, or imperfect and hence useless how could small, successive, Darwinian steps have evolved a perfect eye? The objection is a formidable one, but it no longer looks unanswerable says the scientific establishment. If so, we are still waiting for a logical answer.

As a matter of fact, man can distinguish 7 pure colours, such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet, and about 17,000 mixed colours, plus about 300 shades of grey between white and black. (A bee’s vision comprises only twelve such shades and that of the fruit fly Drosophila a mere three!)

So our optical sense can take in 5 million shades of colour altogether. What emerges from a comparison with other animals is that man’s colour vision, like the way he sees an image, is no matter, a coarse affair, for it requires a sensory and nerve system that is simply short of miraculous.

Still the obvious question is studiously ignored. What is the necessity for such an advanced sense of vision, which is simply marvellous? It is absolutely superfluous in terms of survival. According to Darwin’s thinking, this is indeed an extra attribute, which we naturally can do without and perhaps, has been of some help in our long history of struggle. Many would protest at my rash statement. They would insist that such a superior visual sense is necessary—in fact it would be necessary, but for what?

There is one answer that fits in smoothly, if its usefulness is to be justified. Visual pleasure, and all the related pleasures it brings, and survival are merely incidental to all the joys it will bring. Indeed our ancestors have been able to see the world around them and take pleasure in it. I do not need to explain to any reader how much pleasure our eyes bestow on each of us.

One area that baffles us, to this date, is our sense of taste. Hardly any investigation has been carried out, as its subtle nature is hard to pin down by the scientific mechanist. Yet catering to satisfy our taste buds is a full-blown money making industry.

The amount of pain and labour taken to meet the demands of our palate is simply astonishing. The taste buds of some people are so exclusive, that hours on end are spent on satiating their wishes.

If survival was the paramount aim, then all this activity and money spent in order to give our taste buds such a thrill must be a futile exercise. People should eat anything digestible.

Upon close enquiry, we observe, that simply gratifying our hunger is not an objective in itself. Indeed the restaurants endeavour to cater to each of our senses of aroma and sight and even recreate that special ad hoc atmosphere. All this in aid of what?  Just to get its clients to push the food down their gullet? That much energy, care, and time, expended just to appease our hunger is astonishing. Can one find any meaning here concerning ‘survival of the fittest’? Scientific establishment disregards such sensory greed of individuals, because they are still probing into the physics and chemistry of our existence.

The range of possibilities that exist to give our ears a thrill is endless. Soothing of our ears has flowered into a major industry. A house would not be a home without a radio and TV. A variety of paraphernalia produced to aid us in gratifying our auditory sense is flooding the market. And the satisfaction these equipment bring is almost a religion for some enthusiasts.

Then there is a whole world of perfumes. These preparations go to soothe and stimulate our olfactory nerves; oils and soaps to soothe our skin and keep its complexion luxurious, hair oils and shampoos to give lustre and vitality to our hair. Garments of various fashions and enticing materials with matching colours bring glamour to the physique and enchant the seers.

In fact out of all our senses our sense of smell is the most whimsical. It has been said that a characteristic odour envelops  each one of us. It is like a personal signature or a fingerprint. Yet the reaction of the members of the human species to each other’s body odour is most peculiar.

Particularly where hygiene facilities allow, body odour is regarded as unpleasant and repulsive, with great efforts being globally exerted to escape it. Not only is soap and water used to lave off the free fatty scented secretions from the skin but also to shave off growths of hair, which grace the most scented regions of the body, as a matter of routine. Man’s liberal use of perfumes, however, would evidence the fact that the human sense of smell is far from defunct. We are especially confused when comparing the role of seminal odour, which accompanies copulation in chimpanzees, with the general disgust expressed by humans when confronted with the same odour. His confusion would mount still higher if he learns that the most sought-after ingredients for man’s perfumes have, since the beginning of recorded history, been the sex attractant odorous secretions from various species of mammals. We might stop to wonder why a primate who seeks out privacy for mating, and consorts with a single female for long periods of time and copulates far more frequently than the chimpanzee, should use sex attractants of deer, civets and beavers and not those of its own species, when it possesses batteries of such scent producing glands. In fact, man has more scent glands upon his body than any other higher primate, and woman has even higher.

I believe that the most curious feature of our sense of smell is that, the scented ape who generally relishes the sweet scents of a summer garden, or a bouquet from a fine wine, abhors the natural scents of his fellows. This intrigues us, for we find the existence of an effective — even highly discriminatory — sensory system, which apparently serves little obvious biological function for its survival. That our recent ancestors used their noses to assist themselves in hunting is acknowledged as a fact, so, why does modern man still retain the vestige of a once useful system, just as he retains an appendix, a coccyx or other vestiges of structures once biologically useful and now redundant? If the human nose is vestigial, with only a fraction of the powers it had in our distant ancestry, why are humans so concerned about odours? Why is it, that the nose is not treated like the appendix — accepted for what it is and left alone? Many poets regularly pay homage to the pleasures gained from the sense of smell, but I know of none who writes moving verses about the coccyx or the appendix. The nose is often regarded as an equivalent to the monkey’s tail, which gradually disappeared when it was no longer useful. The equation is absurd, for we notice, and is apparent that it is ironic that the tail shrank and the nose developed due to a vital human necessity. The fact that the sophisticated women wear perfumes, colognes and fragrances in order to entice every passer-by, while hiding their body odour can be confusing, unless explained using the sensory theory. The sense of smell provides so much stimulation and brings so much pleasure that it has created a vast number of money making industries.

Collectively the senses have offered the human animal a sophisticated sensory apparatus which provided him with myriads of moments of pleasure and pain, throughout his existence.

Every single modern product it seems has been designed to rouse our senses and generate enjoyment. The modern world it seems is fired by a single purpose i. e.  to stimulate and bring pleasure to our senses in every imaginable way. Time magazine (June 16, 1980) (excerpted from ‘Men face up to wrinkles’) informs us:

The skin-care products now being sold to men are as varied as anything ever served up to humanity’s traditionally more wrinkle­-conscious sex. Estée Lauder, purveyor of expensive creams, lo­tions, and fragrances for women, offers a gilt-edged line of sev­enty different men’s products under the Aramis label. Included in the list: pre-shave cleansing soaps to reduce razor drag and facial scrubs for use on the nose, and forehead…… The strongest sign of the new acceptance of male cosmetics is the surge in the male facials. At Georgette Klinger’s. Mirror-and- chrome emporium on Manhattan’s Madison Avenue, men now account for 20 percent of business. All day long a stream of admen, lawyers, and bankers settle back in plush barber chairs to have their faces anointed and cleansed with an exotic array of creams, masks, and steam baths.

Does this mean that we are different from our forefathers? On the contrary they have been as greedy as we are for sensory opportunities, but living in more liberal and open societies, it  offers us the means to cater to our every sensory whim.

Can we point out any difference of quality between the modern bare—skinned and sophisticated creature, and his forefathers who had a lot of hair on their body, and who lived in the jungles? Without reservation we can. It was our sensory apparatus that separated us from our forefathers. The incredible variations of our bodily ac­tions are so unique that no other single creature is capable of duplicating its versatility. Indeed all creatures have their senses developed or undeveloped according to their relative level of sensory evolution (grasping). But not this scope and range. Though they too are specialised in a specific direction, they do not have this versatility and sophistication. It is only when we enquire into the specialisation that we get a hint of what direction a sensory mechanism has taken in its ad­ditions to its primary form.

There is the bee which can see ultraviolet. The dog’s sense of smell is supposed to be a million times better than ours. The bats and night moths originate ultrasonic nocturnal din in their warfare. To the garden spider, his sense of touch is his passport to prosperity. One may say without exaggeration that the vibra­tions in the threads of his web are like a telegraph line, by which all sorts of messages are received. It is in the sense of taste we are most fussy and find no equal in other creatures.

We visit the nearest shop to get that special piece of meat and marinate it with special essences and prepare it using subtlest of spices. Then we sit down to dinner with an exciting partner, dressed in all finery, with soothing music to match. Then the food is washed down through the gullet with an expensive wine with candle lights, thus creating that romantic atmosphere. In all of these rituals did we hear anything at all concerning ‘survival’ in order to send our ‘prototypes’ further?

Though most animals have extraordinarily advanced sensory equipment in one or more fields and are specialised, yet they cannot lay claim to the superior sensory sophistication of Homo sapiens sapiens. His is such a sophisticated ma­chine perfectly balanced and fine-tuned for intricate and subtle activities, that it will furnish its owner with a whole world of pleasures.

If only our auditory system could register a small percentage of the noise that the bats hear, we would have to wax our ears in order to get some sleep. If we are as sensitive to smell as some of these creatures, we would find it quite difficult to live in some of our modern cities, because of the horrible pollution.

But then, most creatures, in spite of Descartes and his ‘mechanical beings’ theory, live in a nervous, fear-filled world. A World full of insensitivity, horror, and sudden deaths. Birds sway their heads all the time looking out for danger. Rabbits keep their ears and noses open to detect predators. The deer is so alert that he is ready to gallop away at the drop of a pin, for fear of losing his life.

It is a world where sensory equipment is put to full advantage every moment of the day, both for gratification and survival.

Since the time amoebae came to dominate this planet, they found themselves just aimlessly floating around with limited possibilities. Obviously it needed something more than mere survival. So some picked themselves up and reached out to acquire the necessary sense base and give themselves a thrill. A world of aimless floating around became a world of sound and taste, of vision and touch, indeed conscious­ness and odour.

Indeed as the Buddha explained in no uncertain terms to Vāseṭṭha in Aggañña Suttanta op.cit, his almost eye witness account,

“Now those beings. Vāseṭṭha, feasting on the savoury earth feeding on it, nourished by it, continued thus for a long, long while. And in measure as they thus fed, did their bodies become solid, and did variety in their comeliness become manifest. Some beings were well favoured, some were ill favoured. And herein they that were well favoured despised them that were ill favoured.”

Thus appeared strange creatures with extraordinary sensory apparatus. First sluggish, slow, stupid, and somewhat clumsy, which qualities gave way to graceful elegance, deftness and dexterity in the course of time. Species of different aims, taste, and aspirations execute their needs in their own special ways. Some, to us, may seem absurd, even comical, yet the owners of such physical structures are quite satisfied with their current sensory status. More in­teresting is the fact that the dense complexities of the sensory status lead to a maze of shadowy fears and even more shadowy alliances. Thus we find in the animal world strange interdependencies and as­sociations. It is here we should pose that important question, why some creatures came to meet the Waterloo of their struggles, and slipped into extinction consequently.

Is it purely due to the so-called unfitness, as Darwin has been preaching? It is not that simple, if we go by the Buddha. The answer may lie in the limited priorities in a changing ecological situation.

We would simply be horrified to lose just one of our sensory functions—excepting the olfactory sense. To be without one could be a great handicap. To live in a world without sight or without sound, would not only make us helpless, but also cause us to miss a whole world of pleasures in life. We tend to sympathise with one who is blind, not because he is helpless and not ‘survive’ in order to send his prototypes, but mainly because of the pleasures he is missing. Any one of us, obviously, would be appalled if we were to lose our eyesight suddenly.

By basing our analysis upon the Buddha’s explanation of evo­lution as a sensory becoming, most pieces of the jigsaw puzzle fall into place and evolution projects an extraordinary meaning. Take a simple question like why did we shed our bodily hair when we left the trees to become the so-called naked apes? This problem seems to have puzzled experts for a long time, and many an amusing theory has been put forward. What then could be the reason for our naked skins?

One of the theories have us believe that it was to get rid of the skin parasites. The use of a constant sleeping place created a rich breeding ground for a variety of ticks, mites, fleas, and other bugs, and by dropping his hair, this ape would be able to cope with this problem better. If so, why keep back hair on the head and the private parts?

There are numerous other interesting theories. Desmond Morris informs us in The Naked Ape that it was a necessity for the hunting ape to cool off; hence the absence of a hairy coat would have been of considerable relief. But what about the rest of the hunters, especially those who inhabit and operate in the warm tropical regions, such as the leopards and the tigers? Surely, it would be helpful if they dropped their hairy coats too, so they could also cool off, after sweating at their work. In no way can I reconcile these theories with facts. To me, this whole riddle can be answered, and effortlessly at that, with this sensory becoming (evolution) theory.

This ape differed from others, because he had enhanced ideas concerning sensory possibilities if he had a naked body. I am especially speaking of the added sense of touch and sight, among a host of other ‘craving and grasping’ refinements.

If earlier it left one cold when caressing a hairy coat, now a skin minus its hair brought a new dimension in sensory experience and joy for the mutual satisfaction of both partners. In fact, apart from its basic sensual stimulation, it was a pleasant sight to see a bare-skinned mate and touch each other, and it aroused untold passions. ‘Play­boy’ and other such erotic magazines are all about this. The dropping of the hairy coat by our forefathers was a step, and a fundamental one at that, in the direction of furthering the sensory capabilities of touch, visual, and sensual beauty, and numerous other sensory possibilities. Obviously, this sensory extension (bare skin) was also instrumental in solving many other in-between practical problems too. As for those who speak of big-game hunting apes and ask why aren’t they growing their hair back now; after all they do not need to run after big game with our high-powered rifles and exploding bullets. As for any parasite problems, modern personal hygienic possi­bilities would allow us to keep a well-groomed coat of hair, thus eliminating the parasites with ease. However fine a coat of bodily hair we may acquire, such a suggestion would not appeal to any one of us, even if it would cut down on clothing and conserve our energy, thus our pocketbooks, too. On the other hand, many chic modern women of today seem to shave just the few bodily hairs left on them as a matter of vogue, when there is not a single parasite to bother them, nor are they known to run after big game, other than the obvious biped type. Evi­dently, the body-heating theory should be eliminated from the probable reasons for these strange shaving habits. Darwinians as usual did not have a clue as to why we dropped the hairs. With the Buddha’s explanation we can find a way out of this perplexity. What we have here, unquestionably, is an urge at furthering our sensory frontiers (by shedding our hair); a sensory evolution in the true sense of the word, a more obvious case for sensory becoming (evolution) of creatures cannot be presented.

Though this advanced theory of sensory evolution has not penetrated the thick skull of the scientific establishment, as they are still groping in the dark to discover it, the message is millennia old. But then not surprisingly, this ‘becoming process’ of beings (call it ‘evolution’ if you wish) is just a minor cog of a more intricately complex theory of becoming of creatures.

On the one hand, a general theory of evolution (becoming) was pro­claimed over 2,500 years ago, and its essence is still to be found in the Buddhist Scriptures, if one cares to leaf through the Pali canon intelligently and bind it together. On the other hand, Darwinian explanation with hindsight was a narrow, unclear, hazy and a crude mechanistic one, which left out the true links why such an evolution of species should take place at all. Most of the important mechanisms were overlooked in Darwin’s conjecture. Creatures do not exist merely to spread their types, nor do they do so just for the hell of it. If on the other hand, if this is some sort of magical fiat marvellously produced out of thin air, by that warm-hearted personality called God, then we have got our adjectives mixed up. We do not see any love, or anything near it, in nature, but we do find pure misery, cruelty, pain, and untimely death. And as for that simple proposition, viz, the furthering of their species, we could take one species – Homo sapiens sapiens whose general aim is obvious to us, and analyse to see whether their activity is directed with the sole motive of furthering their own types.

In the good old days our forefathers produced offspring because it was thought that the latter:

1)  helped ease their burden by sharing in the work;

2)  would look after and comfort the former  when they were old;

and

3)            would carry the former’s name further.

Then there were those unwanted births through what is called a miscalculation. These were supposed to be for obvious reasons. But currently in modern industrial society, each couple is supposed to have only two children. And query what was this necessity to have children? We would be informed that, it was nice to have children, to give us companionship, would get pleasure from their company, feel a kind of security and strength, and nice to watch them grow. But in all this, not once did we hear of the ‘continuity of their name and type’. For good reasons, people today produce children whereas they could live without any, not due to any hazy obscure aim for a continuation of their prototype, but purely motivated by their immediate ‘here and now’ sensory gains.

It is not hard to recognise the facts for what they are. We tend to have children because it is nice to have them and to see them at play and see them grow. It is a pleasure to have their company. More than anything we hope that, in our old age, they will look after our welfare. But this last reason also has become superflu­ous, for most old people on retirement and reaching the winter of their lives must while away their time in a home for the old and disabled. As for the continuation of one’s name and lineage, this is certainly ‘old hat’. Out of sight is out of mind and everyone knows it. Besides, what is so important about the memory of a dead man unless of course, he has achieved something quite remarkable?

Age after age, generation after generation, century after cen­tury, people deceived themselves by what they believed to be sound reasons to have children. Either God willed it or for this ‘primary’ continuation of the name through lineage were the more obvious of such rationalization. People produce offspring simply because they are an advantage, a pleasure, and they provide hopes for future life, and have security in numbers, but not for any other obscure reasons. Having said that, we can infer an important principle. Creatures are not in the habit of producing their types because they have some hazy, abstract goal, such as ‘continuation of their prototypes’ and evolving their mind body structure in order to survive so that their species can continue unhindered. On the contrary, ‘survival of itself’ is the all­ encompassing aim, and this may be realised more advan­tageously in a group, colony or as a loner, depending on the sensory mechanism and his conditioned state as a species.

What comes across most dramatically is that the individual’s selfish sensory interests are at stake, and, in order to procure same, the individual’s actions must be focused so that it reaps maximum mileage, as each individual is in a conditioned state of mind.

No wonder some species, such as ants and bees, are labouring rabidly for the welfare of the colony. Others fight to safeguard their territory from intruders for the greater gain of the pack. But there are others such as spiders who are loners by volition. They are loners to the degree that even the mate is killed once having been exploited for the act of pro­creation. I guess these loners have missed the point and have not read Darwin.

Wolves from the same pack meet each other even after a short separation by greeting each other like long-lost relatives, with an extravagant display of affection. The essential thing which we should not lose sight of is, why individual wolves always act in packs. Superficially, this is the most advantageous thing. According to the Darwinian theory, as a loner, the wolf is inefficient and perhaps would have been extinct today. Upon closer investigation, it would not be hard for us to penetrate the mystery. The hunt by a pack is not exclusively directed towards appeasing of hunger. It is much more intricate than that. Living and hunting as a pack bring to the solitary wolf a sense of security, the pleasure of comradeship, the thrill of the hunt, and a sense of being somebody in a group. And it also dispels the wolves’ loneliness, not to mention a host of other sensory rewards. All these can easily be seen by their habits of kissing, sniffing, and running around each other. Farley Mowat believes that wolves even have a highly developed sense of humour and play practical jokes on each other and often tease each other.

Richard Fiennes wrote in the The Order of Wolves:

When the pack leaves for the hunt at dusk, it invariably sets up a howling session. The howling of wolves is generally regarded as something awesome, to strike a chill into the hearts of those that hear it. To the wolves it appears to be a kind of music, like perhaps a regimental march to inspire them and put courage in their hearts. All the wolves of the pack howl in chorus, their heads thrown back and their mouths wide open, each adopting a different key. If two wolves of the pack are howling on the same note, one quickly changes, so that the different sounds together produce the sound which humans find so fearsome. One wolf starts the howl only, but the other wolves of the pack quickly join in.

The commonest become apparent even, before the eyes are open. When raised in captivity, some are kindly and affectionate, others sulky and vicious and cannot be tamed. This spread of ability is comparable to that found in human beings, and is an essential feature of a highly organised group of animals that require a spread of abilities to obtain their prey and to live in the inhospitable Arctic terrain. Those wolves destined to become dominant members and leaders of the pack, clearly show their qualities of leadership when they are still cubs, and exact obedience from their littermates.

There is no glossing over the individualistic nature of the wolf. Though we are unable to discern this, yet be sure it exists. And if there were no such qualitative individual difference, where would evolution be? For most people, scientists not excluded, creatures act purely by instinct, almost mechanically, with a single aim, mainly directed at appeasing their hunger for survival and reproduction in order to assure ‘the continuation of the species’. What is supporting such a view is, what obviously meets our eyes. For creatures seem to be acting instinctively by habit. In this there is the special quality common to all creatures, including man, viz, the so-called habit formation.

The Buddhist scriptures point to this important ingredient, which plays a major role in our sensory becoming. Creatures are given to this conditioning process by the direct influence of their circumstances, environment, and social pressures.

When certain action is performed, a tendency is set up to repeat it, for now it is backed by experience. And by repetition there is a conditioning process. And when repeated a number of times, it becomes a habit, a ritual, a part of the being’s very nature. In the lower forms of life, evolution of volition is only manifested slightly; it is more pronounced in man. Such obvious behavioural patterns led Darwin and his followers to ignore the individuality of the creatures they investigated, and alleged that they act instinctively. This force of habit built into all beings to various degrees specified the species they belonged to, it was assumed. But habit has no ‘status-quo’.

If their actions do not pay off, such actions are invariably dropped. Indeed, with the change in tides in their affairs, their habits too float along. This is hardly no­ticeable in the lower biological forms. Every current action we daily perform is practically the father of a long series of actions of a parallel nature. No wonder there is difficulty in breaking away from rituals grounded on traditions. Instinctive behavioural patterns or those of a traditional nature are elusive, without ‘status-quo’ and in a state of flux. Whether we like it or not, we, are like the rest, perhaps to a lesser degree creatures of habit. And when we hear of cultural habits of a race, affiliated to their group, unconsciously we assume that these are as fixed ‘run of the mill’ things. This is simply an ignorant truth.

Concerning habit formation, it may be said that Buddhism is the only system that gives them their due place of importance in the scheme of personal evolution. It is by habit formation that we are asked to eliminate bad tendencies and promote positive ones and thus mould our own psychology through accumulated acts of strenuous effort. Now habit formation and the association of ideas are closely linked as modern psychology tells us. Pavlov, in his experiments on conditioned reflexes, established the relationship between associated ideas and physical reactions. There is no such thing as ‘accident’ in natural laws, but more of an operation of unknown causes or the ‘uncertainty principle’ of physics. In the case of an individual, it may be possible to predict fairly ac­curately how the person will behave in a given situation when his characteristic tendencies are known, but we cannot guarantee with absolute certainty. An honest man under pressure of certain cir­cumstances can act dishonestly. A brave man may become a coward, and vice versa. We can never be absolutely certain that persons we believe we know so well will act strictly ‘in char­acter’. But then personality is a fluid indeterminate phenomenon altering momentarily. Two guiding principles could be shown, according to the Buddhist scriptures: Ignorance of things as they really are (due to limited or distorted sensory perception) and the second, craving potential or its sensory greed.

To put it in another way, a current act of an individual is proportionate on the one hand to his psycho-physical standing or evolutionary ­status, (species, in the Darwinian sense). This again is a result of past trials and errors due to ignorance and, on the other hand, its craving potential. For example, the needs of human creature that has acquired an elevated position due to his sensory mechanism are clear and his individuality is pronounced to a great degree. Today, with the United Nations setting the tune, we speak of personal freedom and of the individuals’ right (or human rights), though somewhat theoretically. Reading history, we are apt to believe this is entirely a modern invention. In the good old days, masses were coerced to fight for king and country, and before that it was God and faith.

But those standard ingredients have not lost their power totally.

Woe unto him, who did not take seriously a declaration of a holy war by a medieval pope. The general masses, like a herd of buffaloes, were at the mercy of every whim and fancy of a pope, a king, or a feudal lord that we tend to believe that they had minds of their own. So are we to assume that these human masses, like any other Darwinian type of creatures, are given to no other interest than furthering their overlords’ will? Didn’t self-interest play any part in all this? It is through a process of conditioning by society, traditions, and narrow and crude self-interest that they seem to be chained together like any other lesser creatures, thus acting in unison or, it seems to us, instinctively. Indeed, this conditioned, human species was not any different from any other of the species.

Most investigators of ant colonies do not give an individual ant any credit whatsoever. To them, an ant is a very small wheel in a vast machinery. The ant heap may be a vast and a complex machinery, but the individual ant’s life, like ours, must be full of decisions. It should direct his relative analytical powers and evaluate whether this or that act be positive to the well -being of the ant heap and, logically, through the well-being of his com­munity, the ant’s own well-being is assured. To say that an ant is no individual, for his actions seem mechanical, and we feel it is destined to play a given minor part in a vastly complex ant colony is absurd, however habitually driven it may look. For, if not, it would mean there is no evolution itself. But, like all others, an ant’s life is in a state of flux and his instincts tell him that he is alone in the world, cast adrift, he is nobody but is prey to every passing ant eater. But place him in a well-organised ant heap, and his life takes meaning. He becomes somebody with a status, with possibilities of survival, by hiding within the numbers. All of this is subservient to that more fundamental objective, sensory gratification.

In a larger perspective, we can observe that Darwin’s theory is a miniature of a more intricate theory of becoming. I have here only  scratched the surface of an intricate sensory-becoming theory by the Buddha. And to, wrap up this abstract process he has revealed a specific causal law called the Dependent Origination (Paṭiccasamuppāda) of Beings. As it is still premature, I would not dwell upon this here but would return to it at the appropriate moment and introduce it.

Yet, even with the limited material I have introduced, the evolutionary process becomes more than a group (species) effort, an individual effort. It is the individual within the group (species) who co-operates or breaks out according to his neces­sities and possibilities. This evolution is tuned towards one main direction, conditioned by habit formation and controlled by cir­cumstances and is proportionate to the sensory status, and to the sensor’s gratification. But in order to achieve more improved sensory concessions, they need to further their sensory horizons. The net result of all such urges and its resultant striving is an extended sensory status. Once we are armed with this explanation, we can with ease explain this dynamic becoming process.

Thus we have species with strange sensory equipment. There are those who look comical, some weird and yet some absurd. On the other hand, some species with elaborate body and mind simply vanished without a trace, whereas the cruder forms still survive. In fact, their existence is assured over those ones with a more elaborate make-up. We can detect one motive in these higher echelons of creatures, and the production of its prototype was not the one. By stretching and extending their round of gratification, they had developed a body-mind mechanism in a specific direction, depending on circumstances. But such modifications have brought hazardous repercussions in its wake, for they, it seems, ended up in blind alleys, where extinction was the only exit.

It is time to drop that crude and limited ‘survival’ theory and investigate with the more sophisticated explanation of the Buddha. Creatures are not machines. They do not live to produce their types and fade away as maintained by the scientific establishment. These, by their very narrowness of views, have reduced the beings to mere ‘propagating machines’. The net result of such half-baked ideas was not second to those of the instant-creation people. To both these deterministic groups, creatures became material consumer products, heritage, and expendable commodities. Both the promoters of the magical theories and those of ‘survival machines’ are leading us along paths where many other species ended up – in blind alleys. Parallel mechanistic and fatalistic ideas were rampant at the Buddha’s time too, as he discloses in Apaṇṇaka Sutta of the Majjhima Nikāya (No 60), (I. 407-408), translated as ‘On the Sure’ [MLS] (II: 76-78):

There are, householders, some recluses and brahmans who speak thus and are of these views: “There is no cause, no reason for the defilement of creatures, creatures are defiled without cause, without reason. There is no cause, no reason, for the purification of creatures, creatures are purified without cause, without reason. There is not strength, there is not energy, there is not human vigour, there is not human effort; all creatures, all breathing things, all beings, all living things are without power, without strength, without energy, bent by fate, chance, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain amid the classes.” But, house­holders, there are some recluses and brahmans who speak in direct opposition to these recluses and brahmans, and who say this:

“There is cause, there is reason for the defilement of creatures, creatures are defiled with cause, with reason. There is strength, there is energy, there is human vigour, there is human effort: all creatures, all breathing things. all beings, all living things are not (so) without power, without strength, without energy  that they are bent by fate, chance and nature, that they experience pleasure and pain amid the six classes.’’ “What do you think about this, householders? Do not these recluses and brahmans speak in direct op­position to one another?”

An important moment should be noted here. The Buddha does not speak specifically of humans but of all ‘creatures’ and agrees with the latter:

And because there is indeed cause, the view of anyone that there is not cause is a false view of his. As there is indeed cause, if anyone has the conception that there is not cause it is a false conception of his. As there is indeed cause,  if anyone utters the speech: ‘There is not cause,’’ it is a false speech of his. As there is indeed cause, if anyone says there is not cause, he makes mock of those perfected ones who profess that there is cause. As there is indeed cause, if he convinces others that there is not cause, this convincing of his is against true dhamma, and because of this convincing which is against true dhamma, he is exalting himself and disparaging others. Indeed, before his good morality is got rid of, bad morality is set up. And this false view, false conception, false speech, the mocking of the aryans, the convincing which is against true dhamma, the exalting of oneself, the disparaging of others- these are a variety of evil, wrong states that arise thus because of false view.

These hazy concepts, such as fate, chance, and creation as if by magic, according to the Buddha, not only would be hazardous to other creatures, but would lead us towards a state of homocentric im­becility. Such concepts would help promote self-centred delusions of ‘grander concepts’ such as that we are with a soul but they are not, we are worthy but they are not, thus inflating our egos like balloons. According to the Buddha ‘cause and effect’ extended to all ‘creatures’.

All creatures are more down to earth, and their goals are not so hazy and abstruse as to be motivated by an ideal such as the preservation of their species. For them, there is a more straightforward goal, which they are keen to attain. Just like you and I, they wish to enjoy the good things of life, in their own limited way, by exploiting their acquired body and mind.

What comes across unequivocally is that the lesser creatures are, first and foremost, individuals. And as individuals go, they are directed toward survival, in order to get the possibilities of sensory gratification.

Take the eating habits of snakes. Most of us are under the impression that they would swallow any meat product small enough to pass through their throats. This is not the case in actuality. Investigations show that food habits of each species are very specialised. Indeed, many snakes, particularly the larger ones are very catholic in their choice of food, and some are rather fussy. One sea snake is specialised in fish eggs, while another eats crabs and that too a little. Among the terrestrial species there are those that specialise in eating termites, frogs, lizards, other snakes, birds’ eggs, and snails. The snail-eaters have very narrow lower jaws, which they push right into the shells, and the backward-pointing teeth catch hold of the soft tissue, and the snake then pulls out the snail from its home. Egg-eaters take whole eggs into their mouths and then pierce the shells with a row of bones in the throat. Muscular pressure squashes the eggs and forces the fluids down into the stomach, and the flattened shells are then spat out.

The remarkable thing is that such narrow-minded food pref­erences mainly cater to their taste buds instead of their hunger. Survival it seems is of secondary importance in their scheme of necessities. The more developed the sensory equipment, the fussier the animals become in their eating habits. Taste is a very essential sensory attribute, and we see that most individuals are conditioned in their likes and dislikes from childhood.

Though the scientific establishment is incapable of explaining such inconspicuous truths, we can explain such subtle necessities of creatures with ease with the aid of the sensory becoming theory. Indeed with this wisdom we can easily point to what fired this evolutionary struggle of creatures. But this becoming of beings (evolution of species to scientist) was not a simple tentative result of a mechanical process such as Darwin’s. It went into detailed physical birth connection of a being, which projected a concept that had an incredible dimension, more multifaceted than the absolutism of genetics. I would return to this astounding explanation in the next chapter when we compare genetics contra the Buddha’s explanation as to why this diversity of species and individuals in each species.

No escaping of the fact that it was fired by lust and levelled by ignorance, a trial-and-error effort to survive and experience the good things in life, as they knew how. A constant becoming, influenced and conditioned by circumstances. It is at the peak of such deliberations we meet that extra-sensory creature with his extra-ordinarily sophisticated sensory equipment. He is commonly known as man or Homo sapiens sapiens. Whether he is able to maintain this priv­ileged sensory status for long is highly questionable.  For in our long search for sensory gratification, our greed has reached limits never imagined. And in order to cater to these ever-spiralling needs, we have at the same time produced a whole array of products,  which will make it possible to provide pleasure. All this has brought home to us a sinister reality. We can effortlessly recognise the philosophies that laid the groundwork for our ecological crisis. It was through our addictions to such du­bious dogmas of determinism through homocentrism. Aided and abetted by our hollow claims of indispensability, we seem to be writing off the existence of lesser creatures, as lacking any purpose or aim, but just food for our table. Such comforting egoism would in time help dispatch ourselves to where many other species found themselves in – oblivion!

 

WAR CRIMES OF THE LTTE

June 1st, 2016

KAMALIKA PIERIS

LTTE committed  many serious war crimes during the Eelam wars. Here are some of them.  To start with, there are prohibitions regarding recruitment into an army. The Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict  forbids the enlistment of anyone under the age of 18 into the armed forces. According to the UN LTTE recruited 6,905 children. . They were forcibly taken away from their families and placed in the front line. A large number died in battle.   Child soldiers rescued by the army refused to go back to their families. “They can’t recognize their parents. Some don’t even know their names,” the army said.

LTTE violated sacred norms of war. International law prohibits the killing of soldiers who surrender.  (ICRC Rule 47) The LTTE executed 200 soldiers captured during Pooneryn army camp attack (1993). LTTE burnt alive hundreds of Sri Lankan soldiers who had surrendered during Mullaitivu army camp attack (1996). LTTE desecrated the bodies of soldiers killed at Kalmunai. (1990). There is a UN Convention against Torture. Jeevan Base had four torture cells. A torture chamber was found at Puthumathalan.

LTTE violations regarding the safety of civilians in war zones have not received the attention they deserve.  International Humanitarian Law   prohibits the use of human shields and the taking of hostages (ICRC Rules 96, 97). LTTE used civilians as human shields in the battle at Dharmapuram. The children and families of women cadres were placed in the frontline in battles so that the state military could be charged with civilian murder.   In 2009, LTTE spectacularly used 200,000 Tamils as hostages  moving them from place to place. When these hostages ran away from the LTTE, LTTE fired on them with machine guns.

Impersonating soldiers of the other side by wearing the enemy’s uniform, and fighting in that uniform, is forbidden. LTTE posing as elite police commandos fired at a bus killing 11 Sinhalese including 2 children at Arantalawa (1996).  LTTE cadres dressed in military uniforms, shot dead 127 Sinhalese civilians, at Habarana, including 31 police and security force personnel who were travelling in 3 buses and 2 trucks to Trincomalee. They stopped the vehicles and dragged out the passengers and shot them to death with automatic weapons after brutally assaulting them with clubs. Over 70 with injuries were air lifted. The dead included many children and 12 off duty security personnel. Most of the victims were families visiting their relatives for the New Year. (1987)

The use of chemical weapons and poisons is prohibited in war (ICRC Rules 72, 73).  LTTE used chemical weapons against Gemunu watch at Nachchikudah.   Chlorine gas was used at Kiran   and tear gas was fired from launchers at Akkarayan. The use of tear gas is prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  Cans of poison gas were found buried in Puthukkudiyiruppu. Tippmann A-5 guns, capable of firing deadly chemicals were also found.

The Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel Mines bans the use and stock piling of mines. LTTE heavily mined the approaches to their territory. More than 770,000  anti-personnel land mines  have been recovered so far.  Mine attacks killed and maimed many armed services personnel. ‘We amputated a lot of legs.’ said the surgeons. LTTE devised a mine which damaged a soldier’s leg in such a way that a prosthetic could not be fitted to it.  Mine manufacturing factories were found in Mullativu. Mines were stockpiled. A cache of 1093 mines emerged at Govipal Aru area, Ampara.  Another cache had 18,000–20,000 mines.

Article 51(2) of Additional Protocol I prohibits acts of violence intended to create terror among the civilian population”. LTTE ignored this. There were ambushes and killings.  Twenty-five civilians who were traveling in a lorry from Negombo at Kokuvil were ambushed by LTTE cadres, who killed 14 of them.

LTTE used bombs to create terror. Bombs were placed on roads, buses, trains, in post offices, railway stations, once in a department store. Bomb explosions in the south were in predominantly Sinhala populated areas. Tamil populated areas such as Kotahena, in Colombo, were not bombed.  LTTE bombed Central Bank building, killing more than 100 and wounding about 1,400. Four simultaneous bombs exploded in Colombo-Alutgama train resulting in 64 deaths and 400 wounded. A bus carrying 140 civilians in Kebithigollewa was bombed. A powerful Claymore-type roadside bomb, packed with explosives and ball-bearings hit a passenger bus at Buttala, killing 27 civilians and wounding 67 others. Passengers who ran out of the bus were shot.

Suicide bombing is universally considered a crime. LTTE used suicide bombers to attack vital locations (Katunayake), installations, (Kolonnawa), institutions (Central Bank) and public places where crowds gathered. These persons exploded themselves on roads, buses, trains and at public functions. They rammed into their targets using truck, jeep, motorcycle and once even by rickshaw. There were suicide divers as well  using underwater scooters, fishing boats and stealth craft. These   ‘Black Tigers’   were glorified as’ ‘highly motivated, well trained, able to get at heavily guarded targets’. But military specialists point out that the suicide bomber is a tool, not a hero. He is given sleep inducing drugs, and then trained to obey a handler and respond to trigger words. The handler activates the bomber at the right time.

There are ‘protected’ places which cannot be attacked in war. Additional Protocol 1 (1977) prohibits attacks on installations and vital institutions. LTTE   bombed Central Telegraph office, attacked Kelanitissa power station , Kolonnawa, Orugodawatte oil storages,  gas storage, Muthurajawela.  Placed of religious worship are also protected sites. Attacks on them are considered criminal acts (ICRC Rule 38, 40, Hague Convention 1999). LTTE did not target churches, kovils or mosques, only Buddhist sites.  A truck with explosives was sent into the Dalada Maligawa. Samudragiri vihara, Illankathurai was destroyed.     Stupas at Verugal,  Kalladi   and Toppur   were used as communication towers. It appears, also that heavy weapons were installed at Thoppigala.  Kumbakaranamale Chaitya, Ampakaman, was used as a food store    and Wedivetttukallu Chaitya   was used as a bunker.

There are ‘protected persons’ as well, whom soldiers are forbidden to kill (Geneva Convention IV). They include Buddhist monks. LTTE targeted Buddhist monks. Kitulagama Seelalankara Nayaka Thera of the Dimbulagala Forest monastery was assassinated in 1995.  In 1987 armed LTTE cadres ambushed a bus taking Buddhist monks on a pilgrimage, ordered the bus to Arantalawa jungle, and killed the chief priest and all 30 samanera monks in a brutal manner, using swords, guns and machine guns. One monk was permanently disabled.

LTTE also targeted worshippers in Buddhist temples. In 1985, LTTE entered Anuradhapura main bus station and opened fire with automatic weapons, killing and wounding civilians who were waiting for buses. The LTTE cadres then drove to the Sri Maha Bodhi and gunned down worshippers, killing 146 persons including children. Somawathi vihara was attacked twice. The second shooting was done to discourage pilgrims coming to the temple on Esala Poya. A bomb killed 23 and injured 70 at a Buddhist temple in Batticaloa during Vesak in 2000. The bomb that exploded in an Anuradhapura-Kandy private bus at Dambulla (2008) was to be exploded at Ruwanveliseya when a ‘pichchamal pujawa’ was in progress with thousands of devotees taking part in the ceremony. The informant who had carried the bomb had been accompanied by her mother and sister, all posing as Buddhist devotees going on pilgrimage.

ICRC Rule 88 prohibits discrimination against any particular ethnic group. LTTE systematically attacked Sinhala civilians. LTTE cadres killed twelve Sinhalese villagers working at an irrigation canal construction site in Omadiyamadu, close to Welikanda in Polonnaruwa district (2006). In 1986 and 1987 LTTE ambushed three buses in Polonnaruwa district, separated the Sinhalese from the others and murdered 127 of them. In Pulmoddai LTTE stopped a private bus, removed the Sinhalese and killed them. 25 Sinhalese passengers travelling by bus on Potuvil-Moneragala road were shot dead.  A private bus was stopped by LTTE cadres, who removed Sinhalese and killed 11 including three policemen. 40 Sinhalese passengers in the night-mail train from Batticaloa were killed by LTTE cadres who stopped the train at Valaichchenai (1986.)

LTTE attacked over 75 unprotected Sinhala villages in Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Vavuniya, Trincomalee, Batticaloa and Ampara districts. The main target was Sinhala villages in Trincomalee district. Villagers took to sleeping in the surrounding jungle during the night for safety. Some villages were attacked more than once. Arantalawa,   Mahadiulwewa, Namalwatte and Serunuwara were attacked twice. Wadigawewa thrice, Morawewa four times. Many of those killed were women and children. Pregnant mothers were specially targeted.

LTTE killed in a brutal manner. There were massacres in the Sinhala villages of Morawewa, Gomarankandawela, Kantale, Ganthalawa and Seruwila (late 1980s). In 2009 ten civilians including children were killed at Rathmalgaha Ella near Rathugala in Inginiyagala  and 21 Sinhala villagers at Kirimetiyaya on the Bibile-Ampara road.  At Kithulutuwa 127 men, women and children were slaughtered. At a press conference to discuss the film ‘Gamani,’ a speaker who had lived in the threatened villages said that the situation was far worse than what had been shown in the film. The film shows only little of what actually happened.

At Arantalawa, LTTE cadres armed with swords, machetes, clubs and small-arms killed 27 to 28 civilians including women and children, in a night house-to-house raid at Arantalawa. Pregnant mothers were found hacked to death. Their necks were slashed. Armed LTTE cadres stormed Serunuwara village, herded the farming families at gunpoint on to a road and shot them there in execution style. At Morawewa, villagers were brutally tortured before they were murdered. At Sagarapura a house-to-house massacre was carried out. They hacked the adults with sharp instruments and clubbed children to death in front of their parents. They looted the houses and set fire to them, burning the wounded victims alive. At Godapotta LTTE, surrounded the temple and attacked a gathering of over 175 villagers who had met to discuss a new temple. http://www.island.lk/index.php?page_cat=article-details&page=article-details&code_title=86562

Sri Lanka ratifies the Trade Facilitation Agreement with the World Trade Organization (WTO)

June 1st, 2016

Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka to the World Trade Organization Geneva

Sri Lanka’s Permanent Representative to the WTO in Geneva Ambassador R.D.S. Kumararatne has presented to Mr. Roberto Azevêdo, Director-General of WTO the Instrument of Acceptance of the Protocol on Trade Facilitation on 31st May 2016. Sri Lanka is the 81st Member to deposit its Instrument of Acceptance with the WTO on the ratification of Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) of the WTO.  Once the two-third (108) of the current membership deposits its Instrument of Acceptance, the Agreement will come into effect.

The Trade Facilitation Agreement is expected to significantly benefit global trade while delivering support particularly to developing and least developed countries.  The full implementation of the Trade Facilitation Agreement will achieve trade cost reduction and global economic growth. The developing and least developed countries of the WTO will enjoy implementation flexibilities and assistance.

Trade Facilitation Agreement is the most significant achievement after the Marrakesh Agreement for both WTO and its Members.

Implementation of this Agreement will bring positive results to developing countries, in particular small economies such as Sri Lanka to improve their competitiveness in the global market and to attract foreign direct investment through application of simplified border control measures in supporting trade.

The Trade Facilitation Agreement aims at streamlining, harmonizing and modernizing customs procedures.  It contains provision for expediting the movement, release and clearance of goods, including goods in transit.  It also sets out measures for effective cooperation between the authorities involved in the Trade Facilitation measures.

According to World Trade Report 2015 of the WTO, the full implementation of the Trade Facilitation Agreement is expected to reduce trade time and cost, facilitating increasing trade flows and GDP.  It is envisaged to reduce time to export by 91% while reducing the time to import by 47%.  The trade cost for all merchandise goods is expected to reduce by 14.3% while adding US$ 345 billion – US$ 555 billion to global GDP per year.

The topic of trade facilitation was taken up for discussion in 1996 in Singapore at the first WTO Ministerial Conference held after establishing the WTO.  After several years of negotiations it became a reality at the 9th WTO Ministerial Conference held in Bali, Indonesia.

Member countries are expected to categorize all the 35 trade facilitation measures in the Agreement and notify their identified categories under A, B, and C to WTO.  Category A measures to be implemented by the Agreement enters into force.  Measures that need extra time can be classified under Category B. Similarly, measures that require not only extra time but also technical and capacity building can be notified under Category C.

Sri Lanka, through the Department of Commerce in 2014 undertook a Needs Assessment for implementation of the Trade Facilitation with the technical assistance from the WTO.  It was further followed by a team from the World Bank Group identifying the implementation requirements of the Trade Facilitation Agreement.

The WTO Mission in Geneva is currently working with World Trade Organization, World Bank Group, International Trade Centre, Global Alliance for Trade Facilitation through World Economic Forum, UNIDO and World Customs Organization to identify and quantify technical and capacity development assistance to Sri Lanka for effective implementation of the Trade Facilitation Agreement.  The Cabinet of Ministers recently approved setting up of the National Trade Facilitation Committee, which is represented by relevant trade facilitation government agencies and private sector Trade Chambers.  The National Trade Facilitation Committee is expected to closely liaise with the World Bank Group, the lead agency for Trade Facilitation Programme in Sri Lanka, during their next visit to Sri Lanka to plan out implementation requirements with necessary technical, funding and infrastructure development assistance.

Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka to the World Trade Organization

Geneva

 


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