The forgotten civilians killed by LTTE : Kebithigollewa massacre 15 June 2006

September 21st, 2014

Shenali D Waduge

LTTE or its fund raisers and supporters overseas and at home cannot argue collateral damage. The 15th June 2006 massacre was planned, well thought out, cadres designated for roles, type of murder to be committed decided, necessary arms and equipment made ready, the LTTE leader going through all stages of the planned attack and date, time and target deliberated. However, the target was not the Sri Lankan military – the targets were innocent civilians travelling in a bus to work, school or to buy daily provisions. 68 men, women and infants were killed by the LTTE and over 70 left injured. The attack by LTTE against civilians was during the infamous ceasefire agreement.

Kebithigollewa is situated in the Anuradhapura District in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

Incidentally, this very picture was hijacked and used for LTTE propaganda against Sri Lanka.

 We all know about Geneva Conventions but what we need to know is that they apply during times of armed conflict (international or non-international). The conventions are meant to protect people are are not taking part in hostilities. Of the 4 conventions the 1st applies to treatment of wounded and sick armed forces in the field, the 2nd deals with sick, wounded and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea, the 3rd deals with the treatment of prisoners of war during conflict (LTTE do not qualify as POW) while the 4th deals with treatment of civilians and their protection during wartime.

In 2006, there was no war situation as a ceasefire was in place. This makes LTTE’s targeting of a civilian bus an act of terror in addition to violation of the 2002 ceasefire agreement. Geneva Conventions do not apply to civilians in non-wartime settings, nor do they have a place in dealing with domestic civil rights issues.

If Geneva Conventions are designed to provide mutual assurances between party nations why are Geneva Conventions applicable to LTTE even in an armed conflict knowing that the bulk of their terror was targeted at civilians throughout 3 decades? None of the pundits in the UN came to the rescue of Sri Lanka throughout the decades that civilians had been targeted outside the war zone or war theatre.

The compelling argument is that while the last phase of the war received unprecedented attention with scores of nations and their leaders, humanitarian groups, HR advocacy groups, media etc running commentaries, statements, debates, writing books and making film documentaries it is rather odd that their actions to daily incidents of terror by LTTE upon real civilians have gone ignored. They all chose to deliver a casual diplomatic statement issued without any emotion or any threat to the LTTE.

Below are a sample of the statements issued following the Kebithigollewa bus massacred.

Statement by the US (Sean McCormack, spokesman)

The United States condemns today’s terrorist attack on a bus in Sri Lanka that killed 60 civilians, including at least 15 children. This vicious attack bears all the hallmarks of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. It is a clear violation of the Ceasefire Agreement that the Tamil Tigers claim to uphold. The United States calls for an end to the violence that is causing so much suffering for the people of Sri Lanka and resumption of negotiations to bring peace to the country.  The Tamil Tigers must renounce terror and enter into direct negotiations with the Sri Lankan government.”

Note: bears all the hallmarks of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam” is not the same as accusing the LTTE.

Statement by the Government of Switzerland

The Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) was shocked to learn of the attack perpetrated on Thursday morning against a bus in the region of Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka, which killed several dozen people, including a large number of children. The DFA very strongly condemns this attack which has plunged the population of the entire region into mourning and which endangers a fragile ceasefire. Switzerland expresses its condolences to the Sri Lankan population and authorities. It hopes that the perpetrators of this act will be rapidly identified and brought to justice.

Note: Nowhere does the Switzerland Government say the LTTE committed the crime and the number of killed is confined to ‘several dozen’ though the statement was released the day after the bus attack and the Swiss Government was well aware of the numbers killed by LTTE.

Statement by Commonwealth Secretary General  (Don McKinnon)

I am horrified at this senseless loss of civilian life, including children traveling to school. This appalling incident is the latest in a series of violent events which have taken place since 2002 ceasefire signed by the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). It highlights the fact that it is innocent civilians, from both sides of the conflict, who continue to suffer the most in this longstanding conflict.

I extend my profound sympathies to all those families and communities affected by this callous act of terrorism, and by other recent attacks that have taken human life. Sri Lanka is a valued member of the Commonwealth family of nations. We are all bound by our belief in the principle and practice of democracy.

Statement by the British Government – Foreign Office Minister Dr. Kim Howells,

I was appalled to hear of this morning’s explosion in Sri Lanka, which resulted in the loss of many innocent lives, and injury to many others. The fact that several children were amongst those killed was particularly distressing. Our thoughts are with the victims and their families. The British Government condemns such acts of violence unequivocally.

I urge strongly the Liberation of Tamil Eelam to put aside its weapons and to be a responsible partner for peace.

I note the Government of Sri Lanka’s continued commitment to a negotiated peace, and expect them now to uphold democratic standards in respect of civilians of all backgrounds.”

Note: While the UK Government’s statement is commendable, the last sentence does not make any sense at all. The LTTE committed the crime, why is the UK Govt asking GOSL to uphold democratic standards in respect of civilians.

Statement by The United Nations Human Rights Head – Louise Arbour

This attack is much more than a ceasefire violation, it is a grave breach of the most fundamental tenets of humanity”……….The Government must urgently investigate this case, so that those responsible not only face justice, but the full censure of the international community”.

Note: UNHRC Head too does not mention LTTE as committing the crime.

Statement by Norway  

This is a gruesome attack on innocent civilians, including children. We send our deepest condolences to their families and to the wounded,” … We are witnessing a spiral of worsening violence, which is bringing Sri Lanka towards full civil war. Norway requests an immediate halt of all violence in Sri Lanka,” says Minister Solheim.

Note: Again, no mention of LTTE by name. What was noteworthy about Norways statement was that it had tabulated 519 people as having been killed since December 2005.

The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission claimed that it was highly probable that LTTE or supporters carried out the Kebithigollewa attack.

The best was by BBC who said that if the LTTE had done it they would have admitted it!

The statements highlight a very clear and distinct double standard at play throughout Sri Lanka’s conflict.

The massacre was just one of scores of others that happened almost every day, every month and every year.

What the world needs to realize is that there is a big difference in the civilians of the last phase and the civilians that the LTTE attacked throughout 3 decades.

The civilians of the last phase of the conflict have a very ambiguous tag to their ‘civilian status’ primarily because we do not know how many took part in acts of hostility, however small, voluntary or by force. They are unlikely to admit to having taken part in hostilities either knowing that in a court of law they stand accused. Making the distinction more difficult is the fact that the LTTE had a civil force of people taken from various areas and regularly trained by LTTE cadres. They were given training in various areas and LTTE even designated titles for them if they were to die for the cause. In such a situation, there is a big question mark as to who the real civilians were in the final phase of the conflict. Yet, the UN aware of these realities as were scores of HR/NGOs and other activists projected a notion they were all civilians despite knowing the blurs in that distinction.

If, violations to civilian lives that were targeted and killed by the LTTE in peace time and during ceasefires do not conform to Geneva Convention laws given that they are outside wars, why have the UN and its pundits taken pains to ensure that LTTE international proscribed terrorists enjoy all the international laws and treaties which they are not even signatory to or care too hoots about?

If the UN has failed at all it is the intentional ignoring of civilians that were target of LTTE over the years.

If the International Community has failed it is the intentional ignoring of clamping down on LTTE overseas offices, LTTE fundraising, LTTE events and LTTE terror campaigns to which foreign parliamentarians have even participated and delivered speeches and some former leaders are now holding CEO positions in these UNSC banned LTTE fronts.

If the GOSL has failed it is all the previous Governments who are held accountable for the lethargy in dealing with the LTTE and implores the present Government to use the domestic laws to

  • Press charges using domestic laws against all LTTE combatants in GOSL custody
  • Hold to account all locals who had been aiding and abetting the LTTE and open a public online portal where people can start placing on record every name that had been associated with the LTTE over the years to be investigated for their veracity and used in a court of law.

There are scores of families ready and prepared to come forward and give real evidence of how their children were taken away and killed by the LTTE, families who had lost their loved ones or who have to take care of those who have been left injured by the LTTE. There are scores of wives and families of soldiers who are missing the dead and for these and more crimes the LTTE and all associates need to be charged under domestic laws.

Why is it hard to honor non-white inventors? Acknowledging Hindu Indian V A Shiva Ayyadurai – the Inventor of email

September 21st, 2014

Shenali D Waduge

 Everyone will agree that we cannot do without email. How many of us know who invented it. Yet, even when the inventor, an Indian Hindu was honored recently by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi why did the Christian press keep a lid on the news. We must wonder if this was an intentional effort and in line with the efforts being made to make the world presume that all inventions were post-colonial or by white inventors only.  

 Africa was civilized far before the whites arrived

If we did not know better, we would continue to believe that Africa, the continent where man evolved from was a dark, undeveloped and unsophisticated continent and it was the Europeans that civilized Africans. That is far from the truth.

Africa’s creative abilities should not be kept hidden by Western dominated media.

 Africans are said to have discovered fire 1.4million years ago, yam cultivation and farming had begun between 8000 and 3000 BC. The water pipe had been created around 1460BC in Ethiopia.

 Similarly, Asians too have every right to claim right for a host of inventions which Western history books have conveniently omitted from mentioning. What we can assume is that many of the modern day accepted inventions would most probably have been built upon the inventions and discoveries that preceded them but kept from public domain.   

 We can then understand why centuries later the same lack of acknowledgement prevails to the level that it is unthinkable that a non-white can invent what the Europeans could not!

 Today, nothing happens without email but the fact that it was Dr. Ayyadurai who invented the email remains closely kept from the public. It is 32 years since the email was invented when Dr. Ayyadurai was just a 14 year old. Is it because he was non-European that the achievement of V A Shiva Ayyadurai has been kept out of circulation?

 Ayyadurai on 30 August 1982, developed an electronic version of the interoffice mail system which he called ‘email’ with mail system, inbox, outbox, folders, memo, address book etc. The US Government officially recognized him as the inventor of email. To establish proof he has with him the first US copyright for email for his invention in 1978. Why is it that he remains unknown and ridiculed as to how he could have developed ‘email’!

 It took Indian Premier Narendra Modi and the decision for India to honor and recognize Dr. Ayyadurai as the inventor of email for news to once again do the rounds. But apart from a handful of mainstream newspapers most have shunned publication of the news.

 If India will see more Indian creations and innovations emerging, the credit would need to go to Prime Minister Narendra Modi who plans to establish an innovation platform for young innovators and entrepreneurs. Not only that India has re-named roads and cities giving pride of place to Hindu national leaders and the Hindu identity thus re-establishing the identity of India powerful enough to see a rallying of people towards a national identity that is local and not imported. These are lessons for Sri Lanka’s leaders echoing western multicultural slogans to pick lessons from.

 Thankfully Dr. Ayyadurai has been recognized by India and honored too and with time his name would be known by all as the innovator of email, this immediately takes us to the plight of Sri Lankan lawyer Senaka Weeraratne who has been painstakingly trying to gain recognition for authoring the umpire referral system which is now used in virtually all sports but has become a game changer in cricket.

 Senaka Weeraratne has been battling for due recognition since May 1997.

 The issue Senaka Weeraratne faces is pathetic to say the least in the light of his own nation, the cricketing officials and the Sports Ministry itself not taking up the cause on his behalf. If Senaka Weeraratne were to eventually be given acknowledgement that credit will surely come to Sri Lanka by default! So why is there such a lethargic lack of initiative or concern amongst the Sri Lankan officials to demand a proper investigation and legally pursue the case on behalf of Senaka Weeraratne? Several sports columnists have written on behalf of Senaka Weeraratne and the former Board of Cricket President even acknowledged having received the proposal in 1997 but no one has come forward to take up the cause with the ICC. The ICC dominated by Western colonial mindsets are not too bothered about even considering an investigation either.

Robert Steen, senior lecturer in sports journalism at the University of Brighton, England and reputed cricket commentator says ” LET’S REWIND to the hotly contested conception of the review system,for which Senaka Weeraratna, a lawyer, believes we must thank/berate him – and not, repeat not, the ICC”. Steen adds. He (Senaka Weeraratna) has been arguing for some time, and with some vehemence, that it was his letter to Colombo’s Sunday Times, on April 6, 1997, the first of many such that sowed the seeds. In an ocean of common sense, that letter likened the players’ right to challenge to the appeal of a dissatisfied litigant”.  

We hesitate to think that the ICC does not wish to christen the UDRS as the Weeraratne rule as they have for the rain affected rule – Duckworth and Lewis because Weeraratne is non-white. However, the manner in which appeals have been discarded gives credence to that very premise.

 While we blame colonial mindsets of white rule, Senaka Weeraratne’s case is not getting the momentum he deserves because those holding positions in Sri Lanka are plagued by subservience to the colonial master. Thus, until and unless supposedly sovereign nations become independent by virtue of decolonizing their minds and actions, the likelihood of Senaka Weeraratne ever getting local support looks dismal too. 

 It would be good for Sri Lanka to take inspiration from Narendra Modi and India to back Senaka Weeraratne to gain acknowledgement for authoring the UDRS.

 Cricket legend the late Tony Greig advised Senaka Weeraratne to get the ball rolling through the Sri Lankan Government and the Sri Lankan Cricket Board pursuing a case with the ICC with full legal backing. That prerogative looks unlikely and if so Senaka Weeraratne will join Mr. Shirley Amarasinghe another top class civil who despite the pioneering contributions made to creating the rules concerning the law of the sea was not nominated by then President Jayawardena as Sri Lanka’s delegate and he was eventually nominated by several other countries including Arab nations and was elected permanent chairman by acclamation. Jealousy almost denied Ambassador Amarasinghe due credit but justice was served by others.

A similar fate awaited Justice C G Weeramantry whose name was refused to be nominated by then President Jayawardena to the International Court of Justice, eventually President Premadasa nominated him and Justice Weeramantry went on to become the Vice President of the ICJ.

 So on the one hand we have the Pan-European West continuing to dominate over the rest of the world and sadly on the other hand we have our own people ever ready to allow that domination by their willful subservience.

 What needs to be said is that if inventions had taken place far before Western Europeans coined a name for it, they must be humble enough to acknowledge it.

 As for natives of once colonized nations, it is left for them to decide whether they wish to continue a copy cat legacy of cultures and value systems forcibly imposed or should they be proud of the rich heritage and culture that existed but was purposely pushed into the background or expunged from history books! This dilemma can be solved if and only when the former colonies take an interest in ensuring that the education system and the youth are aware of the civilizational heritage and history that existed before the colonial invaders landed and forcibly imposed their religion, cultures and values. It is only those that love their nation, a nation that they are historically linked to, that will inspire them to protect that nation from regime change. Those aligned to imported values will be ever ready to hand over the nation to the importers.

 Western Europe must acknowledge its heinous record of trying to expunge the ancient histories and even races of natives who led civilized lives but not in the manner that Western Europe benchmark it to be. Just as natives found the first Europeans arriving on their shores to be weird the Europeans likewise would have felt the same. Nevertheless the differentiator was the brutality with which the natives were treated when they welcomed them into their homes.

 Returning to the case of Dr. Ayyadurai the inventor of email who continues to be ridiculed and laughed at on the simple logic of ‘how can an Indian invent email’, while in the case of Senaka Weeraratne who has been battling to gain recognition for the authorship of the UDRS the colonial mindset ICC will not even hear of even holding an investigation. So the umpire referral system remains known as UDRS – a song sung without acknowledging the composer.

 The manner in which history has been hijacked can be understood in another very simple logic. If humans evolved from apes in the African continent and if the first people were black does that not make God black too but everything good is white and everything bad is black!

 

අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමාගේ  සමාජ සංකෘතික විප්ලවය 

September 21st, 2014

වෛද්‍ය රුවන් එම් ජයතුංග​

 අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමාගේ ජීවිතය කැපවන්නේ සමාජය යහපත් කිරීමේ අරමුණින් කරන ලද අරගල නිසාය​.  එසේම මේ අරගල හිංසනයෙන් සහ බලහත්කාරයන් තොර වීමත්  අරගලය ස්වාර්ථය සඳහා යොදා නොගැනීමේ සාධකය නිසාත් කැපී පෙනෙයි.  

 ධර්මපාලතුමා සමාජ අසධාරනයන් අත් විඳින්නේ පාසල් කාලයේදීමය​. වෙසක් දිනයේදී පාසල් නොගොස් ආගමික වතාවත් වල යෙදීම නිසා ඔහුව සාන්ත තෝමස් විද්‍යාලයෙන් නෙරපා දමයි. එය පාසල් දරුවෙකුගේ මූලික අයිතීන් උල්ලංඝනය කිරීමක් විය​. අද දිනයේ දියුණු සංස්කෘතියක් පවත්නා සෑම රටකම සිසුන් ගේ ආගමික දින සඳහා නිවාඩු ලබා ගත හැක. මෙම මූලික ළමා අයිතිවාසිකම පිලිබඳව හැඟීම් සහ පාසල විසින් තමාට අසාධාරනයක් කල බව ළමා දොන් ඩේවිඩ් හේවාවිතාරණ වටහා ගනියි.  නමුත් එකල සමාජයට , පාසල් පරිපාලකයන්ට සහ අධ්‍යාපනවේදීන්ට මෙම මූලික ළමා අයිතිවාසිකම පිලිබඳව වැටහීමක් නොවීය​

 අනගාරික ධර්මපාල කොලඹ උසස් සහ ධනවත් ප්‍රභූ පවුලක සාමාජිකයෙකි. එම නිසා බටහිරට ලැදි කොලඹ උසස් සමාජය තුල ගැවසී එම සමාජයේ අඩුපාඩු දැකීමට ඔහුට හැකි විය​. ඔහු  අතිථී භීතිකාව (xenophobia ) හෙවත් විදේශිකයින්ට බිය  සහ නුරුස්නා බව නිසා හෝ හීනතාමාන සංකීර්ණය නිසා හුදු බටහිර  විරෝධියෙකු නොවුයේය​. ඔහු  බටහිර ශිෂ්ටාචාරයේ උසස් සහ දියුණු අංගයන් අධ්‍යනය කලේය​. බටහිර ශිෂ්ටාචාරයේ දියුණුව රඳා පවතින අධ්‍යාපනික , තාක්‍ෂණික  සහ සමාජ විනය ලංකාවේ ඇති කල යුතු බව විශ්වාස කලේය​. විදේශයන් වෙත ගොස්    කර්මාන්ත ඉගෙන ගැනීමට ඔහු තම වියදමින් ශිෂ්‍යත්ව  පවා දුන්නේය. අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමා විරුද්ධ වූයේත් විවේචනය කලේත් බටහිර සංස්කෘතියේ දියුණු හරය වෙනුවට එහි පහළ ස්ථර වල ඇති කුණු කසළ වැළඳ ගැනීමෙන් සිය ජාතික අනන්‍යතාව ක්‍ෂය කර ගැනීම පිලිබඳවය​. 

 අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමා ජාතිවාදියෙක් ද ? ඔහු ලියූ ඇතැම් කවි සහ ලිපි මගින් අන්‍ය ජාතිකයන් විවේචනය කල බව ඇතැමෙකු පවසති.  ඔහුගේ බස අද කාලයට සාපේක්‍ෂව කර්කශ වූවද එම කාලයේ අධ්‍යාපනයෙන් අඩු ග්‍රාමීය ජනතාව ආමන්ත්‍රනය කිරීමේදී යොදා ගත් සාමාන්‍ය විවහාරයකි. අධ්‍යාපනයෙන් සහ සමාජ මට්ටමින් අඩු ජනතාවට ආමන්ත්‍රනය කිරීම සඳහා ඔහු සරල ග්‍රාම්‍ය භාෂාවක් යොදාගත්තේය​.  නමුත් අනගාරික ධර්මපාල ජාතීන් අතර විස පැතිරූ ස්වාර්ථය සඳහා ජාතීන් අතර විරසක ඇති කල නායකයෙකු නොවීය​. ඇතැම් අවස්ථා වලදී දමිළ සහ මුස්ලිම් ජන වර්ගයන් තුල පොදුවේ තිබෙන ඇතැම් දියුණු ලක්‍ෂණ සිංහලයන් විසින් අනුගමනය කල යුතු බව ලිවීය​. රැකියා කර්මාන්තයේ නොයෙදෙන යන්තම් ජීවත් වීම සඳහා කය සොලවන , අනාගතයක් මෙන්ම  දුවා  දරුවන් ගැන නොසිතන නූගත්කමේ ගැලී සිට මත් පැන් පානයේ යෙදෙන පුද්ගලයන් ඔහුගේ නිර්දය විවේචනයට ලක් විය​.   

 ඔහු සිංහල පමණයි යන පටු අදූරදර්ශී ආත්මාර්ථකාමී සටන් පාඨය බැහැර කලේය​. එමගින් සිංහල දරුවන් සදාකාලික ග්‍රාම්‍ය නූගත්වයේ  සහ​ බාහිර ලෝකයට විවෘත විය නොහැකි කොදෙව් මානසිකත්වයේ සිරකරුවන් වන බව පසක් කලේය​.  ස්ව භාෂාව ප්‍රගුණ කොට විදේශ භාෂාද ඉගෙන ගත යුතු බව අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමා පෙන්වා දුන්නේය​. දියුණු සමෘධිමත් තාක්‍ෂණයෙන් උසස් ආධ්‍යාත්මික ස්වයං විනයක් සහිත සමාජයක් පවතින ලංකාවක්  පිලිඳව ඔහු සිහින දුටුවේය​. 

 අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමා බුදු දහම ගැඹුරින් හැදෑරීය​.  1893 දී චිකාගෝහි   පැවති දෘෂ්ටි සම්මේලනයේදී  එතුමාබුදුදහම පිලිබඳව හරවත් දේශනයක් කලේය​.එසේම​  කර්නල් හෙන්රි ස්ටීල් ඕල්කට් වෙත​ , බ්ලැවට්ස්කි මැතිණිය වෙත​ , හවායි හි ෆෝස්ටර් මැතිණිය වෙත​ යැවූ ලිපි වල  බුදු දහම මෙන්ම අන්‍ය ආගම් පිලිබඳව අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමා  සතුව පැවති විචක්‍ෂණ අනුභූතිය පෙනී යයි.  බෞද්ධ අයිතිවාසිකම් ස්ථාපිත කොට බුද්ධගයාව බෞද්ධයන් සතු කර ගැනීමේ මහා ක්‍රියාදාමය පසුපස සිටියේ අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමාය​. 

 අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමා තද විවේචකයෙකි. ඔහු සත්‍ය දුටු තැන එය පෙන්වා දුන්නේය​. මහත්මා ගාන්ධි පවා අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමාගේ විවේචන වලට ලක් විය​. මේ නිසා ඇතැමෙකු අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමා අන්තවාදියෙකු ලෙස හඳුන්වා දෙමින් එතුමාගේ සමාජ විප්ලවය අඩපණ කිරීමට කටයුතු කලෝය​. මේ හේතුන් නිසා අවසාන සමයේදී කළකිරීමට පත් වූ එතුමා යළි ලංකාවට නොපැමිනෙන බවට ශපථ කලේය​. 

 අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමා විසින් ආරඹ්හ කරන ලද සමාජ සංකෘතික විප්ලවයේ අග්‍ර එල නෙලා ගත්තේ ආත්මර්ථකාමී දේශපාලකයන් විසිනි. දියුණු සමෘධිමත් තාක්‍ෂණයෙන් උසස් ආධ්‍යාත්මික ස්වයං විනයක් සහිත සමාජයක් පවතින ලංකාවක්  බිහි කිරීමේ අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමා ගේ සිහිනය ඔවුන් විසින් පැහැර ගත්හ.  ඒ වෙනුවට ජාතීන් ඇනකොටා ගන්නා සමාජ පසුගාමීත්වයෙන් 

සපිරි විනයක් නොමැති ලංකාවක් ඔවුන් නිර්මාණය කලහ​. 

 අනගාරික ධර්මපාලතුමාට කල හැකි උසස්ම බහුමානය වන්නේ වාර්ෂිකව එතුමාගේ පිළිරුවට  මල් මාළා පැලඳවීම හෝ ගුණකථන පැවැත්වීම නොව එතුමා දුටු සිහිනය සැබෑ කරවීම සඳහා පියවර ගැනීමයි. 

Foreign funded derogatory reports cannot match what world leaders saw and said about Sri Lanka

September 21st, 2014

Shenali D Waduge 

There is a very well planned concerted effort, well funded and with the same think tanks involved compiling report using ‘unknown’ witnesses or witnesses who have ‘escaped’ and awaiting asylum or refugee status to depict the notion that Sri Lanka needs to be divided and the North liberated. The reports are giveaways for when any report speaks of ‘sinhalization’ ‘genocide’ it simply showcases who is funding them. Nevertheless, while these reports are attempting to isolate Sri Lanka, the arrival of scores of foreign delegates from foreign missions, business delegations and foreign parliamentarians alongside their statements shows an entirely different picture but more importantly nullifies the bogus reports in circulation. Many of these reports have been exposed for their lies and distortions and the credibility of these organizations are now seriously to be questioned.

‘If there is any genocide – it is by the LTTE’  

Lord Naseby is the Chairman of the All Party British Sri Lanka Parliamentary Group.

We agree that infrastructure development is not the only criterion on which post-conflict development is to be measured. But we also need to realize that for 30 years these areas of the North were living like in the stone-age. These people needed to have something to look forward to start their lives. Now, in a matter of just 5 years they have new roads, new homes, new buildings, new means of income and ways to creatively generate income, ability to return to livelihoods that had been neglected. With the development a score of other avenues have opened up. Critics must realize this. The same critics need to also acknowledge that the LTTE enjoyed USD300m annual profits, the LTTE Diaspora funded them and that same Diaspora is demanding what the GOSL has done to develop the North when all the money sent by them to the LTTE were only to procure arms, build bunkers and to be shared amongst LTTE families.

We need to also add that scores of UN agencies, INGOs, and NGOs had offices virtually next door to the LTTE which next questions what they had been doing all these years. They were not even able to tell or did not wish to tell how many Tamils the LTTE took hostage! The contributors to these charities/NGOs need to seriously question them as to what they had been doing with the money sent to them for decades – absolutely nothing had been done in the North until the post-conflict development commenced.

Do we believe the LTTE-funded documentaries or the statements of diplomats arriving in Sri Lanka?

There is much talk of UN inaction during the final stages of the war, this is an attempt to downplay the UN country teams estimate of civilian deaths as being 7721 in an effort to give credence to the global campaign to promote 40,000 and more deaths. We have sufficiently argued that without names, dead bodies there is little accusers can do but to waste money running global campaigns. In a court of law their arguments will fall to pieces. In a war and with terrorists wearing uniform and in civil, with LTTE having trained a civilian defense force what army can differentiate a LTTE terrorist from a civilian who is pretending to be a civilian and not an LTTEr? Obviously, collateral damage did occur but the fact that amidst the fighting the army actually saved close to 300,000 Tamils (amongst whom there were plenty of LTTE cadres) is satisfactorily evidence of proportionality.

The country’s ‘Come See for Yourself’ policy has worked well. 1million tourists have arrived since 2009, over 200 delegations arrived in 2013 alone to Sri Lanka. The arrival of the Japanese Prime Minister and the Chinese Leader in 2014 and the agreements being signed showcases the extent of confidence these countries are having on Sri Lanka.

In the meanwhile, a lot of money is being spent by the usual culprits to compile reports, to serialize the same sets of allegations to show a picture of ‘consistency’ but they all end up using the same sources and the same mouthpieces and same online sites and same writers and speakers and reviewers end up saying the same thing. Almost always their ‘witnesses’ are kept hidden by a new concept called ‘witness protection’ and a cap on exposing their names for 20 years because obviously there are no real witnesses and by 20 years people would not remember to even ask the disclosure of their names! The attempt is obviously to do a Goebel – a lie repeated enough times becomes accepted as truth!

Nevertheless, they will have a hard time to counter their lies against foreign delegates arriving from all corners of the world and visiting all parts of Sri Lanka.

Jan 2013Australia – Opposition Parliamentary DelegationDeputy Opposition Leader Julie Bishop & immigration spokesman Scott Morrison, border protection spokesman Michael Keenan.

We were impressed by the progress that has been made,” Bishop said during a discussion with President Rajapaksa at Temple Trees. Your country is to be congratulated.”

Feb 2013 Her Excellency Crete Lochen, Norwegian Ambassador visits Jaffna We are aware of the great efforts made by the government and non- government partners who have jointly put up lot of hard work to improve the living conditions of the communities emerging from conflict”,
April 2013 – 6 member Indian Parliamentary Delegation led by Sushma Swaraj, leader of the BJP Opposition / Lok Sabha‘The pace of development was good given that whole infrastructure was destroyed’
May 2013 Head of the United Nations Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Agnes Asekenye-Oonyu accompanied by the deputy head of the mission, Mark Prasopa-Plaizier.
June 2013 –s ix member BJP-led delegation led by Ravi Shankar Prasad, Deputy Leader of Opposition in the Rajya Sabha.This is another achievement of Sri Lanka that many foreign delegations including the opposition party members of INDIA also started visiting Sri Lanka in Post-war era of the country.”
July 20136 Member British Parliamentary Delegation led by Conservative MP Eleanor LaingThere is a lot of hope for the future. We are very positive about Sri Lanka’
Aug 2013 EU Parliamentarian visits North – Mr. Phil Bennion, MEP, ALDE / UK from the EU Parliament Phil Bennion has said the international community can now witness for themselves the successful development process of Sri Lanka
Aug 2013French Senator Nathalie GouletThe role played by the security forces in the development process in the North is impressive
Aug 2013Canadian Embassy delegation visited Jaffna and Killinochchi and had talks with political parties and civil society members. The Canadians also visited the Uthayan newspaper office in Jaffna and had talks with the management and Editor.
Jan 20129 member British delegation visits Jaffna led by Conservative MP James Wharton ‘solution to the Lankan ethnic question should be found within the country and no solution could be imposed from outside’
Jan 2012Canadian Parliamentary delegationHon. Chungen Leung (M.P.), Parliamentary Secretary for Immigration and Multiculturalism, Deputy Minister of the Government of Canada, Hon. Joe Daniel (M.P.), and, Marlene Gallyot Special Assistant to Hon. Joe Daniel (for Sri Lanka)

the human rights situation in Sri Lanka has greatly improved and it was understood that there is no discrimination against Tamil community in Sri Lanka”.

May 2012 A team of US State Department representatives and USAID Regional Refugee Coordinator from the office of Population, Refugees and Migration, US Department of State Ms. Amanda Jacobsen, Regional Advisor for South Asia Ms. Andrea Tracy and Disaster Assistance Officer of USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance in the USA along with two other officials
Sept 2012 Representatives of the African National Congress Progressive Business Forum (ANCPBF) led by Deputy Minister Ms Hlenglwe Buhle Mkize
Sept 2012 Delegates of 58th Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA)New Zealand National List MP Kanwaljit Singh Bakshi said the resettlement process in the North was impressive and the government’s approach in the development process in the area was in the right direction.

Bakshi said the houses given to IDPs were of a high standard and it was important the IDPs had a good home.

South African Parliamentarian Patricia Mahlo said the Northern development process was excellent and the government was doing a commendable job.

Canadian Parliamentarian from Calgary North-East, Devinder Shory said sections in Canada say the Security Forces in Jaffna outnumber civilians here, but from what he witnessed the Forces’ presence was minimal

Nov 2012 – 8 member Czech Parliamentary Delegation led by the Chairman of the foreign Affairs committee of the Czech Republic David Vodrazka MP Czech officials also called on the Bishop of Jaffna Rt. Rev. Dr. Thomas Savundaranayagam and the Northern Province Governor Major General (retd.) G A Chandrasiri.
Dec 2012 – UN delegation led by Japan includes permanent representatives from Nigeria, Romania Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the United Nations in New York and top diplomats of Italian, Brazilian and South Africa’s missions in Colombo visits north to view progress
Feb 2011 – Leader of the South Asia Delegation of the European Parliament, Mrs. Jean Lambert (Greens/UK) commended the Govt. on the tremendous efforts and progress made by the Government to remove the legacy of the conflict”.
Jun 2011 British Deputy High Commissioner to Sri Lanka Mr. Mark Gooding expressed satisfaction on the role played by the Army in the North
Sept 2011 Australian High Commissioner Her Excellency Cathy Clugan 3 day visit to Jaffna expressed her satisfaction about the welfare measures launched by the Army for Jaffna civilians.
Sept 2011 US House of Representatives Sub-committee Chairman on the Middle East and South Asia, Congressman Steven Joseph Chabot expressed their satisfaction about ongoing developments in Jaffna.
Oct 2010- 35 Member team delegation was led by Ravi Shankar Prasad, Deputy Leader of Opposition in the Rajya Sabha.India was for the peaceful coexistence of all the people in the island, and the Tamil question should be solved entirely by Sri Lanka, while India could only play a supportive role.
Nov 2010 Leader of the German Delegation, Ms Petra Ernstberger (CDU/CSU) thanked the GoSL for the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the progress made in Sri Lanka, and confirmed their overall impression, following visits to the North and the East of the country that many good things had been done”.
Oct 2009 Singaporean envoy George YeoI congratulate His Excellency President Mahinda Rajapakse, President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, for his very courageous leadership and thank the Chiefs of the Defense outfit who supported him with deep commitment and self-sacrifice.

Arrival of Foreign Delegates to North Sri Lanka in 2013

  DATE NAME
1 2010.01.15 Mr.Charles Haviland – BBC Correspondent
2 2010.03.10 Mr. Yangxiuping, Chinese Ambassador
3 2010.03.25 Delegation from Bangladesh Army
4 2010.04.18  Indian High Commissioner
5 2010.04.28 Delegation from Pakistan Army
6 2010.05.03 Mr.Yohi Sasakawa of Sasakawa Foundation (Japan)
7 2010.05.05 Indian High Commissioner
8 2010.05.06 Most Rev. Dr. Joseph Spiteri (Diplomat)
9 2010.05.21 Miss. BM Pheto, High Commissioner South Africa
10 2010.06.08 Ms. Patricia Butenis, US Ambassador
11 2010.06.09 Ms. Patricia Butenis, US Ambassador
12 2010.06.13 HE Mrs. Ruth Flint, Ambassador for Switzerland
13 2010.06.15 Ms. Samantha Power, US State Dept
14 2010.06.25 Mr. Antonio Tan JR, Ambassador for the Philippines
15 2010.06.28 Mr. Mark Gooding, Diplomat
16 2010.07.04 Dato S Kulasegaran and Mr C Gnanarajah, Malaysian delegation
17 2010.07.12  UN Stafff
18 2010.07.16 Mr. Akio Uhchida, Japan officials
19 2010.08.06 Mr. Damascus Mscheri, UN delegation
20 2010.08.31  Ms Nirupama Rao, Indian Foreign Secretary
21 2010.09.14  Swiss delegation
22 2010.09.21 Mr. Anurag Srivastava, First Secretary Indian High Commission
23 2010.09.21 Ms Indu Mohandas, UN delegation
24 2010.10.01 Brigadier General Humayun Bakht, Defense College Bangladesh
25 2010.10.07  High Commissioner of India
26 2010.10.09  US Investors
27 2010.10.12 Chief of Mission Mr. Richard Danziger
28 2010.10.20 Rt. Hon. Paul Murphy
29 2010.10.22 His Excellency Most Rev. Dr. Joseph Spiteri
30 2010.11.15 HE.Miss Leoni Cuelenaere, Netherlands Ambassador
31 2011.01.10  Malaysian delegation
32 2011.01.20  Ambassador for Japan
33 2011.01.21  Indonesian Ambassador
34 2011.01.21  Indian High Commissioner
35 2011.01.24  Ms. Patricia Butenis, US ambassador
36 2011.02.27  Canadian High Commissioner
37 2011.03.10  Indian High Commissioner
38 2011.03.12 Mr. Lun Karan, German delegation
39 2011.03.14 Mr. Thomas Litscher, Swiss Ambassador
40 2011.03.14 Thomas Litscher
41 2011.03.23  Norwegian Ambassador
42 2011.04.25  Indian Defence Advisor
43 2011.04.29  Nepalese delegation
44 2011.05.10 Ms. Indumathi Mohandas
45 2011.05.23  US delegation
46 2011.06.03 Tri Service Senior Officers
47 2011.06.04 Mr. Tomas Dub, Hon. Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Czech republic
48 2011.06.07  Mr. Tomas Dub, Hon. Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Czech republic
49 2011.06.08 Steev Hanchns, Australian delegation
50 2011.06.14  Mr. Mark Gooding, British High Commissioner
51 2011.06.29  Malaysian delegation
52 2011.07.11  Indian High Commissioner
53 2011.07.23 Mr. Stephen Foster, Australian High Commission officials
54 2011.08.02 Lt Col Patrick Schuler, US Defense Attache
55 2011.08.24 IOM International Staff, UK delegation
56 2011.09.13  Robert O Blake and diplomats
57 2011.09.18 HE.Mr Jongmoon Choi, Ambassador of Korea
58 2011.09.19 HE Kathy Clugan, Ambassador Canada
59 2011.09.20 Mr. Kerin Wenger, Swiss National Public Radio
60 2011.09.22  US ambassador
61 2011.09.28 Mr. Steven Joseph Chabot, US House of Representative
62 2011.10.03 Mr.Adnan Khan, UN WFP Officials
63 2011.10.09 Mr.Sri Ranjan Mathai, Foreign Secretary of India
64 2011.10.12 Hon Tholhath Ibrahion, Minister of Defense and National Security Maldives
65 2011.10.19 Hon. Albert Benjamin Chandler, US delegation
66 2011.10.22 Hon Mark Prichard, British MP
67 2011.10.28 Hon Lord George Foulkes, UK Parliamentary Delegation
68 2011.11.14 HE Shyam Saran, Ex-Foreign Secretary India
69 2011.11.17 Asian Delegation

 

HE Mr Djafar Husein-Ambassador Republic of Indonesia
HE Mr Ton Sinh Thanh- Ambassador Republic of Vietnam
HE Mr Azmi Zainuddin- High Commissioner of Malaysia
Mr Tan Li Lung- Councellor, High Commission of Malaysia
Mr Albert Abdi- First Secretary, Indonesian Embassy
Miss Rungnapa Srivannavit- Charge d’ Affaires, Royal Thai Embassy
Miss Nareeta Supradist- First Secretary, Royal Thai Embassy

70 2011.11.18 Hon Ebrahim Ebrahim, Deputy Minister of International Relations & Cooperation of South Africa
71 2011.11.30 Mr Robbie Bulloch, British Deputy High Commissioner
72 2011.11.30 Ms. Sheila Berry, Diplomat
73 2011.12.08 Ms Maria Vamvakinou, Australian Parliamentary delegation
74 2011.12.12 Ms. Megan Foster, Canadian High Commission
75 2011.12.13 HE Mrs Christine Robichon, French Ambassador
76 2011.12.15 Mr P Kumaran, Deputy High Commissioner of India
77 2011.12.21 Ms Ayaco Tanaka, Japan delegation
78 2012.01.04 Hon James Wharton, UK Parliamentary Delegation
79 2012.01.09 Mr.Joe Daniel, Canadian Parliamentary delegation
80 2012.01.18 HE SM Krishna, Indian delegation
81 2012.01.20 Dr Alyssa Ayres, US delegation
82 2012.01.23 Mr Devid Hall, British High Commission officials
83 2012.01.23 HE Abdul Kalam, Former President of India
84 2012.01.26 Dato Kulasegaran Sabarathnam, Malaysian delegation
85 2012.02.01 Mr. Andrew Robert Bruce
86 2012.02.08 Hon. Malai K Sinha, Joint Security / Ministry of External Affairs, India
87 2012.02.08 Mr Stephen J Rapp – US delegation
88 2012.02.12 Andrew Robert Bruce, UN officials
89 2012.02.13 Mr SB Divaratne with US delegation
90 2012.02.16 Dr Cyill Nunn, Federal Republic of Germany
91 2012.02.17 Rt. Hon Sir Alan Haselhurst, UK Parliamentarian delegation
92 2012.02.20 Mr Mark Haynes, Counsellor safety and security, High Commission of Canada
93 2012.02.20 Mr. Mark Haynes, Diplomats
94 2012.02.21  Defence Attaches of Iran,Pakisthan, US,Russian,Bangaladesh and India
95 2012.02.22 Commodore Mudasser Nasir, Defence Advisor of the Bangladesh High Commission
96 2012.03.13 Lieutenant General A.K. Singh
97 2012.03.15 Ms Anne Dorain
98 2012.03.21 Germany delegation
99 2012.03.23 Hon Christopher Alexander, Canadian Parliamentarian’s Delegation
100 2012.04.03 Rt. Hon. Michael Morris, UK Parliamentarian’s Delegation
101 2012.04.18 Hon Mrs Sushma Swaraj, Leader of the Opposition, India
102 2012.04.19 Brigadier Akhtar Jamin Ravo, National Defence University, Pakistan
103 2012.04.27 Conl SG Laplante, Canadian Defence Advisor
104 2012.05.05 Hon Katsuya Okada, Deputy Prime Minister of Japan
105 2012.05.06 Ms. Amanda Jacobsen and diplomats
106 2012.05.21 HE Hilde Haraldstad, Ambassador of Norway
107 2012.05.28 Ms Robyn Mudie, High Commissioner of Australia
108 2012.06.07 Ms Amanda Jacobsen, US Officials
109 2012.07.01 Australian delegation
110 2012.07.09 HE Mr Nobuhito Hobo, Ambassador of Japan
111 2012.07.09 Mr Mark Haynes, Counsellor Safety and Security, High Commission of Canada
112 2012.07.09 Mr John Rankin, British High Commissioner
113 2012.07.12 Mr David Vignatt, First Secretary (Political) Embassy of Switzerland
114 2012.07.17  Mr. Mark Haynes
115 2012.07.18 Mr Yutaka Tsuneoka, Counsellor / Medical Attache of Embassy of Japan
116 2012.07.20 HE Mr Ashok K Kantha, Indian High Commissioner
117 2012.08.02 Mr James Wharton, UK Parliamentarian’s Delegation
118 2012.08.03  Malaysian delegation
119 2012.08.05  Tamil Diaspora team
120 2012.08.11  Indian delegation
121 2012.08.13 Greg McCarthy, US House of Representative Committee Foreign  Affairs
122 2012.08.17  HE Mr Ashok K Kantha, Indian High Commissioner
123 2012.08.22 Mr. William Weinstein
124 2012.08.23 HE.Mr Jongmoon Choi, Ambassador of Republic of Korea
125 2012.08.24 Mr Yasusi Akashi, Representatives from Japan
126 2012.09.08 Hon Prof(Ms) Hlengiwe Mkhize, Dy Minister of Economic Development of South Africa
127 2012.09.08  Ms Hlenglwe Buhle Mkize
128 2012.09.13  Commonwealth Parliamentary delegation
129 2012.09.17 Mr. Hanny Megally, Chief Asia Pacific, Middle East & North Africa Branch of the OSCHR
130 2012.09.17 Ms. Michelle Sison, US ambassador
131 2012.10.12 Mr. Ren Faqiang
132 2012.10.24 HE Mr Wu Jiangho, Chinese Ambassador
133 2012.10.26  Asian Development Bank delegation
134 2012.11.05 Dr. Thomas Helfen, German Delegation
135 2012.11.16  Japan delegation
136 2012.11.21 Mr. David Vodrazk,
137 2012.11.29 Mr Jhon Klirin and China Delegation
138 2012.12.04 Ms Megan Foster, High Commission of Canada
139 2012.12.04 Ms Indu Mohandas, UNHCR officers
140 2012.12.10 Dr Ashok k Behuria, Minister of Defence of India
141 2012.12.11 Mr Kumaran Periasamy, High Commission of India
142 2012.12.12 HE Ms Grete Lochen, Norwegian delegation
143 2013.01.27 Ms Michele J Sison, US delegation
144 2013.02.13  Japanese delegation
145 2013.02.13  Australian delegation
146 2013.02.13 Mr Sandeep Ullithen (Deputy Editor) India Today
147 2013.02.23 HE Mr Ashok K Kantha, High Commissioner of India
148 2013.03.01 HE Ms Grete Lochen, Ambassador of Norway
149 2013.03.06 Mr Sandeep Ullithen (Deputy Editor) India Today
150 2013.03.08 He Mr Poldej Worachat, Ambassador of Thailand
151 2013.03.11 Mr. D Prasad , Officials of Indian High Commission
152 2013.03.18 Mr Sandeep Ullithen (Deputy Editor) India Today
153 2013.03.20 Mr Hugh Segal, Special Envoy of the Prime Minister of Canada
154 2013.03.24 Mr Charles Haviland, BBC Correspondent
155 2013.03.25 Mr Prakash Thuladar, UN Area Security Coordinator – North
156 2013.03.27 Mr Neil Cromton, Director for South Asia & Afganistan, UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office
157 2013.03.28 Mr Crete Lochen Norwegian ambassador
158 2013.04.03 Mr. Zhou Oing
159 2013.04.09 Indian Parliamentary delegation
160 2013.05.06 Mr Ashok K. Kantha, High Commissioner of India
161 2013.05.13 Dr. Morhard, Ambassador of German
162 2013.05.17 Indian investor delegation
163 2013.05.21 Ms Agnes Asekenye – Oonyu
164 2013.06.08 Mrs Averil Jan Henderson, High Commission of New Zealand
165 2013.06.11 Mr Mike Hillman, Australia’s Office of National Assessment to Sri Lanka
166 2013.06.24 HE Mohammad Sufiur Rahman, Bangladesh High Commissioner
167 2013.07.01 Ms Janelle Denton, 2nd Secretary, Development Cooperation of Australian High Commission Office
168 2013.07.13  European Parliamentary delegation
169 2013.07.23 Mr Abraham Mathai, Chief Security Adviser to UN High Commissioner for HR
170 2013.08.14 Mr Phil Bennion MEP – EU Parliament
171 2013.08.18 Ms Nathalie Goulet, Senator for Orne, France
172 2013.08.19 Mr Allen McLean, Regional Security Manager, UK Foreign Office
173 2013.08.25 Navanethen Pillay, UN High Commissioner for HR
174 2013.08.29  Chinese delegation
175 2013.09.04 HE Mr Ashok K Kantha, High Commissioner of India
176 2013.09.06 Indian defense attache
177 2013.09.10 HE Robyn Mudie, Australian High Commissioner
178 2013.09.18 HE Maj Gen (Retd) Qasim Qureshi, High Commissioner of Pakistan
179 2013.10.02  Team of British Prime Minister’s Office
180 2013.10.08 HE Salman Khrushid Minister of External Affairs of India
181 2013.10.30 HE.Mr Jongmoon Choi Ambassador of Republic of Korea

All that needs to be said is that if anyone, any report is making allegations they would need to match these against the delegates that arrived, issued statements of praise and congratulated Sri Lanka on the efforts taken.

The very critics may well like to look at the illegal military interventions taking place, the illegal take over of lands and investments of these invaded nations, the scores of illegal renditions and the displacement of over 2.7million people and decide more of their time compiling reports on these nations to bring a ray of hope and sunshine to the lives of the people in Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, Syria, Serbia, Kosovo, South Sudan,  etc instead of insisting that a UN team office positioned in these countries with NATO and US troops can solve all problems because there is little the UN or the Human Rights Head can argue as to these success stories to get away with similar action for Sri Lanka.

 

 

 

How does the UN identify a Civilian from a Combatant (not a paper distinction)?

September 21st, 2014

Shenali D Waduge

There are plenty of laws and conventions on how wars are to be fought, but those laws were for wars that did not have cowards manipulating them. Today’s wars are all proxy wars as state armies fight asymmetrical wars where from some corner or corners of the world, groups of people with vested interested put together a group or groups, arm them and then use the media to propel them as ‘freedom fighters’ and launch a spate of terror targeted at the State and against civilians. How does the UN separate a civilian from a combatant – not just according to the book? In the case of the LTTE, it had a civilian defense force, a first for any terrorist group and changes the dynamics of all laws!

Asymmetrical conflicts have made possible all that conventional wars were considered as violations. Transnational terrorists are blurring the distinction between a soldier and a civilian. Terrorists are being treated as combatants thus dignifying criminality and affording terrorists the status of soldiers. The UN needs to be accountable for this.

In a traditional war, combatants and civilians are relatively easy to distinguish but what happens when terrorists dress up as civilians.

There were many ways the UN could have broken the hands of the LTTE over the years clamping down on those that funded LTTE from abroad knowing where they were all located and who they were but this aspect was purposely ignored. Now, having allowed LTTE to thrive they have gone on to dignify LTTE by affording them combatant status with the likelihood of being punished remaining ever thin. On what legal grounds does the UN give to afford terrorists the same rights afforded to soldiers of a sovereign army?

LTTE training civilian women

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yyzTFOpg8lY

LTTE had a civilian force armed and trained to kill. Can the UN place adjective ‘innocent’ civilian to them?

Rule 1 of the ICRC declares the Principle of distinction between civilian and combatant. According to the rule, parties to the conflict must at all times distinguish between civilians and combatants. Attacks may only be directed against combatants. Attacks must not be directed against civilians.

Now, this is very interesting. LTTE did not emerge into the Sri Lankan scenario in 2008 or 2009. LTTE has been functioning as an armed terrorist group since the 1980s. They became known as a ruthless and brutal movement by targeting civilians. This makes LTTE violating Rule 1 (Principle of Distinction). Attacks by LTTE were either upon the military or specifically upon civilians. If attacks are not meant to be directed against civilians, we next need to ask what was done by the UN, the ICRC about LTTE’s violation of Rule 1 since 1980s and why has this violation been omitted for UN investigation. Surely, victims cannot be confined to a timeframe if an international panel is to punish or declare one party or either party guilty. Therefore, victims of the entire conflict need to be given justice moreso when the victims being referred to as civilians throughout the 1980s, 1990s, 2000 and beyond have more right to qualify as civilians than those Tamil civilians whom we know were taking part in hostilities either voluntarily or by force.

Therefore, under customary international law applicable to both international and non-international armed conflicts

  • LTTE as combatants do not enjoy the protection against attack accorded to civilians
  • LTTE also does not enjoy right to combatant status or prisoner of war status.
  • Rule 6  declares that civilians are protected against attack unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities – this is quite a tricky situation.

o   Does the UN know how many civilians did not take part in hostilities?

o   Does the UN know how many civilians took part in one or two acts of hostilities making distinction further complicated?

o   Does the UN know how many civilians volunteered to take part in hostilities?

o   Does the UN know how many civilians may have died while taking part in hostilities?

o   Does the UN know how many will admit and own up to being a civilian but taking part in hostilities?

o   Does the UN know how many civilians 5 years on will admit to taking part in one or more hostile acts

o   Can the UN rely on these civilian accounts if all those saved claim they did not take part in hostilities and thus provide them the package of witness protection for no reason?

These are just a handful of questions that come immediately to mind. You may be able to develop further on the possibilities.

Sri Lanka’s conflict has been designated a non-international armed conflict

In such an armed conflict under Article 13 (2) of the Additional Protocol II, it is prohibited to make civilian populations and individual civilians the object of attack. This can be added to the list of LTTE’s guilt list and war crimes because every LTTE attack on villages, civilian populated areas, buses, infrastructure, buildings, airports etc by the LTTE since the 1980s qualifies as a violation of Article 13 (2) of the Additional Protocol II.

LTTE also becomes guilty of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons where it is prohibited to direct attacks against civilians. Not only did LTTE come from its training centres, with armed suicide cadres and cadres dressed as civilians with bombs and suicide belts, they were ordered and instructed to carry out suicide missions wherever civilian populations concentrated. We continue to question why no Resolutions, no UN representatives raised the same uproar as they are doing now.

LTTE also becomes guilty of violating Protocol III to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons under the Ottawa Convention banning anti-personnel land mines. If we are to count the number of civilian victims of landmines the proportionality of victims would be revealed. But the easiest excuse has been to declare LTTE as non-signatory to conventions or treaties thus us wondering for what is this expense of international panel investigations been incurred for?

What we need to get straightened out is that there would be no non-international armed conflict if LTTE had not taken up arms. LTTE’s killing of scores of Tamils nullifies the oft promoted notion that LTTE stood for Tamil aspirations. That was far from so.

The Statute of the ICC (International Criminal Court) says ‘intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population as such or against individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities” constitutes a war crime in non-international armed conflicts.

If Petrie can write a report on UN failure during the last phase why were reports not written and action taken against all LTTE’s civilian targets every day, every month and throughout every year. This is an important question because according to the ICC it is a war crime to intentionally direct attacks against civilians who have not taken part in hostilities.

This is where we need to take every civilian that the LTTE targeted living throughout the Sri Lanka because none of these civilians were living around any military camps. They were either going to school, travelling on buses, going to work, sleeping in their homes/villages or simply walking on the road. These people were the targets of the LTTE and was the UN and ICRC not aware of this and if so why did they not show the same urgency for the civilians of the last phase who we cannot ascertain whether they were civilians or combatants. Some civilians did function as combatants – the only issue is that we don’t know how many and the UN does not know how many to even claim they were civilians too.

The question that is crucial to the argument of allegations and accusations of civilians been killed or butchered remains who is best placed to distinguish a civilian from a combatant and a civilian engaged in hostilities? Is it the UN sitting in their offices in Geneva and New York, is it the INGOs or is it the soldier that has just a split second to determine whether the person in civil clothing is a civilian or a LTTE wearing civilian clothes behaving in a manner likely to lead to the soldiers life being compromised?

None of us were in a war zone. None of us know what it is like to be in a war zone. None of us can identify a civilian from an LTTE cadre because right throughout LTTE despite having uniforms dressed in civilian attire to carry out attacks against civilians. Therefore, in such a scenario it is extremely difficult to determine who a civilian is.

The UN can issue statements condemning attacks on civilians but surely 3 decades has been far too long for UN to pretend it did not know that LTTE was committing war crimes by targeting civilians.

What we need to say is that civilians were targeted not ONLY during the last phase as the UN is trying to project but civilians have been targets of LTTE ever since the 1980s which demands us to ask what has the UN done for these civilian victims?

With the UN and ICRC well aware of how LTTE targeted civilians and with the sudden emphasis on claiming civilians were intentionally killed by the security forces, we need the UN to explain to us

  • How the UN has categorized LTTE’s attacks on civilians throughout the 1980s,1990s, 2000s upto its defeat in May 2009?
  • If UN has categorized LTTE as targeting civilians what the UN did about it since 1980s given that the attack itself qualified as a criminal act
  • Why the UN and its staff did not make the same international outburst for the civilians that LTTE targeted and killed as it did for civilians in the last phase.
  • Why has there been a very distinct difference in the way UN and associated entities have treated civilians killed by LTTE and the civilians whose status quo as civilians in the last phase is under question given the accusations of forcible recruitment and even appeals by the UNSecretary General asking LTTE not to recruit children and others.

Therefore, leaving aside all the law books, conventions and treaties can we simply know how in an non-international armed conflict, when dealing with internationally proscribed terrorists groups that have decades of notoriety for targeting and  killing civilians and recruiting by force men, women and even children, a group that forcibly took civilians as hostage/human shields as insurance for the LTTE’s safety and fired at the Sri Lankan army, how could the army have distinguished the LTTE combatant from a Tamil person whose ‘civilian’ title/status is blurred by the very fact that he/she was taking part in hostilities.

දඩයක්කාරයා සහ ධවල හස්ථියා

September 21st, 2014

වෛද්‍ය රුවන් එම් ජයතුංග​

 වනයේ සැරිසරන ධවල ඇතෙකු පිලිබඳ ප්රිලාපය දඩයක්කාරයාගේ කනටද වැටුනු නමුත් ඔහු එය මායිමකටවත් ගත්තේ නැත. දඩයක්කාරයා වනයේ සෑම අස්සක් මුල්ලක් නෑර කරක් ගසා තිබේ. අලින් සිටින ගල්තලායාය , බෙරලියවැව ආදී පෙදෙස් ඔහු හොඳින් දනියි. වනයේ සිටින අලි ඇතුන් පවා ඔහු දන්නේය. අලි රංචුවේ නායකයා සද්ධන්ත ගෝමර ඇතෙකි. කන් කබරයා තනිව වනයේ සැරිසරන්නෙකි. සමහරක් විට ඔහුට තුන්පත් රෑන් හමුවි තිබේ. එහෙත් ධවල ඇතෙකු මේ හිමයේ සිටිනවා කීම සිතා ගැනීමටවත් අපහසුය.

 වනයේ සැරිසරන ධවල ඇතෙකු පිලිබඳ  කටකතාව මුලින්ම ගම්මානයේ පැතුරුනේ බෙරලියවැවට දිය නෑමට ගිය ඉතිරියක මගිනි. සාමාන්යවයෙන් ගම්මු දිය නෑවේ සහ බීමට වතුර ගත්තේ ගම්මානයට නොදුරු කොලොන් වැවෙනි. කිඹුලගෙන් පවා ගහන බෙරලියවැවට දිය නෑමට යාමට ගම්මු බිය ගත්තෝය. එහෙත් බෙරලියවැවේ වතුර සිහිල් මෙන්ම පිරිසුදුය. එම නිසා ඉඳහිට ගම්මු කාන්ඩ ගැසී බෙරලියවැවට දිය නෑමට ගියහ. එහෙත් ඔවුන් කිඹුලන් පිලිබඳව නිතරම සුපරික්ෂාුකාරී වූහ. දඩයක්කාරයා නම් සතියකට දෙකකට වරක් රාත්රිෙයට බෙරලියවැවට  යයි. ඔහු වැව අසල කුඹුක් ගසකට නැග වැවට දිය බීමට එන ගෝනෙකුට, මුවෙකු හෝ වල් ඌරෙකු එළාගනියි.

 ධවල හස්ථියා පිලිබඳ ප්රෙලාපය පමණක් නොව ඉතිරිය බෙරලියවැවට දිය නෑමට ගිය හේතුවද ගම්මුන් ගේ කතාබහට ලක්වූහ. මේ තරුණ ගම්බද ගැහැණිය විවාහකය. පුරුෂයා යාබද ගමක තළ හේනක් කෙටීමට ගිය අවස්ථාවක් බලා ඇය සොර සැමියා මුණ ගැසීම සඳහා දවස් භාගයක් පමණ  පයින් මහ කැළය හරහා බෙරලියවැවට ගියාය. ඇය පිටත් වූයේ හිරු පෑයීමටත් පෙර අළුයම් කාලයේය. ගෙදර සදාගත් අග්ගලා මල්ලක් අතැතිව  සොර සැමියා සොයා ගිය ඇය දහවල් කාලයේදී   බෙරලිය වැවට ලඟා වූවාය. ඇය එනතෙක් පෙම්වතා බෙරලිය වැව මහා නුගය අසල අලසව වැතිර සිටියේය.

 එදින උෂ්නාධික දිනයකි. ඔවුන් දෙදෙනා සතුටින් දිය නෑහ. අණතුරුව අග්ගලා මල්ල ලිහා දිවා ආහාරය ගත්හ. පෙම්වතා ඇයට පළතුරු පැසක් ගෙනවිත් තිබුණි. පැසේ දිව පිනා යන රසැති පළතුරු තිබිණි. දිවා ආහාරයෙන් පසු දෙදෙනා මහා නුගය යට තණකොල බිස්සේ වැතිරී ලෝකාස්වාද රතියේ යෙදුනහ. ඉර අවරට ගියද ඔවුන් ගේ ආශාවන් ඌන නොවුයේය. ඔවුන් පැය ගනනාවක් එකිනෙකා සමග තදින් වෙලී දෛහික ආශාවන් සංතර්පණය කර ගැනීමේ වෑයමක යෙදුනහ.

 පෙම්වතුන් දෙදෙනාගේ කායික මානසික ඒකාග්රසතාව කැඩී ගියේ නොසිතූ ලෙසිනි. මහා කුංචනාදයක් සමග පොලව හෙල්ලී යන බවක් ඔවුනට දැනුනි. නිරුවතින් බිම වැතිරී සිටි මිනිසා හා ගැහැණිය අසලින් මහා වෘක්ෂෙයක් මෙන් උසැති සද්ධන්ත ධවල ඇතෙකු ගමන් කලේය. සඳ එළියට හස්ථියාගේ සුදු පැහැති නිකලැල් චර්මයද විශාල රන් පැහැති දළ දෙකද හොඳින් දැක ගැනීමට හැකි විය.

 ධවල ඇතා දැකීමෙන් දෙදෙනා බිය ගත් හ. මිනිසා එක් පසකට දිවූ අතර නිරුවත් ගැහැණිය තවත් පසකට දිව ගියාය. මේ නයින් දෙදෙනා මහා වනයේ අතරමං වූහ. බොහෝ වේලාවක් වනයේ ඒ මේ අත දිව යමින් පෙම්වතාගේ නම කියමින් කෑ ගැසූ ඇය මධ්යංම රාත්රිවය වෙත්ම බියෙන් තැති ගත්තාය. අවසානයේදී පෙම්වතා ගැන අමතක කල ගැහැණිය යළි ගම්මානයට යාම සඳහා අසීරුවෙන් පාර සොයා ගත්තාය.

 ඇය ගමට එන විට පසුදින දහවල්වී තිබුණි. ගම්මානය පෙනෙන තෙක් මානයට පැමිණි ඇය මහ හඞින් හූවක් තියා විසඥ වූවාය.අසල හේනක සිටි පිරිසක් ඇයගේ හූව අසා තැතිගත් විලසින් දිව ආහ. අතපය සීරී හරිහැටි සිහියක් නොමැතිව නිරුවතින් සිටි ගැහැනියව ගමේ යකැදුරා ලඟට වත්තම් කරගෙන යන ලදි.  වරු දෙකකට පසු ඇයට සිහිය එන ලදින් ඉතිරිය පෙම්වතා ගැන කරුණු සඟවා ධවල ඇතා පිලිබඳව කතාව ගම්මුන්ට කීවාය.

 ධවල ඇතා පිලිබඳ පුවත් ඇසූ ගම්මු මුලින් විස්මයටත් පසුව කුතුහලයටත් පත් වූහ. ගමේ හැඩි දැඩි තරුණයන් පිරිසක් පසුදින ධවල ඇතා සොයනු වස් බෙරලියවැවට ගියහ. පුරා දින තුනක් පුරා මහ වනය පීරා සොයා බැලුවද ධවල ඇතෙකුගේ සෙවනැල්ලක්වත් පවා දැකීමට ඔවුන් අපොහොසත් වූහ. මේ නිසා අධෛර්යර වූ කණ්ඩායමේ කොටසක් මේ පුවත ගැහැණිය විසින් කියූ බොරුවක් බවට තර්ක කලහ. සමහරෙක් ගැහැණිය දැක ඇත්තේ මහසෝන් පිල්ලියක් බව කීහ. අවසානයේදී කණ්ඩායමේ ඒකමතික තීරණය අනුව ඔවුන් අසාර්ථක වූ කර්තව්යන අත් හැර දමා යළි ගම්මානය කරා ආහ.

 සති කීපයක් ගත විය. ගම්මුන්ට ධවල ඇතා පිලිබඳ ප්රේලාපය අමතක වූහ. ගැහැණිය සොර සැමියා නොමැති වීමේ සාංකාව සඟවා යළි පැමිණි සැමියා පිළිගෙන ඔහුට උවටැන් කළාය. එහෙත් සොර සැමියා මෙන්ම ධවල හස්ථියා පිලිබඳ මතකය ඇයට අමතක කරනු නොහැකි විය.

පෝයවල් දෙකක් ගත විය. දිනක් ගැමියෙක් මීයක් කෙටීම සඳහා බෙරලියවැව ආසන්නයට ගියේය. ඔහු මාර ගසකට නැග මීය කොටන විට පොලව හෙල්ලී ගියේය. මාර ගසද කුණාටුවකට අසු වූ තණපතක් මෙන් දෙපසට වැනෙන්නට විය. ගැමියා මාර ගස තදින් බදාගත් නමුත් මී පැණි පුරවා ඉණට ගැටගසා තිබූ ලබු කැටය බිමට වැටුනි. බිමට වැටුණු ලබු කැටය දෙස බැලූ ගැමියා ගේ නෙත් අදහා ගත නොහැකි විය. මාර ගස යටින් පර්වතයක් සේ උසැති ධවල ඇතෙක් ගමන් කරමින් සිටියේය. විශ්මයටත් බියටත් පත් වූ ගැමියා මාර ගසේ ඉහලටම බඩ ගෑවේය. 

 සවස් වන තෙක් මාරගසේ අත්තක් උඩ ඉඳි ගැමියා හොඳින් වටපිට බලා ගසින් බැස්සේය. ඉක්බිති ලබු කැටයද අමතක කොට ගම්මනයට දිව ගියේය. ඔහුගේ බස් ඇසූ ගම්මු යලිත් වරක් විස්මයටත් ආකූලතාවටත් පත් වූහ. එදිනම කණ්ඩායමක් හුළු අතු පන්දම් බැඳගෙන ධවල ඇතා සොයා වනගත වූහ. පුරා දෙදිනක් ඔවුන් වනයේ කරක් ගැසූ නමුත් ධවල ඇතා පිලිබඳව හෝඩුවාවක්වත් සොයා ගැනීමට නොහැකිව හිස් අතින් යළි පැමිනියහ.

 ධවල ඇතා පිලිබඳව කතිකාව ලැව් ගින්නක් සේ පැතිරෙද්දී ගමේ විදානේ දඩයක්කාරයා  සොයා පැමිණියේය. විදානේ  ධවල ඇතා ගැන බොහෝ දේවල් කියූ නමුත් දඩයක්කාරයා ඒවාට කන් දුන්නේ උදාසීන බවකිනි.   ධවල ඇතෙකු වන සාවියේ නොමැති බව දඩයක්කාරයා පුන පුනා විදානේට කී නමුදු ඉන් පලක් නොවීය. කෙසේ හෝ ධවල ඇතා අල්ලා ගතහොත් උගේ දළ හොඳ මිළකට විකිනිය හැකි බව විදානේ දඩයක්කාරයාට කීවේය. එහෙත් දඩයක්කාරයා කිසිවක් කීවේ නැත.

 දඩයක්කාරයාගේ උදාසීන බවින් කෝපයට පත් වූ විදානේ මිනිසුන් පස් දෙනෙකුට පයිණ්ඩ යවා ඔවුන් ගෙන්වාගෙන ධවල ඇතා අල්ලා ගැනීමට මද්දක් ගැසීමට සූදානම් විය. ඔවුන් ඉතා ශක්තිමත් කඹ යොදා මද්දක් සකස් කලහ. අණතුරුව මද්ද බෙරලියවැව අසල අලිමංකඩ අටවා තෙදිනක් සැඟවී බලා සිටියහ. නමුත් ඔවුන් දුටු ධවල ඇතෙක් නම් නැත. එහෙත් පරාජය භාර ගැනීමට අකමැතිවූ විදානේ තවත් රැයක් පිරිස රඳවා ගත්තේය. අවසානයේදී මද්දත් රැගෙන ඔවුන් හිස් අතින් ගම්මානයට පැමිනියහ.

 ධවල ඇතා පිලිබඳ කතාව දඩයක්කාරයා කිසිසේත්ම විස්වාස නොකලේය. දඩයක්කාරයාගෙන් වසන් වී ධවල ඇතෙකුට වනයේ සිටිය නොහැක. ඒ නිසා ගම්මානයේ පැතිර යන කථා බහ දඩයක්කාරයා   මායිම් නොකලේය.

 දිනක් සඳ ඇති රැයක බෙරලියවැවට පැමිනි වල් ඌරෙකු දඩයක්කාරයාගේ තුවක්කුවට ගොදුරු විය. හොඳින් බෙහෙත් කොටා තිබූ වෙඩිල්ල සැහැසි වල් ඌරා විනාඩි කීපයකින් නිසල කලේය. වල් ඌරා මිය ගිය බව සහතික කරගත් දඩයක්කාරයා වල් ඌරා මස් කිරීමට ලෑස්ති විය. මුලින්ම හුළු අත්තකින්  වල් ඌරා ගේ මවිල් පුලුස්සා දැමූ දඩයක්කරු මුවැති පිහියකින් සතාගේ උදර කුහරය විවෘත කොට අතුණුබහන් බඩවැල් ඉවත් කලේය. ඉක්බිති මස් තීරු තීරු කපා ගසක එල්ලීය. වල් ඌරා ගේ එක් ගාතයක් ගිණිමැලයේ ලා පළහා ගත්තේය. 

බඩගින්න බොහෝ සෙයින් තිබූ නිසා දඩයක්කාරයා ගින්නෙන් පළහන ලද වල් ඌරු මස් අනුභව කලේය. ආහාරයෙන් පසු ලබු කැටයෙන් දිය පානය කල දඩයක්කාරයා නිසලව තණ බිස්සේ වැතිර සිටියේය. විඩාව නිසා ඔහුදේ දෑස් පියවිනි.

 පොළව හෙල්ලී යන සෙයක් දැනුන නිසා දඩයක්කාරයා එකවරම ඇස් ඇරීය. ඔහු දුටුවේ උසැති ධවල ඇතෙකි. ඉතා තේජමාන්විතව ගමන් ගත් හස්ථියා ගාම්භීර ස්වරයකින් කුංචනාද කලේය. දඩයක්කාරයාගේ අත සෙමින් තුවක්කුව කරා ගියේය. එසැනින්ම තුවක්කුවට වෙඩිල්ලක් කෙටීමට අමතක වූ බව ඔහුට වැටහිනි. තුවක්කුවේ වෙඩිල්ලක් තිබ්බේ නම් දැන් කදිම ඉලක්කයකි. ඇතුගේ සුවිසල් කන් පෙත්ත යටින් තිබෙන මාරක නිලයට වෙඩි පහරක් යැවීමට හැකි වූයේ නම් උගේ සුවිසල් දළ දෙක  දඩයක්කරුවාගේය. තම අතපසු වීම ගැන සිතින් දෝශාරෝපණය කළ දඩයක්කරු වහ වහා තුවක්කුවට වෙඩිල්ලක් කෙටීය. ඒ අතරවාරයේ ධවල හස්ථියා වේවැල් පඳුරු අතරින් නොපෙනී ගියේය.

 වෙඩිල්ල කොටා ගත් දඩයක්කරු ඇතා හඹා ගියේය. හොඳින් සඳ පායා තිබීම නිසා බෝහෝ දුර දැකීමට හැකිවූ එම රාත්රිටයේ ධවල ඇතා පෙනෙන්නට නොසිටීම අරුමයකි. ඔහු අළුයම තෙක් ධවල ඇතා සෙව්වේය. ගෝමර ඇතා ,  කන් කබරයා , හොඞ කෙටියා, ගම් පාළුවා යනාදී හස්ථීන් රැසක් දුටු නමුදු ධවල ඇතා  දකින්නට නොසිටියේය. ධවල ඇතා   පොළව විසින් ගිල ගත්තාක් මෙන් විය.

 අවසානයේදී ධවල ඇතා සෙවීම අත් හැර දැමූ දඩයක්කරු ගම්මානය කරා ගියේය. ඔහුට පෙරදා රාත්රි්යේ කළ දඩයමද අමතක විය. එය දිවියෙක් විසින් භුක්ති විඳින ලදි. 

ගම්මානයට ගිය දඩයම්කරු කෙලින්ම ගියේ විදානේගේ පැළටය. විදානේ මහත් අභිරුචියෙන්  දඩයම්කරුට සවන් දුන්නේය. ධවල ඇතා පිලිබඳ පුවත තව දුරටත් හිතළුවක් නොවේ. එය සත්යරකි.

 පසුදින දඩයක්කරු , විදානේ සහ ගම්මුන් සත් දෙනෙකු සතියකට අවශ්යි කළමනා ගෙන වන වැදුනි. ධවල හස්ථියාගේ දළ රැගෙන මිස හිස් අතින් නොයෙමි යැයි ඔවුන් ගිවිස ගත්හ.

ඔවුන් කණ්ඩායම් කීපයකට බෙදී සැඟවී සිටියහ. එක් කන්ඩායමක්  බෙරලියවැව ඉස්මත්තේද තවත් කන්ඩායමක්  වේවැල් ගාල අසලද තව කන්ඩායමක්  වැව් පිට්ටනිය අසල යනාදී වශයෙන් රැඳී සූදානම්ව සිටියහ. මුවන් , ගෝනුන් , ඌරන්, ඔවුන් ගේ දෙනෙත් ඉදිරියෙන් ගියද කිසිවෙකු තුවක්කුවක් පත්තු කලේ නැත. ඔවුන් ගේ අපේක්ෂාේව වූයේ ධවල හස්ථියාය.

 රැයවල් තුනක් ගත විය. ධවල ඇතාගේ හෝඩුවාවක්වත් නොමැත. නමුත් පිරිස පසුබට නොවූහ. ඔවුන් මාරුවෙන් මාරුවට රැකවල් දා ධවල ඇතා එනතෙක් බලා සිටියහ.  එක් දිනක් රාත්රිඳයේ වේවැල් ගාල පොඩි කරන ශබ්දයක් ඇසුනි . දඩයක්කරුවා තුවක්කුව ගෙන වේවැල් ගාල දෙසට දිව ගියේය. පිරිසද ඔහු පසුපස දිවූහ. ඔවුන් දුටුවේ හොඞ කෙටියා නම් අලියාය.

 සත් වන දිනය වන විට විදානේ සහ දඩයක්කරුවා හැරුණු කොට අනෙක් ගැමියන් ආපසු ගමට යා යුතු බව කීහ. එහෙත් විදානේ තව තෙදිනක් ඔවුන්ව රඳවා ගත්තේය. එහෙත් එම තෙදින අවසන් වන විට පිරිසෙන් හතර දෙනෙක් විදානේගේ නෝක්කඩු මධ්ය යේ ගමට ගියෝය. ඉතිරි තිදෙනා පසුදින උදයේ අතුරුදහන්වී සිටි අතර ඔවුන් තම බඩු බාහිරාදියද අත් හැර දමා පළා ගොස් තිබුණි.

 අවසානයේදී ඉතිරි වූයේ දඩයක්කරුවා සහ විදානේ පමණි. වනගත ජීවිතය නොපුරුදු විදානේ කෙරෙන් දිස් වූයේ විඩාබර පෙනුමකි. එහෙත් ඔහුගේ උනන්දුවේ අඩුවක් නම් නොවීය.

ඔවුන් තවත් සතියක් ධවල ඇතා සොයමින් වනයේ කරක් ගැසූහ. එහෙත් ඔවුන් ගේ වෑයම නිරර්ථක විය. බලාපොරොත්තු සුන් වූ විදානේ ගසක් මුල අළසව වැතිර සිටියේය. ඔහුට කැලෑ උණ සෑදී තිබේ. විදානේ වරින් වර වෙව්ලුවේය. ඔහු දෙදිනකින් ආහාරයක් ගත්තේ නැත. අවසන් වරට ආහාරයට ගත් පුළුස්සන ලද අල ගෙඩියෙන් කොටහක් ඔහු වමනය කලේය. දඩයක්කරුවා  විදානේ රැගෙන ගම්මානයට යාමට තැත් කලද විදානේ එයට එක හෙලා විරුද්ධ විය. කෙසේ හෝ තව දින කීපයක් රැඳී ධවල ඇතා සොයාගත යුතුයි විදානේ තර්ක කලේ දඩයක්කරුවා නිහඞ කරවමිනි.

 එදින රාත්රිමයේ විදානේට තවත් අසාධ්ය් විය. ඔහු ගිණිමැලය අසල වැතිරී සිටියේය. උණ රෝගය නිසා විදානේගේ ශරීරය ගැස්සුනි. ඔහුට උසුලා ගත නොහැකි දිය තිබහක් වරින් වර දැනුනු හෙයින් ලබු කැට වල තිබූ වතුර අහවර වන තෙක් පානය කලේය. ඔහුට තවත් දිය අවශ්යේ විය. දිය අහවර වීම නිසා දඩයක්කරුවා හිස් ලබු කැට ගෙන වැවට ගියේය. ඒ සමගම ශීත සුලං සමග පොද වැස්සක් ආරම්භ විය  ශීත නිසා විදානේ ගිණිමැලයට තවත් කිට්ටු වූයේය. 

දිය ගෙන ඒමට වැවට ගිය දඩයක්කරුවා තවමත් නොමැත. ගිණිමැලය නිවී යාමට ආසන්න නිසා එයට දර කොටයක් දැමිය යුතුය. එහෙත් දර කොටය එසවීමට පමණක් නොව නැගිටීමට පවා විදානේට ශරීර ශක්තියක් දැන් නැත. ඔහු අසරණව නිවී යාමට ආසන්න ගිණිමැලය දෙස බලා සිටියේය.

 තමා වැතිරී සිටින තණ බිස්ස දෙදරුම් කන බව විදානේට හැඟී ගියේය. ඔහු අසීරුවෙන් ඇස් ඇරියේය. විදානේට තම දෙනෙත් අදහා  ගත නොහැකි විය. ඔහුගේ දෙපා අසලින් ධවල හස්ථිරාජයා ගමන් කරමින් සිටියේය. උගේ රන් පැහැති දෙදළ දිලිසුනේය.  

 විදානේ තුවක්කුව අතට ගැනීමට තැත් කල නමුත් ශරීර ශක්තියෙන් දුර්වලව ගිය ඔහුට එය කළ නොහැකි කාර්යේක් විය. විදානේ මුලු වැර යොදා දඩයක්කාරයාට කෑ ගෑසූ නමුත් ඔහුගේ උගුරින් පිට වූයේ දුබල හඞකි. ඔහුට කළ හැකි වූයේ තමන් ගේ දෑස් ඉදිරියෙන් තේජාන්විතව ගමන් කරන ධවල ඇතා දෙස  බලා සිටීම පමණි.

 දඩයක්කාරයා දිය රැගෙන එන විට විදානේ අසිහියෙන් පොළව පහුරුගාමින් සිටියේය. වහාම විදානේව කරට ගත් දඩයක්කාරයා ගම්මානය කරා යාම ඇරඹීය. විදානේ දුබල අත් වලින් දඩයක්කරුගේ උරපතු වලට පහර දෙමින් ධවල ඇතා පසුපස හඹා යා යුතු බව නොකඩවා කීවේය. එහෙත් දඩයක්කරුවා විදානේගේ කීම ගනනකටවත් ගත්තේ නැත.

 ඒ අඳුරු රාත්රිමයේ ගල් මුල් වල හැපෙමින් විදානේව කරගසාගත් දඩයක්කරුවාට ගම්මානයට ඒමට බොහෝ වේලා ගත විය. වැස්ස නිසා ඔවුන් තෙත බරිත වූහ. වෙහෙස නිසා දඩයක්කරුවාගේ ගමන සෙමෙන් සිදු වූවද ඔහු විදානේව කරින් බිම තිබ්බේ නැත. ඒ අතර විදානේ හුස්ම ගත්තේ ඉතා සෙමෙනි. ඔහුගේ දැඟලීම ක්රදමක් ක්රාමයෙන් අඩුවී ගියේය.

අළුයමට ආසන්න වෙත්ම දඩයක්කරුවාට ගම්මානයට ලඟා වීමට හැකි විය. ගම්මානයට පය ගැසූ පැයේදීම එකවරම ගැස්මකට ලක් වූ විදානේ ගේ සිරුර නිසල විය. දඩයක්කරුවා දිගටම ගමන් කලේය. ඔහුට විදානේගේ සිරුරේ උණුසුම අඩුවී යනවා දැණුනි. එහෙත් ඔහු විදානේගේ සිරුර බිම තැබුවේ නැත. විදානේගේ සීතල සිරුර කර තබාගත් දඩයක්කරුවා ගමේ වෙදරාලගේ පැල් කොටය වෙත ගියේය.

LTTE War Crimes : Another Witness – Anna Neistat of Human Rights Watch

September 21st, 2014

Shenali D Waduge

Anna Neistat Senior Research of the Human Rights Watch was interviewed by Steve Paikin through the tv program ‘The Agenda with Steve Paikin” in 2009. The allegations by Anna Neistat re-establishes and reiterates as well as reconfirms of LTTE war crimes in forcibly keeping civilians without allowing them to escape to safety, shooting civilians who tried to escape, keeping civilians as hostages and in front of LTTE positions, keeping LTTE arms and equipment amongst the civilians and firing from amongst civilians including hospitals. These are clear violations of Geneva Conventions for which LTTE stands guilty and cannot be downplayed by ‘both sides to blame’ song.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9C3uYsnHIkw

Anna Neistat during the interview with Steve Paikin

  • In the conflict zone.. more than 200,000 are trapped”
  • On the one hand LTTE does not allow them to leave”
  • We documented cases where LTTE shot at people trying to leave the area” – at which time Steve Paikin intervenes and asks Just to get this clear, Tamil Tigers fired at Tamils in order to prevent them from leaving, is that what you are saying” and Anna Neistat’s response was Absolutely yes and that is one of the greatest problems right now”
  • When we are advocating for humanitarian borders to allow civilians to leave, LTTE is a big part of the problem”.
  • They do not allow civilians to leave”
  • They do not want civilians to leave”
  • We have documented cases when LTTE used civilians as circled human shields to protect their positions from attack”
  • They (LTTE) placed their positions in front of the camps of the displaced persons and hospitals – This is plainly speaking a WAR CRIME”

At this point Steve Paikin passes the mike to David Poopalapillai, National Spokesman for the Canadian Tamil Congress.

David Poopalapillai’s response was that the Sri Lankan army wore LTTE uniforms and killing civilians and putting the blame of the tigers.

David Poopalapillai’s response to Anna Niestat’s accusations were that HRW were not on the ground (neither was David Poopalapillai speaking all the way from Canada) and that HRW had gone only upto Vavuniya and heard the evidence from there.

Steve Paikin returns the mike to Anna and asks whether David Poopalapillai’s position possible to which her response is I assume the Tamil civilians can tell a Sri Lankan soldier from an LTTE cadre”. She goes on to say that what HRW documented were not from Sinhalese propaganda but from people who were trapped, those who tried to free themselves or those who lost families or neighbors.

Steve Paikin next passes the mike to Lenin Benedict of the Canadian Democratic Tamil Cultural Association.

Lenin Benedicts views were that even the UN had given a very clear statement and he quotes from it LTTE prevents people leaving, and reports indicate a growing number of people trying to leave have been shot at and sometimes killed”

Canadian Tamil Congress

Incidentally, the CTC is declared a front organization of the LTTE and is banned by the GOSL under the UN Resolution 1373. CTC contributed Canadian dollars 50,000 to Amnesty International in January 2012.

David Poopalapillai is said to be one of the suspects reported to have close links to the LTTE hierarchy in Vanni. There is an ongoing investigation to CTC facilitating the multi-million dollar LTTE run human smuggling operations by MV Ocean Lady and MV Sun Sea wherein over 200 LTTE cadres are said to have been smuggled out of Sri Lanka along with their families. CTC is also accused as providing legal and financial aid to the LTTE crew and passengers projecting them as bonafide refugees and not terrorists. Gary Anandasangaree of CTC had provided legal counsel who is said to have masterminded the CTC campaign to vilify Jo Becker, the Children’s Rights Advocacy Director of HRW who exposed LTTE’s extortion of the Diaspora.

A report by the National Post of Canada revealed that “Canada’s Tamil community has been among the LTTE’s largest sources of funds, having contributed up to $10-to $12-million annually in past years,”

Why Anna Neistat was banned

Anna Neistat was accused of entering the IDP cams in Vavuniya without clearance and preparing a 45page report. She has been accused of violating Sri Lanka’s immigration and emigration laws. Nevertheless, the interview statements made by Anna Neistat not only collaborates with witness accounts but even UN reports while links of UN Colombo officials with the LTTE rump remains an area that the UN system should investigate if as they claim their concern is with the innocent civilians and not whitewashing LTTE combatants.

What we can draw from the interview

  1. LTTE forcefully took civilians. This took place not in 2009 but far earlier and the UN was well aware of this with UN offices and other INGOs stationed in the areas under LTTE defacto control. UN and INGOs were in a better position to know how many civilians were taken too. It questions why the UN Colombo office did not inform UN New York/Geneva of this looming catastrophe and why they did not take action by making public announcements with regard to LTTE forcibly taking people with them
  2. LTTE held civilians as hostages, as human shields and kept their positions behind civilians and even fired from amidst civilians as well as near hospitals. So on the one hand the UN Colombo keeps silent on LTTE taking people, keeps silent on LTTE using civilians and firing from amongst them but cries foul when Sri Lankan troops return fire. Do we really know if the UN Colombo office properly indicated to the Sri Lankan troops the ground realities or were themselves part of the problem. These are questions for the OHCHR Panel to respond to without bias.
  3. LTTE fired as civilians attempting to flee – why has this aspect been downplayed internationally other than a handful of people referring to this. If LTTE had been firing at civilians and had killed civilians, how many civilians are we to presume died because of LTTE firing at them? Why are those who are making guestimates about the civilians killed not using a single line to say how many civilians the LTTE killed while they were trying to escape and more importantly where are their bodies – a question posed for those still counting the dead!
  4. No civilians – No Humanitarian Aid Access. The logic is simple. If there were no civilians the GOSL is not required to provide any humanitarian relief access leave alone relief. So now we can understand why some entities kept quiet as the LTTE took large numbers of civilians with them. We can now understand why they did not make a huge uproar about civilians been taken and we can now understand why civilian figures kept on being inflated. It was solely to ensure that civilians were buffer stock, insurance for LTTE to ensure that relief was sent, ensure that messages could be passed so that some sort of arrangement could be made to save the tiger and to ensure that the families of the LTTE and hopefully LTTE members themselves could escape as ‘civilians’. Which happened and the case of Vani Kumar immediate comes to mind. She pretended to be a ‘civilian’ but was a member of the Tamil  Youth Organization and had come to Sri Lanka in 2008 and was given LTTE military training but had managed to get the UK embassy to secure her safe passage out and back to the UK where she was one of the prime ‘witnesses’ of the Channel 4 claiming to have helped Dr. Shanmugarajah mix blood with water and save patients. The same Vani Kumar says this of the LTTE on C4 infamous noble award winning film [The LTTE] don’t want to kill their own people, they were fighting for them, they worked so hard to save their people”. She also denied LTTE shelled civilians. She categorically and repeatedly rejected LTTE used civilians as human shields. In fact Vani Kumar refused to accept there were human shields [p]eople chose to stay…Nobody wanted to run away. It wasn’t like the LTTE kept them. The people chose to stay.” So according to Anna Niestat of the HRW LTTE kept civilians and shot and killed them while Britisher Vani Kumar says the civilians chose to stay with the LTTE out of their own choice. Meanwhile, from the UN Secretary General to various other foreign leaders made desperate appeals to the LTTE to release civilians. Was this a big charade? Who do we believe?
  5. The Humanitarian Disaster Situation appears to have been created
  6. If the UN Colombo knew about LTTE’s decision to take civilians as buffer stock far before August 2008 the UN Colombo should have done something about it. When UN keeps hidden documents without releasing them and then comes up with reports to fault UN for failing to protect civilians because the intent is to subtly reject the 7721 civilian death figure quoted by the UN Country Team, we smell more than something fishy.
  7. If the LTTE had not kept civilians there would be no humanitarian disaster situation or the need for a humanitarian rescue operation. The LTTE should have not functioned as cowards.

What we need to deduce is that it has become a sport to flog Sri Lanka and its troops to distract attention from the guilt of those paid to do their work as international bodies and seriously questions exactly what they had been doing stationed in the North!

India and Pakistan on Jammu and Kashmir State

September 21st, 2014

By Afshain Afzal

The cease fire violations along Line of Control (LoC) on Jammu and Kashmir state as well working boundary between Indian and Pakistan led to renewed tension. During the weekly talks on telephone, Directors General of Military Operations (DGMOs) of India and Pakistan’s agreed on 26 August 2014, to reduce tension. They also agreed to hold flag meeting at the field level. Pakistani government went a step ahead and offered help to Indian administrators in held Jammu and Kashmir state, in order to mitigate the suffering of the Kashmiris affected by the recent flash floods. Official statement from Pakistani Ministry of Foreign Affairs said, “The Government and the people of Pakistan express deepest condolences over the loss of precious lives of our Kashmiri brethren on both sides of the LoC caused by torrential rains and flash floods.” It is pertinent to mention here that floods in Indian held Jammu and Kashmir state have left 156 dead and caused huge damage to infrastructure. The Indian National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) found themselves helpless in front of grave disaster but are doing their best along the Indian Armed Forces to minimize effects of disaster.

In a reciprocal move, Indian Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi also offered Indian assistance to Pakistan for flood relief operations in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. However, keeping in view of well coordinated relief and rescue operations by Armed Forces of Pakistan and the civil administration, India offer was politely declined by the Prime Minister of Azad Jammu and Kashmir.  In a letter to Pakistani premier, Prime Minister Modi wrote, “It is a matter of great distress that the retreating monsoon rains have played havoc in many parts of our two countries”. It is irony that misunderstanding dominated the stage of scheduled Foreign Secretary-level talks on 25 August, when Pakistani envoy in New Delhi, Mr.Abdul Basit held talks with Kashmiri leaders ahead of the official bilateral talks and on the very basis India announced cancellation of dialogue. Despite this negative development, there are still hopes of relaxation of tension between the two nuclear power countries as bilateral meeting between the two premiers is likely in New York, on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly meeting, scheduled later this month.

Islamabad’s generous offer to New Delhi came at the time when Indian Army’s Northern Command suffered unbearable losses and need at least one and a half year to return to normal. According to official estimates, the floods have affected 2,325 villages out of which 345 had gone under complete flood waters, while over 300 kilometers long fencing on the Indian side of LoC washed away from many places. In a recent conference, General Officer Commanding 16 Corps, Nagrota, Lieutenant General K.H. Singh gave briefing on ‘Operation Megh Rahat and Mission Sahayata’ to the Army Commanders, reflecting losses to Indian Army including destruction of 182 bunkers and numerous casualties from military side. He also highlighted the ongoing operations and missions that Army launched including performance of medical teams in the affected areas. Around 1500 locals are also looked after at camps by Army. The fact cannot be denied that the Indian Headquarters at Badamibagh, Srinagar and other key areas of Army Northern Command and Border Security Force (BSF) submerged with an estimate of over 5700 Indian personnel and their families affected.

It is not the time to discuss irritating issues, when losses on the both side of LoC have occurred due to flash flood. But to make the things right, it is important to highlight certain facts. There was time when Jhelum River was considered to be responsible for floods in Indian held Kashmir valley. On the other hand, very seldom floods occurred in the Indian held Jammu province. However, the recent flood caused huge losses to lives and property. No one can stop natural disaster but transfer of water from one river to another and one reservoir to other is often resisted by nature. The recent flash floods needs to be seriously taken and analyze how man-made structures disturb the echo system. The overflow of the glacier lakes was one of the factors while India also opened the doors of a number of small dams and reservoirs on Tapi, Jhelum Chenab Rivers etc including the reservoir of the Dulhasti power station, which caused disaster. One wonders if New Delhi can object Pakistan talking to Kashmiri leadership in New Delhi, why India forgets when she is erecting dams and reservoirs in Jammu and Kashmir state, without the knowledge of Pakistan. It is high time that both countries should remove suspicions and misunderstandings and come forward to solve all pending issue to be good neighbours and friends. afshain@hotmail.com

A trace of memories from Kandy Dharmaraja College

September 21st, 2014

Dr Hector Perera        London

I was attending Harischandra Vidyalaya at Temple road Negombo then I had a chance to sit for an entrance exam at Kandy Dharmaraja College. I went there with a helper then I met the headmaster Mr Wimalachandra of the junior school when I was near the playground. He spoke to me very politely and tried to help by asking a few questions. I told him that I was in 5th standard and had a double promotion. He said there is a SSC prep entrance exam that day, nothing else and said, If you want you can sit for it”. I was not sure which exam to sit but there was no choice, just one exam. The person who came to help me encouraged me and said, Why not you sit for this entrance exam”. I must say that was very encouraging even though I didn’t expecting to take up this entrance exam but no choice.

Who wrote that word there?

The exam was in a long hall with a few hundred students and I was sitting almost near the front end. In the English exam paper there were so many things such as to change to proper grammar then asked a few questions such one word for a place where you find fish, aquarium”. What is the one word for a place where you find a collection of books, maps, periodicals and documents? I knew the word is library but when I saw it was written virtually in the air, I got confused, I was surprised to see it is there. I saw it at the end of the hall and was wondering how it came there.  I didn’t want to look back as there were lots of teachers around and I might be caught for cheating. Then I rubbed something on the paper and pretended that I didn’t know the word and went to ask for help. While I pretend to be asking for help, I learned the correct spellings for library. Even when I knew the correct spellings, I got confused to see the spellings was written somewhere I could see. I must say that was the one of the things I couldn’t do in the paper. Who wrote it there, later I found out actually that part was the library but that day the whole place was taken for the examination purposes.

Once I got selected to the college, I had to stay in the hostel as daily travel from my dad’s place in Matalae was too far to Kandy. Many incidents happened while I was studying there but only a few incidents can be mentioned here.

Solar eclipse

One day a few of us went to the summit of the mountain where they have a Buddhist shrine as well. The reason why we went there was to see what is called the eclipse of the sun. At the summit we could see Hantana Mountain then the panoramic view of Kandy town, lake and Dalada Maligawa and the surrounding area.  I could see Udawattakelle Sanctuary and Bahiravokanda. On one side a range of mountains we can see Kundala farm and the agriculture campus then the winding river Mahaveli like a huge snake through the jungle and mountains then the Kandy town on the other side gave us a beautiful view. Then all of a sudden the sky started to get darker and darker then it was like mid night even though it was just before 12 noon. The teachers and some adults who were there with us asked to look at the sun through a darkened glass such as sun glasses. The sun became a sickle shaped thing and that is the time sun got eclipsed with the earth and that is a very rare occasion.

 What is a solar eclipse?

An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer. The term eclipse is most often used to describe either a solar eclipse. In a solar eclipse, when the Moon’s shadow crosses the Earth’s surface, or a lunar eclipse, when the Moon moves into the Earth’s shadow. However, it can also refer to such events beyond the Earth–Moon system: for example, a planet moving into the shadow cast by one of its moons, a moon passing into the shadow cast by its host planet, or a moon passing into the shadow of another moon. A binary star system can also produce eclipses if the plane of the orbit of its constituent stars intersects the observer’s position.

As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks the Sun. This can happen only at new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth in an alignment referred to as syzygy. In a total eclipse, the disk of the Sun is fully obscured by the Moon.

Jokes about Solar eclipse

I am sure some of you can still recollect, ANE MAGE EMILY PANAE BEEWA NEDA WADKAHA SUDIYA and many more jokes about that day. I heard this joke about solar eclipse. A solar eclipse is just like a young lady is getting ready to breast feed, in a crowded bus. You may look but not supposed to look at directly at it. When she feeds it’s total eclipse, getting ready is partial eclipse but under no circumstances one is supposed to looked at it directly.

Dalada Maligawa

 

I read some descriptions about Kandy Dalada Maligawa and in one such account I read it as follows. Posed artistically against the steep wooded hills of the Udawattakele Sanctuary, Sri Lanka’s most important Buddhist shrine, the Temple of the Tooth, or Dalada Maligawa, sits on the lakeshore just east of the city centre. The temple houses the legendary Buddha’s Tooth, which arrived here in the sixteenth century after various peregrinations around India and Sri Lanka, although nothing remains of the original temple, built around 1600. The main shrine of the current temple was originally constructed during the reign of Vimala Dharma Suriya II (1687–1739) and was rebuilt and modified at various times afterwards, principally during the reign of Kirti Sri Rajasingha (1747–81). It was further embellished during the reign of Sri Wickrama Rajasingha, who added the moat, gateway and Pittirippuva; the eye-catching golden roof over the relic chamber was donated by President Premadasa in 1987.

 Scout camping

While I was in the college, we went on a camping trip from the scouts to a camp in Mihirigama. I think we were there for few days, may be a week or so. Mr Wimalachandra was in charge of the scout group. There were so many activities such as treasure hunting and cooking competition among the groups. Some or how our group won the cooking competition. One of the things I did was to make a coconut sambol with lots of Maldives fish. With lots of Maldives fish with matching amount of chilli powder and lime juice and little salt gives a nice taste. That time I didn’t know even to make a cup of tea properly but scouting camp helped me to start thinking of cooking. Now I have found a scientific energy saving cooking technique for which I received a certificate as well from The Sustainable Energy Authority in Sri Lanka.

Cadet’s shooting practice

At cadet’s shooting practicing group one time we had to lie down on the floor, with a loaded rifle and aim then shoot at a target. We had to wait for the command then shoot but I accidently shot before the command, shoot. The cadet master wasn’t happy and I was very scared that I would be punished if I went for further practice lessons so I dropped cadetting after that incident. The cadets had to practice marching and other things and I thought that might affect my studies and I had to be very careful from my dad as well so I had to drop further attending cadetting even though it was very interesting in many ways.

Public canning and why I dropped science

Unlike the present days, some children got public canning as a part of punishment. The principal of the school sometimes canned one or two children in the assembly as a warning for others. Honestly that put me off doing any wrong things, perhaps the others got the same idea. In a way public canning set up an example for others not to indulge in doing wrong things.

Later when I became a chemistry teacher in England, I never did anything like that. It may be a time that public canning in a school assembly was acceptable. Apart from that if anyone was caught doing wrong things in the class, he was sent to a teacher to be punished. Our physics teacher was the one who canned any so called naughty children. I have witnessed several times during the physics lesson, how they were canned. Sometimes they got hit on the palm but sometimes they got a few cuts on their backs. When I witnessed those incidents, gradually I lost the taste for science. He sometimes demanded the children to recite some gas laws like Charles Law, Gay Lussac’s law. If they failed then they got punished. I was new to the class, may be like any other but these simple things put me off continuing science. Without even informing my dad, I slowly changed the classes from science to arts subjects such as history and civics.

No more English, Sinhala only

After a few month there came a rule that, all classes would be conducted in Sinhala medium and that was the last year to conduct in English medium. This change over was done by a famous politician and I wonder how many other children’s future was disillusioned by that sudden media change from English to Sinhalese medium that means education was in Sinhalese only. I must say I was one of the victims in that political matter.

  Leading up to the country’s independence in February of 1948, the high standing afforded English came increasingly under attack as Sri Lankans gained political voice and asserted that the colonial language excluded many native peoples from social opportunities and advancement and, moreover, was inadequate for the project of nation building. The indigenous languages of the country’s majority and minority populations, Sinhala and Tamil respectively, were reintroduced as official languages, but after the country’s independence, these policies altered further. Most notably with the 1956 Language Act that established Sinhala Only as the nation’s official language. Sinhala held this position until 1978 when a legislative amendment reversed the 1956 Act and once again acknowledged Tamil also as an official language.

Passed in Sinhala medium SSC

Then I was trouble again, had to do the subjects in Sinhala medium. I found it is extremely difficult to change into Sinhala medium. I never mentioned these things to my dad because I thought that would be more trouble. After Sinhalese medium SSC, I left Dharmaraja College and went back to my dad’s place. Only when the results came that he came to know that I did arts subjects in Sinhala medium. He didn’t encouraged to continue to Advanced Level because of the wrong subjects in Sinhala medium. I had no choice other than to stay at home.

Passed Law College entrance exam but

In the meantime, I applied to the law college and sat for their exam as well. Later I went to Colombo to check the results. I met a few boys near the Law College office and they nicely asked my name and checked the results and they knew I was though to the Law College. Then a few of them dragged me into a room to give what is called a rag to the new comers. I cannot say how I managed to escape from them then ran off the Law College and never went back there. When I mentioned that I was selected to the Law College, my dad said it’s not a suitable career. I am a doctor and I help and save people but you want to be a lawyer?” Further he said,” You have to lie and set off innocent to prison and set off guilty people free for money so it’s not a fair carrier”. Once again I was totally lost with only Sinhalese medium SSC results. Much later I studied science in English medium in a private college in Colombo then came to England for further studies. I have few more memories from Kandy Dharmaraja College that will be continued in a later article. Comments are welcomed perera6@hotmail.co.uk

TNA & Chief Minister Wigneswaran – STOP COMPLAINING and start developing North Sri Lanka (TNA given Rs.1.385billion – Rs.380m only spent)

September 21st, 2014

Shenali D Waduge

 Ever since winning the Northern Provincial elections in 2013, the TNA and its Chief Minister has been doing nothing but complain. Complaining, crying to foreign nations and leaders, going on sponsored visits round the globe, gallivanting to India to complain and now asking Tamil youth to act as spies is all that the TNA placed their energy in. The TNA has been doing everything other than develop the Northern Province. We must seriously wonder whether they have the capacity to do so and belong only to the category of NATO – No Action Talk Only. Was that what they were appointed to do? Their rhetoric locally and internationally continues to claim that had they land and police powers they would perform wonders. With Rs.1.385billion at their disposal they can do a far lot more than whining about not getting land and police powers. To date the TNA has only spent Rs.380million. Its time the Tamil people were given these statistics and TNA is told to stop grumbling and start producing some results with the money allocated.

 In order for people to realize what a load of lies the TNA and its Chief Minister have gotten away with, the numbers need to be clearly stated.

  • The GOSL allocated to the Northern Province Rs.1.385billion for 2014 (It was the amount requested by the TNA for development and that entire request was given)
  • The TNA has spent only Rs.380million in 8 months of the allocation of Rs.1.385billion for the year 2014
  • Minister Basil Rajapakse has attributed the ‘slowdown’ of development in the North to the non-cooperation of the TNA Provincial Council.
  • Since TNA took office of the Northern Province in 2013 it has yet to pass a single statute without which the Northern Province cannot gain revenue in addition to what the GOSL allocates.

Obviously, the TNA has more important things to do than spend their time, energy and brains to address the needs of the people, their basic requirements and practical solutions to their day to day needs is whining probably until they get land and police powers. The TNA is far more interested in promoting 13thamendment, devolution of powers, demanding land and police powers for themselves, demanding they should get direct aid and direct diplomatic ties and promising wholesale what they would deliver after they obtain these facilities for themselves. Looks like quite a long wait. It would be first good to find out whether the ITAK objectives and aim is Federal and not Confederal before the GOSL commits to any devolution or police powers.

 To be able to gage the competency of the TNA and its Chief Minister, shouldn’t they first display their efficiency in delivering from what they have been allocated. Rs.1.385billion is no small amount for the Northern Province with hardly 8lakhs of people residing in the North.

 In the meanwhile, the TNA has no scruples about accepting new vehicles worth Rs.16million given to the Northern Province by the Sri Lankan State and neither do they cringe when invited to Temple Trees and they have no issues to not refuse enjoying a cup of tea with the President of Sri Lanka either.

 All that is really left to say to the Chief Minister and the TNA Northern Provincial Council is to stop grumbling and whining and start showing that they can match or better the development that the GOSL has achieved in just 4 years following the end of LTTE terror. The Tamils enjoy what they never had in 30 years. The IDPs have been resettled some of which did not wish to leave their temporary shelters because they were enjoying 3 free meals per day. What is ironical is that the world and in particular the UN made such a fuss over resettling IDPs while they have done and are not doing anything about the 27million IDPs languishing throughout all of the areas that illegal military interventions have taken place further highlighting the hypocrisy within the UN system.

 What is obviously clear is that the TNA wishes to only project itself as being the representative of the Tamil people (the newest antic is to claim ‘Tamil speaking peopl’) and do nothing other than use that position to guarantee for themselves a host of political privileges that enables the TNA to keep the Tamils under their domination and control (minus the gun this time round). We are back to square one of the TULF mentality of caste-class rule and it certainly makes one to ask if low caste Tamils coming out of their low-caste confines are ready to accept his age-old domineering political package.

 What needs to be highlighted is that countries and leaders need to be aware of statistics before entertaining the TNA in future and if any other nation or leader is getting prepared to entertain the TNA representatives they should first ask what the TNA and its Chief Minister had done other than whining and complaining.

සිංහල රටේ දෙමලු

September 21st, 2014

 ධර්මසිරි සෙනෙවිරත්න

ඉතිහාසය  ඉගැන්වීම නතර කල එකම රට  මේ ලංකාව විය හැක  . අනිවාර්යයෙන්  ම සාම පුරවැසියෙකුටම  ඉගැන්විය යුතු වූ ඉතිහාසය නුගැ න්වීම නිසා  2009 වනතුරුත්  සිංහලයට තම රට බේරාගැනීමට ඉදිරිපත් වීමට තරම් කොන්දක් නැතිවිය  සීයට හත අටක ප්‍රමාණයකට බියවී  75% ක් සිටි එකම කාලකන්නි රට ලංකාව විය 9% පමණ දැන් සිටින ලංකාවේ මුස්ලිම් වරු  තම ජාතිය  වැඩි වැඩියෙන් බෝ කරමින්   ක්‍රමයෙන් සිංහල දේපල අල්ලමින්  ගෙනයන සංවිධානාත්මක ව්‍යාපාරය මෙන්ම  අන්‍යාගමික රටවල්  අල්ලාගෙන  ඒ රටවල් ඉස්ලාම් කල හැටි දකින අසන විට  අපි වසර 30 ක් තිස්සේ කොටින්ට බියේ  සිටීම විලිලජ්ජා නැතිවැඩ කි . මේ තත්වය ට  සම්පූර්ණයෙන්ම වගකිවයුත්තේ ඒ.ජා ප. ය හා චන්ද්‍රික ඇතුළු දේශද්‍රෝහී  පරගතියන්ය .    මහින්ද   ලවා ප්‍රභා මරව දැමීමට හැකි වුනේ  ජාතික ව්‍යාපාරයේ  නොපසුබස්නා  ධෛර්ය  නිසාය.  ජාතිකත්වයට පන දුන්නෝ රටේ ඉතිහාසය ගැන දන සිටි  ජාති මාමක යන් ය.  වික්‍රමබාහුට නම්   මේ ජාතික වාදියෝ   ජාතිවාදී නරුමයන්ය.  ප්‍රභා කරන්   නම් මහත්තයෙකි .
                                                    මේ ලිපි කියවන  සමහර  අය ලියන සටහන් වලින් පෙනේනේ  මේ පරගැතියන් ඉතිහාසය අපෙන් වසන් කිරීම ගැන දැන් තේරුම්ගෙන කණගාටුවෙන අතර  නැවත ඉතිහාසය ගැන ඉගෙනගැනීමට  ආසාවෙන් සිටින බවය .  එය සතුට දනවය්.
                                            අහංගම  මහතා මහා භාරතය පවා කියවා කරුණු සෙවීම ඉතා වැදගත්ය  දැනට මම ඉන්නේ ලංකාවෙන් පිටය කිසිදු පොතක් මා ළඟ නැත  ඇත්තේ මා සටහන්කරගත් දේ පමණය. ”’ ද්‍රමිලාන්ද ඛාන්  ”” වචනය ගැන  මහාචාර්ය විමල විජයසූරියගේ පොත්වල විස්තර අතියය් සිතමි ටිකක් සොයා බලන්න
                                      දැන්, සිංහලයෝ දෙමලු වූ හැටි ගැන උදාහරණයක් ————  ඉන්දීය ශ්‍රමිකයන්  විශාල වශයෙන් සිටි ප්‍රදේශවල සිංහලයන් ඔවුන්ගේ ආධිපත්‍යට යටවී  සිංහල අනන්‍යතාවද අහෝසිවී  ගිය හැටි වතුහිමියෙකුගේ  එක ප්‍රකාශයක් උපුටා දක්වමින්     එරික්     ‘මේයර්” තම ”’ බිට්වීන්   විලේජ්  ඇ න් ඩ්  ප්ලාංටේ ශන්  නම් කෘතියේ  පැහැදිලිකරය්  මෙසේ  එම උදෘතය මෙසේය .——–”’ මට හිටියා    දෙමළුන් ලෙස තමන් හදුන්වා දුන්   සිංහල සිංහලයන් තිස් දෙනෙක්  එත්  ඔවුන්ට තිබුනේ සිංහල නම්. ඔවුන් හැමදෙනා සමගම දෙමලෙන් කතා කළා. හැබය් ඔවුනොවුන් අතර නම් නොවෙය් .””. ………………………  තමන් උපන්,හදාවඩාගත් රටේ උරුමක්කාර සිංහලයන්ට බඩ  වියත රැකගැනීම සඳහා  විදේශික කුලීකරුවන් හමුවේ  තමන්ගේ සාඩම්බර ජාතියද සැඟවීමට සිදුවූ හැටි අතිශය ඛේදජනකය . අපේ උරුමය රැකදෙන්නේමැ ය්  ශපතකර සංඝයා රවට බලයට පැමිණි ඩී . එස් . සේනානායක අන්තිමේ  ජෙනින්ග්ස් සරණ ගොස්  තෙරුවන් සරණ ප්‍රතික්ෂේප කරමින්  ” ආණ්ඩුව සරණන් ගච්චාමි ”’ කියන්න එපා  කියා අපේ උරුමය රැකීම ප්‍රතික්ෂේප කල හැටි දැන් කවුරුත් දන්නා  නිසා විස්තර  නොලියමි. අවශ්‍ය වුවහොත් පසුව…
                                      ඉංග්‍රීසින් විසින් කුලී කාරයන් ලෙස  ගෙනා  වෙල්ලාලයෝ  යාපනේ ස්ථිර ලෙස පදිංචි කර තෙසවලමි නීතියෙන් ආරක්ශාවලබාදී  සිංහලයන්ට උන්ගේ ඉඩම් මිලට ගැනීමට නොහැකිවනසේ  කටයුතුකිරීම නිසා ත්  ඇමෙරිකන් මිෂනාරීන් ලවා  ඉංග්‍රීසි උගන්වා  රජයේ කටයුතුවලට සහභාගී කරවාගෙන  සිංහලයන් පාලනය කරන කරන  නිලධාරීන් ලෙසපත්කිරීමෙන් පසුව  එවකට ඒ පළාතේ සිටි සිංහලයෝ ක්‍රමයෙන්  දෙමල ආධිපත්‍යට නතු  වූහ.  සීංහ   ලා  අගට ”ම් ” එකතු කර  ”’ සිංහම් ”’ ලා   වූ හ.අසරණයෝ වෙන කුමක් කරන්නද  ගම බිම් අතහැර යාමට බොහෝ දෙනෙක් අකමැති ය.  අද කොවියාර්   වරු  අඑදා සිංහලයන් බව මය් කල් බැන්ක්ස්  සහ තවත් ය පෙන්වාදී ඇත.. දැන් වෙල්ලාලයෝ  උසස් කුලයක් මෙන් පෙනී සිටින්නට උත්සාහ කලත්  එය එසේ නොවේ .  ඔවුහු දකුණු ඉන්දියාවේ සිටි  දුගී දුප්පත් යන එන මං  නැති , කොහේ හෝ ගොස්  එදා වෙලා සොයා ගන්නට  බලා සිටි  කොටසක් වූ හ මෙහි පැමිණි පසු  ඉංග්‍රීසින්  ළඟටම වී  ආවතේව කල  සමහර වෙල්ලාලයෝ  ධනවත් වී  දුප්පතුන් පාගා දමන   දුෂ්ට ධනපති කොටසක් බවට පත් වූහ.  දුප්පත් වෙල්ලාලයෝ හැඳින්වුණේ      ”’  වීල් කෙඩි  උලුවර් ”’ හෙවත්   fallen  vellalas  නමිනි . තමන්ගේ ආගමෙන්  ඉගැන වූ කුළභේදයෙන් පෝෂණය වීසිටි  මොවුහු  එයට ධනවාදී  දුෂ්ට  සංකල්පද එකතු කර  එකම කට්ටියේ  දුප්පතුන් මෙසේ කොන් කළහ.  බෞද්ධ  සිංහලේ කිසිදා වහල් මෙහෙය තිබුනේ නැතත් වෙල්ලයන් අතර වහල් මෙහෙයද විය.  උන් අතර untouchables  හෙවත් ””පරයර්”’ වරුද වුඋහ.  පනම් හයට දරුවන් උකස් කරන ක්‍රමයක් ද විය. බේරා නොගත්තොත්   දරුවා  උකස් හිමියාට වහලෙක් වී.ය.’. නලවර් හා පල්ලවර් වරුන්ට මෙසේ දරුවන් උකස් කිරීමේ නිදහස තිබුනත්    ”කොවියාර් ”’ වරුන්ට ඒ නිදහසද නොවීය. එසේ වුයේ කොවියාර් වරු  සිංහලයන් වූ නිසා  තිබුන තරහට ඒ නිදහසත් අහිමිකිරීමක් කල නිසා දය නොදනිමි .        
                                                                                                                          සිංහල රටේ දෙමලු
 ධර්මසිරි සෙනෙවිරත්න ඉතිහාසය  ඉගැන්වීම නතර කල එකම රට  මේ ලංකාව විය හැක  . අනිවාර්යයෙන්  ම සාම පුරවැසියෙකුටම  ඉගැන්විය යුතු වූ ඉතිහාසය නුගැ න්වීම නිසා  2009 වනතුරුත්  සිංහලයට තම රට බේරාගැනීමට ඉදිරිපත් වීමට තරම් කොන්දක් නැතිවිය  සීයට හත අටක ප්‍රමාණයකට බියවී  75% ක් සිටි එකම කාලකන්නි රට ලංකාව විය 9% පමණ දැන් සිටින ලංකාවේ මුස්ලිම් වරු  තම ජාතිය  වැඩි වැඩියෙන් බෝ කරමින්   ක්‍රමයෙන් සිංහල දේපල අල්ලමින්  ගෙනයන සංවිධානාත්මක ව්‍යාපාරය මෙන්ම  අන්‍යාගමික රටවල්  අල්ලාගෙන  ඒ රටවල් ඉස්ලාම් කල හැටි දකින අසන විට  අපි වසර 30 ක් තිස්සේ කොටින්ට බියේ  සිටීම විලිලජ්ජා නැතිවැඩ කි . මේ තත්වය ට  සම්පූර්ණයෙන්ම වගකිවයුත්තේ ඒ.ජා ප. ය හා චන්ද්‍රික ඇතුළු දේශද්‍රෝහී  පරගතියන්ය .    මහින්ද   ලවා ප්‍රභා මරව දැමීමට හැකි වුනේ  ජාතික ව්‍යාපාරයේ  නොපසුබස්නා  ධෛර්ය  නිසාය.  ජාතිකත්වයට පන දුන්නෝ රටේ ඉතිහාසය ගැන දන සිටි  ජාති මාමක යන් ය.  වික්‍රමබාහුට නම්   මේ ජාතික වාදියෝ   ජාතිවාදී නරුමයන්ය.  ප්‍රභා කරන්   නම් මහත්තයෙකි .
                                                    මේ ලිපි කියවන  සමහර  අය ලියන සටහන් වලින් පෙනේනේ  මේ පරගැතියන් ඉතිහාසය අපෙන් වසන් කිරීම ගැන දැන් තේරුම්ගෙන කණගාටුවෙන අතර  නැවත ඉතිහාසය ගැන ඉගෙනගැනීමට  ආසාවෙන් සිටින බවය .  එය සතුට දනවය්.
                                            අහංගම  මහතා මහා භාරතය පවා කියවා කරුණු සෙවීම ඉතා වැදගත්ය  දැනට මම ඉන්නේ ලංකාවෙන් පිටය කිසිදු පොතක් මා ළඟ නැත  ඇත්තේ මා සටහන්කරගත් දේ පමණය. ”’ ද්‍රමිලාන්ද ඛාන්  ”” වචනය ගැන  මහාචාර්ය විමල විජයසූරියගේ පොත්වල විස්තර අතියය් සිතමි ටිකක් සොයා බලන්න
                                      දැන්, සිංහලයෝ දෙමලු වූ හැටි ගැන උදාහරණයක් ————  ඉන්දීය ශ්‍රමිකයන්  විශාල වශයෙන් සිටි ප්‍රදේශවල සිංහලයන් ඔවුන්ගේ ආධිපත්‍යට යටවී  සිංහල අනන්‍යතාවද අහෝසිවී  ගිය හැටි වතුහිමියෙකුගේ  එක ප්‍රකාශයක් උපුටා දක්වමින්     එරික්     ‘මේයර්” තම ”’ බිට්වීන්   විලේජ්  ඇ න් ඩ්  ප්ලාංටේ ශන්  නම් කෘතියේ  පැහැදිලිකරය්  මෙසේ  එම උදෘතය මෙසේය .——–”’ මට හිටියා    දෙමළුන් ලෙස තමන් හදුන්වා දුන්   සිංහල සිංහලයන් තිස් දෙනෙක්  එත්  ඔවුන්ට තිබුනේ සිංහල නම්. ඔවුන් හැමදෙනා සමගම දෙමලෙන් කතා කළා. හැබය් ඔවුනොවුන් අතර නම් නොවෙය් .””. ………………………  තමන් උපන්,හදාවඩාගත් රටේ උරුමක්කාර සිංහලයන්ට බඩ  වියත රැකගැනීම සඳහා  විදේශික කුලීකරුවන් හමුවේ  තමන්ගේ සාඩම්බර ජාතියද සැඟවීමට සිදුවූ හැටි අතිශය ඛේදජනකය . අපේ උරුමය රැකදෙන්නේමැ ය්  ශපතකර සංඝයා රවට බලයට පැමිණි ඩී . එස් . සේනානායක අන්තිමේ  ජෙනින්ග්ස් සරණ ගොස්  තෙරුවන් සරණ ප්‍රතික්ෂේප කරමින්  ” ආණ්ඩුව සරණන් ගච්චාමි ”’ කියන්න එපා  කියා අපේ උරුමය රැකීම ප්‍රතික්ෂේප කල හැටි දැන් කවුරුත් දන්නා  නිසා විස්තර  නොලියමි. අවශ්‍ය වුවහොත් පසුව…
                                      ඉංග්‍රීසින් විසින් කුලී කාරයන් ලෙස  ගෙනා  වෙල්ලාලයෝ  යාපනේ ස්ථිර ලෙස පදිංචි කර තෙසවලමි නීතියෙන් ආරක්ශාවලබාදී  සිංහලයන්ට උන්ගේ ඉඩම් මිලට ගැනීමට නොහැකිවනසේ  කටයුතුකිරීම නිසා ත්  ඇමෙරිකන් මිෂනාරීන් ලවා  ඉංග්‍රීසි උගන්වා  රජයේ කටයුතුවලට සහභාගී කරවාගෙන  සිංහලයන් පාලනය කරන කරන  නිලධාරීන් ලෙසපත්කිරීමෙන් පසුව  එවකට ඒ පළාතේ සිටි සිංහලයෝ ක්‍රමයෙන්  දෙමල ආධිපත්‍යට නතු  වූහ.  සීංහ   ලා  අගට ”ම් ” එකතු කර  ”’ සිංහම් ”’ ලා   වූ හ.අසරණයෝ වෙන කුමක් කරන්නද  ගම බිම් අතහැර යාමට බොහෝ දෙනෙක් අකමැති ය.  අද කොවියාර්   වරු  අඑදා සිංහලයන් බව මය් කල් බැන්ක්ස්  සහ තවත් ය පෙන්වාදී ඇත.. දැන් වෙල්ලාලයෝ  උසස් කුලයක් මෙන් පෙනී සිටින්නට උත්සාහ කලත්  එය එසේ නොවේ .  ඔවුහු දකුණු ඉන්දියාවේ සිටි  දුගී දුප්පත් යන එන මං  නැති , කොහේ හෝ ගොස්  එදා වෙලා සොයා ගන්නට  බලා සිටි  කොටසක් වූ හ මෙහි පැමිණි පසු  ඉංග්‍රීසින්  ළඟටම වී  ආවතේව කල  සමහර වෙල්ලාලයෝ  ධනවත් වී  දුප්පතුන් පාගා දමන   දුෂ්ට ධනපති කොටසක් බවට පත් වූහ.  දුප්පත් වෙල්ලාලයෝ හැඳින්වුණේ      ”’  වීල් කෙඩි  උලුවර් ”’ හෙවත්   fallen  vellalas  නමිනි . තමන්ගේ ආගමෙන්  ඉගැන වූ කුළභේදයෙන් පෝෂණය වීසිටි  මොවුහු  එයට ධනවාදී  දුෂ්ට  සංකල්පද එකතු කර  එකම කට්ටියේ  දුප්පතුන් මෙසේ කොන් කළහ.  බෞද්ධ  සිංහලේ කිසිදා වහල් මෙහෙය තිබුනේ නැතත් වෙල්ලයන් අතර වහල් මෙහෙයද විය.  උන් අතර untouchables  හෙවත් ””පරයර්”’ වරුද වුඋහ.  පනම් හයට දරුවන් උකස් කරන ක්‍රමයක් ද විය. බේරා නොගත්තොත්   දරුවා  උකස් හිමියාට වහලෙක් වී.ය.’. නලවර් හා පල්ලවර් වරුන්ට මෙසේ දරුවන් උකස් කිරීමේ නිදහස තිබුනත්    ”කොවියාර් ”’ වරුන්ට ඒ නිදහසද නොවීය. එසේ වුයේ කොවියාර් වරු  සිංහලයන් වූ නිසා  තිබුන තරහට ඒ නිදහසත් අහිමිකිරීමක් කල නිසා දය නොදනිමි .        
                                                                                                                          සිංහල රටේ දෙමලු
 ධර්මසිරි සෙනෙවිරත්න ඉතිහාසය  ඉගැන්වීම නතර කල එකම රට  මේ ලංකාව විය හැක  . අනිවාර්යයෙන්  ම සාම පුරවැසියෙකුටම  ඉගැන්විය යුතු වූ ඉතිහාසය නුගැ න්වීම නිසා  2009 වනතුරුත්  සිංහලයට තම රට බේරාගැනීමට ඉදිරිපත් වීමට තරම් කොන්දක් නැතිවිය  සීයට හත අටක ප්‍රමාණයකට බියවී  75% ක් සිටි එකම කාලකන්නි රට ලංකාව විය 9% පමණ දැන් සිටින ලංකාවේ මුස්ලිම් වරු  තම ජාතිය  වැඩි වැඩියෙන් බෝ කරමින්   ක්‍රමයෙන් සිංහල දේපල අල්ලමින්  ගෙනයන සංවිධානාත්මක ව්‍යාපාරය මෙන්ම  අන්‍යාගමික රටවල්  අල්ලාගෙන  ඒ රටවල් ඉස්ලාම් කල හැටි දකින අසන විට  අපි වසර 30 ක් තිස්සේ කොටින්ට බියේ  සිටීම විලිලජ්ජා නැතිවැඩ කි . මේ තත්වය ට  සම්පූර්ණයෙන්ම වගකිවයුත්තේ ඒ.ජා ප. ය හා චන්ද්‍රික ඇතුළු දේශද්‍රෝහී  පරගතියන්ය .    මහින්ද   ලවා ප්‍රභා මරව දැමීමට හැකි වුනේ  ජාතික ව්‍යාපාරයේ  නොපසුබස්නා  ධෛර්ය  නිසාය.  ජාතිකත්වයට පන දුන්නෝ රටේ ඉතිහාසය ගැන දන සිටි  ජාති මාමක යන් ය.  වික්‍රමබාහුට නම්   මේ ජාතික වාදියෝ   ජාතිවාදී නරුමයන්ය.  ප්‍රභා කරන්   නම් මහත්තයෙකි .
                                                    මේ ලිපි කියවන  සමහර  අය ලියන සටහන් වලින් පෙනේනේ  මේ පරගැතියන් ඉතිහාසය අපෙන් වසන් කිරීම ගැන දැන් තේරුම්ගෙන කණගාටුවෙන අතර  නැවත ඉතිහාසය ගැන ඉගෙනගැනීමට  ආසාවෙන් සිටින බවය .  එය සතුට දනවය්.
                                            අහංගම  මහතා මහා භාරතය පවා කියවා කරුණු සෙවීම ඉතා වැදගත්ය  දැනට මම ඉන්නේ ලංකාවෙන් පිටය කිසිදු පොතක් මා ළඟ නැත  ඇත්තේ මා සටහන්කරගත් දේ පමණය. ”’ ද්‍රමිලාන්ද ඛාන්  ”” වචනය ගැන  මහාචාර්ය විමල විජයසූරියගේ පොත්වල විස්තර අතියය් සිතමි ටිකක් සොයා බලන්න
                                      දැන්, සිංහලයෝ දෙමලු වූ හැටි ගැන උදාහරණයක් ————  ඉන්දීය ශ්‍රමිකයන්  විශාල වශයෙන් සිටි ප්‍රදේශවල සිංහලයන් ඔවුන්ගේ ආධිපත්‍යට යටවී  සිංහල අනන්‍යතාවද අහෝසිවී  ගිය හැටි වතුහිමියෙකුගේ  එක ප්‍රකාශයක් උපුටා දක්වමින්     එරික්     ‘මේයර්” තම ”’ බිට්වීන්   විලේජ්  ඇ න් ඩ්  ප්ලාංටේ ශන්  නම් කෘතියේ  පැහැදිලිකරය්  මෙසේ  එම උදෘතය මෙසේය .——–”’ මට හිටියා    දෙමළුන් ලෙස තමන් හදුන්වා දුන්   සිංහල සිංහලයන් තිස් දෙනෙක්  එත්  ඔවුන්ට තිබුනේ සිංහල නම්. ඔවුන් හැමදෙනා සමගම දෙමලෙන් කතා කළා. හැබය් ඔවුනොවුන් අතර නම් නොවෙය් .””. ………………………  තමන් උපන්,හදාවඩාගත් රටේ උරුමක්කාර සිංහලයන්ට බඩ  වියත රැකගැනීම සඳහා  විදේශික කුලීකරුවන් හමුවේ  තමන්ගේ සාඩම්බර ජාතියද සැඟවීමට සිදුවූ හැටි අතිශය ඛේදජනකය . අපේ උරුමය රැකදෙන්නේමැ ය්  ශපතකර සංඝයා රවට බලයට පැමිණි ඩී . එස් . සේනානායක අන්තිමේ  ජෙනින්ග්ස් සරණ ගොස්  තෙරුවන් සරණ ප්‍රතික්ෂේප කරමින්  ” ආණ්ඩුව සරණන් ගච්චාමි ”’ කියන්න එපා  කියා අපේ උරුමය රැකීම ප්‍රතික්ෂේප කල හැටි දැන් කවුරුත් දන්නා  නිසා විස්තර  නොලියමි. අවශ්‍ය වුවහොත් පසුව…
                                      ඉංග්‍රීසින් විසින් කුලී කාරයන් ලෙස  ගෙනා  වෙල්ලාලයෝ  යාපනේ ස්ථිර ලෙස පදිංචි කර තෙසවලමි නීතියෙන් ආරක්ශාවලබාදී  සිංහලයන්ට උන්ගේ ඉඩම් මිලට ගැනීමට නොහැකිවනසේ  කටයුතුකිරීම නිසා ත්  ඇමෙරිකන් මිෂනාරීන් ලවා  ඉංග්‍රීසි උගන්වා  රජයේ කටයුතුවලට සහභාගී කරවාගෙන  සිංහලයන් පාලනය කරන කරන  නිලධාරීන් ලෙසපත්කිරීමෙන් පසුව  එවකට ඒ පළාතේ සිටි සිංහලයෝ ක්‍රමයෙන්  දෙමල ආධිපත්‍යට නතු  වූහ.  සීංහ   ලා  අගට ”ම් ” එකතු කර  ”’ සිංහම් ”’ ලා   වූ හ.අසරණයෝ වෙන කුමක් කරන්නද  ගම බිම් අතහැර යාමට බොහෝ දෙනෙක් අකමැති ය.  අද කොවියාර්   වරු  අඑදා සිංහලයන් බව මය් කල් බැන්ක්ස්  සහ තවත් ය පෙන්වාදී ඇත.. දැන් වෙල්ලාලයෝ  උසස් කුලයක් මෙන් පෙනී සිටින්නට උත්සාහ කලත්  එය එසේ නොවේ .  ඔවුහු දකුණු ඉන්දියාවේ සිටි  දුගී දුප්පත් යන එන මං  නැති , කොහේ හෝ ගොස්  එදා වෙලා සොයා ගන්නට  බලා සිටි  කොටසක් වූ හ මෙහි පැමිණි පසු  ඉංග්‍රීසින්  ළඟටම වී  ආවතේව කල  සමහර වෙල්ලාලයෝ  ධනවත් වී  දුප්පතුන් පාගා දමන   දුෂ්ට ධනපති කොටසක් බවට පත් වූහ.  දුප්පත් වෙල්ලාලයෝ හැඳින්වුණේ      ”’  වීල් කෙඩි  උලුවර් ”’ හෙවත්   fallen  vellalas  නමිනි . තමන්ගේ ආගමෙන්  ඉගැන වූ කුළභේදයෙන් පෝෂණය වීසිටි  මොවුහු  එයට ධනවාදී  දුෂ්ට  සංකල්පද එකතු කර  එකම කට්ටියේ  දුප්පතුන් මෙසේ කොන් කළහ.  බෞද්ධ  සිංහලේ කිසිදා වහල් මෙහෙය තිබුනේ නැතත් වෙල්ලයන් අතර වහල් මෙහෙයද විය.  උන් අතර untouchables  හෙවත් ””පරයර්”’ වරුද වුඋහ.  පනම් හයට දරුවන් උකස් කරන ක්‍රමයක් ද විය. බේරා නොගත්තොත්   දරුවා  උකස් හිමියාට වහලෙක් වී.ය.’. නලවර් හා පල්ලවර් වරුන්ට මෙසේ දරුවන් උකස් කිරීමේ නිදහස තිබුනත්    ”කොවියාර් ”’ වරුන්ට ඒ නිදහසද නොවීය. එසේ වුයේ කොවියාර් වරු  සිංහලයන් වූ නිසා  තිබුන තරහට ඒ නිදහසත් අහිමිකිරීමක් කල නිසා දය නොදනිමි .        

Sri Lanka demands to know if ITAK is pretending to seek a Federal solution but aiming for a Confederacy

September 21st, 2014

Shenali D Waduge

 The ITAK has a new leader. He is Mavai Senathirajah. It is a perfect time to bring questions out into the open and seek answers to satisfy our doubts. Top on that list is the question is the ITAK constitution Federal or Confederal? We will not accept claims of being federal while the aims and objectives of the ITAK Constitution are confederal. This necessitates the ITAK to make public its Constitution and legally claim it stands for federalism and not confederalism. The important distinguishing factor is that the 6th Amendment to the Constitution can be applied ONLY IF ITAK is seeking confederacy as one of its aims.

 The ITAK party Illankai Tamil Arasu Katchchi which reads as separate Tamil State has shrouded that meaning by its English version given as Federal Party. ITAK was formed in 1949 a year after Sri Lanka (Ceylon) gained independence from the British. The puzzling aspect about ITAKs constitution is that it is referring to a confederacy which clearly establishes the fact that the Tamil quest for a separate state has nothing to do with discrimination or any of the other placards been used. Obviously this has to be one of the colonial British strategies of keeping former colonies divided.

 Federal systems can’t ask for referendums – Confederacies can

 In 2014 the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu in its State manifesto assured of carrying an ‘Eelam Referendum’ in Sri Lanka. How a state in Tamil Nadu, India can do that is another question but the statement was made.

 In 2014 and 2013 the DMK Leader Karunanidhi of Tamil Nadu, India also called for a UN backed referendum for the Tamils in Sri Lanka.

 In 2008, Sivajilingam sought a referendum to decide Tamil Eelam when he addressed the Pongku Thamizh event in Sydney, Australia.

 Other Tamil leaders of the TNA including its leader have been regularly making references to referendums.

 These are all giveaways of their hidden quest and necessitates legal action to prompt TNA and ITAK to place their true objectives into the open without shielding it in political statements.

 The People of Sri Lanka now need to demand a disclosure of the ITAK Constitution.

 The People of Sri Lanka need ITAK to respond to why in August 2008 months before LTTE was conclusively eliminated ITAK amended its Constitution and substituted the word ‘Shamasthi’ with ‘Innaipatchchi’.

 ITAK says ‘Shamasthi’ stood for Federalism why have they replaced it with ‘Innaipatchchi’?

 The People of Sri Lanka need ITAK to legally declare that Innaipatchchi does not stand for confederacy.

 If the ITAK cannot or refuses to establish legally that its aims and objectives does not stand for a confederacy, we have every right to believe that ITAK is fooling the Sri Lankan public and has been doing so throughout.

 Why the Sri Lankan state and public should demand ITAK clearly and legally establishes its position on the aims and objectives of ITAK constitution is because, if it is pretending to demand a federal solution but has as its aims and objectives a confederacy unless it is brought to the courts and ITAK is made to legally state its true aims and objectives the likelihood of ITAK seeking separation and cessation from the State of Sri Lanka is going to happen.

 Therefore the ITAK must be asked

  1. Is the ITAK seeking to establish regional states/union of independent and sovereign states with the hidden intention of creating an independent and sovereign state?
  2. Is the ITAK Constitution aiming for confederacy objectives because it is aware that the Central Government can reach only upto the Governments of respective province/State in a confederacy? Is this why the Northern Provincial Council is seeking direct foreign aid and a right to establish direct diplomatic relations?
  3. Is the ITAK attempting to fool the GOSL, the General Public, India pretending it is  seeking a Federal Solution when its constitution if made public may reveal it is advocating confederacy where the Sri Lankan Central Government will have no rights to reach the citizens directly?
  4. Is the ITAK’s objective to hide its confederacy aim because in a confederation it can at any time for any reason withdraw from the Union?
  5. Is ITAK pretending to ask for a Federal set up but talking about Tamil province and Sinhala provinces when such does not exist and the provinces are held by the Central Government and every province is bound by the Central Government’s Constitution.
  6. Is the ITAKs promise to guarantee language and religious rights also part of the confederation quest for under a federal government only the Central Government can provide fundamental rights.
  7. Has the ITAK amended its constitution from Federal to Confederal so that it can seek a unilateral secession. In 1990 the Varatharaja Perumal N-E Province declared a UDI but the Premadasa Government dissolved the N-E provincial council. In a confederacy such an option is not available to the Central Government.
  8. Is ITAK’s reference to accepting a ‘UNITED SRILANKA’ in keeping with its objective of a confederacy where confederates are joined only by a common united ‘collaboration’ factor. The moment a confederacy does not agree they can separate which is obviously the intent of the ITAK and why they are seen regularly referring to a UNITED Sri Lanka. ITAK also refers to co-existing and collaborating with the Sinhala provinces which is also in line with their confederacy quest. There are no Sinhala, Tamil or Muslim provinces in Sri Lanka.

 What ITAK and TNA have to FIRST prove in their quest for a separate state

  • Why is it that more Tamils live amongst the Sinhalese if there is discrimination
  • Why did ITAK formed in 1949 aspire for a separate Tamil state (given in the mean Illankai Tamil Arasu Katchchi). There was no basis to demand a separate Tamil state unless this quest was planted by the British
  • ITAK must prove a separate Tamil Homeland existed where Sinhalese had not been living in. However, scores of archaeological and historical sites can prove Sinhalese lived in the North in ancient times and even prior to LTTE taking up arms and Sinhalese and Muslims were forcefully evicted. This gives Sinhalese and Muslims every right to live in the North and questions why the GOSL is taking a very lethargic and lukewarm stand in not declaring that Sinhalese and Muslims have every right to live, purchase land and carry out businesses in the North and neither the Chief Minister any other has any right to refer to that fundamental right as ‘colonization’.
  • ITAK must admit that Sinhalese and Muslims lived in the North before they were chased out. This once proved shows that if Tamils claim to have a right to the North, the Sinhalese and Muslims have every right to stake claim to the North too.

It is understandable why all parties have ended up dilly dallying about a ‘political solution’ for it has been to keep tight-lipped and shield the ITAK constitution that may hide the real objectives of the party.

The ITAK therefore must be forced to commit itself to

  • declaring its Constitution translated into all languages and made public
  • declare that its aims and objectives are Federal and not Confederal which will thus nullify its quest for referendums, direct foreign aid, direct diplomatic ties, rhetoric on UNITED Sri Lanka, collaboration with Tamil provinces and Sinhala provinces, claims of granting citizens religious and language rights which only the Central Government can give and a host of other promises and assurances ITAK-TNA have been publicly making which have everything to do with a Confederal model and nothing to do with a federal set up.

Will The US and UK Ever Give Up Their Biased Attempts To Coerce Sri Lanka Over The Rights Issue? 

September 21st, 2014

LankaWeb Weekly Editorial

8th September 2014

In the seemingly never ending coercion of Sri Lanka by the United States and Britain over UN instigated calls for human rights violations during the three decade long internal armed insurrection by Tamil Tigers, only one thing seems to  stand out as logical.

It is reminiscent of flogging a dead horse in an attempt to recussitate it where the dead horse is none other than the myth created by adversaries of the Government of Sri Lanka mainly the Tamil Diaspora, their allies in Tamil Nadu and those who have been misled to believe Sri Lanka is culpable of all the accusations levelled where there remains no trace of any tangible evidence to confirm or uphold the veracity of the accusations beyond cooked up compositions by clever theatrical presenters in sympathy or collaboration with the enemies of Sri Lanka where none of their enterprises somewhat curiously have  prevailed but the bellyaching goes on!

All this despite the glaring evidence of the realities concerned where a sovereign nation was held to ransom by terrorists and the nation responded towards protecting sovereignity and territorial integrity and saved the nation from near annihilation by wretched, worthless, armed and conscienceless sub- human degenerates now being supported or attempts made to justify their actions and literally sweep under the

carpet the good work done by the nation of Sri Lanka to protect all her inhabitants who condemned and despised the acts of the terrorists including many Tamils also, where the continued existence of the terrorists until they were wiped out was openly supported by the sources named previously, namely the global Tamil diaspora as well as Tamil Nadu and the foolish and misguided internals who thought their “Boys’ were going to provide a nation of Ealam overrun and dictated to by terrorists!.Add to this the TNA of today who have suddenly changed their former Tamil Tiger sympathies into muffled denials where they too are a culpable lot towards Tamil Tiger attrocities and heaven knows for what reason they are being tolerated within Sri Lanka today! A mind boggling question as it appears! as they despite their two faced exterior carry all the makings ot Ealam synpathisers to this day as observed by the more discerning and perceptive in a note of warning to the GOSL that these are wolves in sheeps clothing!!

Thus it seems a grim irony that when nations like the US, UN and others with similar sympathies and often times impaired vision over the related issues to the point of either being blinkered or deliberately attempting to circumvent the realities that surrounded the entire conflagaration they are  either committing a grievous error or making a deliberately mendacious attempt to incarcerate Sri Lanka, where Sri Lanka should be accoladed rather than denigrated recognising her as a nation that conducted a precedent setting campaign against terrorism that has brought a lasting peace to Sri Lanka where all ethnicities today live in harmony, which includes contented Tamils although the disgruntled and defeated lot who championed the terrorist cause continue their campaign to mislead the world!

If this was not true these sources might also incarcerate the Nation of Israel which is also conducting a similar albeit more ferocious campaign against terrorism at this very moment with greater firepower and at times rank disregard to human life and property!. So whose to bless and who to blame?

And in this sense one might ask ” what rights do the US, UK and others with a similar mindset have whilst using their own self proclaimed integrity which despite the fancy rhetoric (which at times rings somewhat hollow) appears uncertain when it comes to realities towards urging the Sri Lankan Government to support the probe on the war by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) on more of a whim and fancy basis rather than any pursuable tangibility to align conclusions laced in obvious bias towards a verifiable reality which appears to be more of a pipe dream that could perhaps never be justified despite the persistence.

Firstly it may be pellucidated that this was no War in the truest sense by definition and secondly there is to date no tangible evidence that Sri Lanka committed any of the accused violations bearing in mind that it was the Sri Lankan Armed Forces that to a great extend prevented the attrocities committed by the terrorists where hard facts, documented evidence, photographs and first hand accounts bear testimony to the truth unlike the codswallop coughrd up by the sources who attempt to portray the GOSL as a bunch of villains albeit in reality are the true liberators of the nation of Sri Lanka from a group of merciless killers.

So when the US Ambassador to the UN in Geneva, Keith Harper, makes statements to the UN Human Rights Council at its 27th session which has begun and hails the role played by the former UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay on the Sri Lankan issue saying We also extend thanks to outgoing High Commissioner Pillay for her stewardship of OHCHR, especially the leadership she showed in focusing the world’s attention on violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity and encouraging meaningful accountability and respect for human rights in Sri Lanka,”  as quoted in his recent media statement, he seems to be indulging in a somewhat fanciful and unqualified venture where the world is aware very much that Ms. Navi Pillai is neither an angel of mercy in Sri Lankan matters beyond being someone who has been influenced by the melodramatic entreaties of some who are determined to distort the truth nor does she appear to have a smidgen of tangible evidence towards any burden of proof required. And as her track record shows,  in similar fashion to her involvement in Sri Lankan matters has also  indicated bungling and meddling elsewhere during her career which some believe is proof enough to disentitle her from the high office she held ~ whether justifiably or not! And in the case of Sri Lanka she has presented her brief with accentuated bias towards the Tamil accusers and is no shining example or authority to the task where she has disregarded many protocols demanded  by someone of her position!

And despite  Mr.Harper’s expectations that the United States also looks forward to OHCHR’s report on Sri Lanka and once again calls upon the Government of Sri Lanka to cooperate with the investigation, he fails to realise that it appears to be a wasted effort with no impositions nor obligations on Sri Lanka to bow down to the request where the Sri Lankan Government  has indicated that it will not be coerced by such and will treat the issue as one that can be resolved locally and internally rather than let foreign intervention tantamount to meddling in internal affairs be the order of the day and perhaps quite justifiably so.

Tamil morality hails the genius” of Prabhakaran killing Tamils

September 21st, 2014

Part II -H. L. D. Mahindapala

An objective analysis of northern politics will reveal that internal peninsular forces were directed and manipulated by the ESJV’s not to liberate the Tamils en masse, irrespective of caste distinctions, but to retain their feudal, colonial and casteist powers. Caste in Jaffna was the most oppressive force that turned the peninsula into a brutal gulag for the low-castes who could not escape the jackboots of the ruling Vellahlas. Throughout the feudal and colonial periods Jaffna remained a prison house for the non-Vellahlas who had to suffer the indignities  imposed by the casteist ideology manufactured by Arumuka Navalar to maintain and perpetuate the supremacy of the fascist Vellahlas. Jaffna had no respite. Casteist fascism of the Vellahlas was replaced only by the equally racist fascism of Velupillai Prabhakaran. Only the liberation of Jaffna by President Mahinda Rajapakse gave Jaffna for the first time a democratically elected body, free from casteist and racist fascism.

 Clearly, the English-educated Saivite Jaffna Vellahlas reacted the way they did in  1983” not so much because the Tamils were attacked en masse but mainly because the pockets of the ESJVs residing in the suburbs of Colombo (like Wellawattam) were subject to attacks by the mindless mob. The lower-class/caste Tamils had faced similar attacks in Colombo and elsewhere before and that did not provoke the reaction of 1983”. It became  ‘Black July’ because ESJV elite were targeted on a large scale for the first time.

 In other words, the mistake of the Sinhala mob was in attacking the Tamil elite. If the soldiers retaliated in kind in Jaffna 1983” would not have had the explosive impact that followed. It would have passed off as another incident in the long-drawn war. Mark you, this is said not to defend to violence of the lunatic fringe of the south. ICES has a moral right to highlight the atrocities of 1983”. It has a moral right to say NEVER AGAIN” to 1983”. But why has ICES not painted Prabhakaran with the same brush and mobilized the people of Jaffna never to give birth to another mass murderer from the womb of Jaffna? He committed more crimes against the Tamils than all the other forces put together. Tamil leaders have confessed that Prabhakaran had killed more Tamils than all the others put together.

 Of course, some Tamil moralists have protested against Prabhakaran in passing, in an odd sentence or two. But  neither the ICES nor the other allied NGOs had launched a concerted attack against northern violence on the same scale as they did against southern violence. On the contrary, they were in the business  of concocting excuses for northern violence.

 These ideologues pursued a selective approach to target only violence of the south without presenting a commensurate attack on the violence of the north. This ideological rationalizations kept Prabhakaran alive and kicking. The NGOs too wanted him kept alive as a bargaining chip for harvesting more money from  their paymasters in the West. Prabhakaran alive was worth millions to them.

 It is true that Radhika Coomaraswamy did name Prabhakaran for forcibly recruiting under aged children at the UN. But that had the effect of only a rap on the knuckles with a wet paper towel. The UN allowed Prabhakaran to carry on violating even the agreement signed with Olaru Ottunu, one of the predecessors of Coomaraswamy. The State Department and The New York Times, which have falsely accused Government of Sri Lanka (GOSL) of being the only nation to join the company of Syria and N. Korea in rejecting UN resolutions, did not count the contempt with which Prabhakaran kicked the UN out of his political calculations as an institution of no consequence.

 Prabhakaran was able to act arrogantly and intransigently with confidence because he was assured of the backing of the leading NGOs, the Catholic Church, hired academics and the bleeding-heart liberals of the south who were ever ready to manufacture excuses for his war crimes and violations of international humanitarian law. What more proof is needed than the example of the Catholic Church running deep into Prabhakaran’s territory with the hijacked statue of Holy Mary? That is the equivalent of cassocked moralists in the hierarchy of the Catholic Church saying Amen” to the deadly genius” of the Tamil mass  murderer.

 When Tamils kill Tamil on a mass scale the Tamil moralists in Tamil-controlled Churches, or Tamil-controlled NGOs like the ICES hails it as a sign  of deadly genius”. When the Sinhala masses go on the rampage ICES goes all out to extract last the drop of blood to claim victimhood – the common cry of all Tamil politics. Prabhakaran and his violence succeeded on a large scale only because the English-educated Saivite Jaffna Vellahla elite ideologically justified the unrestrained Tamil militarism as the only means to achieve Eelam. Human rights were used only to tie the hand of the GOSL. Tamil moralist got their rights from the barrel of the gun.  

 They did not want Prabhakaran’s violence to fail because they had pinned all their hopes on his brutalities to achieve their elusive Eelam. So they had not only to justify Tamil violence but also to make it look like a legitimate liberation movement, even though they knew that Prabhakaran had no intention of liberalizing  his quasi-state to establish a democratic liberal state like in the south. He survived only by the sword. He hated his Tamil rivals more than the Sinhala enemies. He began his political career by eliminating his Tamil rivals. He never gave up his politics of eliminating his Tamil rivals who refused to follow him even in his dying days. He shot the fleeing IDPs seeking refuge in the arms of the Security forces.

 In between Alfred Duraiyappah, his firs scalp, and the fleeing IDPs he also blew up Radhika Coomaraswamy’s loving guru, Neelan Tiruchelvam. Prabhakaran’s tactic of sending suicide bombers was too expensive for the Tamil community. It cost two Tamil lives to kill one single Tamil : it  killed the killer as well as the targeted Tamil. But the lives of Tamils did  not matter to Prabhakaran or to the Tamils. The more he killed the more he was admired by the Tamils. The flow of funding  from the Tamil Disapora depended on the number of human beings he  killed : the more he killed the greater the flow of funds to his coffers to kill more.

As for Prabhakaran Tamil lives were worthless if they stood in his way. Prabhakaran’s genius” was in killing his fellow-Tamils more than the others. Is it Coomaraswamy’s admiration  for her latest  genius” that keeps her silent on attempts to deify the mass murderer with statues in Jaffna?  

The 33-year-old Vadukoddai War is a sad tale of the moral failure  of our intellectuals to stand up to the evil that was staring their faces. There were even converts to Christianity like Neville Jayaweera who urged the old boys of St. John’s, Jaffna to Praise the Lord and pass the ammunition.” They had no qualms about invoking Christian blessings to strengthen Tamil violence. They were only worried about Buddhist violence as if only Buddha preached non-violence.

Failure of the politics of the pseudo-Gandhians of Jaffna

September 21st, 2014

Part I  H.L. D. Mahindapala

 Capturing the moral high ground in politics is a  necessary tactic to pose as superior and legitimate combatants who are blessed with the righteous power to exterminate the immoral enemies in the battlefield.  The chances are that those who occupy the high moral ground have already won half the battle. Once you are ensconced in that ethically approved elevation it is easy to target your enemies down below. It will be like killing fish in a bath tub.

 Throughout the 33-year-old Vadukoddai War the moral high ground was hijacked by the pro-Tamil NGOs who ran private research” projects targeting only the south. Their bias was demonstrated not only in the contents of their publications, seminars, lectures and other stratagem but also in picking the subjects for research”.

 Radhika Coomaraswamy, for instance, who ran the ICES as her political base, used to boast that ICES was the best research center in South East Asia. But neither its founder Neelan Tiruchelvam nor she, his successor, ever peeped over the cadjan curtain into Jaffna to explore the internal dynamics that propelled peninsular politics incrementally to mono-ethnic extremism. Research” work done by ICES explored every nook and corner of the south – from the Kalutara Maha Bodhiya to Vihara Maha Devi Park – but I do not know of any serious and comprehensive research into any single corner of Jaffna.

 A typical example is the focus on Anagarika Dharmapala ( 1864 – 1933).  ICES and allied NGO researchers” from academia relentlessly denigrated Anagarika Dharmapala, the Buddhist revivalist of the 20th century who influenced the rise of Sinhala-Buddhist nationalism. The objective behind the targeting of Anagarika Dharmapala was to blame the Sinhala-Buddhist as the sole cause for the worsening of inter-ethnic relations. But his counterpart in Jaffna, the casteist Arumuka Navalar ( 1822 – 1879), was never researched” by the ICES. If they did go down that track they would have had to reveal the dehumanizing and oppressive casteism he revived to anoint, elevate and install the Vellahlas as the Brahmins of Jaffna – a religio-political movement engineered to consolidate and entrench the power of the Vellahlas as the God-given force to rule the Tamils, with brutal force if necessary.

 Navalar’s fake religious theories introduced to legitimize the elevation of the Vellahlas of Jaffna to the level of Brahmins in India proved to be a decisive force in shaping the casteist politics that dominated the landscape of Jaffna. It became the primary political factor that led to the rise of Saivite Jaffna Vellahlas who roused, manipulated, financed and backed the mono-ethnic extremism of the north  all the way to Nandikadal.

 As a research” organization it was the duty of the ICES to objectively explore all ethnicities as a means of understanding the interacting forces of inter-ethnic  relations. But ICES did not produce a single significant researched study that threw light on the internal dynamics of Jaffna politics – politics that incrementally gathered momentum into a violent force of the most inhuman kind.  Why? Why was Dharmapala demonized by the NGO mafia and why was Arumuka Navalar the casteist fanatic exempted from any scrutiny by the ICES researchers”. 

 It was a strategy to divert attention away from the politics of oppressive and brutal Vellahla elite. Exposing the  systemic oppression of English-educated Saivite Jaffna Vellahlas (ESJVs) would undermine any political or moral legitimacy to rule the Tamils by establishing a separate state.  Besides, how could the historical oppressors of the Jaffna Tamils be their saviours?

 Jaffna politics has been dominated and ruled by the myths manufactured by the Vellahla elite to project themselves as the saviours of the Tamils though, in reality, they have been the most oppressive persecutors of low-caste Tamils kept as slaves from feudal times. Slavery was legalized under Tesawalamai laws drawn during the Dutch period. 

 The legitimacy of Tamil separatism depended essentially on presenting the ESJVs as the selfless saviours of the Tamils. S. J. V. Chelvanayakam was the varnished symbol of the mono-ethnic extremism  of the Vellahlas. He attained the status of a trousered Gandhi” (Prof. A. J Wilson), not because he was a committed disciple of non-violence (he fathered the Vadukoddai Resolution which authorized Tamil violence) but because his Parkinson’s disease and frail constitution gave him the appearance of a abstemious, pious and disciplined holy man. Exploitation of his frailty and Parkinson’s disease to build his image as a pseudo-Gandhi was pointed out to me by Dr. E.M.V. Naganathan as he was climbing the stairs of the old Parliament, hanging on to my shoulder. I was then the Lobby Correspondent of The Observer.

 Pontificating on the need for moral perfection of the south while exonerating the north of their violent politics has been stock in trade of the NGOs and academics allied to the NGOs. The latest example is that of Radhika Coomaraswamy sneakily admiring the deadly genius” of the Tamil mass murderer, Velupillai Prabhakaran, while shedding tears for the young girls forcibly dragged by him into a futile war. How could she have acted as the protector of children at the UN when in Sri Lanka she chooses language which considers a mass murderer as a genius” with deadly powers? To even think of a mass murderer, who had no compunction in killing his own fellow-Tamils on a mass scale, as a kind  of ‘GENIUS”  should be absolutely repugnant to any decent, sensitive moralist. There is more than a touch of triumphalism in that phrase. It reflects the open admiration by a Tamil moralist for a Tamil Pol Pot. 

 Describing Prabhakaran as a deadly genius” is a disgusting  obscenity. It is possible to overlook it if it came from fanatics like  Fr. S. J. Emmanuel or V. Rudrakumaran – die-hard apologists for blood-thirsty Prabhakaran — but not from a former Under-Secretary General for Children in Armed Conflict. But Radhika Coomaraswamy sees no contradiction in the deadly genius” of a mass killer. Could this be because she comes from the political tradition of Janus-faced Neelan Tiruchelvam, who functioned simultaneously as the head of the International Center for Ethnic Studies, and also as the nominated MP of the Tamil National Alliance which was the public face of the Tamil mass murderer?  NGOs claim to be above partisan politics. But how could Neelan be the objective defender of human rights in the ICES when he was also a MP nominated by TNA which stood for Prabhakaran’s brutal politics?

 Tamil morality rises in anger only when non-Tamils kill Tamils – and that too purely to extract political mileage. Take the notorious case of Ms. Coomaraswamy’s ICES going all out to perpetuate 1983” as the darkest day in  post-independent history. When the Tamil masses – mostly the low-castes — were marched out of Jaffna at gun point by the LTTE in 1995 to function as a human shield to protect Velupillai Prabhakaran and his boys” not a peep came out of the Jaffna moralists. On the contrary Fr. S. J. Emmanuel, the former Vicar-General of Jaffna, hailed it as a Biblical Exodus in his political tract titled, Let my People Go. He, of course, failed to mention that  his people would eventually go to the hell of Prabhakaran! 

 The ESJV elite in the Tamil Diaspora too were delighted with the plight of the Jaffna masses living in Prabhakaran’s hell in Vanni because their collective misery gave them the opportunity to pose as righteous moralists fighting for the just cause of Tamils oppressed by the Sinhala-Buddhist governments”.  Behind this cover of moral righteousness they were venally using the Tamil masses to pull their political chestnuts out of the racist fires lit by them. They were even boasting in the Western capitals that the Tamil youth, who were forcibly recruited into Prabhakaran’s dwindling army, were volunteers ready to sacrifice their lives for the Tamil cause. That was how they justified the use of low-caste masses left behind as foot soldiers in Prabhakaran’s futile war.

 Their strategy was to ride on the backs of the Jaffna youth into power. In 1983” the ESJVs got, for the first time, a taste of what they had given to the Jaffna masses for centuries. The Tamil masses were deprived of their dignity, their self-respect, justice and even the right to drink water or bury their dead according to their religious beliefs from medieval times by the Saivite Jaffna Vellahlas who ruled Jaffna with an iron fist. The accumulated karmic forces, moving slowly across time, boomeranged finally on ESJVs in 1983” to give them a taste what they had given to their oppressed Tamils in Jaffna.

 Faced with the unexpected blow to their property and security, the ESJV’s fled to greener pastures in the West, leaving the poor masses to bear the brunt of the Vadukoddai War they unleashed in May 1976.   The Vadukoddai Resolution produced by ESJVs was designed mainly to use the Tamil youth / masses as the foot soldiers who would fight on their behalf to grab power from the Sinhalese and install the ESJV elite in power. That was their dream. But it all came to naught in Nandikadal.

Life Abroad – Part 95 IF BLACK MAN IS UNWELCOME IN CHURCH WHO WANTS HIM IN HEAVEN”…? (INTERACTION WITH THE GOD’S MEN IN CLOTHE – Pt. III)

September 21st, 2014

Dr.Tilak Fernando

At the height of the LTTE terrorism in Sri Lanka, a delegation from the Council of Churches in the UK visited home on a peace promoting exercise. Upon their return, Sinhala expatriates in London had an interaction meeting with the team that visited Sri Lanka, which turned out to be a vociferous incident. To counter the myth that dominated at home at the time that expatriates involvement was much to be desired, the same writer published the proceedings of the meeting that took place in June 1999 in a Sri Lankan daily English newspaper. This is being dug out from the archives and reproduced in a serial format in the Life Abroad column (part iii) for the benefit of those who were not aware of the incident and/or who were lachrymose and pointed a finger at the expatriate Sinhala community for their lack of enthusiasm in helping the motherland in the hour of need.

Continuation from Pt. ii at this point of confused and alert state, George Parapitiya and Wimal Ediriweera stood up from the audience and handed over some maps of Sri Lanka to Fr. Davis, for his examination, which clearly displayed the LTTE claimed areas marked in red.

 

Douglas Wickremaratna, President of the Sinhala Association in London, has been well known among the Sri Lankan expatriate community overseas and at home as a tireless and fearless campaigner to confront even the hardcore supporters of the LTTE who represented terrorist organisation from London on the TV and Radio to counter their adverse propaganda.

In this instance, Douglas Wickremaratna quite bluntly put it to Fr. Davis that in certain quarters of the Sri Lankan community always there was an element of suspicion when the Church assumed ‘an Almighty role to intervene in different countries to solve all the worldly problems.

Fr. Davis’s response was that ‘the Church was only trying to do their best to help in whatever form they could.

Wickremaratna went on: “Sir, we are quite aware of the fact how Christians are killing Christians in Northern Ireland, but in our own country our Buddhist monks are not asked to come to governments aid towards our terrorist problem”!

Fr. Davies interrupted by saying: “We were requested to go to Sri Lanka………….”.

Wickremaratna pointed a finger at the Church in Sri Lanka for being responsible to a greater part of the existed problem and explained how ‘Ceylon’ was under Colonial rule for 450 years and right the way up to the time of the discussion (even after 51 years of independence of the country) the role played by the Church had been to push down the Sinhala Buddhists! You were speaking of solutions to the problem, but not once did you mention that the solution could be to defeat terrorism that exists in Sri Lanka today! Is that the role-played by the Church in Sri Lanka, I may ask.

He went on further arguing that the Church had always been associated with the terrorist movement in Sri Lanka and it was a pity that the Sinhalese people had been branded as ‘Sinhala Buddhist chauvinists – a phrase coined by the Christians in the West’.

Serbia and Rwanda

“We have seen the beastly acts of the Serbs in Serbia and Catholics massacring the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda, but I have never seen in any English newspaper quoting the words ‘Serbian Christian chauvinistsor “Rwandan Catholics”! These are the countries where Christians and Catholics massacred millions of people, but was religion ever dragged into it or blamed”? Wickremaratna lamented.

Focusing on a statement made by Fr. Davis with regard to a possible third party mediation, similar to the South African model, Wickremaratna said Sri Lankan crisis had no relevance or bearing whatsoever on South Africa!

Fr. Davis was further prompted that when he (Fr. Davis) went to convert the Black people of South Africa to Christianity they were not even allowed to pray in the same church with the whites! “If you dont want the black man in your church who the hell wants him in heaven, and for what” ……? asked Wickremaratna, which made everyone in the audience burst into laughter, including Fr. Davis.

When the laughter subsided Fr. Davis referring back to South Africa said, ‘it had been a long time ago’. However, Douglas Wickremaratna rephrased his query in a different approach and asked whether Fr. Davis knew what had been proposed as a Devolution Package to the Tamil people in Sri Lanka and that the EDEP had accepted it?

Still continuing on the same topic, Wickremaratna wanted to know whether the Church in England would recommend a similar package to Scotland or England where it could be divided to fifteen regions and parts and given to Asians, Blacks, Cypriots or any other ethnic minority!

Peace and warmongers

“When it comes to Sri Lankan affairs and we talk against the division of our own country, Sir, we are branded as jingoists or Buddhist chauvinists and the Church seems to endorse and support such a view that some of those so called peace mongers come out with. May I, therefore, suggest that it is immensely vital to first identify the exact problem (terrorism) extant in Sri Lanka where a certain section of the Tamil people have turned fanatical and are claiming to cleave the sovereignty we all enjoy at present and to have a separate homeland for them exclusively “.

Fr. Davis attempted to project the role of the Church by saying, ‘the Church in general wanted to make a positive contribution to the Sri Lankan crisis, and he couldn’t sit and do nothing because of the past history, and he felt he was duty bound to try and address some of the wrongs done in the past and to make a positive effort to diffuse the situationto which Wickremaratna replied: The Church could actually start paying compensation to Sri Lanka”.

The interaction assembly steadily became recalcitrant when Chaminda Tilakumara held a placard depicting young LTTE soldiers carrying guns to draw the attention of Fr. Davis and bellowed:

“Just have a look at this – who are these? These are child soldiers of the LTTE sent as cannon fodder. These innocent Tamil kids, children of Sri Lanka, are being brainwashed and forced to believe in all the balderdash the LTTE tell them as the gospel truth!

‘About ten years ago the World Council of Churches passed a resolution to say that the north and east of Sri Lanka were traditional homelands of the Tamils. Now these young indoctrinated kids have taken up arms and go as cannon provender with the determination to defend their mythical homeland what the Church endorses! What a sorry state of affairs, and the Church has to take some responsibility towards this venal act!

Expressing his opinions further on utter wastage of human life, Tilakumara urged Fr. Davis to study the issues surrounding the problem in Sri Lanka and then only to act and react objectively with actualities. “If you are trying to solve our problem Fr. Davis blind folded, then you will have to address the problem first within the Church itself”.

Fr. Davis’s attempt to defend the National Church Council in Sri Lanka was immediately drowned by the pandemonium that lasted within the hall. The peace keeping meeting surely had transformed into a somewhat raucous manifestation.

Tilakumara went on making further references to Fr. Kenneth Fernando and Jehan Perera as two individuals who were working for their own self-interest, but not for the common interest of their mother country. The unfortunate factor that dominates in this scenario Fr. Davis is that you have been taken for a jolly good ride by a group of extremists who want to promote the Devolution package and divide Sri Lanka”, he said.

Fr. Davis was seen getting red-faced, impatient and helpless. As a desperate interchange he threw a question at the speaker: “Can you tell me exactly how to help in this situation”?

Tilakumara referred to an academic study (thesis) completed by a Tamil Professor named Indrapala, on the history of Sri Lanka, and suggested that Fr. Davis should read Prof. Indrapala’s works, a copy of which, he said, was available for reference purposes at the University of London.

Tilakumara’s next move managed to transfix the whole assembly when he addressed Fr. Davis thus:

“Fr. Davis, I am a Catholic myself, and I have a lot of Buddhist friends too. Unfortunately in this present scenario, I dont have a place to hide my face because the Church, the very church you and I belong to, is totally bamboozled and they are dancing to the tune of the Tamil extremists”.

tilakfernnado@gmail.com

To be continued in part IV

 

Sarath Silva’s convoluted arguments against a third term of office to the President Mahinda Rajapakse do not hold water.

September 8th, 2014

By Charles.S.Perera,

Sarath Silva the  retired Chief Justice puts forward convoluted arguments against a third term of office for the Prersident Mahinda Rajapakse to attract the attention of the Opposition  and  qualify  for  nomination by them  for the next Presidential election as  their common candidate.

A third term  of office as the President of Sri Lanka for Mr. Mahinda Rajapakse appears to be the most contested issue  locally  by the opposition to the present Government of the President Mahinda Rajapakse, and  outwardly by  those Tamils in the diaspora still liking their wounds after the elimination of terrorism in Sri Lanka.  It would be for the politicians of  the opposition to be  left out in the cold for  another extended period. Therefore they try to hold onto any straw to stop themselves from getting carried  away in the present political deluge.

It is also a defeat for those anti-Sri Lanka countries of the West  who would see in the re-election of Mahinda Rajapase for a third term the slipping from their clutches the chance of the  benefits they are  hoping to have from a West friendly President of the opposition, from the  strategic position  of Sri Lanka in the Indian ocean.

Sarath Silva thinks that more complex the  arguments he makes against  the President Mahinda Rajapakse’s  third term run , more they become tempting  fodder for the consumption  of the ambitious political buffalos of the opposition.  However, these arguments only make the present political climate more cloudy.  At the end the interpretation of the law is in the hands of the Supreme Court.  Though the Supreme Court too is not infallible as it was seen in the wrong interpretation of Article 107(3) in the case of the Impeachment of the Chief Justice Shirani Bandranayake.

Sarath Silva’s argument is that Mr. Mahinda Rajapakse is disqualified from  contesting  a third time under Article 31(2)of the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka under which he was elected for the first and the second terms.

He argues that the 18th Amendment to the Constitution was passed after Mahinda Rajapakse was sworn in as the President  for the second time, therefore the Amendment would apply to future presidents but not for him to be re-elected, as his Presidency is a child of the Article 31(2) of the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka.

But at that time Mr.Mahinda Rajapakse was elected President, the 18 Amendment was not even envisaged , then how can the President Mahinda Rajapakse be  put into the  bracket of  President elected before the 18th Amendment” merely to deny him the right to appeal to the people for  a third mandate.  It is for the people to decide whether he should be rejected or re-elected for another term, to deny the people that right juggling with legal terminology is not democratic to say the least.

The Constitution has to be people friendly tampering it otherwise to deny the people a right under the Constitution is to take the Constitution outside the democratic System of a government of the people, for the people, by the people.

The 18th Amendment was introduced to rectify the anomaly of not allowing a (popular) President in place to seek elections for another term.   The election of a President is a right of the people and if the people wants the President in place to continue for a further period it is their right that would be usurped by interpreting the Constitution  with the 18th Amendment  to deny  the people to have a  President of their choice.

To support this interpretation of the 18th Amendment Sarath Silva  sights  Article 6 of Sri Lanka Interpretation Ordinance, and adds that the Amendment cannot be applied retrospectively in Law as the law takes effect  in the future.

The Article 6 is not applicable in the present case of allowing a President to ask the People for a mandate to serve them for a third or more terms of office, as Article 6 is to be applied as a penalty for an offence. Is asking for a third term under the 18th Amendment to the Constitution  a punishable offence ?  Sarath Silva merely brings it up to complicate the issue.

Sarath Silva’s argument that the President Mahinda Rajapakse when he was elected for the second time was automatically disqualified to contest for a further term under Article 31(2) should be viewed differently, that is if in the course of the Presidency of Mahinda Rajapakse a valid change has taken place in the Constitution of Sri Lanka the benefit of that change should come to the President in place, otherwise it would be a denial of justice the benefit of which would be to the people.

The Constitution cannot be interpreted taking it away from the people for whose benefits the Constitution exists.  The Supreme Court that would be called upon to interpret the relevant provisions of the Constitution should not argue on dry legal theories, but  by viewing  how the changes to the Constitutions should be appropriately interpreted without depriving the people the benefits that they would acquire from having the same President elected for a further term to continue the work that has been acclaimed by the people as beneficial to them.

An Amendment to the Constitution changes the whole aspect of the Constitution and the Constitution which was passed on 7 September, 1978, is no more the same to day with its 18 Amendments.  The benefits accrued through the Amendments to the Constitution should be equally shared by the people and therefore the benefits from the 18th Amendment cannot be denied to the current President on the ground that he was elected President before the 18th Amendment was passed, and that he is a child” of the Article 31(2) of the ancient” Constitution of 1978.  The 18th Amendment changes radically the Article 31 (2) of the September,1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka.

 

The Article 31(2)  which read   No person who has been twice elected to the office of President by the People shall be qualified thereafter to be elected  to such office  by the People.”, has now been amended to read, Notwithstanding any thing to the contrary in the preceding provisions of this Chapter, the President may, at anytime after the expiration of four years from the commencement of the current term of office by proclamation, declare his intention of appealing to the People for a mandate to hold the office.” (emphasized)

 

This contradicts Sarath Silva’s contention that the President Mahinda Rajapakse  having been elected before the introduction of the 18th Amendment is bound by  the Article 31(2) of the Septemnber,1978 Constitution.  But  under the provision of the 18th Amendment President Mahinda Rajapakse  elected  before the  introduction of the 18th Amendment is nonetheless well entrenched within the terms of the  18th Amendment and is qualified to demand the People for a mandate for a third term.

 

This provision  which allows the President to declare his intention of seeking election for a third term is by virtue of his being the currently sitting President”.  But not withstanding the provision to seek election after the expiration of four years from the current term of office, if the President Mahinda Rajapakse were to continue his presidency until November, 2016 the end of the period for which has been elected, then there would be no possibility for any one to contest his qualification to contest the Presidential elections for a third  time or more.

 

Sri Lanka is not a Western Democracy.  The democratic system applied to our country should go along with our culture and the sentiments of the people. We should not rule the people by abstract law, interpreting it  unconcerned with the aspirations of the  people. An election of a President or peoples’ representatives is the expression of the peoples’ choice.

 

For that the people should be allowed the largest number of choices from which to choose without restricting them to an artificial choice selected by the application of the rigid law.  That would be a denial of the right of the peoples’ choice which would be to   step out of democracy applying legal interpretations to restrict the people of their free choice of their President or their representatives.

Sri Lanka responds during discussion on UN High Commissioner’s Report to the 27th session of the Human Rights Council

September 8th, 2014

Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka to the UN, Geneva

 Sri Lanka’s Permanent Representative to the UN in Geneva and Leader of the Sri Lanka delegation Ambassador Ravinatha Aryasinha addressing 27th Session of the Human Rights Council in Geneva today (8 September 2014), welcoming the new High Commissioner Zeid Bin Ra’ad Al-Hussein on his appointment, said, “his wide experience in diplomacy, in-depth knowledge of the UN system and understanding and respect for social and cultural characteristics are useful assets that will guide the work of the OHCHR, consistent with the IB package and based on the fundamental principles of universality, impartiality, objectivity, non‑selectivity, constructive international dialogue and cooperation”. He observed that “despite Sri Lanka’s non-recognition of the politically motivated resolution on Sri Lanka during HRC 25, Sri Lanka would continue to engage with the regular mechanisms of the Council, and looked  forward to the opportunity to engage during Sri Lanka’s fifth periodic report under the ICCPR next month -October 2014″.

 Ambassador Aryasinha also reiterated “Sri Lanka’s categorical rejection of the resolution and its call for a ‘comprehensive investigation’ by the OHCHR”, and said “Sri Lanka will be addressing this issue comprehensively when the High Commissioner’s ‘oral update’ is taken up for discussion later in this Session”. The statement noted that “the Resolution and its mandate for a ‘comprehensive investigation’ challenge the sovereignty and independence of a member state of the United Nations, are based on profoundly flawed premises inimical to the interests of the people of Sri Lanka and violate a fundamental principle of international law which requires that national remedies have to be exhausted before resorting to international mechanisms. As Sri Lanka and other countries have pointed out in the Council on several previous occasions, operative paragraphs 2 and 10 of the Resolution are mutually contradictory, in calling on both the Government and the OHCHR to conduct parallel investigations. What is most regrettable is that the intrusive external investigative authority vested on the OHCHR not only exceeds its mandate, but disregards completely the domestic processes in place in the country. It disrespects the inherent social, cultural and ethnic susceptibilities of the people of the country, jeopardizes the delicate process of reconciliation that is already underway, and militates against stability and peace in the country”.

 Notwithstanding the rejection of the Resolution, Sri Lanka’s comprehensive statement to the HRC detailed the manner in which Sri Lanka continues its own domestic process of reconciliation, using as a basis, the National Plan of Action to implement the recommendations of the LLRC (NPoA). Ambassador Aryasinha drew to the Council’s attention, that “in the period since HRC 26 concluded in June 2014: a ‘Special Bureau for Reconciliation’ is being set up; the mandate of the COI on Missing Persons has been enhanced to inquire into additional matters, and through the appointment of a five-member International Advisory Council that includes internationally recognised lawyers; the Bill on “Assistance to and protection of Victims of Crime and Witnesses”  is due to be presented in Parliament tomorrow; the Joint Needs Assessment on resettled IDPs supported by UN-OCHA is nearing completion and the final report is expected by October 2014; the PSC continues to endeavour to fulfil its mandate, despite the persistent refusal of the TNA to participate”.

 Ambassador Aryasinha said Sri Lanka “was deeply appreciative of all  long standing friends in the HRC and in the wider international community who have continuously and consistently kept their faith in our ability to achieve national reconciliation on our own. Sri Lanka had also been encouraged to seek to share experiences through regional and international partners, and in this regard were currently engaged in dialogue bilaterally with several countries at high level”.   “However, even as Sri Lanka perseveres on the sensitive path of reconciliation, it is unfortunate that some, refuse to acknowledge this and persist in heaping negative attention”.

 The Ambassador said, “Sri Lanka rejects assertions regarding threats levelled against the human rights community in Sri Lanka. Steps will be taken at all times to investigate into complaints. In this context, it must be noted that the full gamut of constitutional guarantees including effective remedies are available to individuals or groups who wish to canvass the rights of persons”. “Sri Lanka also regrets attempts being made to portray the country as intolerant of religious minorities. For centuries, people in Sri Lanka practising different faiths and practices have coexisted peacefully and in harmony. However, like in all countries in the world composed of multi-cultural and multi-religious communities, unfortunate isolated incidents can occur. Wherever such incidents of attacks involving religious places of worship have taken place or any individual has been targeted on the basis of religion or faith, the legal process has been set in motion in respect of reported incidents and investigations have been launched. The Government expressly condemns all acts of violence against any religious or ethnic communities”.

Concluding, Ambassador Aryasinha reiterated that the Government of Sri Lanka is firm in its commitment to continue its ongoing domestic processes of accountability, justice, reconciliation and nation building and will continue to work with its international partners. He also reaffirmed Sri Lanka’s continued support to the High Commissioner; to the OHCHR; and to the work of HRC.

Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka
Geneva

8 September 2014

 

How MEDIA and HR Groups purposely misinterpreted Ban Ki Moon’s Panel of Expert Report

September 8th, 2014

Shenali D Waduge 

Ban Ki Moon the UN Secretary General appointed an Advisory Panel to ADVISE HIM on the final phase of the war in Sri Lanka. That advisory panel was not an officially UN General Assembly or UN Security Council endorsed panel and that may explain why its report ended up being ‘leaked’ and thereafter becoming quoted and referred to as an officially sanction international UN document – which it is not. However, it has suddenly been projected as an officially sanctioned UN document when it is not.

The below examples showcases how the PoE’s conclusion that there could have been as many as 40,000 civilian deaths.” ended up with media and advocacy groups claiming that the GOSL and its troops KILLED, BUTCHERED 40,000 and more CIVILIANS while these same parties SUBSTITUTED the word ‘EVIDENCE’ when the PoE referred to ALLEGATIONS”. With the current UN Human Rights sessions in progress under a New Human Rights head it is prudent that Governments, their envoys and other diplomats place the importance of how NGOs/HR organizations and Media have impeded reconciliation as well as being responsible for lies and distortions and some action needs to be taken against them.

HOW MEDIA DISTORTED AND ABUSED THE REFERENCE TO 40,000 CIVILIAN DEATHS

 India Today Tens of thousands lost their lives from January to May 2009 …”

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/site/story/sri-lanka-in-denial-over-war-crimes/1/147691.html

 

NDTV Some United Nations national staff members and dependents were forcibly recruited, including a 16 year-old girl. UNICEF verified and documented 397 cases of child recruitment, including 147 girls, by the LTTE, between 1 January and 19 May 2009, but the actual number of forced recruitments going on during that period is presumed to be much higher.

http://www.ndtv.com/video/player/documentary-24×7/sri-lanka-white-lies-and-brute-force/210479

PBS Violations reported under SC Resolution 1612 indicated that 199 children were killed and 146 maimed from 1 January 2009 to 19 May 2009, although the actual number of casualties is likely to be higher.”

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/world/jan-june11/srilanka1_06-15.html

 

ABC (Australia)

ABC Radio PM –

Sarah Drury – April 26, 2011

The much-awaited release of the report contains the first UN’s estimate of the death toll. It says that 40,000 civilians were killed as they were trapped between the two sides and it blames government troops for most of those deaths.”

 

ABC Four Corners – Kerry O’Brien – 27/06/2011

when 40,000 civilians were killed, as the 25 year civil war between the Government and the secessionist Tamil Tigers was coming to an end.”

ABC Audience and Consumer Affairs concluded that Kerry O’Brien breached the ABC Code of Practice:

Audience and Consumer Affairs concluded that the statement by Kerry O’Brien was in breach of 2.2 of the ABC Code of Practice. A correction has been posted on the ABC online corrections page, which is available at the attached link; http://abc.net.au/news/corrections/

An explanation was added on the ABC website:

Four Corners, 27 June 2011

Summary published: Tuesday 02, August 2011
Complaint: A viewer complained that the presenter made an inaccurate statement at the end of the program when announcing the content of the following week’s program.
Finding: Upheld against 2.1 ABC Editorial Policies (11 April 2011)

Audience and Consumer Affairs response: The ABC acknowledged that reasonable efforts were not made to ensure that material facts were accurate. In commenting on the upcoming report ‘Sri Lanka’s Killing Fields’, the presenter stated that 40,000 civilians were killed as the 25 year civil war in Sri Lanka was coming to an end. The statement should have noted that the figure of 40,000 dead was an estimate from a UN panel report, not an established fact”.

 

ABC Four Corners Kerry O’Brien – 04/07/2011

While introducing the Channel 4 documentary on 04/07/2011, Kerry O’Brien claims:

but this time it relates to the brutal slaughter of humans, an estimated 40,000 of them.”

 

ABC Asia Pacific Focus – 25/03/2012

 

The UN estimates Sri Lanka’s civil war claimed between 80,000 and 100,000 lives*, with casualties soaring in the final months of the conflict.

It’s believed that no fewer than 40,000 people died during the government’s final offensive against the Tamil Tigers. And that is now the focus of United Nations pressure on Sri Lanka to investigate alleged war crimes.
South Asia correspondent, Richard Lindell, reports on Sri Lanka’s post war reconstruction.

But there’s deep suspicion that some of these areas must contain the bodies of 40,000 civilians the UN estimates were killed in the last months of the war.”

 

BBC Sinhala Udani Wimalaratne – 06 July, 2011

’40,000 civilians killed’

However, according to a report by the UN expert panel set up by the Secretary General, around 40,000 civilians were killed during the war in Sri Lanka.”

 

BBC Hardtalk Stephen Sackur – 5 July 2011

The UN panel setup by the Secretary-General reckons that there is credible evidence that 40,000 civilians were killed in that final phase of the war.”

BBC Charles Haviland – 24 February 2012

The death toll figure is consistent with an early United Nations estimate, but it’s much lower than the estimated 40,000 deaths given by a report commissioned by Ban Ki-Moon last year.”

Channel 4 (UK) Channel 4 documentary Killing Fields”

The Killing Fields” documentary confuses a few weeks” for the 5 months” referred to in the Darusman report:

The United Nations panel has now concluded that as many as 40,000 people died in the final few weeks of the war.”

 

Channel 4 News Foreign Editor, Ben De Pear – Saturday 10 March 2012

The UN estimates at least 40,000 people, mostly civilians were killed in a matter of weeks.”

Comprehension does not appear to be a prerequisite to be an editor at Channel 4.

 

India Today / Headlines Today Priyamvatha and Rajesh Sundaram – August 10, 2011

India Today / Headlines Today incorrectly claims:

The UN says over 40,000 Tamil civilians were killed during the last stages of the 30-year civil war in Sri Lanka. NGOs put the figure at over a lakh and fifty thousand.”

India Today / Headlines Today misunderstood as many as” to mean over”. You would expect a credible media organisation to name the NGOs that are claiming a death toll of 150,000 civilians. Ironically the article concludes with:

Truth, expectedly, is the biggest casualty in the 30-year conflict in Sri Lanka.”

The opening paragraph of the article must have been intended as confirmation.

 

NDTV Mohuya Chaudhuri, Divakar Mani, K Jaganathan – September 10, 2011

India’s NDTV:Towards the end of the war, the UN says, around three and a half lakh Tamils were trapped in a narrow sliver of land, designated as safe zone by the Sri Lankan army, and over 40,000 were wiped out as the war reached its climax.”

It appears NDTV has misunderstood as many as” to mean over”.

PBS (USA) PBS News Hour – June 15, 2011

The UN has reported that at least 40,000 civilians, more than half the toll for the entire war, died in the final months of the fighting in late 2008 and 2009.” 

PBS was first to present a unique take on the Darusman report, it seems to have misunderstood as many as” to mean at least”.

Sydney Morning Herald Ben Doherty – May 14, 2011

The article claims:

It has always been sparsely populated, but in the aftermath of a war in which the UN estimates 40,000 civilians were killed and more than 300,000 displaced – out of a population of about 700,000 – a lack of people is now a very real problem.”

The UN did not estimate 40,000 civilian deaths.

Sydney Morning Herald Ben Doherty – August 3, 2011

The article claims:

The government’s Humanitarian Operation statement comes three months after a report by a panel of UN experts found that ’’tens of thousands’’ of civilians were killed in the final days and weeks of the war.”

The Darusman Report is quite clear that it is referring to the final five months.

 

Sydney Morning Herald Josephine Tovey, Dan Oakes – October 18, 2011

The article claims:

A UN report this year found up to 40,000 civilians were killed in the final weeks of the war against the separatist Tamil Tigers, and found government troops bombed no-fire zones, hospitals and food supply lines.”

The Darusman Report is quite clear that it is referring to the final five months.

 

Ten (Australia) Ben Doherty,

Ten (Australia) – 17th October 2011

The 6:30 program anchored by George Negus claimed:

The United Nations believes 40,000 civilians were killed …”

The Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) Investigation Report No. 2762 concluded:

Given that the statement failed to include the qualifying references to ‘as many as’ or ‘a range up to’, the ACMA considers that the licensee breached clause 4.3.1 of the Code in this instance.”

Furthermore, the television channel did not respond to the complainant and hence also breached clause 7.11 of the Code:

TEN apologises to the complainant for not providing a substantive written response as required under clause 7.11. The complaint was passed on to a program staff member to respond directly to the complainant. Unfortunately, the person subsequently left TEN News after the cancellation of the program without a response being sent and other staff being unaware of the outstanding obligation.”

The program has been canned.

 

The Age Ben Doherty and Josephine Tovey – October 18, 2011

A UN report this year found that up to 40,000 civilians were killed in the final weeks of the war, and found that government troops bombed hospitals and food supply lines.”

The Darusman Report is quite clear that it is referring to the final five months.

 

The Australian Catherine Philp – April 26, 2011

UN report finds up to 40,000 people were killed by Government forces in final days of Sri Lanka’s civil war

Catherine Philp
From: The Times
April 26, 2011 8:09AM

DELIBERATE shelling of civilians by government forces may have killed as many as 40,000 people in the closing stages of Sri Lanka’s civil war, a leaked UN war crimes report has found.”

The Australian acknowledged the error and chose to remove the offending article:

The article, sourced from The Times, stated that a UN war crimes report had found that 40,000 Sri Lankan civilians were killed by government forces in the final stages of the Sri Lankan civil war.

The Australian accepts that the UN report’s estimate of 40,000 deaths referred to civilian deaths overall, and not specifically to those people killed by Government forces.
We have accordingly removed the article from our website.

Please note, that The Times story did not appear in print in our newspaper.”

Ironically, the official response itself contains a factual error.

 

The Guardian Andy Bull – 4 June 2011

The article claims:

The UN estimates that 40,000 Tamil civilians were killed.”

The Hindu
  1. K. Radhakrishnan – February 24, 2012

The United Nations Secretary General’s Expert Panel on Accountability issues in Sri Lanka has said that upwards of 40,000 civilians were killed.”

The Independent Callum Macrae – 11 March 2012

Last year, a special panel of experts appointed by the UN Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon, suggested that as many as 40,000 civilians died in the last few weeks of the war”

Callum Macrae misinterpreted the five months referred to in the Darusman report to mean a few weeks” in his documentary too, Channel 4’s Killing Fields”.

The New York Times MANU JOSEPH – February 27, 2013

They estimate that more than 40,000 Tamil civilians died in the final months of the war.”

The Vancouver Sun Jonathan Manthorpe – January 18, 2013

A United Nations panel appointed in April 2011 by secretary general Ban Kimoon says as many as 40,000 people were killed in the final weeks of the war and has called on the Rajapaksa administration to account for what happened.”

The Washington Post Simon Denyer – July 6, 2012

The United Nations has called for an investigation into the final stages of the civil war, accusing the Tigers of using civilians as human shields but also accusing the army of indiscriminate shelling and of denying civilians access to humanitarian aid. It estimates that 40,000 innocent people may have died.” [84]

The error was corrected immediately and an annotation acknowledging the error was added:

Correction:

An earlier version of this article described the United Nations as estimating that 40,000 innocent people may have died in the civil war in northern Sri Lanka. That is the high end of the estimate; the world body says at least 7,721 and as many as 40,000 civilians were killed. This version has been revised to reflect that estimate.”

The revised article now states:

It estimates that at least 7,721 and as many as 40,000 innocent civilians may have died.”

Times of India Paul Newman – Jul 3, 2011

BANGALORE: Nearly 1,00,000 Tamil civilians were killed in the war in Sri Lanka during the final stages of civil war against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a report by a committee of the United Nations said.

The International Committee of the Red Cross ( ICRC) has estimated that nearly 14,000 wounded Tamil civilians were evacuated by ship from a no-fire zone in Sri Lanka during the end of war. Of which, the Committee said, 5,000 civilians were amputated and nearly 70,000 children died of starvation during the war in 2008.

Political Science professor Paul Newman from Bangalore University on Saturday presented these statistics quoting from a UN panel report headed by Marzuki Darusman, Steven Ratner and Yasmin Sooka.”

The Times of India claims that the UN Advisory Panel report said there was a civilian death toll of 100,000 during the final stages of the war. The Times of India is attributing this to a presentation by Paul Newman

 

Human Rights Watch Kenneth Roth – Executive Director – – Mar 24, 2012

In the last stages of the war, the Sri Lankan army indiscriminately shelled the Tigers trapped on a beach. Along with them, 40000 civilians too were killed.”

 

UN Watch Hillel Neuer – Executive Director of UN Watch – March 22, 2012

In 2009, after an estimated 40,000 civilians were killed by Sri Lanka …”

 

INDIVIDUALS

 

Lee Scott (British Conservative Party) – Member of Parliament (Ilford North) – 15 Sep 2011

I want to focus today on Sri Lanka. We have seen reports from the United Nations that 40,000 innocent women and children were massacred at the end of the conflict.”

I guess being a native English speaker does not necessarily mean one has the ability to comprehend what one reads.

Siobhain McDonagh (British Labour Party) – Member of Parliament (Mitcham and Morden) – 15 Sep 2011

The civil war in Sri Lanka was one of the region’s most dreadful conflicts of recent times. In its last five months alone, 100,000 people were killed, 40,000 of them civilians.”

British MPs are quite creative! The UN estimates between 80,000 and 100,000 deaths during the entire duration of the four-decade long war.

Bruce Haigh – former Australian diplomat – 19 October 2011

The UN report estimates 40,000 Tamil civilians were killed towards the end of the war, some, as already noted, by the navy. In addition, 4,000 Tamil soldiers (LTTE) are being held incommunicado by the government. The 500-page UN report notes that:”

The 200-page Darusman report estimates a range of up to 40,000 civilian deaths cannot be ruled out at this stage”.

 

Frances Harrison (BBC Sri Lanka correspondent – 2000 to 2004, Amnesty International – 2011) – Nov. 19 2012

Another UN report said a death toll of 40,000 in just five months was credible; this inquiry says it could even be 70,000.”

The Darusman report actually stated, a range of up to 40,000 civilian deaths cannot be ruled out at this stage”.

 

The Darusman report also referred to the approx. 70,000 unaccounted figure:

Others have put the estimate at 75,000, a figure obtained by subtracting the number of people who emerged from the conflict zone (approximately 290,000) from the estimate of the number thought to have been in the conflict zone (approximately 330,000 in the NFZ from January, plus approximately the 35,000, who emerged from the LTTE-held areas before that time).”

The Advisory Panel still set the upper-bound of civilian deaths at 40,000.

 

Gordon Weiss – former UN spokesperson in Sri Lanka – February 22, 2013

After all, according to the UN, perhaps 40,000 Tamil civilians had been killed in the final few months, mostly by government forces, and overwhelming evidence of war crimes has since emerged.”

Interestingly, in 2011, Gordon Weiss had the following to say about the UN:

We do have pretty good indications that probably somewhere between ten and forty thousand people were killed. This is not my own figure, plucked from nowhere. It’s credible enough for the UN to have used it as part of its assessment in to the available evidence.”

Gordon Weiss who initially quoted 7000 to boost his book sales changed the figure to 40,000 and when challenged at his book launch he changed the figure to 10,000 and disowned responsibility for the change of numbers.

 

 

How Media and HR groups substituted the word evidence when PoE referred to allegations

 

Darusman Report found ‘credible allegations’ of crimes
  • Amnesty International has substituted ‘credible allegations’ with ‘credible evidence’ in all their reports on PoE

 

Ex 1:

PoE states:

In stark contrast, the Panel found credible allegations, which if proven, indicate that a wide range of serious violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law was committed both by the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE, some of which would amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity.” 

 

Amnesty International states: (7 May 2011)

A report submitted to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on 12 April 2011 by the Panel of Experts he appointed to advise him on accountability issues in Sri Lanka ’found credible evidence, which if proven, indicate that a wide range of serious violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law was committed by both the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE, some of which would amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity.’

 

Commentary: When informed the Amnesty International issued a statement. Thank you for your message regarding Amnesty International’s public statement on Sri Lanka of 17 May. The mistake you highlight was a typographical error on our part which we have now corrected. Thank you for bringing this to our attention.”

But did not correct it on their website even by end July 2011. The corrected version prevails without reference to it being corrected.

 

Ex 2:

Steve Crawshaw – International Advocacy Director of Amnesty International – 25 May 2011

A hard-hitting UN report has found compelling evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity during the final phase of the war in Sri Lanka in spring 2009.”

 

Commentary : The Darusman report found credible allegations” not ’compelling evidence’

 

International Crisis Group – May 1, 2011

 

Guilty of substituting ‘credible evidence’ instead of ‘credible allegations’.

 

Example 1:

Sri Lanka UN panel of experts 25 Apr released report on accountability in Sri Lanka; finds credible evidence” govt, LTTE committed serious violations amounting to war crimes during final stage of 2009 civil war, says govt shelling responsible for most of tens of thousands” civilian deaths. Report recommends independent international investigation, but UNSG Ban 25 Apr said he first needs consent of Sri Lankan govt or mandate from UN Human Rights Council, GA or UNSC, where China and Russia likely to veto.” 

 

Example 2:

 

Sri Lanka UN panel of experts 25 Apr released report on accountability in Sri Lanka; finds credible evidence” govt, LTTE committed serious violations amounting to war crimes during final stage of 2009 civil war, says govt shelling responsible for most of tens of thousands” civilian deaths. Report recommends independent international investigation, but UNSG Ban 25 Apr said he first needs consent of Sri Lankan govt or mandate from UN Human Rights Council, GA or UNSC, where China and Russia likely to veto.” 

 

Upon bringing it to their notice. The ICG corrected it and in the PDF of their website carried *”Sri Lanka changed 30 May 2011: credible evidence” replaced with credible allegations”. (30 May 2011)

 

Australian Red Cross in its newsletter also used ‘credible evidence’ in referring to PoE
Human Rights Law Centre (Australia) on 8 March 2013 also refers to ‘credible evidence’ and quotes 40,000 civilians without proof

The United Nations estimates that up to 40,000 civilians may have died in the final stages of the civil war that ended in 2009 and cites credible evidence of war crimes committed by both government forces and the opposition Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE or Tamil Tigers).”

 

ABC Australia – 2 May 2011

 

Example 1

Sri Lanka’s president has rejected calls for a war crimes probe after a UN finding of “credible evidence” government forces committed atrocities when crushing Tamil Tiger guerrillas in 2009.
Example 2

The UN panel, which did not have an investigative mandate, accused victorious Sri Lankan government troops of killing tens of thousands of civilians and said there was “credible evidence” war crimes were committed by both sides.”

 

Example 3: Stephen Dziedzic 5 July 2011

Last year, a United Nations panel of experts found there was credible evidence that up to 40,000 civilians were killed in the conflict.”

Editor’s note:(July 27) the article originally reported that there was credible evidence. There are credible allegations that 40,000 civilians were killed.”

 

ABC news apologized for the confusion. Yet, how many would have continued to accept allegations as evidence.

ABC Four Corners / Press Release 3 July 2011

In June 2010, the UN chief asked a panel of experts to advise him on the evidence available relating to the conduct by both sides in the closing months of the war. In a report published in April this year, the panel of experts concluded that there was credible evidence that up to 40,000 people were killed in the final months of the civil war between the Tamil Tigers and Government forces.”

ABC Radio Australia – Kanaha Sabapathy – August 2, 2011

 

In April when the UN Advisory panel released its report saying that it had received credible evidence that both the security forces and the LTTE had committed war crimes the government rejected it claiming it could not be substantiated.”

 

ABC acknowledged the error:

We acknowledge that correspondent Kanaha Sabapathy incorrectly stated that the UN Panel had reported that they had received credible “evidence” regarding war crimes when in fact the UN Panel reported they had received credible “allegations”. ABC News has added an editor’s note to the transcript of this story which states:

  • “The use of the phrase ’credible evidence’ when referring to the United Nations report is incorrect.
    The UN’s panel of experts report uses the phrase ’credible allegations’.

The ABC acknowledges there is a distinct difference”

AFP continued with use of ‘credible evidence’ in April and October 2011

A UN panel of experts recommended an international investigation over the army’s 2009 final offensive against the Tamil Tiger rebels, saying there was credible evidence of war crimes on both sides.”

Rudd said Australia had urged Sri Lanka to act on United Nations findings of “credible evidence” of war crimes through its Lessons Learned and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC), due to report in November.”

 

BBC – Charles Haviland – 18 May 2011

 

India’s central government has not commented publicly on a recent UN-commissioned report, in which a panel of experts said there was credible evidence that both sides in the Sri Lankan war may have committed war crimes.”

BBC – Charles Haviland – 24 May 2011

The lobby group’s comments came a month after a report commissioned by the UN said there was credible evidence that both sides may have committed war crimes: the Tigers, for instance, by shooting escaping civilians, and the government, for example, by shelling hospitals.”

 

BBC – Charles Haviland – 24 May 2011

The lobby group’s comments came a month after a report commissioned by the UN said there was credible evidence that both sides may have committed war crimes: the Tigers, for instance, by shooting escaping civilians, and the government, for example, by shelling hospitals.”

 

BBC – 31 May 2011

The UN has said there is credible evidence that both sides may have committed war crimes – the Tigers by shooting escaping civilians and the government by shelling hospitals.”

BBC Hardtalk – Stephen Sackur – 5 July 2011

The UN panel setup by the Secretary-General reckons that there is credible evidence that 40,000 civilians were killed in that final phase of the war.”

 

Channel 4 (UK)

Channel 4 – Alex Thomson – 16 April 2011

A leaked UN report reveals the United Nations believes there is credible evidence that war crimes were committed in Sri Lanka’s civil war. Channel 4 News Chief Correspondent Alex Thomson recalls the frustration and the tension” of trying to report on a ’secret war’.”

Channel 4 News – 03 June 2011

The media release for the documentary Killing Fields” contains the same factual error:

The UN report found credible evidence that both sides of the conflict committed serious war crimes. The report called for an international inquiry – that call has so far has gone unheard.”

Channel 4 – Alex Thomson – 16 April 2011

A leaked UN report reveals the United Nations believes there is credible evidence that war crimes were committed in Sri Lanka’s civil war. Channel 4 News Chief Correspondent Alex Thomson recalls the frustration and the tension” of trying to report on a ’secret war’.”

Channel 4 News – 03 June 2011

The media release for the documentary Killing Fields” contains the same factual error:

The UN report found credible evidence that both sides of the conflict committed serious war crimes. The report called for an international inquiry – that call has so far has gone unheard.”

Channel 4 documentary Killing Fields” – Jon Snow

During the melodramatic introduction by Jon Snow to the Killing Fields” documentary he makes the same factual error:

The UN recently published a report that found ’credible evidence’ that both government and Tamil Tiger rebels committed serious war crimes.”

Callum Macrae – Producer and Director of Killing Fields” – 21/06/2011

Callum Macrae, Producer and Director of Killing Fields”, during an interview with Groundviews  , claims the Darusman report states: … credible evidence that the senior command knew of what was going on …”

But actually if you take the total of the report as well, it is true that it does collectively represent credible evidence”

 

 

Groundviews – 11 May 2011

There is obviously much confusion in official circles on what to do with the report of the panel appointed by the UN Secretary General to look into issues of accountability in Sri Lanka, which has flagged credible evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity.”

 

Reuters

Ranga Sirilal (Writing by Bryson Hull; Editing by Sugita Katyal) – May 26, 2011

Western governments led by the United States have pushed Sri Lanka to establish a believable probe into the panel’s finding of “credible evidence” government troops killed thousands of civilians at the end of the country’s civil war in 2009. 

 

Ranga Sirilal (Writing by Bryson Hull, editing by Rosalind Russell) – Aug 18, 2011

A panel commissioned by the U.N. secretary-general in April said it had “credible evidence” both sides had committed possible war crimes, and in particular alleged the government had killed thousands of civilians.”

 

Stephanie Nebehay – Sep 12, 2011

Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon was poised on Monday to send a report by his advisory panel, which last April found “credible evidence” that government forces committed war crimes when crushing the Tigers, to the rights Council, U.N. officials said.”

Rob Taylor – Oct 17, 2011

A United Nations advisory panel’s report says there is “credible evidence” that both sides committed war crimes, which the government hotly contests. Many of the allegations originated with pro-Tamil Tiger sources or propaganda outlets

Michael Perry (Reporting by Michael Perry, Editing by Jonathan Thatcher) – Oct 24, 2011

A U.N. advisory panel report says there is “credible evidence” both sides committed war crimes, which the government rejects.”

 

 

Sydney Morning Herald

 

Ben Doherty – December 19, 2011

The findings were in stark contrast to a UN expert’s report earlier this year, which found ’’credible’’ evidence of war crimes on both sides of the conflict and said civilians were deliberately targeted by government troops, particularly in the final months of the war.”

 

The Australian

Paul Maley – October 26, 2011

Numerous independent reports, including the UN Panel of Experts commissioned by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, have found there is credible evidence the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam committed war crimes.”

 

Paul Maley and Amanda Hodge – October 17, 2011

Several inquiries, including one by the UN Panel of Experts, have found there is credible evidence that both the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam were guilty of war crimes.”

The Australian made a public correction:

A REPORT published on The Australian’s website on October 17 (Australia’s envoy ‘not named’ for war crimes”) reported that the UN panel of experts had found there was credible evidence that both the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam were guilty of war crimes”. The Australian accepts that the UN report refers to credible allegations” of war crimes rather than credible evidence”. This correction arises from a settlement arranged by the Australian Press Council.”

 

The Independent – Andrew Buncombe – Tuesday, 18 October 2011

An independent panel established by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon reported earlier this year that there was “credible evidence” that both the Sri Lankan forces and those of the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) had committed war crimes during the final stages of the fighting.”

Voice of America – Kurt Achin – August 03, 2011

Earlier this year, a panel of United Nations-appointed researchers recommended an international probe into the final months of Sri Lanka’s decades-long civil war. Their report concluded there was credible evidence the military may have killed tens of thousands of civilians in deliberate attacks on non-combatant targets such as hospitals.”

 

The Sunday Leader – Jun 5 2011

The UN arm did place on record that war crimes did occur during the last stages of the war in Sri Lanka and credible evidence was available to back this claim.”

 

 

INDIVIDUALS

DBS Jeyaraj – 22 February 2012

The UN Panel headed by Darusman found credible evidence” that the Sri Lankan army had killed tens of thousands of civilians in the final stages of the war against the LTTE.”

 

Gordon Weiss – former UN spokesperson in Sri Lanka – July 10, 2011

But a UN report in April this year went further. The UN’s panel of experts detailed credible evidence that the same army systematically bombarded so-called no-fire zones sheltering civilians; deliberately bombed hospitals overflowing with wounded women and children; withheld food from starving people; and murdered prisoners.”

 

 

 The New York Times editorial has made the same mistake

 

Shenali D Waduge 

New Rooftop Solar Power System inaugurated at Mitirigala Nissarana Vanaya

September 8th, 2014

Senaka Weeraratna

A new rooftop solar power system that has been installed at the new building complex situated at the entrance to the Mitirigala Nissarana Vanaya (Mitirigala Forest Hermitage) was declared open by Mr. Senaka Weeraratna, Hony. Secretary, German Dharmaduta Society on Sunday August 17, 2014 at the conclusion of a commemorative meeting held to mark the 15th death anniversary of Asoka Weeraratna (Ven. Dhammanisanthi Thera) the founder of the Mitirigala Nissarana Vanaya.

The German Dharmaduta Society and the Mitirigala Nissarana Vanaya Sanrakshana Mandalaya acting jointly organised the meeting.

The eco friendly solar powered lighting system will illuminate the new buildings while easing to a considerable extent the burden of high operational costs in obtaining conventional electricity. The solar panels project at Mitirigala Nissarana Vanaya Meditation Centre was conceived, initiated and co – ordinated by Mr. Tissa Weeraratna of Das Buddhistische Haus (Berlin Vihara) acting in co-operation with the German Dharmaduta Society, based in Colombo, utilizing Solar Panels purchased from voluntary contributions made by two generous individuals namely Frau M. Weber (German) and Mr. Chanaka Wijesinghe.

Two important factors inspired the co-ordinated effort with the support of the donors to install Solar Panels at Mitirigala Nissarana Vanaya Meditation Centre. Firstly to maintain a suitable clean environment as prescribed in the Mangala Sutta being conducive to human habitation and meditation using sources of energy from nature i.e. Solar Power, and secondly to ensure energy security.

Solar power helps to reduce global warning, which now threatens the survival of both humans and countless species of animals. As fossil based fuel becomes scarce and expensive the future lies in the intelligent and planned use of alternative sources of energy i.e. hydro and solar. Today efficient solar panel systems can produce electricity without causing pollution and adding to global warming. In installing a roof top solar panel system at Mitirigala Nissarana Vanaya Meditation Centre it helps the Buddhist Forest Hermitage to preserve nature and protect the natural environment while at the same time becoming an example and good role model for others to follow suit particularly as it helps to reduce the cost of electricity drastically.

The value of energy security brought about by the installation of this solar system cannot be gainsaid. There is not likely be any disruptions in the supply of electricity to the Meditation Centre as it will not be relying any further on outside entities to provide energy for lighting. The money invested in the installation of Solar Power at the Mitirigala Nissarana Vanaya Meditation Centre is expected to be recovered within a few years through the considerable saving on payment of electricity bills.

The first stage of this project was focused on lighting the premises while the second stage of the project anticipates the installation of more solar panels and use of the electricity generated for purpose of cooking, cooling and storing of electricity.

The solar power system was installed by SolSpectrum(Pvt.)Ltd. acting on a purely voluntary and non – profit basis.

Dr. Manel Lakdivdas (President, GDS), Mr. Senaka Weeraratna (Hony. Secretary, GDS), Mr. D.Ananda de Silva (Hony.Assistant Secretary, GDS), Mr. Hemantha Ranavaka (Hony. Secretary, Mitirigala Nissarana Vanaya Sanrakshana Mandalaya), Mr. Nissanka de Silva ( former Principal, Mahinda College, Galle), and Mr. Navin de Silva (Engineer and founder of Solspectrum Pvt. Ltd) addressed the meeting.    Professor Jayasiri Lankage (Committee Member, GDS) proposed the vote of thanks.

The meeting highlighted the significant contributions made by Asoka Weeraratna towards the spread of Buddhism in Germany by sponsoring the First Buddhist Mission to Germany (1957) under the banner of the German Dharmaduta Society and the purchase of Das Buddhistische Haus in 1957 (founded by Dr. Paul Dahlke in 1924) in Berlin – Frohnau and converting it into a Buddhist vihara ( the first Buddhist Vihara in Germany and continental Europe) by placing Buddhist monks on a residential footing to propagate the Dhamma in the West.

The speakers also spoke highly of Asoka Weeraratna’s unique effort in establishing the Mitirigala Nissarana Vanaya in 1967 at a time when Buddhism in Sri Lanka had lost its most supportive and protective structure, meditation.  The Forest Hermitage had thirty fully equipped independent dwellings for yogi monks constructed for meditation. Asoka Weeraratna who spent his private wealth exclusively in establishing the Hermitage was successful in getting the wholehearted support and co-operation of the most respectful meditation teacher at that time, the late Ven. Matara Sri Nanarama Maha Thera, widely recognised as one of Sri Lanka’s outstanding meditation masters of recent times, to become the Chief guide and instructor. Ven. Nanarama Maha Thera is today considered as the Sri Lankan equivalent of the world renown Burmese meditation master the late Mahasi Sayadaw.

Ven Nanarama Maha Thera was one of the first meditation masters in Sri Lanka to incorporate the Burmese Vipassana techniques into local meditation traditions and balance them in the teachings of samatha meditation.

In addition to Sinhala Buddhist monks and laymen, a number of foreign monks and laymen drawn from both the East and the West also have had the opportunity to engage in the practice of meditation at Mitirigala with total commitment unobstructed by other tasks and duties.  In August 1972 Asoka Weeraratna renounced the lay life and became himself a monk under the monastic name Ven. Dhammanisanti.

The present incumbent of the Hermitage and the chief preceptor is Venerable Uda-Iriyagama Dhammajiva Maha Thera. There are a number of fully committed yogi monks engaged in practicing meditation. In addition the Mitirigala Nissarana Vanaya Meditation Centre also offers on – going retreats throughout the year for both male and female lay yogis under the able guidance of Ven. Uda-Iriyagama Dhammajiva Maha Thera.

For more information please visit the following web links:
http://asokaweeraratna.org/

http://asokaweeraratna.org/home.htm

http://das-buddhistische-haus.de/pages/en/

http://www.nissarana.lk/

Leo Tolstoy and His Great Epic War and Peace

September 8th, 2014

Dr. Ruwan M Jayatunge M.D.

At the approach of danger there are always two voices that speak with equal force in the heart of man: one very reasonably tells the man to consider the nature of the danger and the means of avoiding it; the other even more reasonable says that it is too painful and harassing to think of the danger, since it is not a man’s power to provide for everything and escape from the general march of events; and that it is therefore better to turn aside from the painful subject till it has come, and to think of what is pleasant. In solitude a man generally yields to the first voice; in society to the second. – Leo Tolstoy (War and Peace)

According to E.M Forster, Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace” (Voyna I Mir) is the greatest novel ever written. The French novelist Romain Rolland called it the most fascinating novel of all time. William James stated  War and Peace is a  perfection in the representation of human life”  In 1910 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin wrote: ‘succeeded in raising so many great problems and succeeded in rising to such heights of artistic power that his works rank among the greatest in world literature. For over a century, Leo Tolstoy has been one of the most famous and most widely read authors in the whole world (Yegorov, 1994). As indicated by Harding (2010) Leo Tolstoy is widely considered in the West to be the greatest writer of all time (Harding, 2010).

War and Peace is a philosophical, historical and an epic novel that runs through time and space. In this novel Tolstoy narrates his social, political, philosophical, historical, aesthetic, ethical, religious and moral views. He analyzed the complex processes of historical reality, social dynamics and human behaviour. The ideals and meaning of human existence had been his central theme. Over four hundred fictional and historical characters are illustrated in this unique novel and art of storytelling and meticulous realism are impressive in this masterpiece.

War and Peace is the personification of pre revolutionary Imperial Russia that never experienced an inborn Renaissance .War and Peace narrates Napoleon’s invasion of Russia and the post war period that created weighty changes. Tolstoy shows the depth, ambiguity, and majesty of the human character in times of war and in times of peace. Tolstoy   remains an exceptional writer of genius who profoundly analyzed a variety of characters. His psychological insights, like his style, create in the reader a sense of intimacy with the characters (Simmons, 1968).

In War and Peace Tolstoy argued his own idiosyncratic theory of life. His Philosophy was complex. He found numerous conflictive struggles in his own life. He was struggling between with his Christian ideals and his conflicts with lust and the hypocrisies. He was tormented between ideals. His struggles with his passions and his spiritual conflicts made him to write the greatest book in the history of literature. War and Peace is a question paper submitted to the reader. In War and Peace and in his other novels Tolstoy posed a question: how to lead a perfect life in an imperfect world? In a way War and Peace” represents Tolstoy’s conscious and unconscious mental conflicts.

Leo Tolstoy believed that the man has the ability to change positively and man is capable of search for meaning fulfilling his spiritual quest. He revealed the dialectics of the human soul. Tolstoy opens up psychologically credible -multi-faceted human character in times of war and peace.

He was deeply influenced by the French Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He strongly grasped Rousseau‘s expression: Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains. Tolstoy believed that man is born pure but society corrupts him. He emphasized that civilization corrupts the natural man. He was against the organized religions. He saw corruption, deception and spiritual degradation in the religious institutions. He exceedingly criticized the Russian Orthodox Church. He was a spiritual anarchist as well as a spiritual revolutionary. The Church was offended by Leo Tolstoy’s critical writing, speeches and views and later he was condemned and excommunicated by the Church. However Tolstoy became the moral and spiritual exemplar of the Nation. Admiring Leo Tolstoy, Mahatma Gandhi wrote: Tolstoy is one of the clearest thinkers in the western world.

Tolstoy debated about good and evil. He saw malevolence in war. Tolstoy identified that wars were one of the central problems in the history of mankind. According to Tolstoy peace is not only the absence of war but also the absence of hostility between people, communities and nations. In this novel Tolstoy highlights war between nations, war between institutions, war between classes, war between families, war between individuals and internal war within one’s self. According Tolstoy Peace ought to be achieved by harmonizing external as well as internal factors. It is an individual as well as a collective effort.

Tolstoy discussed Free Will” in his great novel. Arguing about free will Tolstoy writes: You say-I am not free. But I have raised and lowered my arm. Everyone understands that this illogical answer is an irrefutable proof of freedom”. Tolstoy believed that our unconscious dependence on hidden forces. He wrote: If we concede that human life can be governed by reason, the possibility of life is destroyed. Tolstoy’s predispositions form metaphysical bedrock that constrains the philosophical approaches available for addressing the problem of freewill. His views of reason, laws, and reality spur each other on in such a way that one supposition necessitates the others (Thugushev, 2006).

Tolstoy may have influenced by David Hume’s approach: free will via the notion of causality. But Tolstoy’s explanation of free will is unique and comprehensive.

Man’s free will differs from every other force in that man is directly conscious of it, but in the eyes of reason it in no way differs from any other force. The forces of gravitation, electricity, or chemical affinity are only distinguished from one another in that they are differently defined by reason. Just so the force of man’s free will is distinguished by reason from the other forces of nature only by the definition reason gives it. Freedom, apart from necessity, that is, apart from the laws of reason that define it, differs in no way from gravitation or heat, or the force that makes things grow; for reason, it is only a momentary undefinable sensation of life. (War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy)

Tolstoy considered social evolution as a part of human existence. He was well aware of the socio economic conditions of his own society and realized that radical social changes would occur in Russia. Tolstoy expressed his sympathetic views and sentiments for the peasantry in the Pre Revolutionary Russia. He realized the magnitude of mass exploitations and inequalities that prevailed in the society. Although Lenin portrayed Leo Tolstoy as a mirror of the Russian revolution, Tolstoy was against any kind of terror against classes. He was against the violence imposed by society, social institutions as well as by individuals.

Tolstoy was a great reformer and an educator. He believed in the education of the masses. He had vast ideals of humanistic education. He thought that via education social injustices and social ignorance could be eliminated. According to Yegorov (1994) Leo Tolstoy strove from an early age to play a practical part in the education of the people. The idea behind his first book The four periods of development” is deeply symbolic. His intention was to describe in it the process by which the human character is formed, from very earliest childhood, when the life of the spirit first begins to stir, to youth, when it has adopted its final shape.  

He encouraged Gnoseology – the philosophic theory of knowledge: inquiry into the basis, nature, validity, and limits of knowledge. In Tolstoy’s view, freedom in education was a gnoseological and moral principle that had to be put into practice; it was the antithesis of authoritarian teaching, and essential for a humane attitude to the pupil and respect for his or her dignity as a human being (Yegorov, 1994). Tolstoy ridiculed the insensitive and harsh educational methods that were used by the teachers of his day. In his novel he shows the unsuccessful educational methods adopted by the eccentric Prince Nicholas Bolkonski.

In War and Peace Leo Tolstoy did depth analysis of human soul. He frequently used internal monologues   to psychologically analyze his main characters. Tolstoy elegantly writes about the Emperors, Kings, Queens, and Aristocrats describing their lavish flamboyant life styles. He narrates their inner thoughts and interactions with each other. Also he writes about the downtrodden subjects of the Russian Imperial Society. He describes their non sophisticated but miserable lives. He reflects their thoughts and feelings.

The character analysis is exceptional in this great novel. There are several central characters that keep the narrative live and distinctive. Pierre Bezukhov and Prince Andrey Bolkonski. two fictional characters appear throughout the novel are remarkable for their static nature. They often regarded as being reflections of Tolstoy himself.

In addition there are a number of minor characters described in this great novel. They too influence the story line stylishly. Like the Emperors and Kings they too are heroes of special kind who demonstrated bravery and courage during the Napoleonic invasion.  

In War and Peace Leo Tolstoy illustrates a peasant soldier named Tikhon who is known for his courage and bravery. Another character is Lavrushka who is a cunning servant of the Captain Denisov. Lavrushka is famous for trickery and he operates behind the enemy lines. The reader meets another character called Alpatych who is a loyal servant of the Prince Nicholas Bolkonski. Although Alpatych is humble and extremely respectful in front of the old Prince Bolkonski he behaves like a pretentious master in front of the other servants. Pelageyushka is another insignificant character described in the novel. She is a pious old poor woman who travels across Russia. Pelageyushka frequently visits the Princess Maria Bolkonskaya who gives her money and food. In addition Tolstoy splendidly writes about the inner thoughts of a small child – little Malasha who is peasant girl. She suddenly becomes acquainted with the General Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov- the Commanding Officer of the Russian Imperial Army and two of them become curious friends in the middle of the War. Little Malasha calls the Great Russian General Kutuzov – Dedushka (Grandpa). She curiously observes the challenging attitudes and arguments between the General Kutuzov and the General Bennigsen.

 Malasha looked down from the oven with shy delight at the faces, uniforms, and decorations of the generals, who one after another came into the room and sat down on the broad benches in the corner under the icons. “Granddad” himself, as Malasha in her own mind called Kutuzov, sat apart in a dark corner behind the oven. He sat, sunk deep in a folding armchair, and continually cleared his throat and pulled at the collar of his coat which, though it was unbuttoned, still seemed to pinch his neck. Those who entered went up one by one to the field marshal; he pressed the hands of some and nodded to others. His adjutant Kaysarov was about to draw back the curtain of the window facing Kutuzov, but the latter moved his hand angrily and Kaysarov understood that his Serene Highness did not wish his face to be seen. (War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy)

The General Kutuzov and General Bennigsen were debating about the faith of the Moscow city. When the French forces are advancing General Kaysarov decides to burn the city and retreat. He knows that going for a direct military confrontation with Napoleon would be disastrous and it would perish the Russian Army. He has a different tactic- Let them chase us until they become exhausted. Give enemy nothing but the ashes. Let them wonder in the scorched earth. When no food is available the enemy would kill and eat their horses. When the enemy is enfeeble it gives an opportunity to attack them. General Kutuzov’s intention is to feed the French Army hoarse meat. He did it to the Turks during the Russo-Turkish War in 1806. But the General Bennigsen has a different plan. He wants to defend Moscow at all costs.

 Bennigsen opened the council with the question: “Are we to abandon Russia’s ancient and sacred capital without a struggle, or are we to defend it?”

 A prolonged and general silence followed. There was a frown on every face and only Kutuzov’s angry grunts and occasional cough broke the silence. All eyes were gazing at him. Malasha too looked at “Granddad.” She was nearest to him and saw how his face puckered; he seemed about to cry, but this did not last long.

  “Russia’s ancient and sacred capital!” he suddenly said, repeating Bennigsen’s words in an angry voice and thereby drawing attention to the false note in them. “Allow me to tell you, your excellency, that that question has no meaning for a Russian.” (He lurched his heavy body forward.) “Such a question cannot be put; it is senseless! The question I have asked these gentlemen to meet to discuss is a military one. The question is that of saving Russia. Is it better to give up Moscow without a battle, or by accepting battle to risk losing the army as well as Moscow? That is the question on which I want your opinion,” and he sank back in his chair.

(War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy)

 Tolstoy’s dynamic mind and duality of his personality were well represented in this enormous novel. Although he had a compassionate mind to understand the oppressions in his society once he stated : I sit on a man’s back, choking him and making him carry me, and yet assure myself and others that I am very sorry for him and wish to ease his lot by all possible means – except by getting off his back. He was conscious about the exploitations existed in his surrounding.

The Count Tolstoy renounced the luxury of his aristocratic class and embraced the peasants’ life style. He saw peasant’s life style as an ideal way of life. Also he admired the working class.   He writes: the simple working people all around me were the Russian people, and I turned to them and to the meaning they gave life” 

Leo Tolstoy’s life was full of contradictions. He wanted to renounce wealth but until his old age he could not make a precise decision. He preached that the money was evil yet he enjoyed luxuries, he said people should detach from their wealth and look after the poor. However in real life he had to arrest three poor peasants who illegally cut timber in his state and later to prosecute them. He was trapped in an unhappy marriage for a long time. At a time he was an egoless humane husband and the next moment he was furious man who was jealous and suspicious of his wife. Leo Tolstoy’s shifting emotions were well documented in his novels and many are reflected through major characters.  

The Ideological crisis of the writer could be seen in certain parts of this vast novel. Although Tolstoy was against violence, in his novel he highlights justified cruelty which could have resulted by his patriotic enthusiasm. According to the novel when the Muzhiks (Russian peasants) see the retreating French soldiers who are now starving and exhausted and also weakened by the winter they attack them dreadfully. The Muzhiks massacre the Napoleon’s retreating remaining forces. Tolstoy glorifies the actions of the Muzhiks who attack the half dead enemy soldiers who are now in a vulnerable position in the steppes of Russia.

Family dynamics and parental influence were well described in this novel. Tolstoy lost both of his parents at the small age. But their warmth and spiritual touch lived with him. He immortalized their memory by creating two fictional characters in War and Peace. Nikolai Rostov (young brave Army officer who is a passionate lover fond of gambling and leads a reckless life but later turns in to a responsible man) and Maria Bolkonskaya (Prince Andrey Bolkonski ’s sister who is a loving and a religious woman) were based on Tolstoy’s own memories of his father and mother.

When Leo Tolstoy was a little child his mother Maria Nikolaevna Volkonskaya died. He was significantly impacted by the maternal deprivation syndrome following her death. For a number of years Tolstoy erroneously believed that his mother died as a result of childbirth. He portrays maternal death and maternal deprivation in War and Peace describing the death of Liza Meinen (Prince Andrey Bolkonski ’s wife) and further narrating the disheartening situation of her baby son Nicolas who subsequently becomes an orphan.

In the novel Liza dies while giving birth to her son. She was in pain and agony without her husband. When she needed her husband Prince Andrei he went to the War leaving her with his nagging father and helpless sister. Liza was seriously disappointed. Tolstoy vividly describes Liza’s death in War and Peace.

 Prince Andrew turned to him, but the doctor gave him a bewildered look and passed by without a word. A woman rushed out and seeing Prince Andrew stopped, hesitating on the threshold. He went into his wife’s room. She was lying dead, in the same position he had seen her in five minutes before and, despite the fixed eyes and the pallor of the cheeks, the same expression was on her charming childlike face with its upper lip covered with tiny black hair.

Three days later the little princess was buried, and Prince Andrew went up the steps to where the coffin stood, to give her the farewell kiss. And there in the coffin was the same face, though with closed eyes. Ah, what have you done to me?” it still seemed to say, and Prince Andrew felt that something gave way in his soul and that he was guilty of a sin he could neither remedy nor forget. He could not weep. The old man too came up and kissed the waxen little hands that lay quietly crossed one on the other on her breast, and to him, too, her face seemed to say: Ah, what have you done to me, and why?” And at the sight the old man turned angrily away (War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy)

 As indicated by Rancourt-Laferer (1998) in his unfinished “Memoirs” (1903 – 1906 years), Tolstoy admitted that he could not remember his mother, but he kept her memory intact as a spiritual image. In his perception, she was the embodiment of the ideal of the sublime that lived inside his soul. In later years Tolstoy converted his late mother as a goddesses like image and prayed. In old age Tolstoy confessed that he still idolized and prayed for his mother. The Psychoanalyst Nikolai Osipov wrote about Tolstoy’s fixation upon maternal image. In a sense, Tolstoy did not quite come to terms with the fact that his mother had died. This could have been a defense mechanism of the childhood years and it had been preserved for long years.

During his childhood Leo Tolstoy struggled with Oedipal confrontation with his father. One noticing factor in War and Peace is there are no ideal father figures. The three prominent fathers described in the novel are Count Vasili Kuragin (Helen’s Father who is a cunning and egocentric man) Count Kirill Bezukhov (Pierre Bezukhov ‘s father who is a well-known fornicator) and Prince Nicholas Bolkonski (Prince Andrey Bolkonski’s father who is an irritable and nagging old man)  

Maria Bolkonskaya becomes Tolstoy’s ideal and fictional mother. He enriched her character with gentle and humane maternal qualities. However his Oedipal confrontation is well pronounced describing Maria Bolkonskaya.

Unmarried young Princess Mariya Bolkonskaya lives with her old wretched father Prince Nicholas Bolkonski. Her father often ill treats and ridicules her. He gives special attention to Bourienne, – Princess’s chambermaid in order to irritate Maria. Bourienne is a French girl working in a Russian aristocratic family.   However Maria tolerates all the negativity that has been focused on her by the father and waits until her brother Prince Andry Bolkonski returns from the War. When Andry Bolkonski becomes a POW and family receives no information Maria relentlessly prays for his life. Tolstoy portrays Mariya Bolkonskaya as a silent sufferer. She reminds us Freud’ s famous case study Fräulein Anna O (Bertha Pappenheim) who repressed her biological urges and cared for her aging irritable father.

Pierre Bezukhov and Prince Andrey Bolkonski look for father figures. The absence of ideal father figures leads both men (Pierre Bezukhov and Prince Andrey Bolkonski) to seek substitute fathers. Prince Andrey Bolkonski sees much of paternal qualities in the General Kutuzov and Pierre Bezukhov finds his symbolic father in Osip Alexeevich Bazdeev- a noted Freemason.

Pierre and Prince Andrei bear much resemblance to Tolstoy himself. Tolstoy was struggling with his passions and his spiritual conflicts. These unresolved mental conflicts were expressed via Pierre Bezukhov’s character. According to the novel Pierre Bezukhov is an illegitimate son of the Count Kirill Bezukhov. Pierre is described as an ill-mannered non attractive socially awkward man who is fond of women, wine and gambling. This portrait is much similar to young Tolstoy.

Young Tolstoy had a passion for gambling and had exhausted the family wealth. Like Pierre Bezukhov he found it difficult to integrate into the Petersburg high society. Tolstoy admitted himself as a non attractive ugly man. Likewise Pierre Bezukhov is narrated as a huge bear like person. Pierre was ignored and rejected by the high society until he inherits his father’s fortune. Once he becomes rich and famous Pierre was forced to get married to Helen Kuragina (Count Vasili Kuragin’s daughter). Consequently he was trapped in an unhappy marriage and searching for meaning in his life. One time debauched and profligate man now becomes a philosopher who is searching for meaning in life. Pierre Bezukhov represents much of Tolstoy’s life philosophy.

Pierre Bezukhov was unhappy with his married life. He was troubled by his wife – Helen’s promiscuous behaviour. He suspects Helen is in love with his former friend Dolokhov. Dolokhov is a young reckless officer who was demoted for his disorderliness. However Dolokhov earns his rank fighting bravely in the first battle against Napoleon. Hence he was able to return to the St Petersburg high society. Aristocratic women adore Dolokhov’s bravery and his ability to gratify women.  

 The unsolved problem that tormented him   was caused by hints given by the princess, his cousin, at Moscow, concerning Dolokhov’s intimacy with his wife, and by an anonymous letter he had received that morning, which in the mean jocular way common to anonymous letters said that he saw badly through his spectacles, but that his wife’s connection with Dolokhov was a secret to no one but himself. Pierre absolutely disbelieved both the princess’ hints and the letter, but he feared now to look at Dolokhov, who was sitting opposite him. Every time he chanced to meet Dolokhov’s handsome insolent eyes, Pierre felt something terrible and monstrous rising in his soul and turned quickly away. Involuntarily recalling his wife’s past and her relations with Dolokhov, Pierre saw clearly that what was said in the letter might be true, or might at least seem to be true had it not referred to his wife (War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy)

 One time Leo Tolstoy was troubled by sexual jealousy. His famous work The Kreutzer Sonata” (1889) became a part of his biography. The protagonist Pozdnyshev suspects that his wife has a secret affair with the violinist Troukhatchevsky. His sexual ordeal leads to a sexual obsessions, sexual guilt and sexual jealousy. At the end Pozdnyshev kills his wife.

Tolstoy believed that if two married people stay together and their initial love is mostly filled with sensual pleasure and carnal love it can quickly turn into hatred. According to Tolstoy carnal love degrades the human spirit. In Kreutzer Sonata Tolstoy argued carnal love vs chastity. 

In War and Peace Pierre makes an attempt to attack his wife with a heavy marble bench.  It would have been a fatal blow if he had attacked her. Pierre’s initial thoughts were to kill his wife. He had adequate evidence to believe that his wife had a sexual relationship with the Officer Dolokhov. Pierre is intensely affected by sexual jealousy. His rage brings extreme fear to Helen. After this confrontation both are parted. Instead of killing his wife Pierre goes in to seclusion and search of meaning. Pierre redirects himself towards spiritual pursuits 

According to Melanie Klein-Austrian-born British psychoanalyst at an early stage of development the male child perceives his penis as a weapon of his sadism.  In normal development man overcomes the idea of destructiveness of the penis. Happy and satisfying sexual relationship with a woman convinces a man that his penis has valuable properties and cause a man unconscious belief that the desire to compensate the woman caused the damage before a success. This not only increases the sexual pleasure of his love and affection for the woman, but also causes a sense of gratitude and peace.  

In his young days Tolstoy was a compulsive gambler and a noted adulterer. Sometimes he tried to seduce the wives of his military colleagues. However in his old age he renounced sex and preached abstinence. Many youth during his era became followers of Tolstoyanism. His young private secretary Valentin Bulgakov embraced Tolstoyanism that had life principles such as pacifism, vegetarianism, non-participation in political activities and a high level of social activity based on Christian principles.

Tolstoy’s Philosophy irritated his wife Countess Sophia Andreyevna Tolstaya leading to a marital distress. According to Parini (2009) Leo Tolstoy shaped his own version of Christianity, discounting its miraculous aspects. Worse, from Sofia’s viewpoint, he threatened to give away all his property, including the copyright to his work, to the Russian people. A psychodrama emerged, with Sofia battling Tolstoy’s disciples for access to his soul. Her diaries become increasingly frenzied in the 1880s and 90s, and the last decade of Tolstoy’s life (1900-1910) makes for harrowing reading, as in this entry for 19 November 1903:

What I predicted indeed has come true: my passionate husband has died, and since he was never a friend to me, how could he be one to me now? This life is not for me. There is nowhere for me to put my energy and passion for life; no contact with people, no art, no work – nothing but total loneliness all day ( Parini, 2009).

 Tolstoy’s conflicts with his wife intensified in the later years. He left her and his native home. Hence metaphorically Leo Tolstoy murdered his wife by renouncing her. Following Tolstoy’s permanent departure his wife Sophia Tolstaya tried to commit suicide. When he was in his final hours at the Astopovo station he refused to see his wife for the one last time. Tolstoy’s anger and resentment towards his wife entirely covered his Christian ideals of forgiveness.

One of the most notable convictions of Tolstoy was hostility towards sex. Sexual hostility was an uncommon feature among the other Russian writers such as Dostoevsky, Chekhov, Pasternak and Solzhenitsyn. In 1888 Tolstoy stated that people should no longer engage in sexual love but later   admitted that he was dismayed for that conclusion. However he preached the superiority of abstinence ( Rancourt-Laferer, 1998).

Was Tolstoy a misogynist? This is a grim question. According to Rancourt-Laferer, (1998) Tolstoy expressed his hostility to women often in different occasions. Tolstoy quite openly expressed his misogyny. Once he stated: To marry a young lady means to accept all the poison of civilization.” 

Tolstoy had largely met only two types of women in the pre-Revolutionary Russian society: aristocratic women who were known for their extravagant indulging lifestyle and the peasant women who were oppressed by the feudal system, patriarchy and by the Church. He witnessed the immoral behaviour of the women who belonged to the upper and the lower class. At the same time he saw love, compassion, empathy, charity etc demonstrated by the women of both two classes. He assumed that men and women are born pure and the civilization corrupt and poison them constantly.

Tolstoy cannot be understood without taking the moral masochism in to consideration. For instance the suicide of Anna Karenina is a literary embodiment of Tolstoy’s desire to kill Anna or to punish himself for his lust, as well as his hatred for the woman who cheated her husband   (Rancourt-Laferer, 1998). In War and Peace Tolstoy punishes Helen Kuragina (Pierre Bezukhov’s wife) who bears a scheming and immoral character. After facing numerous scandals and humiliations Helen dies of Angina Pectoris. It was an undignified death that was imposed on Helen by Leo Tolstoy.  

Young Leo Tolstoy engaged in duels when he lived in the Caucasus. He had a fascination to kill his opponents which he later regrettably admitted. In War and Peace Dolokhov humiliates Pierre Bezukhov at a dinner party. Dolokhov’s disrespectful behaviour fuels Pierre’s anger. Pierre declares a duel. He wants to retaliate and quench his anger. He wants to kill the man who slept with his wife. Like Pozdnyshev (in Kreutzer Sonata) Pierre is tormented by sexual jealousy and ready to commit a murder.

In the duel Pierre wounds Dolokhov. Although Pierre was able to retaliate and partially fulfilled his desire to destroy Dolokhov his inner thoughts change rapidly. Pierre is repenting over his quick decision and wounding his opponent. Pierre leaves St Petersburg and starts his long spiritual journey. Pierre becomes a Free Mason thinking that it would help him to restore his pride and fill the existential vacuum. But soon he realizes the emptiness in their rituals. He dedicates his life to another mission.

Pierre Bezukhov wants to end the evil. He decides to kill Napoleon the Antichrist who unleashed evil upon Russian and French people. Pierre considers this as a sacred mission and he is ready to sacrifice his life. His sexual jealousy has converted in to a generalized anger and it has been focused on Napoleon.

Friedrich Hegel saw Napoleon as the world-spirit on horseback. However Tolstoy sophisticatedly presents the complex nature of Napoleon’s character that is filled with overconfidence, narcissism, selfishness, power hugeness, bravery, and cruelty. In contrast Tolstoy reveals how Napoleon’ cared for his soldiers who were dying of plague. However his   self-centeredness was well exposed during the Russian campaign. Napoleon abandoned his troops and escaped leaving his soldiers to die in the harsh Russian winter. Tolstoy too named Napoleon Bonaparte as the Beast. Tolstoy presents a verse from the Book of Revelation 13:18. – (This calls for wisdom. Let the person who has insight calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man. That number is 666.)Tolstoy identifies Napoleon Bonaparte as the Beast – the Antichrist.

According to Tolstoy Napoleon was an evil military genius but he could not break the will of the Russian people. Napoleon Bonaparte’s downfall occurred with his 1812 Russian campaign. Napoleon’s invincible Grand Army sustained many losses in the Battle of Borodino.  

 To anyone who looks at the field of Borodino without thinking of how the battle was actually fought, this position, protected by the river Kolocha, presents itself as obvious for an army whose object was to prevent an enemy from advancing along the Smolensk road to Moscow……. The battle of Borodino was not fought on a chosen and entrenched position with forces only slightly weaker than those of the enemy, but, as a result of the loss of the Shevardino Redoubt, the Russians fought the battle of Borodino on an open and almost unentrenched position, with forces only half as numerous as the French; that is to say, under conditions in which it was not merely unthinkable to fight for ten hours and secure an indecisive result, but unthinkable to keep an army even from complete disintegration and flight. (War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy)

 Napoleon invaded Russia with over 680 000 soldiers. The Battle of Borodino becomes a turning point in the history. As Tolstoy narrates the Beast is seriously wounded. His Moscow invasion invariably becomes a fiasco. The General Kutuzov closely observes the movements of the beast. He  uses three decisive weapons against Napoleon. Those are patience, timely retreat and the approaching Russian winter.  

The invading French army had to face periodical resistance by the Russian Imperial Army. The Cossack horsemen constantly attacked Napoleon’s supply lines. The enemy became impatient. Lack of food, desertion, disease, exhaustion weakened the Napoleon’s Army. He lost more than 500,000 soldiers during the invasion. Nearly 100,000 became prisoners of war. Only 10,000 of them returned to France alive.

Tolstoy found that the historians seemed to agree; they asserted, as he puts it in his novel, that thousands of people went from west to east and killed each other just because a single man told them to. Even those historians interested in multiple causes never seemed to respect enough of them, thought Tolstoy. Great occurrences like the Napoleonic invasion happen not because one man dictates the movement of history, but because hundreds of thousands of motives and accidents and reactions occur at once; Tolstoy called this the “swarm -like life, where man inevitably fulfils the laws prescribed for him”. He is really a kind of historical fatalist who spends the course of his novel searching for the laws of that fatalism. Napoleon and great men like him think of themselves as supremely free, but in fact they are the servants of history, as caught up in that “swarm -like” existence as the meanest hussar (Wood, 2014).

  Man’s mind cannot grasp the causes of   events in their completeness, but the desire to find those causes is implanted in man’s soul. And without considering the multiplicity and complexity of the conditions any one of which taken separately may seem to be the cause, he snatches at the first approximation to a cause that seems to him intelligible and says: This is the cause!” In historical events (where the actions of men are the subject of observation) the first and most primitive approximation to present itself was the will of the gods and, after that, the will of those who stood in the most prominent position- the heroes of history. But we need only penetrate to the essence of any historic event- which lies in the activity of the general mass of men who take part in it- to be convinced that the will of the historic hero does not control the actions of the mass but is itself continually ( War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy)

 With a new plan Pierre Bezukhov decides to go to Moscow. There he witnesses the French invasion of Moscow. The great city of Moscow is in flames. In Moscow Pierre rescues a French officer and they become friends. The French officer was surprised by Pierre’s knowledge of French and his natural accent.

Pierre Bezukhov’s mission ends suddenly when he becomes a prisoner. The French Officers think that Pierre is a Russian spy. He had to join with the other prisoners. There he meets another prisoner named Platòn Karataev.    

The character of Platòn Karataev is relatively small but very inspiring. As the book describes Platòn Karataev is a peasant with simple and true qualities which Tolstoy admired most. The author becomes a prophet and a moral reformer who speaks to the reader directly. Platòn Karatheave becomes his mouthpiece.

Karataev embodies ultimate wisdom for Pierre: a sustainment of spirit in the face of adversarial, life-denying forces. Karataev idealized family life but he also is happy that his service in the army spared his brother’s family from losing his brother. Pierre’s example embodies both the values of a nurturing family and the value of committing one’s life to the greater good (Itriyeva, 2008).

All the prisoners were taken by the French Army in their long retreat. The prisoners walk with the French Army in harsh winter. Karataev and Pierre walk together.

During the long retreat the French soldiers shoot enfeeble Russian prisoners who cannot march further. Pierre helps weaken Platòn Karataev to walk but he becomes more and more exhausted. Finally Platòn Karatheave was shot by a French soldier. Pierre becomes puzzled by witnessing the dark side of human nature in a war situation.

 But what is war? What is needed for success in warfare? What are the habits of the military? The aim of war is murder; the methods of war are spying, treachery, and their encouragement, the ruin of a country’s inhabitants, robbing them or stealing to provision the army, and fraud and falsehood termed military craft. The habits of the military class are the absence of freedom, that is, discipline, idleness, ignorance, cruelty, debauchery, and drunkenness. And in spite of all this it is the highest class, respected by everyone. All the kings, except the Chinese, wear military uniforms, and he who kills most people receives the highest rewards (War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy).

 As an officer who saw active combat, Tolstoy knew in a battle who the real war heroes were. The real war heroes are the type of people that never blow their own trumpet. They do their sanctified military duty in the battle and they are not interested in military glory. Often they do not get the recognition. Those who cowardly evaded the battle field later become decorated war heroes. Leo Tolstoy tells the reader the irony of real war heroes unveiling the story of Captain Tushin.

According to the novel Captain Tushin is an artillery officer who fought bravely at the Battle of Schöngrabern. Prince Andrei Bolkonski witnesses the heroic efforts of Captain Tushin who commands his artillery battery. Although other battery commanders withdrew their cannons and men when the attacks intensified Captain Tushin’s cannons are constantly sending deadly messages to the French forces. Eventually his battery ends up alone and unsupported. However Captain Tushin’s counter attacks delay the enemy advance. This allows the Russian troops to withdraw successfully evading a major loss. Captain Tushin’s effort becomes one of the decisive factors of successful withdrawal. 

Later that evening the Russian commanders gather together and discuss the events which occurred at the battle field. No one praises Captain Tushin’s heroic efforts. Instead some staff officers who left the battle field cowardly blame the Captain Tushin for abandoning some of his cannons. Prince Andrei Bolkonsky listens to the staff officers and finally he tells the General Bagration that Captain Tushin and his men delayed the French advance saving the rest of the Army. 

 All were silent. Tushin appeared at the threshold and made his way timidly from behind the backs of the generals. As he stepped past the generals in the crowded hut, feeling embarrassed as he always was by the sight of his superiors, he did not notice the staff of the banner and stumbled over it. Several of those present laughed.

“How was it a gun was abandoned?” asked Bagration, frowning, not so much at the captain as at those who were laughing, among whom Zherkov laughed loudest. Only now, when he was confronted by the stern authorities, did his guilt and the disgrace of having lost two guns and yet remaining alive present themselves to Tushin in all their horror. He had been so excited that he had not thought about it until that moment. The officers’ laughter confused him still more. He stood before Bagration with his lower jaw trembling and was hardly able to mutter: “I don’t know… your excellency… I had no men… your excellency.”

“You might have taken some from the covering troops.”

 Tushin did not say that there were no covering troops, though that was perfectly true. He was afraid of getting some other officer into trouble, and silently fixed his eyes on Bagration as a schoolboy who has blundered looks at an examiner. The silence lasted some time. Prince Bagration, apparently not wishing to be severe, found nothing to say; the others did not venture to intervene. Prince Andrew looked at Tushin from under his brows and his fingers twitched nervously.

“Your excellency!” Prince Andrew broke the silence with his abrupt voice,” you were pleased to send me to Captain Tushin’s battery. I went there and found two thirds of the men and horses knocked out, two guns smashed, and no supports at all.”

Prince Bagration and Tushin looked with equal intentness at Bolkonski, who spoke with suppressed agitation. “And, if your excellency will allow me to express my opinion,” he continued, “we owe today’s success chiefly to the action of that battery and the heroic endurance of Captain Tushin and his company,” and without awaiting a reply, Prince Andrew rose and left the table.

Prince Bagration looked at Tushin, evidently reluctant to show distrust in Bolkonski’s emphatic opinion yet not feeling able fully to credit it, bent his head, and told Tushin that he could go. Prince Andrew went out with him.

 “Thank you; you saved me, my dear fellow!” said Tushin.

 (War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy).

 One time Leo Tolstoy was an ambitious young officer who served in the Crimean War. He took part in the defense of Sevastopol. There he witnessed horror and despair and as a result of battle stress he gradually experienced a personality change. The climax of this personality change occurred many years after the war when he was traveling to buy an estate. He had to stay in a motel and in the middle of the night he walked up with a mortal fear. This could have been a sever anxiety attack and this incident made distinct changes in him. Tolstoy was plagued by fear of death and mortal fear becomes one of the focal parts in the novel -War and Peace. Tolstoy  experienced persistent sorrow and emptiness (Clinical Depression?)Which he described in his autobiographical book Confession”

I cannot recall those years without horror, loathing, and heart-rending pain. I killed people in war, challenged men to duels with the purpose of killing them, and lost at cards; I squandered the fruits of the peasants’ toil and then had them executed; I was a fornicator and a cheat. Lying, stealing, promiscuity of every kind, drunkenness, violence, murder – there was not a crime I did not commit…Thus I lived for ten years.”

In his life a number of times Tolstoy went in profound depression and seclusion. This depression, which was melancholic in character, almost destroyed him and, once he had finished Anna Karenina, led him to want to renounce not only sexuality but also literary creation and material possessions. Like Leonardo da Vinci, Tolstoy turned away from his artistic work, declaring that ‘art is not only useless but even harmful’, and thereafter devoted himself to philosophical, political and religious writings (Anargyros-Klinger, 2002).

As illustrated by Bergner (1998) Tolstoy, at a point in his life when he was contemplating suicide, expressed the basis for his despair and crisis of meaning in the following way: “What will come from what I am doing now, and may do tomorrow? What will come from my whole life? otherwise expressed–Why should I live? Why should I wish for anything? Why should I do anything? Again, in other words, is there any meaning in my life which will not be destroyed by the inevitable death awaiting me.”

Prince Andrei Bolkonski mostly represent Tolstoy’s military period. Prince Andrei portrayed as a cynical man who was tired of his wealth and family glory. He goes in search of a new life adventure. Prince Andrew finds no meaning in his tedious but comfortable married life with Lisa. He wants to make history and to be a large part of it. He wants to be with new kind of heroes such as General Kutuzov, General  Bagration , Napoleon Bonaparte etc. He was looking forward to find his greatness in the Battle of Austerlitz.

When Andrei Bolkonski was wounded in the battle he sees the blue sky which represents the emptiness. Andrei’s NDE (Near Death Experience) makes him   more matured and finally he realizes military glory, encounter with his former hero Napoleon, making history etc all were insignificant empty attempts. He realized the true meaning of human suffering. But he becomes more cynical and alienated.

 Gazing into Napoleon’s eyes, Prince Andrei mused on the unimportance of greatness, the unimportance of life which no one could understand, and the still greater unimportance of death, the meaning of which no one alive could understand or explain (War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy)

 After his wife’s death Prince Andrei Bolkonsky meets Natalia Rostova who is an innocent and a charming girl. She is the daughter of Russian Count Ilya Rostov and his wife, Countess Natalya Rostova.  Her character is often considered to be one of Tolstoy’s grandest creations, with her ability to live life to the fullest, with true joyfulness and great energy. Her character also has the ability to charm both the fictional characters in the novel and also people who read the book (Kingsley, 2013). Natasha Rostova becomes Tolstoy’s heroine.

Although Prince Andrei Bolkonski and Natalia Rostova become engaged Andrei’s father imposes serious stipulations and it wrecks their friendship. This gives a fine opportunity to Helen Kuragin’s brother Anatoly Kuragin to enter in to Natalia Rostova’s life. Anatoly Kuragin is described as a debaucher and a fraudulent character. With Helen’s consent and fullest support Anatoly Kuragin seduces Natalia Rostova and destroys her relationship with Andrei Bolkonsky. When Natalia Rostova realized that she was deceived and betrayed by Anatoly Kuragin who was previously married she goes in to a serious form of reactive depression. However after a long time she meets Prince Andrei Bolkonski in a critical condition.   He is wounded in the battle and dying of peritonitis. Natalia Rostova cares for wounded Andrei until his death. After Andrei Bolkonski’s death Natalia Rostova goes in to a dramatic transformation. Eventually she becomes the wife of Andrei Bolkonski’s dear friend Pierre Bezukhov.

Tolstoy illustrates the phenomenon of death in his great epic War and Peace. He wrote: Death, which will end everything and which must come today or tomorrow – in a moment, anyhow, compared with eternity. He vividly describes the deaths of Count Kirill Bezukhov (Pierre Bezukhov’s father) and Prince Nicholas Bolkonski. The Count Kirill Bezukhov dies slowly and Prince Nicholas Bolkonski suffers a stroke and heading towards death. The clinical detail employed in this case illustrates how Tolstoy used symbolic characters without sacrificing the realism of War and Peace (Albin, 1990).

The death of Prince Andrei Bolkonski is a central them in the book. Tolstoy shows death as an honest prospect.

  Not only did Prince Andrew know he would die, but he felt that he was dying and was already half dead. He was conscious of an aloofness from everything earthly and a strange and joyous lightness of existence. Without haste or agitation he awaited what was coming. That inexorable, eternal, distant, and unknown the presence of which he had felt continually all his life- was now near to him and, by the strange lightness he experienced, almost comprehensible and palpable… Formerly he had feared the end. He had   twice experienced that terribly tormenting fear of death- the end- but now he no longer understood that fear. He had felt it for the first time when the shell   spun like a top before him, and he looked at the fallow field, the bushes, and the sky, and knew that he was face to face with death. When he came to himself after being wounded and the flower of eternal, unfettered love had instantly unfolded itself in his soul as if freed from the bondage of life that had restrained it, he no longer feared death and ceased to think about it. ( War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy)

 The centerpiece of Tolstoy’s world view is the belief that meaning cannot be found in the world as it is—a world in which one must die. In his view, the fact that both oneself and all of one’s efforts and accomplishments are ineluctably doomed to extinction renders them utterly pointless and futile. It was precisely this belief that brought Tolstoy to his deepest despair and to the brink of suicide (Bergner, 2010).

Later in life Count Tolstoy formulated a stereotype unique philosophy. Although he was criticized by the clergy and even excommunicated by the Russian Orthodox Church Tolstoy believed that philosophic principles can only be understood in their concrete expression in history.

War and Peace reflects Tolstoy’s view -that all is predestined. Tolstoy believed that history is determined by a number of facts and no individual can change the course of history. He writes no one controls events not even Napoleon or General Kutuzov Commander-in-chief of the Russian forces or the Tsar Alexander I. In his epic novel Tolstoy makes an attempt to explain the theory of how history works.

In his own words Leo Tolstoy states

“In historical events great men – so-called – are but labels serving to give a name to the event, and like labels they have the least possible connection with the event itself. Every action of theirs, that seems to them an act of their own free will, is in an historical sense not free at all, but in bondage to the whole course of previous history, and predestined from all eternity.”

This philosophy was later grasped by many novelists and film directors. For instance in the movie Wind and the Lion (Starring Sean Connery Sean Connery) the nomad leader of the desert   Raisuli compares his place in the universe as a pawn in the chess game which he has no control . Tolstoy once said man lives consciously for himself, but is an unconscious instrument in the attainment of the historic, universal, aims of humanity”

According to Itriyeva (2008) the ultimate wisdom of War and Peace ends in the ambiguous conflict of admitting ever-changing forces of history and exposing oneself to history while also attempting to create life-sustaining order.

 Personal Communications

  • Professor Raymond M. Bergner-Department of Psychology, Illinois State University
  • Professor Guy Proulx – Clinical Psychologist and Professor of Psychology -Glendon Campus York University Canada

 References

Albin, R.L.(1990). Arch Neurol. 47(2):225-6.The death of Nicholas Bolkonski. Neurology in Tolstoy’s War and Peace.

Anargyros-Klinger, A.(2002). The thread of depression throughout the life and works of Leo Tolstoy.Int J Psychoanal.  83(Pt 2):407-18.

Bergner, R .(1998). Therapeutic approaches to problems of meaninglessness.   American Journal of Psychotherapy, 52, pp. 1-16.

Bergner, R. (2010). The Tolstoy dilemma: A Paradigm Case Formulation and some therapeutic interventions. 

Harding, L. (2010). Leo Tolstoy: the forgotten genius? The Guardian.

Itriyeva, I .(2008). An Examination of Free Will in Tolstoy’s War and Peace. Retrieved from http://wesscholar.wesleyan.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1109&context=etd_hon_theses

Kingsley , H. (2013). Natasha Rostova from War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy   Retrieved from http://www.humanities360.com/index.php/natasha-rostova-from-war-and-peace-by-leo-tolstoy-4372/

Lenin, V.I. Collected works, vol. 16, p. 323; see also Leo Tolstoy as the mirror of the Russian revolution,vol. 15, pp. 202-09.

Parini, J . (2009). The Diaries of Sofia Tolstoy, translated by Cathy Porter.The Guardian, Saturday 5 December.

Rancourt-Laferer, D. (1998 June 4). Presented at the 15th International Conference “Psychoanalysis, literature and art”, St. Petersburg.

Simmons, E.J. (1968).War And Peace From Introduction To Tolstoy’s Writings by Ernest J Simmons. Retrieved from /smartboard/shop/smmnsej/tolstoy/chap5.htm

Thugushev,N.( 2006). Free Will in War and Peace. Aporia vol. 16 no. 2.

Tolstoy, L.(1982). War and Peace. Trans. Rosemary Edmonds. New York: Penguin.

Tolstoy, L.(1984). The Kingdom of God is Within You. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Yegorov, S.F. (1994). PROSPECTS: the quarterly review of comparative education (Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. XXIV p. 647–60.

රට ගැන නොසිතන ව්‍යවස්ථා පැලැස්තර කාරයෝ

September 8th, 2014

චන්ද්‍රසිරි විජයවික්‍රම

    යායුතු පාර හොඳට පෙනෙද්දී කැලෑවේ යන කෙනෙකුගේ ගනයට අතුරැලියේ රතන හාමුදුරුවන් ද ඇද වැටිය යුතුද? 1978 න් පසු ජේ ආර් හා ප්‍රේමදාස එකතුව ලංකාවට ඇටවූ මර උගුල් තුනක් නම් බහු භූත ව්‍යවස්තාව, විකාර චන්ද ක්‍රමය හා 13-ඒ කියන රට බෙදීමේ ඉනිමඟ යන තුන ය. රනිල් වික්‍රමසිංහ කල 2002 මහා ලෝක පාවාදීම 2009 දී හසලක වීරයා විසින් ඉවත් කර දෙන ලදී. එල්ලේ ගුණවංශ, ගලගොඩ අත්තේ ඥානසාර මෙන්ම රතන හාමුදුරුවන් ද “මේ යුද්ධය නම් කවදාවත්ම දිනන්න බෑ” කියා සුදු නෙළුම් ගෙන ගිය අයට විරුද්ධව ක්‍රියා කර මහින්ද රාජපක්‍ෂ ඉඅනාධිපති ගේ පිට කොන්ද ශක්තිමත් කලේය.

    කාටත් අමතකව විශ්‍රාම යාමට දින නියමිතව සිටි සරත් ෆොන්සේකාව කරලියට ගෙන යුද්ධය කිරීමට ගෝඨාභය ට හැකි වුවත් දේශපාලක හොරුන් ඉදිරියේ ඔහු අද අසරණ වී සිටී. බහු භූත එක හා 13-ඒ එක ඉවත් කල නොහැක්කේ වෙන කිසිම සුදුසුකමක් නැතිව ජේ ආර් මාමාගෙ බෑණා නිසාම දේශපාලනයට ආ රනිල් වික්‍රමසිංහද ඇතුළු සියලුම නිල් රතු කොල පක්‍ෂ දේශපාලන හොර රැල නිසා ය. මොවුන්ට තමන්ගේ හොද්ද බොර කර ගන්නට කදිම ගෝල්ඩ් මයින් එකක් පලාත් සභා නමැති ජාතික විනාශය මගින් ලැබී ඇත. 13-ඒ නැති කිරීමට වඩාම අකමැති ජනාධිපති මහින්ද රාජපක්‍ෂ, ඔහුගේ යූ එන් පී කාරයින්ගෙන් පිරුණු කැබිනට් විහිළුව හා පලාත් සභා හොරු රැළ දය. පළාත් සභා චන්ද සෙල්ලම ඔහුට ඇලඩින්ගේ පාණක් වැනිසේ ය.

    මේ බොරු බෞද්ධ දේශපාලකයින් ලංකාවේ සිංහල බෞද්ධ ජනයාට සලකා ඇත්තේ, සළකන්නේ, හරියට ලංකාවේ පිරිමි හිත හොඳ ගෑණුන්ට සලකන ආකාරයට වගේ බව බොදු බල සේනාව විසින් පෙන්වා දීමත් සමග සෑම දේශපාලන හොරෙක්ම බලවත් අගාධයකට වැටී සිටී. සර්වෝදයට නෝර්වේ රටෙන් කෝටි ප්‍රකෝට ආධාර මුදල් දැනටත් ලැබේ. බොදු බල සේනාවට ශතයක් වත් නෝර්වේ රටෙන් නොලැබේ. එහෙත් ඥානසාර හිමියන් විනාශ කිරීමට කෙතරම් විශාල පිරිසක් ක්‍රියා කරමින් ඉන්නවාද? සෝම හාමුදුරුවන්ට කල දේ උන්වහන්සේටත් කරන්න ඇත්නම් කියා හිතන අය කෙතරම් ඇද්ද? සර්වෝදය ගැන කතා නොකරන්නේත්, බොදු බල සේනාව හපා කන්නට වලිකන්නේත් කුමක් නිසාද? තමන් විසින් එකඟවන සීමා යටතේ යම් ව්‍යාපාර කර ගෙන යෑමට මේ හොරු විරුද්ධ නැත. නමුත් තමන්ගේ ගේම් එක එලිවන, බඩ ගෝස්තරයට ගැහෙන, නිර්‍වස්ත්‍ර කිරීම් කරන අයට මේ සෙල්ලම් පිටියේ ඉඩක් නැත. එස් බී දිසානායක, ඩිලාන්. රාජිත, වාසු, මර්වින් සිල්වා වගේ අය ගැන සිතා බලන්න.
       
    ජේ ආර් විසින් කල ගොන් කම් අතර, අන්තිමේ පිටිපස්ස බිම ඇනී, රොනල්ඩ් රීගන් ගෙන් ද සවුත්තුවී, රේස් කාර එලවන්නෙකු වූ රජීව් ගාන්ධිට දන ගැසීම ඔහු කල ඥානවන්ත ක්‍රියාවකි. එසේ නොවන්නට රජිව් ලංකාවේ දෙමල රටක් සදා එය තහවුරු කර දී යනවා ය. ජේ ආර් රජීව් ට හා ඩික්‍ෂිට් ට දුන් තව ලනුවක් නම් 13-ඒ එක අනිත් පලාත් හතටද පැටවීමය. මෙම දහන් ගැටය ඩික්‍ෂිට් ට තේරුනේ නැත. උතුරේ හා නැගෙනහිර දෙමල ප්‍රදේශයක් තිබෙනවාය යන කතාවට අනුව රජිව් ට ඕනෑ වුයේ 13-ඒ උතුරට හා නැගෙනහිරට පමණක් සීමා කිරීමටය. නමුත් ජේ ආර් කලේ ඒ ප්ලෑනට විශාල ජරමරයක් ඇට වීමය. එය හරියට රෑ හනිමූන් කාමරයේ කලින් පෙම්වතිය හා අළුත් මනමාලි යන දෙන්නාම ඉන්නවා වගේ ය. මෙසේ රජිව් ගේ දෙමල රට ප්ලෑන අච්චාරුවක් විය. ඒ අවස්ථාවේ හැටියට මරණ බයින් සිටි ජේ ආර් (අවශ්‍ය වුනොත් පැන යාමට ඉන්දියන් නැවක් කොළඹට ගෙන්වා ගැනීමත්, යුද හමුදා කැරැල්ලක් ඒ ය යන බය නිසා ඉන්දීය හමුදා ගෙන්වා ගැනීමත්) මෙසේ ක්‍රියා කිරීම නිසා රටට නැවත හුස්ම ගැනීමට ඉඩක් ලැබුණි. ඔහු මොන විනාශයක් රටට කලත් මෙය අමතක කල නොහැකිය.

    මේ වගේම ජේ ආර් ගේ විධායක ජනාධිපති සෙල්ලම, 2006-2009 කාලය වනවිට ලංකාවට අත්වුන වෙස්වලාගත් භාග්‍යයක් විය. එහි බලතල නිසා නොවේ නම් ගෝඨාභයගේ යුද සටන අතරමග බකල් වීමට ඉඩ තිබුණි. විමල් වීරවංශට පින් සිදුවන්නට ජේ වී පී එක පාර්ලිමේන්තු අයවැය දිනවා නොදුන්නා නම් ප්‍රහාකරන් අදටත් ජීවත් වන වාය. නමුත් මේ තනතුරට පත්වූ හැම එක්කෙනාම (ඩී බී විජේතුංග හැර) මානසික විකෘතියකට, ඔල්මාද ගතියකට පත්වෙන බව පෙනේ. මේ නිසා එහි ඒකාධිපති අංග වලට ප්‍රතිකර්‍ම යෙදිය යුතු මුත්, දැන් ලංකාවේ ඇති උභතෝකෝටික අර්බුද ඉදිරියේ මෙවැනි තරතුරක් තිබීම ඉතාමත් අවශ්‍යව ඇත. වැරැද්ද තනතුරේ නොව එයට පත්‌වන පුද්ගලයා ය.

    මේ සියළු කාරණා ගැන නොසලකා නොයෙක් ආකාරයේ පැලැස්තර දමන්නට යෝජනා කිරීම පිස්සු වැඩකි. 17 වන සංශොධනය යනු පිස්සු පාර්ලිමේන්තුවක පිස්සු වැඩකි. ඒ අනුව ජනාධිපති ගේ තටු කැපීමටය කියා ස්වාධීන කොමිටු පත් කෙරේ. නමුත් මේ කොමිටි පත් කරන්නේ, මනා සුදුසු කම් ඇති පුද්ගලයින්ව, දේශපාලන පක්‍ෂවලට සම්බන්ධයක් නැති සංවිධාන හරහා/විසින් නොව දේශපාලන පක්‍ෂ විසින් ය. මේ දේශපාලකයින් රට ගැන හිතා නියම සුදුස්සන් පත් කරයිද? ඒ කාලයේ සෙනේට් සභාවට පත් වීම් කල හැටි මතකද? රත්නපුරේ අතුරු මැතිවරනයෙන් දිනූ පුද්ගලයා පාර්ලිමේන්තුවට දිව්‍ර‌ැම් දීමට යාමට පෙර පැරදුනු සීතා මොලමුරේ සෙනේට් එකේ අසුන් ගත්තේය. මේ වගේම මෑතකදී ව්‍යවස්ථාදායක සභාවට පත් කිරීමට රනිල් වික්‍රමසිංහට සිටි හොඳම සුදුස්සා වූයේ 1971 ත්‍රස්තවාදියෙකුවූ, විවෘත‌වම අම රට බෙදීමට ලියන/ක්‍රියාකල ජයදේව උයන්ගොඩ බව අමතකද?

    මාදුළුවාවේ සෝභිත හිමියන්, විමල් වීරවංශ, ජාතික හෙළ උරුමය, දිනේෂ් ගුනවර්‍ධන, රනිල්, ජේ වී පී, සරත් ෆොන්සේකා, සරත් සිල්වා හා දැන් අළුතින්ම රතන හාමුදුරුවෝ ත් (දැනට සංශොධන කාණ්ඩ නමයක්) මේ ආකාරයේ පැලැස්තර ගේන්නේ තිබෙන ක්‍රමය රැක ගැනීම ට තම යටි හිතේ ඇති ආශාව නිසා නොවේද? එය ඔවුන් ගේ සුඛොපභොගී පැවැත්මට ඉඩ ලබා දෙන නිසාය. නමුත් සිදු විය යුත්තේ එය නොවේ. තිබෙන ක්‍රමය, කළු සුද්දන්ගේ ක්‍රමය, දැන්වත් සම්පූර්‍ණයෙන්ම වෙනස් කල යුතුය. එය කරන තෙක් කල හැකි වෙනත් ක්‍රියා කීපයක්ම ඇත. “හරක්” පාර්ලිමේන්තු මන්ත්‍රීන් කරන චන්ද ක්‍රමය වෙනස් කිරීම ප්‍රථම පියවරය. 13-ඒ අහෝසි කිරීම දෙවන පියවරය. ඉන් පසු ජනාධිපති ධූරයේ අත්තනෝමතික බලතල කපා දැමීම කල යුතු ඥානවන්තයින් සිටින පාර්ලිමේන්තුවක් මගින් ය. මේවා කලොත් කඩදාසි ලිපේ දැම්මා වගේ කලබලයෙන් දුවන්නට අවශ්‍ය නැත.
අධිකරණය ස්වාධීන කල හැකි, ශ්‍රේෂ්ඨාධිකරණයට නඩු කාරයින් පත් කිරීමේ බලය ජනාධිපතිගෙන් ඉවත් කිරීමෙනි. 17 වන සංශොධනය යටතේ එන කොමිටි වලින් මෙය කල නොහැකිය. දේශපාලන පන්දමට රජයේ රක්‍ෂා දෙන තාක් රාජ්‍ය සේවය අපක්‍ෂපාත හෝ කාර්‍යක්‍ෂම කල නොහැක.  මැතිවරණ අපක්‍ෂපාත කල හැකි චන්ද කාලයේදී පොලිසිය මැතිවරණ කොමසාරිස්ට වගකිවයුතු කිරීමෙන් ය. චන්ද දූෂණ ගැන කියා නොකල විට මැතිවරණ කොමසාරිස්ට නඩු දැමීමට මහජනයාට බලය දෙන තෙක් ඔහු ෂේප් වීමේ න්‍යාය අනුගමනය කිරීම ස්වභාවිකය.

    අද රටේ ඇති ලොකුම ප්‍රශ්නයක් නම් 13-ඒ උවදුරය. 13-ඒ වෙනුවට ජන සභා මගින් ජනතාවට බලය පවරනවා නම් ඒ මගින් අද රටේ ඇති නොයෙක් අර්බුද, ව්‍යසන වලට විසඳුමක් ලබා දීමට පුළුවන. උදාහරණයක් වශයෙන් 13-ඒ අහෝසි කිරීම නිසා තුන්වන ආර්‍ය සත්‍යයේ මෙන් ශූන්‍ය/හිස්/හිඩැස්/ස්වභාවයක් (වැකූම්/එම්ප්ටි) හටගනී. “දුක නැති කිරීම” යන්න ඒ සත්‍යය ය (දුක-දුකට හේතුව-දුක නැතිකිරීම- දුක නැතිකිරීමේ මග). 13-ඒ නැති කිරීම යනු 13-ඒ නැති කල හැකි දෙයක් ය යන්නය. නමුත් එය නැති කල පසු නිකන් බලා සිටිය නොහැකිය. ඒ වෙනුවට වෙන යමක් සිදුවිය යුතුය, සිදු කල යුතුය. ඒ මග නම් දිවි නැගුම මග නොව ජන සභා මගය. සම්මුති දේශපාලන ක්‍රමයක් බිහි කිරීම කල යුත්තේ ඒ නිසාය. ගමට බලය පැවරීම යන සංකල්පය වැදගත් වන්නේ මේ නිසාය. ජන සභා ඩිරෙක්ටර් ජෙනරාල් කෙනෙක් ද පත් කර ජන සභා ගැන බැසිල් රාජපක්‍ෂ මහතා කරපු කලබගෑනිය මෙහිදී මතකයට ඒ. පක්‍ෂ දේශපාලනය නමැති පොළඟා තමන්ගේ යට ඇඳුම් අස්සේ හංඟා ගෙන බොරුවට එයට බැනීම මේ දේශපාලකයින්ගේ හොර හැසිරීමය. ජන සභා ඇති කලොත් මේ අය කොට උඩ යන්නේ ය. ඉන්දියාවේ පංචයාත් ක්‍රමය අනුව පස් දෙනෙක් එකඟතාවයකට ආ තැන දෙවියෝ වැඩ සිටිති.

    අද ලංකාවේ ඇති බලු පක්‍ෂ දේශපාලනය නැති කර, සුදුසු අයට සුදුසු තැන ලැබෙන ක්‍රමයක් සාදා, දූෂණ, පගා, වංචා, අපරාධ ඉවත් කිරීමට ක්‍රම යොදා, බුද්ධාගම විනාශ කිරීමට එන බලවේග වලට තිත තබා ගත හැකි ආකාරයේ අළුත්, මහජනයා විසින් යෝජනා කරන ව්‍යවස්ථාවක් තදියමකින් තොරව සදා ගැනීමට මිස, ප්ලාස්ටර් ලංකාවට අවශ්‍ය නැත. 1948 දී ලංකාව නිදහස ලැබුවා නම් 1505 ට පෙර තිබූ සිංහල බෞද්ධ සමාජයේ සාර ධර්‍ම (ජාතක කතා වලින් හැඩගැසුනු සමාජ ආර්ථික රටාවන්) යලි ස්ථාපිත විය යුතුය. නමුත් සිදුවූයේ ක්‍රිස්තියානි ක්‍රමයම තව තවත් තහවුරු කිරීම නොවේ ද? සිංහල බෞද්ධයින්ට සිදුකල ඓතිහාසික හිරිහැර හා වෙනස්කම් ඉවත් කිරීම සෙසු සුළු ජන කොටස් වලට කරන අසාධාරණයක්, ඔවුන්ගේ මානව අයිතිවාසිකම් කඩ කිරීමක් නොවේ. දැන් ඩේවිඩ් කැමරන් අළුතින්ම කියන්නේ 1957 දී ගුණපාල මලලසේකර මහතා කිව්වාට වඩා (සිංහල බෞද්ධ 70% ට නිසි තැන දිය යුතුය) වෙනස් දෙයකි. එංගලන්තයේ ඉංග්‍රීසි ශිෂ්ටාචාරය අනිත් අය විසින් පිළිපැදිය යුතුය කියාය.

    13-ඒ නැති කිරීම නිසා දෙමල ජාතික ජනයාට ඔවුන්ගේ පොදු ප්‍රාර්‌ථනා (ඇස්පිරේෂන්ස්) ලබා ගැනීමට ඉඩක් නැති වේය යන චෝදනාවට ව්‍යවස්ථා පැලැස්තර කාරයින්  නිහඬ ඔවුන් 13-ඒ වලට, ඒ කියන්නේ 13-ඒ ප්ලස් වලට එකඟ වන නිසාද? (13-ඒ ප්ලස් උතුරේ පලාත් සභාව ඉල්ලන මස් රාත්තලය). මේ ගැන පැලැස්තර ගේන් නම දෙනාම නිහඬ ඇයි?  මෙය දෙමල ජනයාගේ ප්‍රශ්නයක් නොව දෙමල ජනයා රවටන ඊනියා දෙමල නායකයින්ගේ ප්‍රශ්නයකි.  අඩු තරමින් රතන හාමුදුරුවන්ට වත් මේ ගැන කෙලින් කතා කල හැකි විය යුතුව තිබුනේය. මේ නිසා ගමට බලය පැවරීම යන අදහස භාෂා-ජාති බෙදුමකින් තොරව සිදු කල යුතුය.

    සාමාන්‍ය දෙමල ජනයාට මෙම නායකයින් පොලිස් හා ඉඩම් බලය ඉල්ලීම සටන් පාඨයක් නොවුවත්, දෙමල, මුස්ලිම් හා සිංහල ජනතාවට ගම් මට්ටමින් බලය පැවරීම හරහා මිසක් වෙනම දෙමල රටක් සඳහා වන ව්‍යාපාරය නසාලූ නොහැකි බව අමතක කරන්නට රටේ නොයෙක් දේශපාලකයින් සිතීම විහිළුවකි.  මෙය ප්‍රෙග්නන්සි එකක් හංගන්න පුළුවන් කියා සිතනවා වගේ ය. සංහිදියා කොමිසම කියා සිටියේත් ගමට බලය පවරන ලෙසය. නැගෙනහිර නවෝදය හා උතුරු වසන්තය නියම වශයෙන් එන්නේ ඒ ප්‍රදේශවල මිනිසුන්ට තමන්ගේ එදිනෙදා කටයුතු ගැන තීරණ ගැනීමට බලයක් තිබෙන බව හේත්තු යාමෙන් පමණය. 1948 දී සිංහල බෞද්ධයින්ට නියම වශයෙන් නිදහසක් නොලැබුණ අයුරු, 2009 දී ප්‍රභාකරන් ගෙන් දෙමල ජනයා මුදා ගැනීම නියම මුදා ගැනීමක් නොවන්නේත්, ටී එන් ඒ බෙදුම් වාදීන්ට ආණ්ඩුවට විරුද්ධව චන්ද ගත හැකි වූයේත් පාරවල්, පාලම් හා ලයිට් කනු වලින් අවුරුදු 50 කට වඩා පරණ බෙදුම් වාදය ජය ගත හැකි යැයි ඇමතිවරු කීපදෙනෙක් සිතීමය.

    රටේ පසැල් වල සිංහල හා දෙමල ඉගැන්වීමෙනුත්, ග්‍රාම සේවක වසම්වල මායිම් හා සියළුම පරිපාලන හා චන්ද කොඨ්ටාස මායිම් පරිසරයට එකඟවන පරිදි බෙදා
නියම කීරීමෙන් ය. මෙම බෙදීම් ලැන්ගුවේජ් බ්ලයින්ඩ් ඒකක විය යුතුය. අතීත ලංකාවේ ගම-වැව-දාගැබ යන ත්‍රිත්වය මෙම පරිසර සංකල්පය ක්‍රියාවට නැගීමක් විය. කැනඩාව, ඇමෙරිකාව වැනි විශාල රටවල පාලන ඒකක බොහෝ විට මෙසේ බෙදා ඇත. කුඩා රටක් වන නිව්සීලන්තයේ නීතිය අනුව සියළුම ප්‍රාදේශිය සභා පරිපාලන ඒකක පරිසරයට (ගංඟා නිම්න අනුව) අනුකූල වන අන්දමට බෙදිය යුතුය. ලංකාවේ ගංඟා නිම්න 103 ක් ඇති නිසා ග්‍රාම සේවක වසම් මේ අනුව බෙදිය හැකිය.  මෙසේ ඇති කරගත් නව ග්‍රාම සේවක වසම් වල ජනයාට තමන්ගේ එදි නෙදා පාලන කටයුතු ගෙන යාමට බලය පැවරිය යුතුය. එහි පාලනය පක්‍ෂ දේශපාලනයෙන් තොරව තෝරා ගන්නා දස දෙනෙකුගෙන් යුත් ජන සභා කොමිටියකට පැවරිය යුතු ය. මූලික අධ්‍යාපනය, පාරවල්, සනීපා රක්‍ෂාව, පරිසර දූෂණය, කෘෂිකර්‍මය යනාදී කටයුතු මෙම ජන සභා වලට පැවරිය හැකි දේවල් ය. මේ මගින් දැනට මහජනයාට විඳින්නට සිදුවන හිරි හැර දුක් ගැහැට සියේට 70 ක් පමණම නැති කර ගත හැකි වේ.

    මේ ජන සභා අදහස අළුත් දෙයක් නොවේ. බොහෝ අය මේ ගැන කතා කර ඇත. සර්වෝදය මේ ගැන බොහෝ කාලයක සිට කතා කලේය. මෙහිදී බොහෝ දෙනා නොදන්නා කරුණක් නම් ගැමි දිරිය නම් වැඩ සටහන යටතේ ඉතාමත් සාර්‍ථකව, මහජනයා විසින් තීරණ ගන්නා ක්‍රමයක් ලංකාවේ සමහර ප්‍රදේශ වල ක්‍රියාත්මක වූ බවය. දේශපාලකයින්ට මෙය වහකඳුරු වැනි සේ වූයේ ඔවුන්ට තීරණ ගැනීමේ ලා ඇඟිලි ගැසීමට ඉඩක් නැතිවීම නිසාය. මේ නිසා බැසිල් රාජපක්‍ෂ මහතා මෙම ගැමි දිරිය බකල් කර දමා දිවි නැඟුමක් ආරම්භ කලේය. සංහිඳියා කොමිසමේ කී පරිදි ගමට බලය පැවරීමක් වෙනුවට තවත් යෝධ ආණ්ඩුවේ දෙපාර්‍තමේන්තුවක් ඔහු ඇති කලේය. වික්‍රමබාහුව විශ්වාස කල නොහැකි වුවත් දිවි නැගුම ව්‍යාපාරය නාස්තියක් වී ඇති අන්දම ඔහු ලඟදී පෙන්වා දුන්නේ සංඛ්‍යාලේඛන ඉදිරිපත් කරමින් ය.

    13-ඒ නැති කර ජන සභා සංකල්පය ලංකාව පුරාම, පරිසර නිර්‍ණායක (මතුපිට ජලය, භූගත ජලය) මත මායිම් ලකුණු කල ග්‍රාම සේවක වසම් (ජන සභා) අනුව ක්‍රියාවේ යෙදෙව්වා නම්, දෙමල ජනයා ට (දෙමල ජනයා රවටන රට බෙදන්නට හදන බොරු දෙමල නායකයින් නොව) ඉන් බලවත් සැනසීමක් ලැබීමට ඉඩ තිබිණ. දැන් ආණ්ඩුව උතුරු පලාතේ ටී එන් ඒ එකේ රට කැඩීමේ ව්‍යාපාරය නිසා අමාරුවේ වැටී සිටින්නේ කාපට් පාරවල් දැමීම මඟින් දෙමල ජනයාව සතුටු කල හැකි වේය කියා සිතා ක්‍රියා කිරීම නිසාය. ආණ්ඩුව විසින් හිඟන්නාගේ තුවාලයක් කරගෙන ඇති ව්දේශ යුද අපරාධ විමර්‍ශන භීතිය මෙසේ ජන සභා ක්‍රියාවට නැගුවා නම් මතු නොවේ. දෙමල මිනිසුන්ට තමන්ගේ ගම් වල වැඩ කටයුතු කරගෙන යන්නට ඉඩ දී තිබේ නම් ඇමෙරිකාවට හෝ බෑන් කි මූන්ට හෝ පිල්ලේ ට කල හැකි දෙයක් නැත.

    දෙමල ජනයාට බලයක් ලැබීම (සිංහල, මුස්ලිම් ජනයා ගැන ද එසේමය) හැර මෙම ජන සභා ක්‍රමය නිසා ටැමිල් නාඩු සමග එක්වී රට බෙදාවිය යන භීතිය සිංහල ජනයාගේ සිත් වලින් ඉවත් කිරීමට උපකාර වේ. ජාතිය අනුව මායිම් කල  උතුරු හෝ නැගෙනහිර හෝ ඔළුවෙල් ප්‍රදේශයක් වෙනුවට සියළු ජන කොටස් වලට ග්‍රාම සේවක මට්ටමෙන් පුද්ගලික හා පොදු අභිලාශයන් ඉටු කර ගැනීමට ඉඩ දීම සිංහල ජාතියට ටැමිල් නාඩුවෙන් එන තර්‍ජනය වලක්වා ලීමට මාර්‍ගයක් වේ. නොයෙක් සංවර්‍ධන ව්‍යපෘති සඳහා ග්‍රාම සේවා වසම් වලට එක් වීමට සිදු වුවත් එය ලංකාවේ දෙමල බෙදුම් වාදීන්ට ලෝකයේ ප්‍රභාකරන්ගේ හොර සල්ලි පාවිච්චි කරමින් ක්‍රියා කරනා දෙමල බෙදුම් වාදීන් හා ටැමිල් නාඩු බෙදුම් වාදීන් හා සමඟ එකතු වීමට ඇති අවකාශය කඩා දමයි.

    ආප්පය රුපියල් 200 ටත් විස්කි බෝතලය ලක්‍ෂ නමයටත් විකුණන රටක්, ජනතාවගේ මූලික අවශ්‍යතා ඉදිරියේ අතරමං සිටී. ඩෙංගු, කිඩ්නි ඩිසීස්, පසැල්, ගමනාගමනය, කුණු කසල ඉවත් කිරීම වැනි දේ වත් හරි කාරයට කරගත නොහැකිව සිටින්නේ පටු, පුද්ගලික උවමනා උඩ රටට බොරු කිරීමට සියළුම පක්‍ෂ දේශපාලකයින් ක්‍රියා කරමින් සිටින නිසාය. මෙම පැලැස්තර කාරයින් හරි පාරට එන්නේ නැත්නම් රටට අවශ්‍ය නායකයෙක් බිහි කර ගැනීමේ කාර්‍යය බොදු බල සේනාවේ අවධානයට යොමු වනු නිසැකය.

Photo Poetry born out of war

September 8th, 2014

Janaka Perera

Roopa Kavya (Photo Poetry) a collection of pictorial poems in Sinhala and English published in Lanka Viththi, the first Sinhala newspaper published in the United Kingdom, was launched at the Mahaweli Centre Auditorium, Colombo on Thursday September 4 amidst a large gathering including leading intellectuals, artists, authors, journalists  and cinema and TV personalities.

Lanka Viththi was launched by Daya Ananda Ranasinghe in April, 1997 at a time when Sri Lanka was being unjustly vilified in the many countries over the State’s attempts to crush LTTE’s separatist terrorism.  Most Sinhala expatriates in the West were demoralized and dispirited during those dark years since they were the main target of attacks by the pro-Tiger Tamil Diaspora and their backers in the so-called international community and INGOs.  At the time there were 14 Tamil newspapers in London alone whereas not a single Sinhala newspaper anywhere in the UK.

Although Lanka Viththi  ceased publication in 2013, during the 16 year-period it was in circulation not only in the UK but also in other Western countries it lifted the spirits of Sinhala readers and strengthened their will to do whatever they could do for the welfare of the land of their birth.  Sinhala expatriates from many countries sent articles, letters and other contributions to the paper. Soldiers at the battle front in Sri Lanka too wrote poetry to Lanka Viththi which generated an indescribable emotional attachment in the hearts of the Sinhala expatriates towards their native country. 

Following is the English Translation of one of the poems about reminiscences of the Sinhala New Year at the height of the war:

If you remember the New Year as I do

Don’t you year, if possible of gong home? 

If that land was free from terrible war and fear

Oh! How beautiful and happy it would be, The Sinhala New Year!”

The paper had two pages for military personnel to make their contributions in the form of poetry and short essays and messages. These issues were distributed among the troops. The paper was printed at Daya’s own expense and distributed free. It had only a few advertisements unlike some other newspapers which were distributed free in the UK.

Roopa Kavya printed in London, UK carries a number of carefully selected photos with captions in verses in both Sinhala and English.  Although Daya had been living in London for 35 years his collection of poems reflect his deep love for his motherland. The theme of  Lanka Viththi was My mother and motherland is heaven to me.”

 To quote Daya Ranasinghe:

Every month when I penned down a verse musing on the photograph that would grace Lanka Viththi front page, to me it was just like doing a sacred service. I did it with careful devotion. Also it was a time our country was undergoing all sorts of calamities. Terrorism was the order of the day. What we heard from our motherland were continuous weeping and wailing.”

After leaving Sri Lanka towards the end of the month Daya hopes to hold two similar launching events among the Sinhala expatriates in France and Israel.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN BANGLADESH

September 7th, 2014

ALI SUKHANVER

 The day is not very far away when you would not find any thing ‘Made in Japan’ in the Bangladeshi market. Sheikh Hasina’s government, under pressure from India has crafted a tax policy that increased the tax and surcharges levied against Japanese products particularly the Japanese cars while decreasing the tax for substandard Indian cars. As a result of this tax-policy, Japanese car companies are losing millions of dollars worth of sales in Bangladesh. The situation is alarming not only to the quality-conscious people of Bangladesh but also to the international investors. If the practice of favouring Indian investors and crushing others remains unchecked, the future of foreign investment in Bangladesh would be badly affected.

 No doubt, it is a daylight fact that the government of Sheikh Hasina is directly under the influence of India and it is trying hard to transform Bangladesh into an Indian colony and all this is being done against the will and desire of the Bangladeshi people. The US State department also attested Indian influence on the present government of Bangladesh in a recently issued report. The report said, Bangladesh’s foreign and domestic policies are heavily” influenced by the region’s major powers, particularly India.” Talking of Indian influence in Bangladesh, Hasan Mir said in an article published in the Asia Times last January, Despite calls from the United Nations, the United States, the European Union, China, Japan and other allies, India has been acting as a spoiler in Bangladesh by supporting Hasina’s government. India’s interest in supporting a corrupt and inept regime is multifold. India has been granted access to Bangladeshi ports and road networks for easier access to northeastern states.” He further said, The Bay of Bengal’s lucrative gas blocks have been awarded to Indian companies without any due process and without the participation of other world-renowned companies. India’s security establishment has been granted unparalleled access to Bangladesh”.

 On the other hand, despite of Sheikh Hasina’s showering kindness on India; the behaviour of the Indian politicians has ever been hostile and unfriendly to Bangladesh. The issue of Bangladeshi immigrants in India is becoming more and more serious every day. Indian politicians particularly those who belong to the BJP are not ready to welcome these immigrants. In the last April, BJP leader Subramaniam Swamy said in Guhawati that Bangladesh should compensate India with land if it did not agree to take back the so-called immigrants. He said, According to my estimate, one-third of Bangladesh’s population lives in India. Thus one-third of Bangladesh territory should go to India.” Even the Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi is found repeating his assertion of taking tough measures against the illegal Bangladeshi immigrants in India. In such a hostile situation, Sheikh Hasina’s unceasing efforts to give India the status of a ‘Favourite Nation’ are unintelligible.

 A few weeks back, the decision of the Court of Arbitration regarding the ownership of the Talpatti Island proved a serious mental shock to the whole of Bangladeshi nation. This island emerged in the Bay of Bengal in the aftermath of the Bhola cyclone in 1970, and disappeared at some later point. Since then this ‘Lost Island’ has been a bone of contention between Bangladesh and India. In 1981 India had reportedly hoisted the Indian flag on the island and established a temporary base of Border Security Force.

According to the Indian media the naval gun-ships of BSF had been regularly visiting the Island Talpatti. But at the same time Bangladesh always claimed sovereignty over the Island because of possibilities of the existence of oil and natural gas in the region. A few years back the confrontation on the issue became so severe that it had to be referred to the Permanent Court at Hague.

The Law experts and technocrats from both India and Bangladesh contested the case. On 7th July 2014, the Court of Arbitration gave its verdict, awarding 19, 467 square kilometers, out of disputed 25, 602 square kilometers area to Bangladesh and handing over around 6000 square kilometers of strategically and politically important South Talpatti Island to India. Though the Government of Bangladesh is trying to spread the impression that the Talpatti Island is no more in existence and Sheikh Hasina is terming the decision as Triumph and Sacrifice of Friendship but most of the people in Bangladesh are not happy over the decision.

BNP vice-chairman Hafizuddin Ahmed had been the water resources minister in a previous government and is considered an authority on conflicting water issues between India and Bangladesh. Commenting on the verdict he said, Bangladesh has lost its rights over South Talpatti as after the judgment the maritime boundary was drawn 4.5km inside Bangladesh territorial waters from the last south-west boundary. South Talpatti Island is very much in existence now and if the island is submerged, in the course of time it might surface again.” Hafizuddin Ahmed said criticizing the happiness and joy of Sheikh Hasina over the verdict , Bangladesh government’s happiness over the verdict is a proof that the present domestic and foreign diplomacy of Bangladesh is largely controlled and influenced by India; the 25,000sq km sea area was not a disputed area; rather it was the property of Bangladesh.”

ආදරණීය සටන් සගය

September 7th, 2014

Chandrasena Pandithage

අයිතීන් යනු කුමක්දැයි ඔබ දන්නේද? ඔබ කවරෙක්දැයි ඔබ දනනේද?
ඇතතටම ඔබ කවුද?
උපතේ සිටම යදම් වලින් බැදි වහලෙකි.
ඔබ කිසිදා යදම් දුටුවේම නැත.
ඔබට උපතක් ඇත. මරණයක්ද ඇත.
ඔබ උපතවත් මරණයවත් තීරණය කරන්නා නොවේ.
ඔබට උපතේ සිට මරණය දක්වා සිය කටයුතු කර ගැනීමට කාලයක් උරුම කරදී ඇත.
ඒ කාලයේදී ඔබ කරන්නේ මොනවාද?
විරෝධතා පුවරු අතට ගෙන, පාරේ වේලෙමින්, තමාගේ අනාගතයද, කැප කරමින්, අනාගතය වෙනුවෙන් සටන කරන බව කියයි.
අනාගතය කැප කරන එකා, අනාගතය වෙනුවෙන් සටන් කරන්නෙක් නොවන බව, ඔබ නොහදුනයි.
අනාගතය කැප කරන්නා හා අනාගතය වෙනුවෙන සටන් කරන්නා අතර වෙනස ඔබ නොහදුනයි.
මේ අභිමානයෙන් කථා කරන අනාගතය කැප කරන්නා, විරෝධතා පුවරු අතට ගෙන, පාරේ වේලෙමින්, තමාගේ අනාගතය, පමණක් නොව, වර්තමානයද කැප කරයි. ඔහ වර්තමානය කැප කර න බවක් නොදකී.
වර්තමානය කැප කිරීම තුලින්, මේ වර්තමානයට ලගාවීම සදහා අතීතය පුරාම කලකැප කිරීම්ද විනාශ කරයි. ඔබ ඒ බවක නොදකී.
ඔබ මේ කැප කිරීම නමින් හංවඩු ගසා විනාශ කරන්නේ, ඔබගේ දෙමව පියන් ඔබ උපතේ සිටම ඔබ වෙනුවෙන් කරන ලද කැප කිරීම් සම්භාරයයි.
ඔබ මේ විනාශ කරන්නේ, ඔබේ ඥාතීන් ඔබ උපතේ සිටම ඔබ වෙනුවෙන් කරන ලද කැප කිරීම සම්භාරයයි.
ඔබ මේ විනාශ කරනනේ ඔබගේ ගුරුවරු ඔබ වෙනුවෙන් සිදුකල අතීත කැප කිරීම් සම්භාරයයි.
මුලු මහත් සමාජයම මහත් අසීරුතා මධ්යේ ඔබ වෙනුවෙන් ගොඩනැංවූ ඒ මහා මනදිරට ගිනි අවුලවා, දමා ඇත.
උඹ මහා පට්ට පල් මෝඩයෙකි.උඹේ උපත වෙනුවෙන, උඹේ දෙමව් පියන්ට එදින යමෙක් වසු පැටවෙක හා වැස්සි පැටවෙකු තෑගි වශයෙන්,ලබා දුන්නේ නම්,
නුඹේ දෙමව් පියන් උන් දෙන්නාව, නුඹව බලා ගත්තා සේ ආදරයෙන් රැක බලාගත්තේ නම්,
සිතන්න මේ වනවිට මේ රටේ සිදුව ඇති. පෙරලිය.
කිරි සදහා පිටරට යන සියලුම මුදල් කන්දරාවම, ඉතිරිව, කිරියෙන් සපිරි දේශයක් අපට උරුම වනු ඇත.
එසේ සිදු නොවීම හරහා අපට ලැබී ඇත්තේ, වස කුප්පියක් අතට ගෙන මම මෙය අනාගතය වෙනුවෙන් පානය කරන බව පවසන ඔබයි. නුඹ මහා කාලභක්ෂකයෙකි.

Are we a Warfare State?

September 6th, 2014

 By Garvin Karunaratne, Ph.D.( Michigan State Univerity)

 Economist  Dr Uswatte Aratchi,  has dubbed the current situation in Sri Lanka as a Warfare State.(The Island 19/8/2014)

 Already the views held by Dr UswatteAratchi have been contested by Professor G.H.Peiris in The Island of 19/8.

 Though I have been abroad since 1973, I lived in Sri Lanka from 1955 to 2000 and have also been visiting a few months every year since then. To my mind Sri Lanka was a Semi Welfare State till the late Seventies. It had free education and social services.  . Sri Lanka abolished the major poverty  alleviation programme; the Rice Ration Scheme in 1977, but has continued the free health service and education. It was far from the welfare state in the NATO block where there are payments to the unemployed and the old aged

 From the mid Eighties till 2009 it was a terrible situation where the LTTE Cadres were attacking either the armed forces or the unarmed civilians in some part of the island almost every day. They used suicide bombers, attacked the Katunayaka Airport destroying almost a dozen aircraft, the Airport at Anuradhapura, bombed the capital of Colombo among many other important targets. In the attack on the Central Bank on 31/1/96, 91 civilians were killed, 1400 injured and 100 lost their eye sight.  .  On 14/5/85 pilgrims and monks were gunned down at the most venerated Sri Maha Bodhi in Anuradhapura. The official report stated that 146 were killed . However when I spoke with the Superintendent of Police I was told that the number of civilians killed in Anuradhapura and a number of villages on that occasion was over five hundred. At that time the Government was afraid even to report the numbers killed.  Once I met a high ranking officer of the Administrative Service who was from Kebitigollewa and he said that three of his uncles were murdered by the LTTE.  I know of the Rajagiriya massacre on 10/3/2000 because I happened to be in Sri Lanka. There was absolute mayhem when a group of LTTE cadres started shooting their way from Rajagiriya Junction, near the Dr N.M. statue and shot at every vehicle that was on the road.  Some 30 civilians were killed and 53 wounded.  One of them even shot his way though the Castle Street Maternity Hospital.

 Everyone was scared because no one knew when the LTTE would attack next. At that time in many families the father and mother never traveled together for fear that if they get killed their siblings will become orphans. When I had to go to the City I would make inquiries from police officers known to me of incidents during the day. If the green light is given I would carefully drive to the car park behind Regal Theatre and approach the car park attendant and inquire about any attacks on that day. If any attack is known I would rush back home. If nothing has happened that day I would walk in trepidation, carefully alert, passing the temple at the round about where the chief incumbent was murdered a few weeks earlier.

In short there was never an end to the killing of civilians.

 That era stopped in  May 2009 with the defeat of the LTTE and to me the era of Warfare State ended  then. Thanks to our leader President Rajapaksa. The Armed Forces they have seen to it that there are no attacks since then.

 There have been instances of murders and these happen to be individual cases and this type of killing takes place in every country.  These have to be minimized and measures taken to ensure that the police and the judiciary are efficient and not corrupt.

 Dr Uswatte Aratchi highlights the expenditure on Defence. It is sighted that in 1974 only 4% of Government expenditure was spent on defence and that this increased to 17% by 2008 and is continuing at 12% in 2013.  The price of peace is eternal vigilance and it is my opinion that Sri Lanka must have an efficient and large armed force to maintain peace. I was the Government Agent at Matara when the JVP struck on 5 th April 1971 and we had to run in circles  to requisition private jeeps and even take back licensed guns to ward off the attack.  I once suggested that we should man the seas with a well equipped CoastGuard.  It is a well known fact that fisherfolk from Tamil nadu come to our area to fish.  Sri Lanka is blessed with a better climate and economy than South India and that makes people from South India come in by sea and settle down.  Further though the LTTE is defeated in Sri Lanka the LTTE cadres have established themselves overseas and agitate to get a foot hold some day. Thus it would be foolish to disband the Army.

 The Armed Forces are now being used for development work They did a yeoman service in purchasing vegetables in the producer areas and selling them at cheap rates in the City when the traders preyed on consumers. I was in the country at that time and am certain that it  was a job well done and reduced the cost of living of the people. Once this happened to be my job as Assistant Commissioner for Development of Marketing.  Then the Marketing Department(MD) had Purchasing Units in producer areas and the vegetables were brought overnight to Colombo where we had over fifty small sales depots where they were sold at cheap rates. The aim was unofficially controlling the prices. When  the MD sales unit sold any item at a cheap rate the traders had to reduce their sale price as otherwise they will not have sales. At the instance of the IMF this Marketing Department was axed and now inflation cannot be checked. The Army did accomplish a major task..

 The IMF also dictated that the Public Sector should get away from development tasks and that the Private Sector should be the engine of growth. With this provision, even today  the Public Sector could not be activated to re establish the Marketing Department, which planned the production and the sales of vegetables, ran a cannery that sold Sri lankan pineapples worldwide. The loser is our country. It is the Developed World that gained by selling Heinz Tomatoes sauce and many other  Fruit Juices to our country. Earlier in the days of the Marketing Department we made Juice with our fruits. Even Pineapples were exported. 

 Now the Army is used for developing the City and they have done a great job.

 In the USA too the Army is used for civilian tasks. I have seen them in action on my endless travels in the USA.. The  levees(bunds) that hold the Atlantic Ocean sea water away from  New Orleans because the level of the land is below sea level were built by the US Army and they maintain the levees even today. In Yellowstone National Park when at the initial stages  thugs and armed brigands took over the National Park it was the US Army that restored order. The US Army builds large hydro electricity schemes and I have myself seen the massive structures they have built on the Colombia River.  The US Army has played  a critical and essential role and it is good that our Army is following that model.

 Dr Uswatte Aratchi  holds the current Government responsible  for  the indebtedness of the country. It is true that Sri Lanka is today an indebted nation.   Dr Uswatte  Aratchi says that  the policies of the Government has made it necessary to borrow both at home and overseas.” 

 To state facts Sri Lanka was not an indebted nation at independence. We met the total . expenditure of the Gal Oya Project without borrowing a penny.

 The cause for this increase lies in the economic strategy that was sold to our country in 1977 by the IMF. This was the Structural Adjustment Programme(SAP) foisted on us when we went to the IMF for aid in 1977. This SAP included a set of policies which when implemented will cause any country to become bankrupt. Earlier we had very strict exchange controls which enabled us to use the foreign exchange that comes in for national development  and not waste it for luxury imports and endless foreign travel for those that can afford.  We had two budgets a foreign exchange budget and a local Rupee budget, Under the IMF’s advice we did away with exchange controls and allowed anyone to import anything and travel overseas and  allowed foreign exchange for overseas education. When the foreign exchange that came in was insufficient to meet the demand the IMF advice was to get loans and the IMF was instrumental in getting us loans at low interest and even grace periods, which meant that when the day comes to pay the interest and the instalment payments  the leaders who took the loans will not be in office. We took massive loans and that is true of other Third World  countries too.  Let me quote Cheryl Payer from her book, Lent and Lost: The IMF advised  to abolish  the foreign exchange budgeting system, lift controls on imports and consequently by the end of 1978 Tanzania had reserves only for ten days of imports. Then the IMF imposed its Structural Adjustment reforms. Tanzania which had a stable self reliant economy was broken down and brought to its knees”.

 That was not all the IMF dictated us to impose high interest on loans. Loans were given by banks at 24% interest and this killed all local entrepreneurs. Import tariffs were reduced and even abolished and in flowed imports. This was a ploy to revive the Developed Countries by creating sales for their manufactures.

 An important consequence was that this process of financing imports, allowing funds for overseas education, endless travel etc sent back the very funds that we were borrowing. back to the Donor countries. However as we had obtained the funds on loans it also increased our foreign debt. This was the process that was laid down by Milton Friedman to bring our countries to become colonies of the Superpowers once again.

 Another cause for our under development lies in the Devaluation of the Rupee that was caused by our implementing the SAP of the IMF. In 1978 itself immediately we accepted the SAP of the IMF the Rupee was devalued by over 100%(from Rs15.50 to the pound in October 1977 to Rs. 31.64 to the pound by 1978).  Over the period 1977 to 2014 the devaluation has been 1,319%(from Rs. 15.5 in 1977 to Rs. 220.00 in 2014)  On exports due to devaluation  we get paid less foreign currency and  on imports we have to pay more. In other words all our exports are given at a discounted rate.

 By the time the UNP handed over power after working on this IMF advice for seventeen years we had to borrow to service the loans and the indebtedness increased in leaps and bounds.  Thus this process was started well before the current regime took power.

 It is true that certain expenditure incurred on projects like the Mattala Airport, the Hambantota Port, the Infrastructure of Highways  etc bring little immediate dividends.  It is left to the Government to initiate projects to develop the resources in the rural areas to make use of  the expressways and the  air travel hat has  been  developed. Hambantota  was a neglected area when I worked- it had very little facilities.  When I traveled on the Mattala- Lunugamwehera- Kataragama Road which was being built recently I saw mangoes in plenty and children chased my car to sell luscious mangoes. We have to establish fruit processing industries in these rural areas and this will enable us to stop the imports of fruit and fruit juice for which we incur foreign exchange.  The Government has to consider taking this step to develop the areas opened up through the new infrastructure.

 The current emphasis of the government is to encourage exports. In addition we have to establish import substitution industries.  All these take a while and it is hoped that the Government will tackle this task.

 In this task of bringing about development- creating industries and creating employment and income  we tend to relate it to the shortages of essential goods and problems that people faced during the reign of Sirimavo from 1971 to1977, when we last did such a programme. . Professor Peiris  has raised this. The Government then established the Divisional Development Councils Programme which for the first time enabled the Government to establish agricultural farms and import substitution industries.  Though the results were not that significant in many cases, there were many industries that did create employment and incomes. I can mention a number of successful projects I established in the Matara District which were successful. We established a Mechanised Boatyard  making sea going large fishing boats with inboard motors which were sold to cooperatives. Established within three months from the planning to output this was a thriving business that brought employment and incomes to rural youth.  We also established a handmade Crayon Factory at Deniyaya. This was established entirely on our own within the District where my Planning Officer a raw Chemistry graduate, by experimenting with the aid of science teachers based at the Rahula College Science lab,  found the art of making crayons. Sumanapala Dahanayake, the Member of Parliament undertook to establish a crayon factory and this was done working day and night on a 24 hour basis. The Planning and  establishing this industry was done within three months and this factory provided high grade crayons on an  islandwide basis. There are many such successful industries to talk of.  The Government of President Jayawardena abolished this programme and so died the successful industries too.

 It is left to our Government to establish import substitution industries using the infrastructure that has been established.  If there is anyone who can accomplish this task it is no other than our President Rajapaksa. A few of us in the Administrative Service excelled in establishing new industries and employment creation projects. It is up to our Government to activate officers of the Administrative Service. It is said that the public service is overstaffed with a public officer for every 14 persons. Get a quarter of them working. In my endless trips to Sri Lanka over the past few years I have conversed with  Divisional Secretaries and Grama Niladharis and I am certain that they can easily shoulder new responsibilities if they are entrusted. My mind goes back in nostalgia to the Youth Self Employment Program that I designed and established in Bangladesh in 1982.  My task was also to train Bangladeshi administrators to continue the Programme after my consultancy was over . Today that Programme is the most successful and the only programme that actually guides trained youths to establish enterprises and by 2011 Bangladesh reported to the IFAD(FAO) that they  have guided as much as two million entrepreneurs to establish commercially viable enterprises. A Youth Ministry that attended to traditional youth work – dance, drama and sports is today spending 90 % of its time guiding youths to become entrepreneurs and has dwarfed  the development work done by the other Ministries. .

 Let me get back to why there were shortages  and problems during the time of Sirimavo which is always referred to when any idea of  establishing new projects is mooted.  Professor Peiris  tells us of the horrors he suffered.

Many do not know what really happened.  The Western Superpowers imposed certain sanctions  on Sri Lanka which caused this situation.

1. For a long time before this Sri Lanka was given flour at a discounted rate under the PL 480  Scheme by the USA. Due to the leftist policies followed by Sirimavo’s Government especially the take over of estates over 50 acres, the US stopped giving flour under PL 480 at a discounted rate and we had to find the funds to buy at the higher commercial rate.  This caused a problem of supplies. The bread queues were not due to N.M. but due to the action of the USA to punish Sri Lanka .

 2. When estates were nationalized the plan was to pay in bonds- by a promissory letter, at a later date. The British Government insisted on immediate payment and Sri Lanka paid the foreign companies  in hard foreign exchange.

3. The Oil Supplier Countries increased the price of oil which we had to purchase.

 These were actually sanctions placed on Sri lanka by the Superpowers who did not like the leftist and socialist policies that were followed. It was these causes beyond our control that ate up our resources and  brought about the shortages and problems during that period. Yet the Government of Sirimavo managed to meet all the expenditure without creating a foreign debt. When the country was ceded to the UNP in the 1977 election, the foreign debt was as low as $ 700 million. This was all on projects and not taken for consumption.   In those days there was no concept of deficit budgets. We had to live within our earnings and the years under Sirimavo are the last years where Sri Lanka managed its economy within its income. 

 On Law and Order-governance we are facing many problems. This is partly due to police inaction, the judiciary taking ages to settle a dispute and also due to the fact that there are as many as 50,000 deserters from the Armed Forces. The stark fact remains that these Army deserters have been trained only in the task of shooting and killing and many cases of extortion, murders are traced to deserters. It is up to our Defence Ministry to provide vocational training to these deserters and to those who opt to leave the Armed Forces and guide them to become employed. The achievement of the Youth Self Employment Program of Bangladesh which is today the World’s largest  such employment creation program referred to earlier offers ideas as to  how they can be reigned to become successful entrepreneurs, contributors to the economy. This was achieved by guiding trainees in vocational education to establish enterprises.

 Dr Uswatte Aratchi’s findings on the Welfare State and the Warfare State needs to be re written based on the facts in this paper.

 Garvin Karunaratne

Former G.A. Matara

More details on the facts in this paper are available in my Books;

How the IMF Ruined Sri Lanka… and Papers on the Economic Development of Sri Lanka(Godages)

30 th August 2014

Are We Forgetting Something in Islamabad Drama

September 6th, 2014

By Afshain Afzal

Since decades, the Red Zone, which houses the Parliament House, Prime Minister House, President House, the Supreme Court building, Pak Secretariat, Foreign Embassies and other important installations, is restricted area and not open for general public. Smartly turned out Police personnel stop individuals and vehicles near the barriers to divert to other routes. Despite government’s warnings, imposition of Section 144 of Pakistan Penal Code, which bar assembly of more than five persons and invoking of Article 245 of the Constitution that handed over control of Federal Capital Islamabad to Armed Forces, the leaders of of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) and Pakistan Awami Tehreek (PAT) along with their several thousand followers forced their way to the Red Zone and decided to challenge the state authority unless their demands are met. Since then, worse episode of challenging the writ of the government and lawless including defying Section 144, taking over the premises of Parliament House, ransacking headquarters Pakistan Television, causing loss to government property and seriously injuring several Police and government officials including an SSP is being witnessed quite often.

From early August, the leaders of PTI and PAT are issuing repeated threats of violating the writ of the government unless the Prime Minister of Pakistan and Chief Minister of Punjab tender their resignations and accept their demands. They had been instigating the general masses to stand against law enforcement agencies especially the Punjab Police and resort to civil disobedience. The PTI leader, Imran Ahmed Khan while pointing out Punjab Police threatened that if Police try to stop them from their march to Red Zone, he will hang Police personnel from his own hands. Imran Khan while addressing the protesters and media channels warned SSP Captain (Retd) Illyas by shouting his name, “SSP Illyas Ham Tumhay Nahee Choran Gay. Main Jab Tak Zinda Hoon Tumah Nahee Choroon Ga”. Interestingly, soon after the announcement, media telecast news that SSP Captain (Retd) lllyas has refused to take over the charge. One wonders, where the writ of the government is and how someone can dare issue such an insulting and threatening statement against a state authorities. If same statement had been issued by any Police officer against a politician, he would have been sacked by now.

The PAT leader Tahirul Qadri also instigated the general public to eliminate whole family of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif if anything happens to him. He cautioned his followers that if his party workers try to return from Islamabad before dissolution of assemblies and formation of broad based government, they should be put to death. As a result PTI and PAT’s taking the law into their hands, worse episode of challenging the writ of the government and lawless including defying Section 144, taking over the premises of Parliament House, ransacking headquarters Pakistan Television, causing loss to government property and seriously injuring several Police and government officials including an SSP is being witnessed. The law enforcement agencies including Police is showing restraint from taking lawful action against criminals and bearing insult on the orders of political leadership.

Some of the critics view that double standards have been adopted to please certain semi-secular moderate groups of political and religious leadership, who openly defy tenants of Islam and express their own interpretation, against the Islamic traditions and Tariekh. They view that the law enforcement agencies including Armed Forces adopted an entirely different course of actions against the orthodox Muslims during Lal Masjid tragedy, in crackdown and operations in Balochistan and pockets of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa / FATA. No doubt, if we examine the chronology of the events of past crackdown and operations, the present crimes of PAT and PTI are grave as killing of dozens of Police official and conspiracy against state as well as political government is on their credit, which is quite evident with proof of live media recordings of the event. Both PTI and PAT had been giving impression that Armed Forces and some other power, which they referred as”Umpire”, were behind them.

One of the political leader claimed that it was discussed in front of him that Army and judiciary are involved in conspiracy against the ruling government. One wonders he might be right or wrong but how we can trust every other leader who had been telling lies in the past. One fail to understand if these worthy politicians are intentionally playing in the hands of the enemies of the country and fifth columnists or they are destroying institutions as a result of their innocence. Mr.Tahirul Qadri, while talking to ARY News at 2145 hours on 31 August 2014, was asked if he has planned to enter restricted areas again. Mr. Qadri responded that strategy is made somewhere else and cannot comment about strategy at that moment. To whom he was referring is not still clear, however, so far PTI and PAT were successful in giving an impression that the invisible hands, who are devising the strategy, will ensure unconditional resignation of Prime Minister, Main Nawaz Sharif and his brother Chief Minister of Punjab, Mr. Shahbaz Sharif. However, the release press issued by ISPR with regard to Crops Commanders’ Conference removed all sorts of misconceptions created by twisted political statements that Army is behind any conspiracy against the ruling government.

It is quite depressing that media channels are being provided Secret letters pertaining to intelligence agencies in which highly sensitive information is leaked to the world including enemy agencies. A media channel telecast secret letter pertaining to Pakistan’s highly sensitive intelligence agency “Intelligence Bureau”, which he also read out, claiming that government has approved Rs 2.6 billion under head SC-21C02 which is being used against Pakistani agencies namely Inter Services Intelligence and Military Intelligence. It is strange that till to-date no action under Official Secret Act has been taken against the network of anti-state elements, who are involved in leaking highly sensitive information. On need to understand that Pakistan Army is a supreme institution by virtue of custodian of Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. It is below the level of such institution to give rebuttal and clarification of every political statement.

Another quite unbelievable event was provision of clean drinking water and breakfast to the illegal occupants of Pakistan’s Parliament building since day one, meaning that they should not leave the area and keep illegally occupying the Parliament House. It is really strange to observe that our Police was committed in taking action against all those, who despite announcement by authorities, pulled down the gates and grills at Parliament building by banging truck many times and cutting the security fences but some authorities are ensuring illegal occupation. Federal Government invoked Article 245 of the Constitution and called upon Armed Forces of Pakistan to take over the control of Islamabad for three months to defend Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war and act in aid of civil power. However, so far, the Army is allowing political dialogue a chance to lead to a success story. It is pertinent to mention here that Pakistan Army has played an exemplary role this time by not indulging in politics and providing avenues to democracy to find its own course. The statements issued by Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR) also reflected non political role of Armed Forces of Pakistan..

It is shameful for us as a nation that despite the passage of 68 years, we are not clear about even the basics. A media person who was quite vocal against government institutions including Police, when contacted disclosed that he belongs to Indian Sarhanpur, India and that PTI leader is his relative from his mother side. He claimed that Pakistan would be modern, progressive and secular state under PTI and PAT leadership. While PAT is openly pronouncing new and moderate version of Islam, where Blasphemy Law will not be applicable to non-Muslims and death penalty would be no more rule of law, attempts are been made to write down new Constitution of Pakistan. Can these leaders deny they have been given millions of dollars by foreign nations and organizations on account of interfaith harmony? It should not surprise anyone that beside Western investment of billions of dollars to renovate thousands of Mosques in Pakistan on modern lines promoting Mohammadism instead of Islam, the Norwegian Church has denoted sufficient amount to devise new syllabus for Madaris in Pakistan.

It is high time that the authorities need to carryout brainstorming in order to streamline the processes and restore the writ of government by implementing Constitution of 1973, which has assent of all the religio-political parties including non-Muslims in Pakistan. One needs to understand that the terminologies used by the media including Balvaie” are imported from India. During the whole episode the influence of Indian intelligence agencies and their illegal hundreds and thousands of immigrants in Pakistan was evident but direct involvement of Indian government of Prime Minister Narendra Modi cannot be claimed, at least for time being. The whole violent drama in Islamabad has proved that the participants have potential to carryout large scale terrorism, which they did on several occasions. It is irony that the ruling government, not realizing that Pakistani Police officers and personnel are counted among one of the best in the world, underestimated the law enforcement machinery. Still they are waiting for the government orders and are not afraid to sacrifice their lives for the defence of their country. Hats off to Police; despite their hands tied by the politicians from coming into action against criminals and anti-states activities in Islamabad, they are patiently performing their duties with these unjustified restrictions and insults. One wonders, despite media footage of every event in which over 200 police personnel were injured by identified individuals and several dozen killed, no action against criminal is being taken. This is high time that we should protect our Constitution and sanctity of our institution. afshain@hotmail.com

More on the third term of MAHINDA RAJAPAKSA

September 6th, 2014

Nalin de Silva

 When one reads the opinions expressed by lawyers, experts in English and so called political analysts it is clear that everybody is rationalizing his/her (not many here have expressed their opinions) convictions. I am not anyone of the above by any stretch of imagination, though I contribute to newspapers on topics that include politics.

 No editor considers me as a political analyst but for some reason or other some editors publish my articles. I sometimes write on philosophy but that does not make me a philosopher either. To most of my friends who read mainly the English newspapers my articles provide fun and to them Mahinda Rajapaksa contesting for a third time is a big joke.

 I must admit that though I am not a lawyer, expert in English or a so called political analyst (in the case of lawyers and experts in English there are criteria to identify them, but not in the case of so called political analysts, who are identified as such by presenters of programs in electronic media and interviewers in print media) I myself rationalize my convictions rather than coming to “rational” deductions. I have never been introduced by anybody as a political analyst or philosopher.

 In my philosophy, one does not need to be a philosopher to have a philosophy as almost all of us have our own philosophies, even deductions are the results of induction, though Hume may have scoffed at induction. All “axioms” in logic are the results of induction as has been demonstrated in the case of if A=B and B=C, then A=C or even in the case of A=A. These inductions are made due to Avidya as in the case of knowledge in general.

 Supreme Court interpretation

Whether Mahinda Rajapaksa could contest for the Presidency again seems to depend on the Article 31(2) of the Constitution that reads “No person who has been twice elected to the office of President by the People shall be qualified thereafter to be elected to such office by the People”.

mahinda rajapaksePresident Mahinda Rajapaksa

This is only a sentence in English Language, and different people will interpret this sentence in different ways. The interpretations depend on many factors but hardly on rational arguments starting from scratch. If one wants Mahinda Rajapaksa to contest again one would attempt to rationalize one’s wish and one who does not want to see Mahinda Rajapaksa contesting again, for some reason or other, would argue to convince the others of his/her desire.

It appears that the government has decided to obtain an interpretation from the Supreme Court on the above article as well as may be on some other relevant articles. We all have to abide by the Supreme Court interpretation and if the interpretation goes against an individual who has been elected President twice contesting for Presidency for a third time then the government has ways of rectifying it and it is unlikely that even if Hakeem and Rishad get together with the UNP and the JVP the government would lose its two third majority in the Parliament.

 The question at issue is whether the Article 32 (1) became operative on the day Mahinda Rajapaksa was elected as the President for the second time. It is an eligibility condition that is applicable even to Chandrika Kumaratunga. Is Chandrika Kumaratunga eligible to contest for Presidency at a future Presidential election provided of course she continues to be alive at the time of election, in the light of the eighteenth amendment?

 Presidential elections

 Chandrika Kumaratunga did not opt to contest a third time in 2005, and what was her position regarding contesting for a third time soon before the Presidential elections in that year. Who had the power to decide whether she was eligible to contest in 2005.

 It was finally the Supreme Court, had somebody gone before it against Chandrika Kumaratunga contesting at Presidential elections. The Supreme Court on its own most probably would not have given an interpretation as somebody has to move the courts to intervene. If Sarath Silva was the CJ he would not have expressed his opinion in public on the eligibility of Mahinda Rajapaksa to contest Presidential elections a third time.

 If Chandrika Kumaratunga in the absence of the eighteenth amendment decided to contest the Presidential elections in 2005, the commissioner of elections would have ruled out and even if she went before the Supreme Court against the decision of the commissioner she would have lost her case. However, could the commissioner of elections give a ruling before 2005? He could not have done so as there was no issue for the commissioner to give a ruling.

 As far as an individual is concerned it is the commissioner of elections who decides whether that particular individual is qualified to be elected as the President, whereas the Supreme Court could give an interpretation in general. I presume that the government would seek an interpretation in general from the Supreme Court and not on whether Mahinda Rajapaksa could contest at the next Presidential elections.

 As far as the nomination and eligibility of a person to contest at the Presidential elections, the following articles in the Constitution are relevant.

  1. (1) Any citizen who is qualified to be elected to the office of President may be nominated as a candidate for such office -

(a) by a recognized political party, or

(b) if he is or has been an elected member of the Legislature, by any other political party or by an elector whose name has been entered in any register of electors.

  1. Every person who is qualified to be an elector shall be qualified to be elected to the office of President unless he is subject to any of the following disqualifications -

(a) if he has not attained the age of thirty years;

(b) if he is not qualified to be elected as a Member of Parliament under sub-paragraph (d), (e), (f) or (g) of paragraph (1) of Article 91 ;

(c) if he has been twice elected to the office of President by the People; and

(d) if he has been removed from the office of President under the provisions of sub-paragraph (e) of paragraph (2) of Article 38.

92 (c) is the most relevant in the present context and it has been repealed by Article 15 of the eighteenth amendment, which reads as:

  1. Article 92 of the Constitution is hereby amended by the repeal of paragraph (c) of such Article.

Thus the commissioner of elections would have no difficulty in declaring that Mahinda Rajapaksa is qualified to be elected as the president of the country at the next Presidential elections provided of course he seeks election. So far no voter or no political party has nominated him for Presidency for a third time and until such time the commissioner of elections does not have to decide on the eligibility of Mahinda Rajapaksa.

Elections commissioner

As at present no nominations have been made and Mahinda Rajapaksa after all may decide not to contest at the next Presidential elections.

A ruling has to be given by the commissioner of elections only when there is an issue and it is when there is an issue the relevant Articles of the Constitution becomes operative. Until then it is not different from reading the horoscopes of unborn children (Noopan daruvange kendara belima). However, the government may move the Supreme Court to give an interpretation in general on the eligibility conditions of an individual who has been elected twice as the President contesting a third time at the Presidential elections.

සිංහල රටේ දෙමළු 2

September 6th, 2014

ධර්මසිරි සෙනෙවිරත්න

ආර්ය චක්‍රවර්තීන් දෙමල නොවේ. කාලින්ගයෝය ආර්යයෝය.දෙමල අය  තම හ තුරන් වූ  ආර්ය යන්ගේනම ගන්නේ නැත .  ඊල  යනු සිංහල යන්නය. ඊල හා සිංහල යනු  එකම අර්ථය දෙන බව ”’පත්තුප්පට්ටු  වීර සොලියම්”   පොතෙන් ද පෙනේ.””” සින්හලම් එන්රැදු ඊල නාට්ටෙය්   යනු”’ සිංහල නම් ඊල දේශයය් ”  යනුවෙන්  නන්නුල් දෙමල වියරණය අනුව අර්ථ දක්වා ඇත.   ජටාවර්මන් වීර පාන්ඩිය  නම් පාන්දිය    රජු   තම ”කුදුමියමල” ලිපියේ  ලංකාව ඊලම්  යනුවෙන් හදුන්වා ඇත. රාජ රාජ චෝල ද  තම සෙල්ලිපිවල   සිංහල දේශය ඊල මණ්ඩලම් ලෙස දක්වා ඇත. එය  සිංහලේට තවත් නමකි.  තාවකාලිකව  සාමන්ත පාලකයන් වූ මා ර් තන්ඩ   ආර්ය චක්‍රවර්ති පවා සිංහල මහරජු ඉදිරියේ තමා හදුන්වා ඇත්තේ   මාර්තන්ඩ  පෙරුමාලුන් ලෙස මිස   ”’රජ” යනුවෙන් නොවේ  කේ එම. ද. සිල්වා  නම් පුද්ගලයා නම්  මේ සාමන්තයින්  රාජ නමින් හදුන්වා ඇතිවා  පමණක් නොව  දෙමල  සහයද ඇතිව ඔහොලියු පොතේ  මෙගලිතික් ගල්වද්දෝ ද්‍රවිඩ  බවත් ලියා ඇත. මෙහෙව් අයත් අප අතරම ඇත..ද්‍රවිඩ යනු  දෙමල පමණක් නොවේ  ද්‍රවිඩ යන මූලය යටතේ තවත් වර්ග ඇත.  nox  පැ නයන විටඋතුරුකරයේ  සිටි සිංහල  ආදායම් නිලධාරීන් දැක සග වුනේ එදාත්  ඒ පෙදෙස්  සිංහල රජු යටතේ තිබු නිසය්.   උතුරේ සිටි   චන්ද්‍ර භානු  ” ශාඛ කම් ” යනුවෙන් හදුන්වා ඇත. එනම් ජාවක යනුය්  දෙමල නොවේ  අරන්කැලේ සන්නස අනුව වීදාගම මහා තෙරුන්  යාපා පටුනට වැඩම කර  එහි ගොස් සිටි සිරිසඟබෝ  බුවනෙක බාහු රජුට දම් දෙසා ඇත. මේ රජු වශයෙන්  දක්වා ඇත්තේ ආර්යචක්රවර්තීන් එලවාදමු සපුමල් කුමාරයා බව  පෝල්  ඊ පීරිස්   මෙන්ම රාසනයගමුත් පිළිගෙන ඇත”. ආරියන්” ලා ගෙන් පැවතෙන අය  පසුව සිංහලයන්ට අවශෝෂණය විය සෙම්බගප්පෙරුමාල්  ”සපුමල් ” වුවා සේය. වර්තමාන දෙමළුන් ගෙනාවේ   ඉන්ග්රීසින්ය. 13 සියවසට පෙර සිංහල හා දෙමල කතා කරන ය ට වෙන්වූ  රටවල් දෙකක් නොතිබුන බව  මහාචාර්ය කාර්තිගේසු ඉන්ද්‍රපාලන් ද පිළිගෙන (1969  දී)  තිබු නි .–ඔහුට මේ නිසා දෙමල අයගෙන්  ප්‍රශ්න ඇතිවිය  ඉන්ද්‍රපාලන්ගේ පොත  විනාශ කරදමඇ ත..  එහෙත් ලෙස්ලි ගුනවර්දන   දෙමළුන්ට සහාය වීම සදහා  ”සිංහයාගේ ජනතාව ”’ නමින් ලිපියක් ලියා  මේ ජනතාවට එනම් ලැබුනේ මෑතදී බව  පවසා ඇත. චෙල්වාගේ බෑනා වූ   ඒ . ජේ. විල්සන්,  ගුනවර්දන අනුව යමින්  ලංකාව ඒකීය රාජ්ජයක් වුයේ  1832න පසුව ඉංග්‍රීසින් කොලබින් පාලනය කිරීම අආරම්භ කල පසුව බවත් එතෙක්  උතුරේ වෙනම දෙමල රජයක් පැවතුන බවත් කියය්  ගුනවර්දන  යනු මහා ඉතිහාසඥයෙක් බව කියමින්  ඔහුව වර්ණනා කරන  වික්‍රමබාහු  , මේ මත  නිශේධකරන   නලින්ද සිල්වාට අපහාස කරමින්  දිනක්   ” නලින් ද සිල්වා දන්නා ඉතිහාසයක් නැහැ  ඉතිහාසය ඉගෙන ගන්න ඕනෙනම් ලෙස්ලි ගුනවර්දන වගේ අයගේ පොත්  කියවන්නය්”” ප්‍රසිධියේ කියනු මම අසා සිටියෙමි. වික්‍රම බාහු ට ප්‍රභාකරන්  මහත්මයා  වූ බව දන්නාඅ  ය ගුනවර්දන මොකෙ  ක්  දැ ය්  දන්නවා ඇත විල්සන් වික්රබාහු  හා ගුනවර්දන එක වල්ලේ පොල්ය..
                                           1344 සිටි  ආර්ය චක්‍රවර්ති  ඉබන් බටුට විසින් හදුන්වා ඇත්තේ vicious   tyrants  who  owns  ships  which  carryon  piracy   ලෙසය.  මුන් කොල්ල කාරයෝය ”’. ආවා  ගියෝ මිස”’ඉස්තිරව සිටිඅ  ය නොවේ. සමහරු නම් පසුව සිංහලයන්ට එක්වන්නට ඇත.      දැන්  සිටින  දෙමළුන්  පාරවල් වල වැඩට  ඉංග්‍රීසින් විසින් ගෙනා දකුණු ඉන්දියානුවන්ය. එතෙක් යාපනේ ස්ථිර පදිංචි ය නොසිටි බව කොල්බ්රූක්  වාර්තා වේද ඇත. කැන්ඩියන් ප්රෝවින්ස ස් හා මැරී ටෛම්  ප්රෝවින්ස ස් ලෙස 1832 වනතුරුත් ඉංග්‍රීසින් මෙරට පාලනය කළා මිසයාපන  රාජධානියක් ගැන සඳහන් කර නැත. පෘතුගීසින්   උතුර හා මුහුදුබඩ වෙනුවෙන් ගිවිසියේ සිංහල රජු සමග ය ගිවිසීම දෙමලු සමග නම්  එය දෙමලෙන් ද තිබිය යුතුය.ඇත්තේ පෘතුගීසි භාෂාවෙන් හා සිංහලෙනි.
 මතු   සබැඳේ 

සිංහල රටේ දෙමලු 3

September 6th, 2014

ධර්මසිරි සෙනෙවිරත්න

1832 කොල්බ්රූක් කොමිසමේ ප්‍රශ්නවලට කලෙච්ටර් වරයා දුන් පිළිතුරු මෙසේය.
1   දිවයිනේ අනිකුත් ප්‍රදේශවලට අදාලවුවද කොමසාරිස් වරුන්ගේ ඉඩම් පිලිබඳ ප්‍රශ්නය යාපනය දිස්ත්‍රික්කයේ ඉඩම්වලට ගොවීන්ට  ද රාජ්‍ය ආදායමටද  බලපාන්නේ නැත.
2.යාපනයේ ධාන්‍ය හා ආහාර වගා වැදගත් නොවේ. ප්‍රධාන වගාව දුම්කොලය. වෙළඳ බදු සහ අපනයන තීරුබදු ප්‍රධාන ආදායම් මාර්ග වේ.
3. සංගණනයක් සිදුකලනොහක. ස්ථිර පදිංචියක් නැති මෙහි ජනතාව  තාවකාලිකව  වාසයට එන ධීවරයන් හා කුලීකරුවන්ය. .සංක්‍රමණික වෙලෙන්දෝය.
4 පොහොසත්  ඉන්දියානු වෙළෙන්දෝ නල්ලුර්වල වාසය කල අතර  සිංහල වෙළෙන්දෝ   වැලිගම  උඩුපිටිය හා තෙ ලිපොල යන ගම්වල වාසය කළහ.
ආර්ය චක්‍රවර්තීන්ට බියෙන් සිංහලයන් බොහෝ දෙනෙක්ද යාපනයෙන් පලායන්නට ඇත.ආහාර වගාවක්ද නොවුයේ එනිසය් විටින්විට ආ ඉන්දියානු වෙළෙන්දෝ ද ” ආවා  ගී යෝ ” මිස  පදිංචි නොවුහ.   වෙළදාමට පමණක් සමහර සිංහලයෝ රැ දී ඇත සංගණනයක් ගත නොහැක්කේ එනිසය්. වසර 3000 ක සිට  පදිංචි දෙමලු සිටියා නම්  වුනේ මොකක්ද  පිටු 7000 ක් පමණ වූ කොල්බ්රූක් වාර්තාවේ  යාපනේ වැසියන් දෙමල නමින් හඳුන්වා නැති බව සුරිය ගුණසේකර විසින් පෙන්වාදී ඇත. ලන්දේසීන් මෙන්ම ඉන්ග්රීසින්ද මෙහිදී ඉතා නිවැරදි ලෙස  යාපනේ තාවකාලිකව හෝ සිටි වැසියන්  හදුන්වා ඇත්තේ ”’මලබාර් ” වැසියන් ලෙසය.මලබාර්වරු  දෙමල නොවේ. සිංහ ල මලබාර්  හා  මුස්ලිම් වරු සිටි බව නම් එහි සඳහන්ය.1832 වන තුරුත් උතුරේ දෙමලු නොසිටි බව මෙයින් ද පැහැදිලිවේ. ඉංග්‍රීසින් විසින් කුලීවදට ගෙනා  මිනිස්සු ස්ථිර ලෙස පදිංචි කරවා  ආදායම වැඩිකරගනීමට කටයුතුකලේ  ඉන්පසුවය්. දෙමල කුලීකරුවන් නැගෙනහිර පළාතේ පදිංචි කිරීමසන්දහා එංගලන්තයේ යටත්විජිත භාර මහලේකම් ගෙන් අවසර ගෙන ඇත්තේ  1832 දීය. උතුර හා නැගෙනහිර නමින් පළාත් සීමා වෙන්කර ඇත්තේද 1832 දී කොල්බ්රූක් ය. 1766 දී උඩරට රජු හා ලන්දේසීන් අත්සන්කළ ගිවිසුමේ 2වන වැකියට අනුවද මඩකලපුව කඳුරටට අයත්ව තිබුණි . 1815 දී යාපනය  ඉංග්‍රීසින් විසින් ගත්තේ උඩරට රජුගෙන් මිස දෙමල රජෙකුගෙන් නොවේ. සෙනරත් රජු සිය අවසාන කාලයේදී තම පුත්”  කුමාරසින්හ ස්ථාන” ගේ උරුමය සහතික කිරීම සඳහා ආරක්ෂකයින් පත්කිරීමට කැඳවූ  රාජ සභාවට  කොට්ටියර්  මඩකලපුව පානම යාපනේ පුත්තුර්  ඇතුළු වෙනත් සිංහල ප්‍රදේශ වලින්  නායකයන් කදවූ බව  බල්දියස්  සදහන් කර ඇත. ඉතින් කෙසේනම්  දෙමලු රජකෙරුවේද.  රජු මින්පසු පැනවූ නියෝගයේද ත්‍රිකුණාමලේ යාපා පටුනේ  පානම  මඩකලපුව  මේ ආදී ප්‍රදේශ සහ තවත් ප්‍රදේශ වලට අධිපති”’ලංකේෂ්වර” බවත් දක්වා ඇත. 1870 අංක 3 දරන උඩරට විවාහ ආඥා පනතේ උඩරටට  ලෙස  නැගෙනහිර පළාතේ මඩකලපු දිස්ත්‍රික්කයේ බින්තැන්නේ පළාත්ද  අක්කරපත්තු පානම කොට්ටාසයේ    හා ත්‍රි’මල  යේ කද්දුකුලම් මෙන්ම මුලතිවු  ගම් ද දක්වා ඇත.    සිංහල රාජයට  වලවේ ගඟේ සිට    එලිෆන්ට් පාස් දක්වා නැගෙනහිර දිග මුහුදු තීරය අයත් බව නෙදර්ලන්තයේ පල කල ”’ලංකාවේ ලන්දේසි අද්‍යාපනය”නම් පොතේ දක්වා ඇත( ජේ. වන්ගූර් )  කීර්ති ශ්‍රී රජු 1747-1787-මඩකලපු   වේ  දිසාව වශයෙන්  ඇහැලේපොල කෙනෙක් පත් කර ඇත.
මේවා ගැන වෙනම පොතක් ලියා පාසල්වල උගැන්විය යුතුය  මහින්ද ට මේවා ඉදිරිපත් කර න්නට  යම්කෙනෙක්  සිටිය යුතුය  බොදුබලසේනා ව නිවැරදිව පරෙස්සමෙන්  ක්‍රියා කළහොත් මේ කාර්ය භාරයට සුදුසුය. විදේශ ගතිවුවහොත්  එය ද ප්‍රතික්ෂේප වනු ඇත.වුර්තීය සමිති ව්යාපරයද හොඳ ය  එහෙත්  මෙවැනි කාර්ය භාරයක්  මගහැර සිටින්නේ  විදේශ අවසරයක් නැති නිසාද ආණ්ඩු පෙරලීමට පෙර   අපේ උරුමය ආරක්ෂා කරදෙන මෙන් ආණ්ඩුවට බල කර එසේනොකරනන්නේනම් ජනතාවට ඒගැන  කියාදී  ජනතාව අවදිකිරීමට බොදුබලසෙනව ඉදිරිපත්විය යුතුය.. දැනට වෙන බලකායක් නැත. තමන් කවුද යනු නොදන්නා  අය රට බේරා ගන්නට එන්නේ නැත.
මෙතෙක් පාසල්වල ඉගැ න් වූ ඉතිහාසයෙන් අඩක්ම සුද්දන් විසින්  විකුර්ති කල ඉතිහාසයකි. දෙමල පාසල් ඉතිහාසපොත්වල ඇති බොරු අද්යාපන දෙපාර්තමේන්තුවවත් නොදනී  දෙවානම්පියතීෂන් ලා  කාසිඅප්පන්(කාශ්‍යප)   ගැන දෙමලු ලියති  බාහුලා  බාහු දෙකම ඔසවා ඒවා අනුමත කරති
කුරගල බේරාදුන්න මෙන් ඉතිරියද බේරා ගැනීමට ඝෝටාභය  වත් මේවා ගැන දැනුවත් කරන්නට ඉදිරිපත් වීමට  කෙනෙක් නැද්ද


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