හෙළ අටුවා පෙරළා බුදුදහම රැකි බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියෝ

June 22nd, 2016

සුජීව දිසානායක උපුටා ගැන්ම දිවයින

ක්‍රි.ව. 5 සියවස පමණ වන විට ථෙරවාදි බුදුදහම ප්‍රබල අර්බුදයකට මුහුණදී තිබුණි. ඒ මහායාන ආගමික සංකල්පයන්ගෙන් ථෙරවාදය ගිලගැනීමයි. ක්‍රි.ව. 01 සියවසේ කණිෂ්ක දවස කාශ්මීරයේදී පවත්වන්නට යෙදුණු සිව්වන ධර්ම සංගායනාවත් සමග සංස්‌කෘත භාෂාව අන් කවරදාටත් වඩා බුදුදහම ආක්‍රමණය කරන්නට විය. මේ නිසා බුදුදහම ආශ්‍රිතව තිබූ පාලි භාෂාවට ප්‍රබල තර්ජනයක්‌ මතු විය. මතු වූ මේ තත්ත්වයෙන් බුදුදහම හා ඒ ආශ්‍රිත සාහිත්‍යය රැකගැනීමට ඉදිරියට ආ යතිවරයකු ලෙස බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් හඳුන්වාදිය හැක. ඉන්දියාවේ සිට ලංකාවට ක්‍රි.ව. 5 සියවසේ මුල් භාගයේදී පමණ මහානාම රජ දවස උන්වහන්සේ පැමිණි බව දැනට පිළිගන්නා මතයයි. උන්වහන්සේට දැනගන්නට ලැබුණු ආකාරයට ථෙරවාදී බුදු දහම මෙරට මේ අවධියේදී ආරක්‍ෂා වී තිබිණි. ඒ ආශ්‍රිතව පොතපත පාලියට පරිවර්තනය කර ගන්නේ නම් බුදුදහම තවත් දිගු කලක්‌ වැජඹෙන බව උන්වහන්සේට සිතෙන්නට ඇත. එම නිසා එම සිංහල පොතපත පාලියට පෙරලීමේ අරමුණෙන් උන්වහන්සේ මෙරටට පැමිණියහ.

හෙළ අටුවා පාලියට පෙරලූ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් පිළිබඳ තොරතුරු දැනගැනීමට අපට සාහිත්‍ය මුලාශ්‍ර ගණනාවක්‌ භාවිත කළ හැකිය.

ෆ ධර්මකීර්ති හිමියන් රචනා කළ මහා වංසය හෙවත් චූල වංසයේ ෂ කාණ්‌ඩය.

ෆ බුද්ධඝෝසුප්පත්තිය නම් කෘතිය

ෆ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් විසින් රචනා කරන ලද අටුවා ග්‍රන්ථ මෙහි සමන්තපාසාදිකාවට ඉතා වැදගත් තැනක්‌ ලැබිය යුතුය.

ෆ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේම විසුද්ධි මාර්ගය නම් කෘතිය.

ෆ සද්ධම්සංගන, ශාසන වංසදීපනි, ගන්ධවාස යන කෘතින්

ෆ අග්නිදිග ආසියාතික රටවල පවතින ජනප්‍රවාද යනාදිය මෙහිදී ඉතා වැදගත් වේ.

උපත( ලංකා ඉතිහාසයේ රචනා වී ඇති අට්‌ඨ කතාවන්ගෙන් හරි අඩකට ආසන්න ප්‍රමාණයක්‌ රචනා කරන ලද උන්වහන්සේගේ උපත පිළිබඳ මතවාද කීපයක්‌ දැකිය හැකිය.

1. බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් උතුරු ඉන්දියාවට සම්බන්ධකම් ඇති ගයා ප්‍රදේශයේ උපත ලද බව යන මතය. ලංකාවේ මහා වංසයටත් බුද්ධඝෝසුප්පත්තියටත් අනුව උන්වහන්සේ බුද්ධගයාවේ බෝමැඩ ආශ්‍රයේ උපත ලද බ්‍රාහ්මණ දරුවෙක්‌ බව මහාවංසය වාර්තා කරයි.

“බෝධි මණ්‌ඩ සමීපස්‌මිං

ජාතො බ්‍රාහ්මණ මාණවෝ”

(එකල දඹදිව බෝමැඩ වෙත උපන් බ්‍රාහ්මණ මානවකයෙක්‌)

මහා වංසය – 3 පරිච්ඡේදය

2. අග්නිදිග ආසියාතික රටක්‌ වන බුරුමය නම් වූ රටේ පෙදෙසක උන්වහන්සේa උපත ලැබූ බව යන මතය. බුරුමයට සබඳතා ඇති පඨම රාජවංස නමැති ඉතිහාස ග්‍රන්ථයේ මුන්වහන්සේ බුරුමයේ ඉපිද මහබෝධි මැඩ සමීපයේ කලක්‌ වැඩවාසය කර පසුව ලංකාවට පැමිණ අටුවා ග්‍රන්ථ සම්පාදනය කොට සුධම්ම පුරයට වැඩමකරන ලද බව සඳහන්ය.

පාලි සාහිත්‍යය 171 පිටුව

3. දකුණු භාරතය හා සම්බන්ධ කිසියම් ප්‍රදේශයක බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් උපන් බවට ඇති මතය. මේ මතයට එළඹීමට ඇත්තේ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේම අදහස්‌ මිස වෙනත් ඒවා නොවේ. නමුත් මේ මතය අද වන විට මතවාදයන්ට හසුවූ ප්‍රධාන කරුණක්‌ බවට පත්ව ඇත. මේ මතවාදයන්ට අනුව බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේ උපත දකුණු ඉන්දියාව යන්න සැක සහිතය. බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේ කෘති ගණනාවක දකුණු ඉන්දියාව හා සම්බන්ධ ස්‌ථාන නාම ඇත. මයුරදේව පට්‌ටනය, කාන්තිපුරය, නාගපට්‌ටන, යන ස්‌ථානයන් දකුණු ඉන්දියාව හා සම්බන්ධිතය. මේ නාමයන්ද උන්වහන්සේගේ කෘති තුළ දැක්‌වෙන කරුණු ද පදනම් කරගෙන දැනට ඉතිහාසඥයන් පිළිගන්නේ උන්වහන්සේ දකුණු ඉන්දියාවේ උපන් අයකු බවයි. දැනට පිළිගන්නා මතය වන්නේ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් දකුණු ඉන්දියාවේ ආන්ද්‍රd දේශයේ උපන් අයකු බවයි.

නාමය හා ගෝත්‍රය

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ට එම නාමය ලැබුණ ආකාරය පිළිබඳව ද විද්වතුන් අතර මෙන් සාහිත්‍ය පොතපතේද විවිධ අදහස්‌ ඉදිරිපත්ව ඇත. මහාවංසය හෙවත් චූල වංසයේ ෂ කාණ්‌ඩය පවසන්නේ උන්වහන්සේට බුදුන්ට සමාන කටහඬක්‌ තිබූ නිසා එම නාමය ලැබුණු බවයි.

“බුදුන්ගේ සෙයින් ගැඹුරු හඬ ඇති හෙයින් බුදුහු සේ පොලෝ තලෙහි පතළ යසස්‌ ඇති වී උහු බුද්ධඝෝෂ යයි ව්‍යවහාර කළහ.”

(මහාවංසය 38 පරිච්ඡේදය)

බුද්ධඝෝසුප්පත්තිය නම් කෘතිය වෙනම අදහසක්‌ ඉදිරිපත් කරයි. හෙතෙම දෙව්ලොව වසන සමයේදී ද ඔහුගේ නම ඝොස වූ හෙයින්ද මොහු උපන්දා එම ගම ප්‍රීති නාදයෙන් ගිගුම් ගත් හෙයින්ද මේ නම ඇතිවී යයි මේ කෘතියේ සඳහන් වෙයි.

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් තමන් රචනා කරන ලද විසුද්ධි මාර්ගය නම් කෘතියේ සඳහන් කරන්නේ එම නාමය තමන්ට ගුරුවරුන් තබන ලද්දක්‌ බවයි.

“ගරූහි ගහිත නාමධෙයෙHන” -විසුද්ධි මාර්ගය

බුදුන් පිරිවන් පෑම ක්‍රි. පූ. 543 දී සිදුවූ අතර උන්වහන්සේගේ උපත ක්‍රි.ව. 5 සියවස තුළ සිදුවූයේ නම් කාල පරාසය වසර 1000 කි. එතෙක්‌ බුදුන්ගේ හඬ ඇසුන කෙනෙක්‌ ජීවත්වීම ආශ්චර්යෙනුත් ආශ්චර්යකි. එසේ නම් මහාවංස කතුවරයා දක්‌වන අදහස පිළිගැනීම කෙසේවත් කළ නොහැකිය. මේ ග්‍රන්ථකරුවන් දෙදෙනාම විශාල වැරැද්දක්‌ කර ඇති බව පෙනේ. මේ අර්ථ කථනයන් නිසා සාමාන්‍ය සිදුවීමක්‌ අද්භූත සිදුවීමක්‌ බවට පත්ව ඇත. කෙසේ වෙතත් බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේ ගෝත්‍රය පිළිබඳ සොයා බැලීමේදී උන්වහන්සේ බ්‍රාහ්මණ ගෝත්‍රයට අයත් පුද්ගලයෙක්‌ වීම දැනට පිළිගන්නා සත්‍යයයි. බුද්ධඝෝෂ නම නිසා උන්වහන්සේගේ ගෝත්‍ර නාමය අභාවයට යන්නට ඇත. ඉහතින් සාකච්ඡා කරන ලද ආන්ධු දේශය මෙතුමාගේ උපන් බිම නම් බ්‍රාහ්මණ සම්බන්ධය පිළිගත යුතු වන්නේය. ආන්ධු දේශය ආරම්භයේ සිටම බ්‍රාහ්මණයන් හා සම්බන්ධ වන්නේය. එසේ නම් ආන්ධු දේශයේ උපන් බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ද බ්‍රාහ්මණ වංශිකයෙක්‌ බව පිළිගත යුතුය.

ජීවත් වූ කාලය

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් පිළිබඳ තොරතුරු අධ්‍යයනය කිරීමේදී උන්වහන්සේ ජීවත් වූ කාලය පිළිබඳව ද නිශ්චිත නිගමනයක්‌ දීම අපහසුය. උන්වහන්සේගේ උපත ක්‍රි.ව. 5 සියවස ආරම්භයේදී සිදුවන්නට ඇතැයි සිතිය හැක.

උන්වහන්සේගේ ළමා කාලය, පැවිදි ජීවිතයේ ආරම්භය පිළිබඳ තොරතුරු ලබාගැනීම අපහසුය. ලංකාවේ චුල වංසයට අනුව උන්වහන්සේ ක්‍රි.ව. 5 සියවසේ 03 දශකය තුළ මෙරටට පැමිණෙන්නට ඇත. ඒ වනවිට මෙරට බලය දරන ලද්දේ මහානාම රජුය.

“ප්‍රඥ මිහිදු මහතෙරුන් විසින් සිංහල භාෂාවෙන් කරන ලද ශුද්ධ වූ සිංහලාතාර්ථ කතා තොමෝ සිංහලයන් කෙරෙහි වැටෙයි තෙපි එහි ගොස්‌ ඒ අසා මාගධී නිරුක්‌තියට පෙරළව්. ඕ තොමෝ සියලු ලොවට හිත ඵලවන්නී වේ” යයි මෙසේ වදාළ සේක. මෙසේ වදාරණ ලදින් ප්‍රසන්න වූ මහ නුවණ ඇති ඒ තෙමේ ඉන් පිටත්ව මෙම රජු දවස ලක්‌දිව් පැමිණි සේක.”

(මහා වංසය 38 පරිච්ඡේදය)

නමුත් මහාවංසය මතය සනාථ කිරීමට පශ්චාත් කාලීන කිසිදු මූලාශ්‍රයක තොරතුරු නැත. අඩුම තරමින් දඹදෙණි යුගය තුළ රචනා වූ පූජාවලියේද එවන් කරුණක්‌ සඳහන් වන්නේ නැත. අනෙක්‌ විශේෂ කරුණ වන්නේ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේ කිසිදු ග්‍රන්ථයක මහානාම රජු පිළිබඳ සඳහනක්‌ කරන්නේ නැත. එහෙත් සමන්තපාසාදිකාවේ හා ධම්මපදට්‌ඨකතාවේ එන ගාථා අතර රජුන් දෙදෙනෙකුගේ නම් සඳහන් වේ. ඒ

1. සිරිනිවාස සිරිපාල

2. සිරිකුඩ්ඩ යන රජවරුන්ය.

නමුත් මේ නම් භාවිතා කළේ කවුරුන්ද යන්න සැක සහිතය. මහාචාර්ය ජී. පී. මලලසේකර මහතා පවසන්නේ මේ නම් දෙක මහානාම රජුට භාවිත වූ අපර නාමයන් වියහැකි බවයි. බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් මහානාම රජ දවස ලංකාවට එන්නට ඇතැයි සිතන්නෝ බී. සී. ලෝ මහතා, කෝසම්බි පඬිතුමා යන්නවුන්ය. උන්වහන්සේ මහානාම රජුට පෙර දවසක එන්නට ඇතැයි සිතන්නෝ බී. එම්. බරුවා මහතා, මහාචාර්ය පොල්වත්තේ බුද්ධදත්ත හිමියන් වැන්නවුන්ය. බුද්ධදත්ත හිමියන් තම මතය ඉදිරිපත් කරන්නේ බුරුමයට අදාළ සාහිත්‍ය පොතපත පදනම් කරගෙනය. මහානාම රජ දවස ලංකාවට පැමිණි පාහියන් හිමි දන්ත ධාතුව පිළිබඳ කරන අති විස්‌තරාදිය බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමිගේ කෘතිවල දක්‌නට නැත. එසේ වී ඇත්තේ ඇයිද යන්න ගැටලුවකි. දළදාව ලංකාවට රැගෙන ආවේ කිත්සිරිමෙවන් දවසය. එසේ නම් බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි මේ පිළිබඳව තම කෘති තුළ වාර්තා නොකළේ මන්ද? එසේ නම් බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි කිත්සිරිමෙවන් රජ දවසට පෙර ලංකාවට පැමිණියේද? නමුත් මහාවංසය පැහැදිලිවම පවසන්නේ මහානාම රජ දවස උන්වහන්සේ ලංකාවට පැමිණි බවයි.

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් මහාථූපය පිළිබඳ තම කෘති වල විස්‌තර කරනු දැකිය හැක. නමුත් දළදාව පිළිබඳ අවම විස්‌තරයක්‌වත් ඇතුළත්ව නැත්තේ ඇයි. පාහියන් හිමියන්ගේ වාර්තාව තුළ දඹදිව සිට ලක්‌දිවට වැඩම කළ තෙර නමකගේ ධර්ම දේශනයක්‌ පිළිබඳ සඳහනක්‌ කොට ඇත. ඇතැම් විට එම තෙරනම බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් විය යුතු බව ආනන්ද මෛත්‍රිය හිමියන් “පාහියන් ගමන් විත්ති” නම් පොතේ සඳහන් කර ඇත. බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් දීපවංසයෙන් උපුටා ගත් ඇතැම් කොටස්‌ තමන් රචිත විනය පිටකයේ අටුවාව වන සමන්තපාසාදිකාවට යොදා ගෙන ඇත. මේ අනුව ඉතිහාසඥයන් නිගමනය කරන්නේ අනිවාර්යයෙන්ම බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් දිපවංසය රචිත කාලයෙන් පසුව ලංකාවට පැමිණෙන්නට ඇති බවයි.

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි සිරිනිවාස නම් රජෙකු පිළිබඳ තම කෘතියේ සඳහන් කරයි. තමන් සමන්තපාසාදිකාව රචනා කළේ සිරිනිවාස රජුගේ විසිවන වර්ෂයේදී ආරම්භ කොට විසිඑක්‌ වන වර්ෂයේදී අවසන් කළ බව දක්‌වයි. නමුත් කතුවරයා ධම්මපදට්‌ඨ කතාවේදී සඳහන් කරන්නේ සිරිකුඩ්ඩ නම් රජෙක්‌ පිළිබඳවය. මේ දෙදෙනාම එක්‌ අයෙක්‌ද? නැත්නම් දෙදෙනෙක්‌ ද යන්න ගැටලුවකි. මහාවංසයට අනුව මහසෙන් රජුගෙන් පසු වසර 21 ක්‌ රජ කර ඇත්තේ පහත සඳහන් රජවරුන්ය.

1. කීර්ති ශ්‍රී මේඝවර්ණ හෙවත් කිත්සිරි මෙවන් රජු

(ක්‍රි.ව. 303 – 331)

2. බුද්ධදාස රජු (ක්‍රි.ව. 340-368)

3. උපතිස්‌ස රජු (ක්‍රි.ව. 368-410)

යන්නවුන්ය. මේ අනුව වර්තමානය වන විට බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් ලක්‌දිවට පැමිණි කාලවකවානුව පිළිබඳ අර්බුදයක්‌ ඇති බව පෙනේ. කෙසේ වෙතත් කිව හැක්‌කේ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් දීපවංසය රචනා කළ කාලයත් මහා වංසය රචනා කළ කාලයත් අතරතුර ලංකාවට පැමිණි බවයි.

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් ලක්‌දිවට වැඩම කළේ ඇයි

ක්‍රි.ව. 4-5 අතර කාලයේදී මෙරටට වැඩම කළ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් එසේ මෙරටට පැමිණීමට ප්‍රධාන හේතුව වන්නට ඇත්තේ කුමක්‌ද? මේ පිළිබඳව මහාවංසය මෙන්ම බුද්ධ ඝෝසුප්පත්තිය යන කෘති දෙකම ඉදිරිපත් කරන තොරතුරු සමාන වේ.

මහා වංසයට අනුව බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් ලංකාවට පැමිණ ඇත්තේ රේවත නම් හිමිනමකගේ මගපෙන්වීම යටතේය.

“රේවත ස්‌ථවිර තෙමේ ඒ දැක උන්වහන්සේට වදාරන සේක. මෙහි පෙළක පමණක්‌ පරම්පරානීතය මෙහි අටුවා තැන් එසේම නානාප්‍රකාර ආචාර්යවාදයේද නොවෙති. තුන් සංගායනාවට නගන ලද බුද්ධ වචනද ශාරිපුත්‍රාදී මහතෙරුන් විසින් වදාරන ලද කතාවත මාර්ගය ද මොනවට බලා ප්‍රඥ මිහිඳු මහතෙරුන් විසින් සිංහල භාෂාවෙන් කරණ ලද ශුද්ධ වූ සිංහලාතථ කතා තොමෝ සිංහලයන් කෙරෙහි වැටෙයි. තෙපි එහි ගොස්‌ ඒ අසා මාගධි නිරුක්‌තියට පෙරළව්. ඕ තොමෝ සියලු ලොවට හිතඵල වන්නීවේ යයි මෙසේ වදාළ සේක.”

මහා වංසය – තිස්‌අට පරිච්ඡේදය

(227-232 – ගාථා)

බුද්ධ ඝෝසුප්පත්තිය නම් කෘතිය මෙම සිදුවීම වාර්තා කර ඇත්තේ මෙසේය.

“බුද්ධඝෝෂ භික්‍ෂු තෙමේ එක්‌ දිනක්‌ හුදකලාව ඉන්නේ දැනුමෙන් අධිකතර තමන් වහන්සේද උපාධ්‍යායන් වහන්සේ දැයි සිතී උපාධ්‍යාය තෙරුන් ඒ සිතිවිල්ල දැන බුද්ධඝෝෂ භික්‍ෂුවගෙන් ඒ ගැන විමසි. බුද්ධඝොෂ තෙමේ වික්‌ෂෝපයට පැමිණ සමාවන්නැයි උපාධ්‍යය තෙරුන්ගෙන් ඉල්ලා සිටියේය. උපාධ්‍යය තෙර “මා සමාවනු කැමති නම් ලක්‌දිවට ගොස්‌ බුද්ධ වචනය පාලියට නගාගෙන එවයි කීයේය.”

ෂෂ පරාක්‍රමබාහු රජු විසින් රචනා කරන ලද විසුද්ධි මාර්ග සන්නසේත් වාචිස්‌සර හිමියන් රචනා කරන ලද විනය විනිච්චය ටීකාවෙත් සඳහන් වන්නේ මුන්වහන්සේ භාරතීය භික්‍ෂුන්ගේ ඇරයුම් පිට මෙරටට පැමිණි බවයි.

මේ කතා පුවත් තුළින් තහවුරු වන කරුණු කිහිපයකි. බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් ඉන්දියාව නම් රටෙන් මෙරටට පැමිණි බව නිශ්චිතම කාරණාවකි. අනෙක්‌ නිශ්චිත කරුණු නම් උන්වහන්සේ මෙරටට පැමිණෙන්නට ඇත්තේ සිංහල අටුවා ග්‍රන්ථ පාලියට පරිවර්තනය කිරීමට බවයි.

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් ලක්‌දිවට පැමිණෙන අවධිය වනවිට උතුරු ඉන්දියාවේ ථෙරවාද බුදුදහම විවිධ අර්බුදයන්ට මුහුණදී තිබිණි. නමුත් මේ වනවිට දකුණු ඉන්දියාව තුළ බුදු දහම යම් ප්‍රබෝධයකට ලක්‌ව තිබිණි. එලෙස දකුණු ඉන්දියාව තුළ බුදුදහම යම් දියුණුවක්‌ ලබද්දී එයට අදාළ පෙළ අටුවා පිළිබඳ උනන්දුවක්‌ එහි භික්‍ෂුන්ට තදින් දැනුණි. ඒ වනවිට ඒවා ආරක්‍ෂා වී තිබුණේ ශ්‍රී ලංකාව තුළය. ඒවා මාගධි නිරුක්‌තියට පරිවර්තනය කිරීම සඳහා බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් මෙරටට පැමිණි බව මෙතුළින් ප්‍රකාශ කළ හැක. අනෙක්‌ අතට දකුණු ඉන්දීය භික්‍ෂුන්ට ථෙරවාදය මනාව දකුණු ඉන්දියාව තුළ ස්‌ථාපිත කිරීමේ අවශ්‍යතාවය සපුරාලීම සඳහා මුන්වහන්සේ ලක්‌දිවට වැඩම කරන්නට ඇත යන්නද සිතිය හැකිය.

කෙසේ වෙතත් බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේ කාර්යය අති දැවැන්ත සමාජ සත්කාරයක්‌ වූ බව නම් අවිවාදිතය. තම කාලය, ශ්‍රමය, ජීවිතය පවා උගසට තබා නන්නාදුනනා ප්‍රදේශයක්‌ කරා උන්වහන්සේ පා තබන්නේ තමන් වෙනුවෙන් නොව සමස්‌තයා වෙනුවෙනි. මේ නිසා මුන්වහන්සේගේ ග්‍රන්ථකරණය සාංඝික වුවකි. කෙසේ වෙතත් බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේ චරිත කතාව බොග්ගලිපුත්තතිස්‌ස තෙරුන්ගේ කතාවටත් නාගසේන හිමියන්ගේ කතාවටත් සමාන කිරීමට උත්සාහ ගත් බව පැහැදිලිය.

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේ සාහිත්‍යය සේවාව

ක්‍රි.ව. 4 ත් 5 ත් අතර කාලයේ ලංකාවට එන්නට ඇතැයි අනුමාන කරන බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි මෙරට අට්‌ඨ කතා රචනයේ ප්‍රධානියා බව අනිවාර්යයෙන්ම කිව යුතුය. මෙරට ඉතිහාසය තුළ රචනා වී ඇති අට්‌ඨ කතාවන්ගෙන් අටකටත් වඩා වැඩි ප්‍රමාණයක්‌ රචනා කර ඇත්තේද මුන්වහන්සේය.

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් අතින් රචනා වන්නට ඇතැයි සැලකෙන කෘති මෙසේය.

1. විසුද්ධි මාර්ගය

2. විනය පිටකයේ අටුවාව වන සමන්තපාසාදිකාව

3. දීඝ නිකාය අටුවාව වන සුමංගල විලාසිනිය

4. ම-ජිම නිකාය අටුවාව වන ප්‍රපන්ඡ සුදනිය

5. සංයුක්‌ත නිකාය අටුවාව වන සාරත්ථප්පකාසිනිය

6. අංගුත්තර නිකාය අටුවාව වන මනෝරථපුරණිය

7. ධම්මපදට්‌ඨ කතාව

යනාදිය මුන්වහන්සේ අතින් නිශ්චිතවම රචනා වන්නට ඇතැයි පිළිගැනෙන කෘති වන්නේය.

1. විසුද්ධි මාර්ගය

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් විසින් රචනා කරන්නට යෙදුන ග්‍රන්ථ අතරින් පළමුවැන්න වන්නේ මෙයයි. එය උන්වහන්සේ ලංකාවේදී ලියූ ප්‍රථම ග්‍රන්ථය ද වන්නේය. මේ කෘතිය තුළින් උන්වහන්සේ මුළු පාලි සාහිත්‍යයටම ආලෝකයක්‌ ලබාදීමට සමත්ව ඇත්තේය. මෙය බෞද්ධ ඉතිහාසය තුළ අපට හමුවන ආදිතම වූත් සම්භාව්‍ය වූත් බෞද්ධ විශ්වකෝෂය ලෙස හඳුන්වා දීමට පුළුවන. මෙහි සමස්‌ත ත්‍රිපිටක මාලාවම අන්තර්ගත කර තොරතුරු රචනා කර ඇත. ඇතැම් ඉතිහාසඥයන් පවසන්නේ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් මෙන් වෙනත් කිසිදු පෙරදිග වැසියකු අතින් මෙවන් විශිෂ්ට ගණයේ කෘතියක්‌ බිහිවී නොමැති බවයි. මහාවංසය හෙවත් චුල වංසයේ පළමු කාණ්‌ඩය බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් මෙරටට පැමිණ මහාවිහාරයට ගොස්‌ හෙළ අටුවා ඉල්ලු මොහොතේ එහි භික්‍ෂුන් උන්වහන්සේට පැවරූ කාර්ය විස්‌තර කරන්නේ මෙසේය.

“සියලු සත්පුරුෂයන් නිවාස වූ මහා විහාරයට පැමිණි සේක්‌කු මහාපදන් කොට ගොස්‌ සංගපාල තෙරුන් කෙරෙන් සිංහල අටුවා කතා හා ථෙරවාදයන් සර්වප්‍රකාරයෙන් අසා මේ තෙමෙම ධම්මස්‌වාමිහුගේ අභිප්‍රායයි නිශ්චය කොට එහි සංඝයා රැස්‌කරවා අටුවා කරන්නට මට සියලු පොත් දෙවයි කීහ. සංඝ තෙමේ ඒ තෙරනු විමසනු සඳහා උන්වහන්සේට ගාථා දෙකක්‌ දෙන්නේ තොප සමර්ථ බැව් මෙහි දක්‌වවා ඒ දැක සියලු පොත් දෙමුයි දිනී. ස්‌ථවිර තෙමේ අටුවා සහිත තුන් පිටකය සමාසචාරයෙන් එහිම සංගාන කොට විසුද්ධි මාර්ගය කළේයි.

මහාවංසය දක්‌වන විස්‌තරයට අනුව බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි විසුද්ධි මාර්ගය නම් පොත තුන්වතාවක්‌ ලියන ලද්දක්‌ බව පෙනේ. අවස්‌ථා දෙකකදීම එම පොත දෙවිවරුන් විසින් අතුරුදන් කර ඇත. කතුවරයාගේ රචිත කෘති තුනේම අර්ථයෙන්ද ග්‍රන්ථයෙන්ද පූර්වාපර වශයෙන්ද ථේරවාදයෙන්ද පෙළින්ද පදයෙන්ද ව්‍යංජනයෙන්ද පොත් තුනම එක සමාන වූ බව චූල වංස කතුවරයා වාර්තා කරයි.

විසුද්ධි මග්ගය යනු කිසිදු ත්‍රිපිටක ග්‍රන්ථයක අටුවාවක්‌ නොවේ. එය සමස්‌ත ත්‍රිපිටක මාලාවම ආශ්‍රය කරගෙන ලියන ලද්දකි. විසුද්ධි මග්ගය දෙස බලන විට එය ස්‌වතන්ත්‍ර නිර්මාණයක්‌ බව අවිවාදිතය. තවත් සමහරක්‌ උගතුන්ගේ අදහස වී ඇත්තේ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් විමුක්‌ති මාර්ගය ටැම් ග්‍රන්ථයක්‌ මේ සඳහා ආධාර කර ගත් බවයි. එය අභයගිරි නිකායිකයන් විසින් රචනා කරන ලද්දක්‌ ලෙස සලකනු ලැබේ. විමුක්‌ති මාර්ගය අභයගිරිත කෘතියක්‌ නම් විසුද්ධි මාර්ගය මහා විහාර කාතියක්‌ බව පිළිගැනීම සාධාරණය. විසුද්ධි මාර්ගයේ ශීල, සමාධි, ප්‍රඥ යන ගුණයන්ද විග්‍රහ කෙරේ.

සමන්ත පාසාදිකාව

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් විනය පිටකය අළලා ලියන ලද්දේ මේ කෘතියයි. මෙහි බාහිර නිධාන වර්ණනා නමින් වූ කොටස සාමාන්‍ය අට්‌ඨකතාවල ප්‍රථමයෙන් අන්තර්ගත වේ. මේ කොටස තුළ මෙරට ඉතිහාසයට අදාළ කරුණු ගණනාවක්‌ දැකිය හැකිය. මහාවංසය හා වෙනත් මුල්කාලීන මුලාශ්‍ර වල දක්‌නට නොමැති කරුණු රාශියක්‌ සමන්තපාසාදිකාව තුළ දැකිය හැකිය. විනය පිටකයේ එන ගාමයන්නට බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් නියාම අර්ථ කථනය ඉදිරිපත් කරයි. ගම යනුවෙන් අදහස්‌ කරන්නේ භූගෝලීය ඒකකයක්‌ බව උන්වහන්සේ පවසයි. ගම පවුරකින් වට කළත් නැතත් මිනිසුන් එහි වාසය කලත් නැතත් එය ගමක්‌ බව මුන්වහන්සේ වාර්තා කරයි. මලය දේශයේ තිබෙන්නාක්‌ මෙන් එක කුටියක්‌ හෙවත් එක ගෙයක්‌ තිබෙන ප්‍රදේශයක්‌ වුවත් ගම නමින් ගණන් ගත යුතු බවත් බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් පවසා ඇත. මෙවන් තොරතුරු මෙරට වෙනත් කිසිදු මුලාශ්‍රයක සඳහන් වන්නේ නැත.

කතුවරයා සමන්තපාසාදිකාව රචනා කිරීමට බොහෝ පොතපත ඇසුරු කළ බව පෙනේ. එහිදී කතුවරයා ඒ ඒ අයගේ අදහස්‌ ඉදිරිපත් කොට අවසානයේ තම මතය ඉදිරිපත් කරයි. එම සංකල්පය විද්‍යානුකූලව අදහස්‌ ඉදිරිපත් කිරීම හා සම්බන්ධව ඉතා වැදගත් ප්‍රකාශයකි. කෙසේ වුවද සමන්තපාසාදිකාවේ කලාතුරකින් වැරදි සහගත කරුණක්‌ අන්තර්ගත වුවද එය කෘතියට බලපෑමක්‌ කර නැත්තේය.

සමන්තපාසාදිකාව බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ට අයත් නොවන කෘතියක්‌ බවට බී. සී. ලෝ නමැති මහතා වඩාත් සාධාරණ තර්කයක්‌ සමග මතයක්‌ ඉදිරිපත් කර ඇත. විසුද්ධි මාර්ගයට වඩා සමන්තපාසාදිකාවේ භාෂාව දියුණු බව ඒ මහතාගේ තර්කයයි. ඔහුගේ අනෙක්‌ මතය වන්නේ සමන්තපාසාදිකාව තුළ විසුද්ධිමග්කය පිළිබඳවත් බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේ අනෙක්‌ කිසිදු කෘතියක සමන්තපාසාදිකාව පිළිබඳ සඳහන් නොවීමත්ය. නමුත් මේ මතය පිළිගන්නේ නැත.

වෙනත් කෘති

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් සමන්තපාසාදිකාව හා විසුද්ධි මාර්ගයට අමතරව තවත් අටුවා ගණනාවක්‌ සම්පාදනය කර ඇත. විසුද්ධි මාර්ගය උන්වහන්සේගේ පළමු කෘතිය වන අතර අනෙක්‌ ඒවා රචනා කරන ලද අනුපිළිවෙළ පෙළගැස්‌වීම තරමක්‌ අපහසුය. මහාචාර්ය ගුණපාල මලලසේකර මහතා පවසන්නේ සමන්තපාසාදිකාව මුන්වහන්සේගේ දෙවන කෘතිය බවයි. නමුත් සමන්තපාසාදිකාව තුළ ප්‍රපන්චසුධනි නම් ග්‍රන්ථය පිළිබඳවත් සුමංගල විලාසිනිය පිළිබඳවත් තොරතුරු සඳහන්ව ඇත.

දීඝ නිකාය වෙනුවෙන් රචනා කරන ලද සුමංගල විලාසිනියද ම-ජිම නිකාය වෙනුවෙන් ලියූ ප්‍රපඤ්ච සුදනියද සංයුක්‌ත නිකාය වෙනුවෙන් ලියූ සාරත්ථප්පකාසිනියද අංගුත්තර නිකාය වෙනුවෙන් මනෝරථ පූරණියද නිකාය සතරේ අටුවාවන් ලෙස පෙන්වා දීමට පුළුවන. බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් රචනා කරන ලද මනෝරථ පුරණිය පිළිබඳව උන්වහන්සේ මෙසේ දක්‌වයි.

“මාගේ සියලු ආගම අටුවා ලිවීමේ මන දොල පිරුණු හෙයින් මේ අටුවාව මනෝරථපුරණ නම් වේ.”

මෙතුළින් පෙනෙන්නේ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේ අටුවා ග්‍රන්ථ අතර අවසන් අටුවාව මෙය විය යුතු බවයි. මුන්වහන්සේ රචනා කරන ලද අට්‌ඨ කතා අතර අවසන් අට්‌ඨ කතාව වූයේ ධම්මපදට්‌ඨ කතාවයි.

මේ ප්‍රධාන අටුවාවන්ට අමතරව බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් තම දැනුම භාවිතයට ගෙන තවත් අටුවා ග්‍රන්ථ කීපයක්‌ සම්පාදනය කර ඇත. කංඛාවිතරණිය

පරමත්ථජෝතිකා

අත්ථසාලිනි

සම්මෝහ විනෝදනි යන අට්‌ඨ කතාවන්ද මුන්වහන්සේ නිර්මාණ අතර වෙතැයි අනුමාන කරයි.

“තමන් විසින් කරන ලද්දේ හෙළ අටුවා පාලියට නැඟීම පමණක්‌ බවත් එසේ කිරීමේදී මහා විහාරයේ චිරාගත සම්ප්‍රදායට පටහැනි නොවන පරිදි අනවශ්‍ය විස්‌තර හා පුනරුක්‌තිද ප්‍රස්‌තුතයට අදාළ නොවන කරුණුද අත්හල බවත් බුද්ධඝෝෂ ස්‌ථවිරයෝ තම කෘති ගැන සඳහන් කරමින් ප්‍රකාශ කරති.”

(ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ ඉතිහාසය ෂ කොටස අනුරාධපුර යුගය (පිටුව – 222) අධ්‍යාපන ප්‍රකාශන දෙපාර්තමේන්තුව)

පාලි සාහිත්‍ය රචනා කරන පොල්වත්තේ බුද්ධදත්ත හිමියන් තම කෘතියේ සඳහන් කරන පරිදි බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් තම අරමුණ ඉටුවූ පසු හෙළ අටුවා සියල්ල මහසෑ මළුවට ගෙනවිත් ඒවා ඇතෙකුගේ උසට ගොඩගසා ගිනිතබා විනාශ කළ බව වාර්තා කරයි.

මහනුවර යුගයේ රචිත රාජාවලිය බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන්ගේ පැමිණීම හා රචිත ග්‍රන්ථ පිළිබඳ කරනුයේ මෙවන් විවරණයකි.

“ඔහු මල් මාහානාම රජ විසි අවුරුද්දක්‌ රාජ්‍ය කළේය. එකලට බුද්ධඝෝෂ නම් අටුවා කර්තෘන් වහන්සේ දඹදිව සිට මේ ලංකාද්වීපයට වැඩ බුදුන් වදාළ දෙලක්‍ෂ පන්සැත්තෑ දහස්‌ දෙසිය පනස්‌ ග්‍රන්ථ සංඛ්‍යාවක්‌ ඇති ආගමට තුන්ලක්‍ෂ එක්‌සැට දහස්‌ සත්සිය පනස්‌ ග්‍රන්ථ සංඛ්‍යාවක්‌ පමණ අටුවා කතා ලියා ආගමයෙහි පහන් නැගූ සේකැයි දත යුතුයි.”

(රාජාවලිය ඒ. වී. සුරවීර පිටුව 201)

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් විසින් රචනා කරන ලද විසුද්ධි මාර්ගය හැරුණු විට අනෙක්‌ කෘති දෙකද අපට දක්‌නට ලැබුණේ නම් උන්වහන්සේගේ කවිත්වය තවත් විද්‍යමාන වනු ඇත. Æණෝදය හා අත්ථසාලිනි නම් ග්‍රන්ථද්වය උන්වහන්සේ ඉන්දියාවේදී රචනා කළ බව කියවේ. මේ ග්‍රන්ථ 03 ම උන්වහන්සේගේ ස්‌වාධීන නිර්මාණ වන්නේය.

බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් ඉදිරියේ තිබුණේ අතිශය භාරදූර කාර්යයකි. එය උන්වහන්සේ අභියෝගයක්‌ කර ගත්තේ නැත. අප බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමින්ගේ චරිතය තුළින් ගත යුතු ආදර්ශය එයයි. බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් තමන් ඉදිරියේ වූ අභියෝගය ජයග්‍රහණය කිරීම පැසසිය යුත්තකි. මේ චරිය දෙස බලද්දී පෙනි යන්නේ බුද්ධඝෝෂ යනු ජාත්‍යන්තරකරණිය වූ භික්‌ෂු චරිතයක්‌ බවයි. ථෙරවාදී බුදුදහම මහායාන බලපෑම්වලින් ආරක්‌ෂා කරගැනීමට උන්වහන්සේ ගත් ක්‍රියාමාර්ග බෞද්ධ ඉතිහාසයේ වෙනත් කිසිදු ග්‍රන්ථ කතුවරයෙක්‌ ගත් බවට සාධක නැත. වර්තමානයේ අපද කටයුතු කළ යුත්තේ තමන් වෙනුවෙන් නොව සමස්‌තය වෙනුවෙන් බව බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමිගේ චරිතය අපට කියාපායි. එය අද අප ආදර්ශයට ගත යුතු නොවේද?

සුජීව දිසානායක

දහම නොදැන අටුවාචාරීන් වහන්සේලාට ගරහන්නෝ සාහසිකයෝය…

June 22nd, 2016

රාත්මලාන ධර්ම පර්යේෂණාලයේ හෑගොඩ විපස්‌සී හිමි

බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ දේශනා කළ ශ්‍රී සද්ධර්මය ත්‍රිපිටකයේ සඳහන් වෙනවා. අභිධර්මය ඇතුළු විවිධ සූත්‍ර ඇතුළත් මෙහි තුන්පිටකය සමඟ නිතැතින්ම කියෑවෙන ග්‍රන්ථාවලියක්‌ තියෙනවා. එය අප හඳුන්වන්නේ අටුවාව ලෙසයි.

මෙය පාලි භාෂාවෙන් හඳුන්වනු ලබන්නේ අට්‌ඨ කතා ලෙසයි. පාලි භාෂාවෙන් අට්‌ඨ කතා යන්න “අටුවා” ලෙස ව්‍යවහාරයට පැමිණ තිබෙනවා. බුද්ධ දේශනාව ආශ්‍රයෙන්ම අටුවාව ගොඩනැගී තිබෙනවා. ඇත්ත වශයෙන් අටුවා පිළිබඳව අවබෝධයක්‌ නොමැතිව තුන්පිටකයේ බොහෝ දේ තේරුම් ගත නොහැකියි. අටුවාව ග්‍රන්ථාරූඪ කිරීමට හේතුවත්, එය ලිවීමට අත්දැකීමුත් ගොඩනැඟී තිබෙන්නේ බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේගේ දේශනා පදනම් කරගෙනයි. එය බොහොම පැහැදිලි කාරණයක්‌.

අටුවා ලිවීමට හේතුව කුමක්‌ද?

පෙළේ (තුන් පිටකයේ) තියෙන අමාරු පද, අපහසු සංකල්ප තවදුරටත් පැහැදිලි කරන, විවරණය කරන, ප්‍රකට කරන ග්‍රන්ථාවලිය අටුවාව ලෙස තවදුරටත් හඳුනාගැනීමට පුළුවන්.

අටුවාවේ තියෙන්නේ අටුවාව. එය ලියූ අයගේ අදහස්‌ නොවේ. අටුවාවේ තියෙන්නේ බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ දේශනා කළ ධර්මයම පදනම් කරගෙන, ඒවා ස්‌ඵුට කර දක්‌වමින් යම් කරුණක්‌ තහවුරු කිරීමයි මෙහිදී සිදුවන්නේ. නූතනයේ නම් විවිධ වෛවාරණ බණ අසන්න පුළුවන්. සමහරු දේශනා කරන්නේ පල්හෑලි පමණයි. ඒ අය කරන්නේ කටට එන දෙයක්‌ කීම හෝ ප්‍රකාශ කිරීම පමණයි.

එහෙත් අප රටේ එදත් අදත් ධර්මය, විනය, විකෘති නොකර ව්‍යක්‌ත ලෙස ධර්මය දේශනා කරන ධර්මධර, උගත්, පණ්‌ඩිත ස්‌වාමීන් වහන්සේලා සිටිනවා. උන්වහන්සේලා ධර්මය දේශනා කරනු ලබන්නේ මාතෘකාවකට අනුවයි. නිදසුනක්‌ ලෙස එවැනි හිමිනමක්‌ කර්මය ගැන දේශනා කරනවා කියමුකෝ. එවිට උන්වහන්සේලා “කර්මය” පැහැදිලි කිරීම සඳහා සූත්‍ර පාඨ, ගාථා උද්ධෘත කොට දක්‌වමින් අහවල් තැන මෙහෙමයි සඳහන් වෙන්නේ යනුවෙන් දේශනා කරනු ලබනවා. ඊට අමතරව තවත් කරුණුත් පැහැදිලි කරනු ලබනවා. එම ක්‍රමය තමයි අටුවා යන්නෙන් අදහස්‌ කරනුයේ. අටුවාව යනු ඉතාම ශාස්‌ත්‍රීය විවරණයක්‌.

අටුවාවක්‌ නිර්මාණය කරන්නේ කෙසේද කියා දීඝනිකායේ ටීකාවේ සය විදිහක්‌ සඳහන් කරනවා.

“අථවා ඒහි අකාරෙහි

සංවණණ්‌නා සාතබ්බා සච්චන්ධතෝ,

පදතෝ, පදවිභාගතෝ, අත්ථතෝ,

අනුයෝගතෝ පරිහාරනෝ චාති”

සච්චධතෝ යනු නිදානය ඉදිරිපත් කිරීමයි. නිදානය යන්න සූත්‍ර නිදානය සහ අට්‌ඨකතා නිදානය යනුවෙන් කොටස්‌ දෙකකට වෙන් කෙරෙනවා. යම් සූත්‍රයක්‌ අර්ථ නිරූපණය කිරීමේදී එය කවදා කොතැනකදී කවුරුන් අරභයා දේශනා කළේද යන්න පැහැදිලි කිරීම සූත්‍ර නිදාන වේ. විනය ශික්‍ෂා පදවලදී, විනය පැනවීමට හේතුව, කාටද? කුමක්‌ නිමිති කරගෙන ද යන්න පැහැදිලි කිරීම යන්න අට්‌ඨ කතා නිදානය ලෙස හඳුන්වනු ලබනවා.

දෙවැනි ක්‍රමය “පදතෝ” ලෙස හඳුන්වනු ලබනවා. බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ දේශනා කළ පාලි පාඨවලින් උපුටා ගන්නා ලද කොටස්‌වල අර්ථය පදයක්‌ පාසා පැහැදිලි කිරීම “පදතෝ” ලෙස සැලකෙනවා.

“යං කදාචි කරහචි දීඝස්‌ස

අද්ධුqතෝ අච්චයේන සංවම්මති”

මෙය දීඝනිකායේ බ්‍රහ්මජාල සූත්‍රයේ තියෙන පාඨයක්‌.

බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ දේශනා කළ මෙම පාඨය අටුවාවේ මෙසේ පැහැදිලි කරනු ලබනවා.

“යංකි නිපාතමත්තං, කදාචිති

කිස්‌මිඤ්චි කාලේ

කරහචි”ති තස්‌සේව වේ මචනං,

දීඝස්‌ස අද්ධුqතනෝති

දීඝස්‌ස කාලස්‌ස අච්චයෙතානි

අනික්‌කමෙන සංවට්‌ටකීතී

විනස්‌සති”

දීඝනිකායේ අප ඉහතින් සඳහන් කළ සූත්‍රය අටුවාව අනුව විස්‌තර කරන්නේ මෙසේයි.

එම විවරණයට අනුව “යං” යනු නිපාත පදයකි. කරහචි යනු යම්කිසි කාලයක්‌ යන්නයි. දීඝස්‌ස අද්ධුතෝ යනු දීර්ඝ කාලයක්‌ අවෑමෙන් යන්නයි. සංවම්මතී යනු විනාශ වීම යන්නයි.

මෙලෙසයි අටුවාව විස්‌තර කරනු ලබන්නේ, මෙහිදී පද විග්‍රහයට භාවිත කරනු ලබන්නේ අටුවාචාරීන්ගේ විග්‍රහ නොවෙයි. ඒ සඳහා භාවිත කරනු ලබන්නේ බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේම දේශනා කළ වෙනත් වෙනත් සූත්‍රවල තියෙන අදහස්‌.

තුන්වැනි ක්‍රමය පද විභාගයයි. (පද විභාගතො)

පෙළෙහි (ත්‍රිපිටකයෙහි) එන පාඨවල නිවැරැදි අර්ථ අවබෝධ කරගැනීමට ව්‍යාකරණය, රචනා ක්‍රම ගැන දැනීමක්‌ අවශ්‍යයි. පද විභාගයෙන් සිදු කෙරෙනුqයේ එම පැහැදිලි කරගැනීමයි. අදාළ පද නාම පදයක්‌ද? ආඛ්‍යාන පදයක්‌ ද? නිපාත පදයක්‌ද? උපසර්ග පදයක්‌ ද? සමාන පදයක්‌ද? තද්ධිත පදයක්‌ද? නාම පදයක්‌ ද? යනාදී වශයෙන් පවතින ව්‍යාකරණමය පදනමයි පද විභාගයෙන් සිදුකෙරෙන්නේ.

මොග්ගල්ලාන පඤ්චිකා නම් ග්‍රන්ථයෙහි මෙසේ සඳහන් වෙනවා.

“යො නිරුක්‌තිං ජනානි

ජනානි පිටකත්තයං

පදෙ පදෙ විකචෛයH

වනෙ අන්ධ ගජෝ විය”

මෙහි තේරුම මෙසේයි.

යම්කිසි කෙනෙක්‌ ත්‍රිපිටකය දැනගත්තත් නිරුක්‌තිය (පද විභාගය) දන්නේ නැති නම් මහා වනාන්aතරයකට වන්a අන්ධ ඇතකු සේ පදයක්‌ පදයක්‌ ගාණේa හැකිළෙනවා.

අන්ධ ඇතෙක්‌ වනාන්තරයේ ගමන් කරද්දී සිදුවන්නේ කුමක්‌ද? අර ගහේ හැප්පෙනවා. මේ ගහේ හැප්පෙනවා. මහා අවුලෙන් අවුලට පත් වෙනවා.

ඒ නිසා බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ දේශනා කළ ධර්මයන් අවබෝධ කරගැනීමට පද විභාගයන් දැනගත යුතුයි. ව්‍යාකරණය මොකක්‌ද? සමාස පදයක්‌ද? නාම පදයක්‌ද? මොන විභක්‌තියේ යෙදුණු පදයක්‌ද? යනාදී වශයෙන් අවබෝධයක්‌ නොමැතිව පාලි පාඨයන්ගේ අර්ථයන් විස්‌තර කරගන්නේ කෙසේද? ඒ නිසයි පද විභාගතෝ යන ලක්‍ෂණය අටුවාවේ විස්‌තර කරන්නේ.

හතරවැනි ලක්‍ෂණය අත්ථතෝ නම් වේ. අටුවාවේ ප්‍රධානම කාර්යභාර්ය වන්නේ මෙයයි. වචනවල සහ සංකල්පවල නිවැරදි අර්ථය පැහැදිලි කිරීම මින් අපේක්‌ෂා කරන අතර අටුවාචාරීන් වහන්සේලාගේ ප්‍රධානම කාර්යය වන්නේත් මෙයයි.

අටුවා රචනා කිරීමේදී අටුවාචාරීන් වහන්සේලා භාවිත කරන්නේ උන්වහන්සේලාම හදාගත් වචන නොවේ. බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ යම් සූත්‍රයක්‌ දේශනා කර අදහසක්‌ ඉදිරිපත් කර තිබේනම් එම අදහස තහවුරු වන තවත් සූත්‍ර පාඨ උපුට උපුටා දැක්‌වීමකුයි අටුවාවෙන් සිදු කෙරෙන්නේ.

එවං මේසුතං එකං සමයං භගවා… යනාදී වශයෙන් පවතින වචන බෞද්ධයන්ගේ කටට හොඳට හුරුයි. මෙහි යෙදෙන එවං කියන නිපාත පදයට අර්ථ කීපයක්‌ යෙදෙන බව අටුවාවල දක්‌වනවා. එවං කියන පදය උපමා, උපදේශ, සතුට, ගැරහීම්, පිළිගැනීම්, ආකාර නිදස්‌සන, අවධාරණ යනාදී අර්ථවල යෙදන බව බුද්ධඝෝෂ හාමුදුරුවෝ අටුවාවල පැහැදිලි කර තිබෙනවා. එනිසා බොහොම පැහැදිලියි එවං යන්න අටුවාචරීන් වහන්සේලාගේ වචනයක්‌ නොවේ. එය බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ දේශනා කළ වචනයක්‌. “එවං ජාතෙන මච්ෙච්න කත්තබ්බං කුසලං බහුං” යන්නෙන් අදහස්‌ කරනුයේ උපමාවක්‌. මේ අයුරින් එවං යන පදය විවිධ අර්ථයන් යෙදනවා. එසේ එවං යන්න විවිධ තැන්වල යෙදෙන බව අටුවාචාරීන් වහන්සේලා පෙන්වා දෙන්නේ බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ විවිධ සූත්‍රවල දේශනා කළ පාඨ, සූත්‍ර උපුටා දක්‌වමින්.

අටුවාවේ පස්‌වැන ලක්‌ෂණය වන්නේ අනුයොගතෝ – පරිහාරතෝ යන්නයි.

මෙය අප පැහැදිලි කරන්නේ ග්‍රන්ථයක උපුටා දැක්‌වීමක්‌ ඇසුරින්. “පාලි අට්‌ඨ කතාවන්හි පිළිබිඹු වන ව්‍යාකරණ සම්ප්‍රදාය” යනුවෙන් මහාචාර්ය වෑගම පියරතන හාමුදුරුවෝ ලියූ පර්යේෂණාත්මක ග්‍රන්ථයේ අනුයෝගතෝ – පරිහාරතෝ යන වචන දෙක විස්‌තර කරනුයේ මේ ආකාරයෙන්.

“අර්ථකථන ශිල්පීය ක්‍රමයෙහි විවේචනය කිරීමේ අංශය අනුයෝග හා පරිහාර යනුවෙන් කොටස්‌ දෙකකි. අනුයෝග ක්‍රමය යනු ප්‍රශ්න ඉදිරිපත් කිරීම හෝ ප්‍රශ්නවල වැදගත්කම විවේචනාත්මකව පරීක්‍ෂා කිරීමයි. පරිහාර යනු එබඳු ප්‍රශ්නවලට පිළිතුරු සැපයීමයි”

…. මේ ආදී වශයෙන් උන්වහන්සේගේ අගනා ග්‍රන්ථයේ මේ පිළිබඳව තවදුරටත් විග්‍රහ කර තිබෙනවා.

දැන් අප “උපාසක” යන නිතර යෙදෙන පදය ගැන මඳක්‌ විමසා බලමු. කවුද උපාසක කිය්නේ, කුමන කරුණක්‌ නිසාද උපාසක කියන්නේ, උපාසකගේ ශීලය කුමක්‌ද, ආජීව කුමක්‌ද, ඉන් සිදුවන්නේ මොනවගේ විපත්තිද? යනාදී වශයෙන් ප්‍රශ්න කර කර පිළිතුරු සැපයීම අනුයෝග පරිහාරතෝ යන අටුවා ක්‍රමවේදයේ ලක්‌ෂණයයි. මේ ආකාරයේ ධර්මානුකූලව ඉතාමත් විශිෂ්ට ආකාරයට අටුවාවන් රචනා කර තිබෙනවා.

අටුවා ගැන සඳහන් කිරීමේදී මේ ගැනත් මතක්‌ කළ යුතුයි. තමන්ට අභිමත පරිදි අටුවාවල අදහස්‌ ඉදිරිපත් කරන්න කාටවත් බැහැ. එය ඉදිරිපත් කළ යුත්තේ ශාස්‌ත්‍රීය ක්‍රමයකටයි. අටුවා පද ඉදිරිපත් කරන ශාස්‌ත්‍රීය ක්‍රම හතරක්‌ තියෙනවා.

සුත්ත, සුත්තානුලෝම, ආචාර්යවාද, අත්තනෝමතික යනු එම ක්‍රමවේද හතරයි.

ඉදිරිපත් කරන දේ සූත්‍රයට ගැලපෙනවද (සුත්ත), එයට අනුකූල වේද (සුත්තානුලෝම) විවිධ ආචාර්යවරුන්ගේ මතවාද මොනවාද (ආචාර්යවාද) සහ තමන්ගේ අදහසට (අත්තනෝමතික) ගැලපේද යන්න අටුවා විවරණය කෙරෙන ශාස්‌ත්‍රීය ක්‍රමවේදය ලෙස හඳුන්වා දී තිබෙනවා.

කෙසේ වුවත් බුද්ධඝෝෂ හාමුදුරුවෝ අත්තනෝමති යන්න විග්‍රහ කළ අයුරු අටුවාවේ දැක්‌වෙන්නේ මෙහෙමයි. “අටුවා විවරණය කරන ක්‍රම අතරින් අත්තනෝමතිය ඉතාම දුර්වල එකක්‌. ඊට වඩා ආචාර්යවාදය හොඳයි. ඊටත් වඩා සුත්තානුලෝමය හොඳයි. සියල්ලටම වඩා වැදගත්ම, බලවත්ම දෙය නිවැරදිම දෙය සූත්‍රයි. (සුත්ත) එනම් බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ වදාළ දේශනාවයි.

මෙම විග්‍රහය දෙස බැලීමේදී පෙනී යන කරුණක්‌ වන්නේ අටුවා විවරණය ශාස්‌ත්‍රීය ක්‍රමවේදයකට මෙන්ම ඉතාමත් නිහතමානීව කළ දෙයක්‌ බවයි. මෙය පුළුල් ලෙස සාකච්ඡා කළ යුතු මාතෘකාවක්‌ වුවත් ඒ පිළිබඳව මෙම ලිපියෙන් ඒ ගැන දීර්ඝ ලෙස සාකච්ඡා කිරීමට අප බලාපොරොත්තු වන්නේ නැහැ.

කෙසේ හෝ වේවා අප උත්සාහ කළේ අටුවාවේ ස්‌වරූපය කෙබඳු ද යන්න පාඨකයා දැනුවත් කිරීමටයි. ඒ පිළිබඳව ගැඹුරු ශාස්‌ත්‍රී විවරණයකට යැමට මේ මොහොතේ අපි බලාපොරොත්තු වන්නේ නැහැ.

ප්‍රාණඝාතයක්‌ වීමට නම් කරුණු පහක්‌ සම්පූර්ණ විය යුතුයි. එම අංග පහක්‌ සම්පූර්ණ විය යුතුයි කියන කතාව කියන්නේ කවුද? එය අටුවාචාරීන්ගේ අදහසක්‌. බුද්ධඝෝෂ හාමුදුරුවෝ උන්වහන්සේ ලියූ දීඝ නිකායේ අට්‌ඨ කථාවේ. මඡ්Cධිම නිකායේ අට්‌ඨ කථාවේ, ඉථි උත්තක අට්‌ඨ කථාවේ ආදියේදී ප්‍රාණඝාත අකුසලය සිදුවීමට සම්පූර්ණ කළයුතු අංග පහ මොනවද කියා දක්‌වා තිබෙනවා.

පාණේ, (ප්‍රාණියකු වීම), පාණසඤිකා (පණ ඇති බව දැන ගැනීම), වධක ෙච්තනා (මැරීමේ ෙච්තනාව) උපක්‌ක්‍රමෝ (මැරීමට උපක්‍රම යෙදීම), තේන මරණං (මරණයට පත්වීම) යන කාරණා පහ සම්පූර්ණ වුවහොත් ප්‍රාණඝාත අකුසලය සිදුවන බව සඳහන් වෙනවා.

තොටගමුවේ ශ්‍රී රාහුල හිමියන් කාව්‍යසේකරයේදී මෙය කවියට නගා තිබෙනවා.

සතකු බව දැනුම ද

මරණව සිත් පයෝග ද

දිවි යනු සියත බද

පසැගතිය යෙත් පළමු සික පද

ප්‍රාණඝාතයක්‌ සිදුවීමේදී අංග පහක්‌ සම්පූර්ණ විය යුතු බව බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ සෘජුව දේශනා කර නැහැ. නමුත් විවිධ සූත්‍රවලදී

මෙහි ලක්‍ෂණ දක්‌වා තිබෙනවා. අටුවාචාරීන් වහන්සේලා කළේ මේ සියලු දේ සමෝධානය කර මූලික අදහසක්‌ ගෙන මෙම සංකල්පය ඉදිරිපත් කිරීමයි. මේ අයුරින්ම අනෙකුත් පන්සිල් පද සඳහාද සම්පූර්ණ විය යුතු අංග දක්‌වා තිබෙනවා. මෙම අංග දක්‌වන්නේ අටුවාචාරීන් වහන්සේලායි.

අටුවාව යනු බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ දේශනා කළ විවිධ සූත්‍රයන්, ඒවා එකතු කර එක අදහසක්‌ ඉදිරිපත් කිරීමයි. මේවා සිංහල භාෂාවේදී හෙළටුවා වශයෙන් තිබුණා. හෙළටුවා 28 ක්‌ තිබුණ බව පර්යේෂණවලදී හෙළිවී තිබෙනවා. නමුත් එය උපකල්පනය කළ දෙයක්‌ යෑයි ඇතැම් ආචාර්යවරු පවසනවා. කෙසේ නමුත් මහා අට්‌ඨ කතාව, මහා පච්චරිය අට්‌ඨ කතාව, කුරුන්දි අට්‌ඨ කතාව යනුවෙන් හෙළටුවා කොටස්‌ තුනක්‌ තිබුණු බව බුද්ධඝෝෂ හාමුදුරුවන්ගේ අට්‌ඨ කතාවල සඳහන් වෙනවා.

හෙළ අටුවාවන් රචනා කර තිබුණේ පාලියෙන් හෙළටුවා පාලි ටිකක්‌ හඳුනා ගැනීම සඳහා මේ ආකාරයෙන් ඉදිරිපත් කිරීමට පුළුවන්.

යොගෙ සොහෙවදානකි උපද්දවභි නම්, සාමාවතිය, වත්ථු නාම පඨමංයි මහ අටුවාති ආ බැවින් අප්පමාදති පණ්‌ඩිතහ ජෙනෙ මාරස්‌ස පුප්ඵෙවදානකි. පුප්ඵ අකුසල සාලිත්ථක සිස්‌සේ යන්න භක්‌කාරක ලතකසිප ලකුණ්‌ටතො වදානකි. රැස්‌ස නැමි රහදො වදානකි ආවාටහි නම්

අටුවා ඇදුරන් අතර මුල් තැන හිමිවන්නේ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හාමුදුරුවන්ටයි. උන්වහන්සේ ලංකාවට පැමිණ පාලි අට්‌ඨකතා ග්‍රන්ථ රචනා කළ කාලය අටුවා කාලය වශයෙන් සලකනවා. ඒ අනුව බලන කල බුද්ධඝෝෂ හාමුදුරුවෝ ලංකාවට වැඩම කළේ ක්‍රි.ව. 5 වැනි සියවසේ. ඒ කාලයේ රජකළේ මහානාම රජතුමා. බුදුගොස්‌ හිමියන් ලංකාවට වැඩම කරන්නට පෙර මෙහි වැඩම කළ බුද්ධදත්ත හාමුදුරුවෝ මහා විහාරික හාමුදුරුවරු ඇසුරු කරමින් අටුවාකරණයේ නියෑළුණා. එහෙත් සාර්ථක වූයේ නෑ. අටුවා ලියන ලද්දේ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමියන් පමණක්‌ නොවේ. ධම්මපාල හිමි, උපසේන හිමි මහානාම හිමි ඒ අතර සිටිනවා. කෙසේ වුවත් බුද්ධඝෝෂ හාමුදුරුවො තමයි වැඩියෙන්ම අටුවා රචනා කළේ.

මෙම අටුවාවල සමකාලීන අදහස්‌ තියෙනවා. ශ්‍රී ලංකා ඉතිහාසයෙත් එය තියෙනවා. මිහිඳු හාමුදුරුවෝ ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට වැඩීම ගැන සමන්ත පසාදිකාවේ සඳහන් වෙනවා. ඒ වගේත් ලස්‌සන උපමා කතා එහි සඳහන් වෙනවා. පපඤaඤසෝදනිය අට්‌ඨ කතාවෙහි සදහන් වෙනවා ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ භික්‍ෂූන් වහන්සේලා 39 ක්‌ දර කඩන ගෙවිලියක්‌ කියූ ගීතයක්‌ අසා රහත් වුණා කියලා.

නමුත් අටුවා ගැන මොලොව හසරක්‌ නොදන්න ඇතැම් ගිහියෝද සිවුරු පොරවා ගත් ඇතැම් පැවිද්දොaද අටුවාචාරීන් වහන්සේලාට බණිනවා. නිග්‍රහ කරනවා. මේවා මහා අපරාධ. අටුවාවේ තියෙන ශාස්‌ත්‍රීය ස්‌වභාවය නොදැන, නූගත්කම නිසාම ඔවුන් කියන දේ නිසා අපේ බෞද්ධයන් නොමඟ යන්න පුළුවන්. එනිසා අටුවාචාරීන් වහන්සේලාට නිග්‍රහ කරන මෙම අයගෙන් ප්‍රවේශම් වෙන්න කියලා අප බොහොම කාරුණිකව බෞද්ධයන්ගෙන් ඉල්ලා සිටිනවා.

අටුවාචාරීන් වහන්සේලා නොවන්න බෞද්ධාගම තේරුම් ගන්න බැරිවෙනවා. ථෙරවාද සම්ප්‍රදාය කියන්නේ අටුවාවයි. අටුවාව කියන එක දැකලවත් නොමැති, අටුවාවක්‌ කවදාවත් නොකියවපු එක්‌තරා අන්තවාදී කණ්‌ඩායමක්‌ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හාමුදුරුවන් ඇතුළු අටුවාචාරීන් වහන්සේලාට දිගින් දිගටම බැණවැදීම අපි දකින්නේ සාහසික අපරාධයක්‌ ලෙසයි.

“සාහසික” යන්නේ තේරුම නපුරු යන්නයි. ඒ වගේම නපුරු අපරාධ කරන්නා යන අර්ථයත් එහි ගැබ්වී තිබෙනවා. එනිසා අටුවාවට චෝදනා කරන අපහාස කරන අය සාහසික අපරාධකරුවන් ලෙසයි, ඉතිහාසගත වන්නේ.

සංයුක්‌ත නිකායේ තුදු බ්‍රහ්ම සූත්‍රයේදී බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ මෙසේ දේශනා කර තිබෙනවා. පුරිසස්‌සහි ජාතස්‌ස තුඨාරි ජායතේ මුෙ€ යාය ජිJදති අත්තානං බාලෝ දුබ්භාසිතං භණං

මෙලොව උපන් මෝඩයාගේ මුඛයේ (කටේ) පවතිනුයේ කෙටේරියකි. නපුරු වචන කියන පුද්ගලයා තමාට කියන දේවලින් විනාශය ළඟා කර ගනී.

ඒ වගේම නින්දා තුළ යුත්තාට ප්‍රසංසා කරනවා නම්, ඒ වගේම ප්‍රශංසා කළ යුත්තාට නින්දා කරනවානම් ඔහු කටින් පව්රැස්‌ කරන්නෙක්‌.

යෝ නින්දියං පසංසති තං වා නින්දති යෝ පසංසියෝ විචිනාති මුෙ€න සෝ කලිං කාලිනා තෙන සුඛං න විJදති

මේ අයුරින් පව් රැස්‌ කරන්නාට යම් අයෙක්‌ අනුබල දීමත් පාපයක්‌.

බුදුදහමට එරෙහි විශාල අභියෝග තිබෙනවා. බුදුදහමට එරෙහි විවිධ කුමන්ත්‍රණ තියෙනවා. අටුවාචාරීන් වහන්සේලාගෙන් බෞද්ධ ශාසනයට සිදු වූ, සිදු වන සේවය නොදැන මේ කුමන්ත්‍රණකරුවන්ගේ ඉත්තන් වී සිටින්නන්ගෙන්ද බෞද්ධ ශාසනය පිරිසිදු කර ගැනීමේ යුග කාර්ය භාරයක්‌ අපට තියෙනවා. 2600 ශ්‍රී සම්බුද්ධත්ව ජයන්තිය සමරන මේ මොහොතේ අපේ බෞද්ධයන් මේ පිළිබඳවත් හොඳ සිහියෙන් සිටීම ඉතාම වැදගත්.

ප්‍රධාන පාළි අට්‌ඨකතා

1 අංගුත්තරනිකායට්‌ඨකථා (මනොරථ-පූරණී), බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි,

2අපදානට්‌ඨකථා (විසුද්ධජනවිලාසිනී)

3 ඉතිවුත්තකට්‌ඨකථා (පරමත්ථදීපනී) ධම්මපාල හිමි

4උදානට්‌ඨකථා (පරමත්ථදීපනී) ධම්මපාල හිමි

5 ඛුද්දකපාඨට්‌ඨකතා (පරමත්ථජොතිකා) බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි

6 චතුභාණවාරට්‌ඨකථා (සාරත්ථසමුච්චය)

7 චරියාපිටකට්‌ඨකථා (පරමත්ථදීපනී) ධම්මපාල හිමි

8 ජාතකට්‌ඨකථා බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි

9 ථෙරගාථාට්‌ඨකථා (පරමත්ථදීපනී) ධම්මපාල හිමි

10 ථෙරීගාථාට්‌ඨකථා (පරමත්ථදීපනී) ධම්මපාල හිමි

11 දීඝනිකායට්‌ඨකථා (සුමංගලවිලාසිනී) බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි

12 ධම්මපදට්‌ඨකථා බුද්ධඝොෂ හිමි

13 ධම්මසංගනී අට්‌ඨකථා (අත්ථසාලිනී), බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි

14 නිද්දේසට්‌ඨකථා (සද්ධම්මපඡ්ජොතිකා) උපසේන හිමි

15නෙත්තිප්පකරණට්‌ඨකථා ධම්මපාල හිමි

16 පඤaචප්පකරණට්‌ඨකථා බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි

17 පටිසම්භිදාමග්ගට්‌ඨකථා (සද්ධම්මප්පකාසිනී) මහානාම හිමි

18 පාතිමොක්‌ඛට්‌ඨකථා (කංඛාවිතරණී) බුද්ධඝොස හිමි

19 පෙතවත්ථු අට්‌ඨකථා (පරමත්ථදීපනී) ධම්මපාල හිමි

20 බුද්ධවංසට්‌ඨකථා (මධුරත්ථවිලාසිනී) බුද්ධදත්ත හිමි

21 මඡ්Cධිමනිකායට්‌ඨකථා (පපංචසූදනී) බුද්ධඝොස හිමි

22 විභංගට්‌ඨකථා (සම්මොහවිනොදනී) බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි

23 විමානවත්ථු අට්‌ඨකථා (පරමත්ථදීපනී) ධම්මපාල හිමි

24 විසුද්ධිමග්ග, බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි

25 සංයුත්ත නිකායට්‌ඨකථා, බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි

26 සමන්තපාසාදිකා, බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි

27 සුත්තනිපාතට්‌ඨකථා, බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි

රාත්මලාන ධර්ම පර්යේෂණාලයේ
හෑගොඩ විපස්‌සී හිමි

Democracy in peril

June 22nd, 2016

Editorial Courtesy The Island

Franchise is the linchpin of democracy as is common knowledge. It helps give expression to the popular will and install administrations people deem fit to govern them. Elections are to franchise what water is to fish. Deprived of the medium of electoral contest, franchise suffers disuse atrophy and anarchy sets in. We saw this happen in the 1980s, when the JRJ government, intoxicated with power, substituted a heavily rigged referendum for a general election. Its predecessor, the SLFP-led United Front government, had postponed parliamentary polls by two years from 1975 to 77, thus setting a very bad precedent.

The sea rolls back prior to the devastating landfall of killer waves caused by seaquakes. The so-called rolling back of the electoral map triggers political tsunamis as is our experience. But for the scrapping of the 1982 general election, conditions for the JVP’s second uprising would not have been created. For, the UNP would not have been able to retain and abuse its five-sixths majority to bulldoze its way through and the democratic Opposition would have emerged stronger with more seats in hand. The JRJ government proscribed the JVP by falsely accusing it of having a hand in the 1983 anti-Tamil pogrom because the latter had moved the judiciary against the outcome of the 1982 referendum. The country was plunged into a bloodbath as a result. Democracy suffered a paralysing blow with the JRJ and Premadasa government taking the institutionalisation of political violence to the next level. The rest is history.

Those who do not learn from history are said to be doomed to repeat it.

The local government polls have been put on hold indefinitely. The government claims the Rajapaksa administration botched up the delimitation process and, therefore, some more time is required to rectify the errors. If it thinks it can pull the wool over the eyes of the public it is mistaken. That it is wary of facing an election at this juncture is only too well known. The public is miffed about the waste of public funds, unfulfilled election pledges, the skyrocketing cost of living, the arrogance of power on the part of the ruling party politicians, rampant corruption, bond scams etc. Hence, the government’s decision to keep postponing the mini polls in the hope that the political situation will improve with the passage of time!

Even if the government’s claim that some delimitation issues are the reason for the postponement of the LG polls is true, elections can be held to the LG bodies which are free from such problems. This is what a section of the media, some Opposition politicians who are not beholden to the government, civil society outfits et al are demanding.

National Elections Commission (NEC) Chairman Mahinda Deshapriya revealed at a media briefing on Monday that the EC had asked the Asoka Peiris Committee tasked with sorting out the alleged delimitation issues to inform it of the LG institutions not affected by such problems. But, he had not received a response, he said. Curiouser, curiouser! The committee ought to have such information at their fingertips.

Deshapriya has proved his mettle as a public servant. He once descended on a state-owned media institution which was telecasting a blatant lie to mislead the public on the day of the last presidential election. He succeeded in nailing the canard. He did not buckle under political pressure. It is hoped that he will put his foot down again. The onus is on him to find out the LG institutions which can go to the polls so that the public will know the truth and hold elections thereto without further delay. The NEC must defeat the sinister efforts being made in some quarters to throttle democracy.

Unresolved Indo-Lanka issues

June 22nd, 2016

By Shamindra Ferdinando Courtesy The Island

One-time head of the Law Faculty, University of Colombo, Dr Nirmala Chandrahasan last Thursday (June 16) called for tangible action on the part of the Sri Lankan government to bring in Sri Lankan refugees, living in India, particularly in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Dr Chandrahasan estimated the number of Lankan refugees in India at the peak of the conflict at 200,000.

The appeal was made over seven years after the successful conclusion of the war with the annihilation of the LTTE leadership.

The distinguished law academic insisted that special arrangements should be made to facilitate the return of refugees. Dr Chandrahasan was addressing a forum on India-Sri Lanka relations in the 21st century, organised by the Bandaranaike Centre for International Studies (BSIS).

The BCIS as well as the Lakshman Kadirgamar Institute (LKI) should at least now initiate a comprehensive study on the conflict and the circumstances under which it was brought to an end. Such a study is required, especially against the backdrop of the proposed war crimes probe, in accordance with a Geneva resolution, co-sponsored by Sri Lanka, last October.

Indian High Commissioner, Y.K. Sinha addressed the gathering at the onset of the forum. Former President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga was among the audience.

Dr Chandrahasan, the author of “Maritime Boundaries in the Indian Ocean” Sri Lanka and the Law of the Sea., explained a range of facilities provided by the Tamil Nadu administration to the Sri Lankans while underscoring the pivotal importance of bringing them back to post-war Sri Lanka. The internationally recognized academic stressed that those who had sought refuge in India didn’t have the means to seek sanctuary elsewhere. In addition to the refugee issue, Dr Chandrahasan discussed issues pertaining to Indo-Lanka maritime issues. She left out the simmering poaching, issue caused by Tamil Nadu fishing fleet.

Dr Chandrahasan addressed the gathering after Sri Lanka’s former High Commissioner in New Delhi, Professor Sudharshan Seneviratne, delivered a brief lecture on some aspects of Indo-Lanka relations. However, Chandrahasan and Seneviratne, a former Professor of Archaeology and former Director General of Central Cultural Fund refrained from at least referring to India’s intervention here. Perhaps, they felt that it wasn’t the place to take up the issue. (The text of Prof. Seneviratne’s speech is on page 2 of Midweek)

The Question and Answer session, too, essentially showed Sri Lanka in bad light in respect of Sri Lanka foreign policy, or lack of it.

J.N. Dixit, who had been Indian High Commissioner in Colombo, during eelam war I, in his memoirs blamed the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi for military intervention here. (Makers of India’s Foreign Policy: Raja Ram Mohun Roy to Yashwant Sinha launched on January 1, 2004)

In fact, Dixit, who also functioned as Foreign Secretary, held Gandhi responsible for two major foreign policy blunders – namely the military intervention, in Sri Lanka, in the early 80s, and New Delhi’s ambiguous response to the then Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in Dec. 1979.

Strangely, Sri Lanka, or any major political party here has ever commented on Dixit’s assertions, though he launched his memoirs over a decade ago. There should be a full disclosure of Indian intervention here to facilitate post-war reconciliation process. New Delhi can never absolve itself of its culpability for death and destruction here as well as the assassination of one time Premier Rajiv Gandhi on the night of May 21, 1991.

Indo-Sri Lanka relations, in the 21st century, cannot be dealt with leaving out unprecedented Indian intervention in Sri Lanka during the previous century. A bloody war caused by Indian interference was brought to an end in early this century. Sri Lanka sustained a massive combined security forces campaign until troops, on the Vanni east front shot dead LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran on the banks of the Nanthikadal lagoon.

While academics discuss Indo-Lanka relations, the latter is facing a UN war crimes probe under the supervision of the Geneva-based United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC).  IT WOULD BE IMPORTANT TO STRESS THAT THE ALLEGATION ON THE BASIS OF WHICH UNHRC ADOPTED RESOLUTION HAD NEVER BEEN VERIFIED IN ANY COURT OF LAW AND STILL REMAIN UNSUBSTANTIATED.

Interestingly, India, responsible for causing war here today represents the UNHRC comprising 47 countries. While high profile push for war crimes probe gathers momentum, Sri Lanka is depicted as a country hell-bent on driving Tamils out, over seven years after the end of the conflict. Unfortunately, the government seems not to be interested in countering propaganda efforts meant to deceive the world. Those loyal to former war-winning President Mahinda Rajapaksa have pathetically failed to promote Sri Lanka’s interests though they routinely referred to the Geneva issue at various media briefings.

India needs to be told that it couldn’t forgive herself for plunging Sri Lanka into a crisis by various investments such as recent restoration of Alfred Duraiappa stadium.

It would be pertinent to examine the recent incident, in Indonesian waters, involving a group of persons claiming to be Sri Lankan Tamil refugees against the backdrop of Dr Chandrahasan calling for a stepped up government efforts to bring back refugees from India. Contrary to Dr Chandrahasan’s assertions, at least a section of the Sri Lankans, domiciled in India, are seeking to reach Australia by boat. The recent incident in the Indonesian waters is a case in point.

Indonesia late last week dropped a plan to escort the trawler carrying 44 Australia-bound asylum seekers back to international waters after repairing the vessel.

The group had been stranded for about a week at the waters off Lhoknga coast in Aceh Besar, Aceh, following engine failure. Indonesia declared that it would be up to the asylum seekers to decide where they wanted to go.

The Sri Lankan asylum seekers travelled for nearly three weeks in the trawler bearing an Indian flag.

An influential section of the media reported the group of asylum seekers leaving Sri Lankan shores though the trawler actually left Tamil Nadu. Those who had been in it were certainly not Sri Lankan refugees of recent origin. Sri Lanka Navy headquarters confirmed the voyage certainly did not begin in Sri Lanka.

The London headquartered Amnesty International issued a statement urging Indonesia to accommodate the refugees. Indonesia ignored the plea. Indonesia went to the extent of firing warning shots to force some persons who had disembarked to return to the trawler before it was escorted back to international waters.

Those who had been forced back to international waters could be among Sri Lankans categorized as missing during the conflict. As they had been in India before undertaking the recent hazardous journey to Australia, New Delhi would be able to shed light on their identities. It would be of pivotal importance to establish their date of arrival in India, particularly whether they moved across the Palk Strait after the conclusion of the conflict, in May, 2009.

Amnesty International, in a statement, suggested that the latest batch of asylum seekers might have fled Sri Lanka in the wake of a spate of arrests carried out last April under the Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA). The human rights watchdog made no reference to the arrests made close on the heels of recovery of explosives including a suicide jacket in Chavakachcheri, Jaffna, during the last week of March.

The writer has earned the wrath of the government for his reportage of the Chavakachcheri explosives haul leading to a spate of arrests in both northern and eastern provinces and the possibility of former members of the LTTE planning to cause mayhem. Both Criminal Investigation Department (CID) and the Colombo Crime Division (CCD) recorded statements from the writer close on the heels of the government closing down the Police Media Spokesman’s Office. The unit remains closed.

The Tamil National Alliance (TNA), which recognized the LTTE as the sole representative of Tamil speaking people in the run up to Eelam War IV (August 2006 to May 2009) and remained committed to the LTTE macabre cause, until the very end, reiterated the call for a hybrid war crimes court in accordance with the Geneva resolution, adopted last October. The four-party TNA comprises the Illankai Thamil Arasu Kadchi and three former terrorist groups, sponsored by India, namely the TELO, PLOTE and EPRLF.

Jaffna District MP and attorney at law, M.A. Sumanthiran, made representations on behalf of the TNA at the Congressional caucus briefing on June 14. Obviously, Sumanthiran’s opinion tallied with that of UK based Suren Surendiran, spokesperson for the influential Global Tamil Forum (GTF). The Island received Sumanthiran’s statement on the night of June 16, hours after the forum on India-Sri Lanka relations in the 21st century ended. MP Sumanthiran dealt separately with several critical issues. Let me reproduce MP Sumanthiran verbatim to highlight Sri Lanka’s predicament as the UNHRC prepares to receive an oral statement on the situation in Sri Lanka next week.

On the role of the Government of India: “This particular Indian Government has also reiterated to us their role in exercising those good offices that brought them to sign the (Indo-Lanka) Accord continues. India in a sense signed the Accord on behalf of the Tamil people. It was not necessary for a neighbouring country to sign an accord with Sri Lanka providing for power sharing and one unit of devolution and so on. It’s in the context of serious violence that was being perpetrated against the Tamils in Sri Lanka and that also had a long history culminating in the very serious one that happened in 1983 and the fleeing of refugees to India. Even today there are 168,000 Sri Lankan Tamil refugees who are living in South India. So it’s a legitimate concern of India – that India under-wrote this agreement on behalf of the Tamil people. But international politics – what it is today – may not show India directly dictating as what it were, what should happen in Sri Lanka. That is not how things are done. But India’s legitimate concern continues to remain in enforcing all of the provisions of the Indo-Lanka Accord.”

On the role of the US: “I think the US has played a very significant role already in the resolutions that it mooted in the UN Human Rights Council encouraging changes, and therefore must continue to play that role. It is true that there has been a significant change, a monumental change as described by the Ambassador, but the foot must not be taken off the pedal too early. For the simple reason that we have seen change, as a result of some pressure, some encouragement, some nudging and those must continue… Our plea to the US Government would be don’t express satisfaction too early as there is still a lot to do during that phase.”

On international involvement in the accountability process: “If you ask me about international involvement in the accountability process, as far as I know the Government has not said ‘no’ to international involvement. All the multiple voices that you talk about say ‘international involvement – yes, but not judges’. Now I take great exception to that, because as I said at the beginning, the text of the 2015 Resolution is a negotiated text. We asked for (an) international inquiry, and we settled for a hybrid model. So that was negotiated with the Government of Sri Lanka. And having compromised and settled to a model which in the Resolution doesn’t merely say hybrid but explains in detail judges, prosecutors, defence attorneys and investigators, it obviously means judge qua judges, prosecutors qua prosecutors, so on and so forth. So it does not mean (for) judges to be advisors or judges to be involved in some other capacity. And that was well understood. I was personally involved in the negotiations, with the United States of America also participating in that particular process. There were some doubts created, as to whether the Constitution of Sri Lanka would allow for foreign nationals to function as judges and we went into that question, clarified it, and said yes they can and that is how that phraseology was agreed upon. And so, to us having negotiated and compromised and agreed that there would be a hybrid tribunal to try these mass atrocities, it is not open for the Government now to shift its stance and say ‘well, international involvement yes, but it’s in a different form, now…’. That is not acceptable to us at all. And we have said this. Quite openly I have spoken in Parliament at least two or three times and the Government has not contested me on that. We have said it to the President when he called for an all party conference on the implementation on the UN resolution, and he has not contested us on that. But as you say, in the public there are different voices that we hear. So we are concerned as much as people are, with regard to this particular issue, wondering if the Government is shifting its stance. However, such a mechanism has not been brought about as yet. So we will wait until we reach that particular point of setting up a court of the Special Counsel’s office and so on and so forth and insist that every word, and spirit, in that resolution will be complied with.”

Of course, MP Sumanthiran conveniently forgot that India had caused a hellish situation on the ground here in the 80s to pave the way for the Indo-Lanka Accord, in July, 1987. New Delhi transformed several Tamil armed outfits to deadly fighting machines in the 80s before one of them (the LTTE) eradicated the rest to emerge as the single most powerful organization here. India forced the Indo-Lanka Accord on Sri Lanka to thwart the then JRJ government eradicating the group. Having deployed the Indian Army (July 1987-March 1990) here, India established an illegal Tamil National Army (TNA) to protect EPRLF-led puppet North-Eastern provincial administration before quitting North-East Sri Lanka. The rest is history.

Had the LTTE survived the war on the Vanni east front and somehow reached an understanding with the government of Sri Lanka, it wouldn’t have been subject of discussion at Geneva. The TNA wouldn’t have had an opportunity to participate in the Congressional caucus briefing on June 14. In fact, the TNA would have remained under the LTTE’s firm control and the GTF not formed at all. The GTF came into being in February, 2010, in the wake of the LTTE annihilation. Prabhakaran wouldn’t have seen a requirement for such a groping if he wielded military power and the TNA-GTF combination would never have become a reality.

(To be continued on June 29)

Sri Lanka on UNP’s neoliberal path: Will it succeed or lead to disaster

June 22nd, 2016

By Tissa Vitarana Courtesy The Island

The UNP/SLFP Alliance government came together, ostensibly as a “National Unity” government, thereby escaping the restrictions placed on the number of Ministers by the 19th Amendment. It had as its main objectives (a) the establishment of good governance and (b) the changing of the Constitution to restore democracy and to build national unity. This Alliance Government was for a two year period, with provision for extension, to achieve these laudable objectives. But in fact from the very beginning the opposite has been the case and the Constitution, the Standing Orders of Parliament, and accepted legal processes have been repeatedly violated, with little comment from either the press or the NGOs. From the top down, the lack of a coherent policy (other than revenge), the lack of unity and commitment, together with encouragement of crime and corruption at all levels of Government, right down to Local Government, where the elections are being illegally postponed (which never happened during the earlier Government, despite the war), shows a lack of respect for the democratic rights of the people. Despite this, the Government enjoys minority confidence which helps to build unity, but the emergence of extremism and undue stress on accountability is posing a threat to reconciliation. The LSSP fully supports the Constitutional Assembly process which is going ahead within Parliament, (after the attempt to take it out and fix it failed). We support the total removal of the executive presidency, a mixed electoral system based on PR and FPP, and building national unity through optimal devolution within a unitary state.

But under cover of good intentions, what is being really implemented with amazing rapidity and commitment is the UNP’s “Regaining Sri Lanka” Neoliberal programme. It was first introduced by the UNP Government of 2002, and is to be carried out as the future 5 year programme of the present Government, as stated by the Prime Minister (PM) in his address to the Parliament, overshadowing the Finance Ministers Budget Speech. The President who appears, or pretends, to be unaware of much of what is going on, is clearly an integral part of it. This became evident by his participation at the G7 Summit of big powers, which is not in recognition of the great progress of Sri Lanka, as claimed by sections of the press. It was a shameless admission of the fact that we are now a subject nation headed by a government that is ready to do what America wants. We should be very sad that, since British rule, once again Sri Lanka is becoming an exploited neo-colony, losing our independence and sovereignty. The “Regaining Sri Lanka, for Imperialism” neo-liberal agenda of America and IMF is now in operation here by the UNP.

The coming together of the former imperialist powers (USA, UK, others in Europe and Japan) headed by the USA, forms the most powerful empire in the world’s history, the American Empire. It is really headed by the 32 Americans and 17 Europeans who together with 13 others own more than half the world’s wealth (according to Oxfam). It has several hundred military bases around the world to enforce its dominance. Its agent here,the PM, Ranil Wickremasinghe, announced at a Navy awards ceremony that the Sri Lankan Navy, besides protecting our territorial waters (where it has even failed to prevent illegal foreign fishing), must undertake the task of protecting the rest of the Indian ocean extending from the Maldives to Singapore, for which the necessary war ships will be provided. Japan declared at the G7 it would provide two patrol vessels, but the bulk will undoubtedly come from the USA, possibly its powerful 7th Fleet. The head of the USAs Military operations in South East Asia stated “now that Sri Lanka is with us we can complete our defense ring around the Indian ocean by an excellent base there”. No doubt he had Trincomalee in mind. This was echoed by the US Ambasador to Sri Lanka. That Trincomalee, not Jaffna, is to be developed as the Megacity in the North, fits in with this plan.

But Sri Lanka’s role for the US Empire clearly goes beyond that. The Cabinet has taken a decision to allocate US $ 400 million to purchase fighter jet planes for our Air Force. Are we at war? Are we being threatened by foreign invaders? No. We have become a part of the American war machine, at our expense, but effectively camouflaged it. There is talk about buying more modern weapons for a further $ 400 million for the Army with our money. No wonder our President is being wined and dined alongside Obama!

The Socioeconomic aspect, besides the military aspect, of the UNP Agenda, is fast gathering momentum. Since this government came to power, to find the money to honour its election promises, it has been getting into massive debt. Due to increased purchasing power from tax concessions given to the rich, the cost of vehicle imports went up from $857 million in 2014, to $ 1,300 million in 2015, and the cost of consumer goods went up by 22% to $ 4713 million. (IMF aim is not to develop public transport, but the private sector). The adverse trade balance increased our foreign debt to 77% of GDP. Thus 60% of the debt repayment made in 2015 was for the loans taken by this UNP/SLFP Government.

The UPFA government loans are therefore not the major cause of our debt problem. The devaluation of our Rupee (SLR), whether as an IMF directive or due to lack of dollars, has increased the cost of living and the internal debt.

The Government stopped borrowing from China at lower interest rates (6%), and has resorted to the sale of Government Bonds for debt repayment and internal financing. First set was for $ 10 Billion and the last set of Government Bonds sold by the Central Bank was for $ 3 Billion, at very high interest rates (12 to 14%). The foreign reserves are only $ 6 Billion (that of Taiwan is $ 420 billion). Despite this the Government could have settled the debt problems and stabilized the economy on these loans, at lower interest rates, if racketing on Bonds was avoided. If the USA and Britain are borrowing massively from China, why not Sri Lanka. Clearly the situation created is to justify obtaining the IMF Loan, with all its conditions.

The IMF loan is small ($ 1500 million), spread over three years, leads to unpopular austerity measures and weakens the role of the state. Why speedily implement what we can do without? It is clearly a part of the neoliberal agenda of the USA which is designed to directly exploit countries like Sri Lanka as subservient and dependent economies, so as to revive the US Empire which is in dire economic straits, once again. Instead of the expected recovery in 2016, a crisis as severe as that of 2008 is predicted. The only other course, in this nuclear bomb age, is to create localized conflicts and wars, as the USA produces 60%, and Europe 20% of all global arms, their major industry. We must realize that the IMF austerity programme that caused the Greek tragedy, the collapse of that economy, is now being implemented here in Sri Lanka.

The key elements of the IMF/UNP Neoliberal Agenda are:

(a) Balancing the Budget by increasing indirect taxes like VAT (to 15% from the earlier 11%), and widen its scope to even include utilities like water, increasing the burden on the people. There is a ripple effect that will greatly increase prices and the cost of living. Not only the consumer but also the micro and SME entrepreneur sector is badly affected, and a deputation that met me, said it is better to stop producing, and import instead. But the burden on the rich is relaxed – the upper limit of direct taxes has been reduced for individuals (from 24% to 15%) and for companies (from 28% to 18%). The large number of direct tax dodgers has been legally increased by raising the taxable minimum to Rs.2,500,000.

A capital gains tax is mentioned, but unlikely to materialize. As a result indirect taxes will go up to nearly 86%, while that on the rich will come down to about 14%. The rich-poor gap will widen, increasing lawlessness and crime. Luxury import increase will aggravate foreign debt.

(b)Severe cuts in welfare services are also proposed – free education and health, pensions, allowances for elderly and differently abled, and all other subsidies including agriculture. Cuts in the public sector work force e.g. 12,000 jobs in the CTB, less state jobs for graduates etc.

(c) Sale and control of our assets – both public and private, specially to foreign companies (Multinational Corporations, MNCs) is being cleverly manipulated. For instance by giving ownership deeds to those occupying state land ,once they fall into debt, will lead to their sale, ultimately to monocrop MNCs, like Monsanto. The State Banks are being weakened so that the Private Banks, both local and foreign can dominate the financial sector, fleecing the customers. Labour laws are to be relaxed, contract labour promoted, and trade unionism discouraged.

(d) Capital Account completely opened – This is the biggest gamble. The aim is to encourage the free flow of capital in and out of the country, and encourage FDI. But last year alone $ 2 billion of foreign capital, mainly from the Stock Exchange, left our shores because of the unfavourable business climate in Sri Lanka. Becoming legal, local capitalists will do the same. In the context of the global economic crisis FDI based development is unlikely. We need to better develop our own Science, Technology and Innovation based Hi-Tech industry,( my endeavor as the former Minister), if we hope either to develop our own export industry or even attract FDI.

The IMF inspired neoliberal agenda of the UNP is headed for disaster. But unlike with Greece, there will be no EU type attempt to bail us out. USA and India have their own agendas, which will gain by our economic vulnerability.

Giving IMF the hindmost

June 22nd, 2016

Dr Kamal Wickremasinghe Courtesy The Island

The title of this commentary is derived from the 16th century proverb “Every man for himself and the devil take the hindmost”. There are at least two versions of the real meaning of the relatively obscure expression, the “hindmost” contained in the proverb: as per its usage in PHILASTER or “Love Lies a-Bleeding” –– a play about a dispute to the Calabrianthrone, performed by William Shakespeare’s theatre troupe, The King’s Men in 1610 – but not written by Shakespeare -the “hindmost”refers to those who would beat the very rear in a scramble to escape from the devil – the old, the sick,the children -who would likely fall victim to the devil.

A simpler and a more plausible description of the word “hindmost” however, involves boneless,no fat-containing, large cuts of meat harvested from the round area of cattle,referred to as ‘rump’steaks in North America and ‘sirloin’ in Britain and Australia;The proverbial advice to protect the precious rump at all costs arises from the supposed liking of the devil for it and his strong claims for it.

Either of the possible origins of the “Devil take the hindmost” seems to aptly describe the ethos behind the recent economic advice offered by the Resident Representative of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)in Sri Lanka, Dr Eteri Kvintradze.

In a recent interview with The Island, Ms Kvintradze has offered what appears to be an economic prescription designed by the IMF to pull Sri Lanka out of the current economic morass.Upon close examination however, it becomes clear that the package of advice has been the ‘string’ attached to the latest $1.5 billion loan provided by the IMF to the yahaplana government;The government’s reliance on begging as the only fix for the economic dire straits appears to have already forced it to comply with the key demands of the IMF, and is appearing to be conditioning the citizenry to ‘stomach’ the remaining measures.

Ms Kvintradze has emphasised that Sri Lanka’s economy is now in crisis, and needs salvaging through the harbouring of a “liberalised” business environment.This in fact is shorthand for the IMF plans to fashion the Sri Lankan economy to meet the demands of the international loan sharks represented by the IMF. The plan is concealed in a recommended tax “reform” program aimed at attracting foreign investors; Ms Kvintradze reduces the reform required to removing tax concessions (to the local poor) and creating a predictable tax system that is fair (to international money lenders); She demands a Sri Lanka with a “simpler” tax system in a fully “liberalised” trade environment, with no assistance or protection provided to domestic industry or agricultural producers.

IMF advice is regressive and anti-poor

There is nothing new in the type of IMF advice offered by Ms Kvintradze: since its inception, IMF lending to poor countries has been subject to such oppressive and inhumane demands that ruthlessly ignore the suffering of the poor in such countries. The sole interest of the IMF is to provide the rich in their member countries to buy national assets in cash-strapped countries and speculatively invest (lend) money in the short term.

The interview with The Island is not the first occasion of Ms Kvintradz’ enunciation of these demands: she had earlier announced this same prescription at the annual general meeting of the National Chamber of Commerce of Sri Lanka (NCCSL) on 20 Jan 2015, and at the annual general meeting of the Industrial Association of Sri Lanka on 30 Aug 2014.

In both previous occasions, Ms Kvintradze had highlighted an alleged deterioration of tax revenue in Sri Lanka as the primary concern for the IMF. Pointing out that Sri Lanka has completed the first phase of transition process by removing infrastructure bottle necks through modern road and port infrastructure systems, she has pressed the need for tax reform as a “soft infrastructure” system needed to face the new realities.

Ms Kvintradze also barged in to the domestic politics by pointing out that “historically, annual budget cycle in Sri Lanka is preceded by annual lobbying cycle when business communities try to carve out special tax regimes to grow their businesses”. This not-too-subtle warning that local businesses should not be granted any tax concessions is an indirect way of telling the government to extract as much tax as possible from the people in order to be able to meet interest payments on IMF loans.

It is clear that the IMF could not care less about the well-being of poor Sri Lankans: the economic policies recommended by the IMF are designed to ensure that the economy would have a faint ‘heart beat’ just adequate to collect the interest payments on the monies they lent. The second objective is to control inflation (by putting controls on government expenditure) in order to ensure that the value of money they earn is retained when they take away the loot; Keeping a careful eye on tax collection, and controlling expenditure by the government are the means through which these twin-aims are achieved.

IMF has been asking for the hindmost since its creation

The vile nature of IMF demands from poor countries requesting financial assistance is rooted in its origins: the IMF was created by the winners of the Second War who drew up the blueprint for a post war international monetary system to replace the colonial economy they had lost despite the war victory.

The 45 countries which met in July 1944 at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, US, did not include Austria, Germany, Italy and Japan. The powers that be- essentially the UK and the US – were almost exclusively preoccupied with designing a financial hegemony to go with the military and territorial gains they had achieved as the ‘winners’ of the war. Interests of developed countries in terms of their economic development or social needs were not in the minds of the IMF architects.

The IMF lending conditions have become notorious due to the imposition of a pervasive package of demands known as the “Washington Consensus” – a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the “standard” reform package – on all developing countries seeking assistance from the World Bank or the IMF.The use of the word “consensus” in this context is a dangerous misnomer because it only refers to a consensus among the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) such as the IMF, World Bank, and the US Treasury Department, with the borrowers given no other option than to accept the terms.

The package including privatisation, total reliance on trade and fiscal austerity, curbs on government expenditure on health and education aims to impose the “neoliberal” agenda on poor countries.The agenda rests on two main planks: the opening up of domestic markets, including financial markets, to foreign competition, and to vastly reduce the role of the state through privatisation of government owned assets and limits on the ability to run fiscal deficits.

The primary objective of these requirements, presented as the dreaded ‘structural adjustment policies’ (SAPs) or ‘belt-tightening measures’ of the IMF,is to ensure debt repayment capacity through measures such as: reducing expenditure on education and health; eliminating basic food and transportation subsidies; devaluing national currencies; privatising national assets; and freezing wages. In effect, the IMF demands that poor nations lower the standard of living of their people.

History since the inception of the IMF has shown that these measures increase poverty, reduce countries’ ability to develop strong domestic economies and allow multinational corporations to exploit workers, resources and the environment. All such negatives are ignored before the altar of‘export growth’ that is vital for the earning of hard currency to pay back loans

The “conditionality”of IMF loans that turn the loan into a prescriptive neoliberal economic policy tool compromise the economic and political sovereignty of the receiving countries by intruding on such issues as banking regulations, government deficits, and pension policy.The IMF’s “market fundamentalism,”- a blind faith in the free market – ignores the impacts of private ownership of water and electricity etc on the poor, causing worse economic stagnation; When crises recur as a result of such harsh policies, the IMF blames the governments, and offers “rescue packages” that impose even harder conditions.

Economic options for Sri Lanka

With foreign debts of more than US$ 55 billion, with a further loan from the IMF being added at the time of writing, Sri Lanka is in the unenviable position of ‘a beggar who can’t be a chooser’. With a government debt to GDP ratio of 76 percent in 2015, the country is in precarious economic straits. It is obvious that a sustainable solution to the country’s economic needs – outside of approaching the ‘donors’ with the begging bowl, cap in hand, needs to be found.

But if the comments by the Enterprise Development Deputy Minister Eran Wickramaratne are anything to go by, he seems to be fully ‘sold’ on relying on the Value Added Tax (VAT) as the only tax, that would replace various other taxes. Disturbingly, he has referred to VAT as a ‘progressive’ form of taxation, a view contrary to the universal view on consumption-based taxation and that VAT is the most regressive of all taxes: Research has consistently proved that the poor pay a higher share of their income in VAT than the rich due to what is known as the ‘Marginal Propensity to Consume’ in economic jargon. In simpler terms, poor people spend a higher proportion of their income on consumption and rich people save a higher proportion, making VAT regressive. It is clear that the government’s aggressive implementation of the VAT without considering its effects on the poor is the direct result of IMF compulsion.

The government needs to recognise that it needs an economic plan to rebuild and resuscitate the economy in the medium to long term. It also needs to be recognised that there could be alternative pathways to economic salvation, outside the so-called neoliberal, market-based path dictated by the West.

Sri Lanka will be much better-off implementing a locally developed economic model aimed at housing, feeding and educating, and providing decent health services to our people, rather than “…’performing’ up to the IMF and World Bank indices.

Looking at alternative pathways, the remark by the former Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating at the time of the 2008 financial crisis that: “World leaders should do away with US Treasury-run institutions, like the IMF to overcome current financial woes; The G7 is made up of debtor countries, like the United States, Britain, France, Italy – these are all borrowers. We’ve got to bring the surplus countries into the political framework” appear highly relevant.

While the IMF continues to exert a high level of influence over the economic policies of developing countries, particularly those in crisis, their influence over the international economic system seen as a whole, is limited.The current mission of the IMF appear to increasingly involve putting together ‘rescue’ packages to subsidise the private lenders that hold the sovereign debt of crisis countries (such as Greece), in effect, socialising their investment risks.

Acknowledging that it was only recently that our leader had a much-celebrated attendance at the borrowers’ club, otherwise known as G7, and continuing on the theme of devil taking the hindmost, it is worth remembering that “He who sups with the devil should have a long spoon”.

Continued reliance on the IMF advice and such regressive taxes as VAT will make the poor in Sri Lanka go hungry.

The former President ends a highly successful visit to Japan

June 21st, 2016

By : A.A.M.Nizam – MATARA

Former President Mr. Mahinda Rajapaksa has returned to the motherland after a ten days highly successful visit to Japan, his third overseas visit since losing the Presidency on 8th January 2015.

During these 10 days Mr. Rajapaksa participated at several Buddhist and social events in several Japanese cities attended by large crowds of Sri Lankans.

The Japanese media gave wide coverage and prominence to Mr. Rajapakse’s visit and the leading Japanese daily Japan Times even carried an Editorial about him on Sunday, 19th June.  The editorial commenced with saying that Sri Lanka went to the polls on Jan. 8th 2015 to select their president and the incumbent, Mahinda Rajapaksa, lost to the surprise of virtually every poll watcher and perhaps even more surprising was that Rajapaksa handed over power when the results became clear, rather than clinging to office.

The Editorial asserted that Mr. Rajapaksa still holds considerable power in Parliament and he is likely to use that as a base to battle the new president and whatever government he selects, and moreover, there is keen outside interest in Sri Lanka, and foreign governments may try to meddle in its domestic politics to protect their investments.

Outlining a brief history of his political life, the editorial pointed out he was head of state since 2005 and was the architect of the victory over the Tamil Tigers in the civil war that raged from 1983 to 2009 and claimed as many as 100,000 lives.

Speaking about his economic achievements, the Japan Times editorial said that under Mr. Rajapakse’s tenure the island economy has grown an average of 7 percent annually since 2009 — the fastest-growing GDP in the region — to reach $67 billion. It said that confident of the outcome, the president called an election two years early, expecting to coast to a third term but he apparently did not count on Sirisena, a former friend and political ally, breaking with him to lead an opposition alliance in the presidential ballot. It added that the relatively small margin of victory — 450,000 votes out of 12.26 million cast — a high turnout among Tamils, who have not participated much in previous elections, was an important factor in Sirisena’s win.

The Editorial further stated a challenge for the new president will be his promise to investigate the huge infrastructure projects that have driven Sri Lanka’s growth and many of those deals, were supported by China, which was a major backer of the former administration. It said that China accounted for 20.7 percent of Sri Lanka’s foreign loans and grants in 2013, up from 2.8 percent in 2003 and Sirisena’s promise of “equal relations” with other major countries —India, Japan and Pakistan — risks offending Beijing. It also pointed out that China’s support for Rajapaksa has also helped him fend off international calls to investigate charges that war crimes were committed during the 26 years of fighting.

Meanwhile, during his whole stay in Japanese media published many news reports and special feature articles about the former President’s visit, his achievements, and his vision.

In a special article written to Japan Times by Jeff Kingston titled “Culture of fear lingers in war-traumatized Sri Lanka”, based on an interview with the former President, Jeff Kingston said that Civil war engulfed Sri Lanka from 1983 to 2009, with a death toll estimated by the U.N. at up to 100,000 and the war was fought between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, aka Tamil Tigers, and the Sri Lankan state. He stated that civilians paid the highest price, in the form of assassinations, terrorist suicide bombings, abductions by the Tamil Tigers, extrajudicial beatings, abductions and torture. He said that families of those caught up in the dragnet faced harassment and worse if they took their complaints public, and many were shaken down for money to buy the freedom of their loved ones.  He added that Velupillai Prabhakaran, the Tigers’ leader, offered the dream of a Tamil state that turned into a nightmare for his people as their monumental sacrifices were for naught.

Jeff Kingston states the former President Mr. Mahinda Rajapaksa, who was commander-in-chief during the finale of the war told him that it was war and thus victory was essential, an outcome that was widely desired and welcomed by the public and he argued that his goal was peace.

Mr. Rajapaksa has told the writer that the Tiger leader Prabhakaran misjudged the situation, hoping that international pressure would force the State to back off, and Prabhakaran, in Mr. Rajapaksa’s view, was “too full of himself,” failing to understand that this time the State had no intention of allowing the Tigers to regroup.

The writer points out that although Mr. Rajapaksa eradicated terrorism and raised living standards, he lost the 2015 elections. He says that Mr. Rajapaksa attributes his defeat to resentment against him from Muslims (9.7 percent of the population, and Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils (15.2 percent), and to the Sinhalese harboring unrealistic expectations who took what he delivered for granted.

Asked if he had any regrets, Mr. Rajapaksa has said that he trusted people too much. Regarding the scars of war in this traumatized nation, he has said that he has promoted reconciliation by returning land to the Tamils and investing heavily in infrastructure and development projects in the northeast, helping them to begin restoring their lives after three decades of war.

Jeff Kingston also states that according to Mr. Rajapaksa’s view, there is no need for an international tribunal because Sri Lanka has the judicial expertise to conduct its own reckoning and President Maithripala Sirisena has yet to follow through on his pledge to establish a truth and reconciliation commission, since the starting of this process was his idea, having sent a mission to learn lessons from South Africa’s experience, but the international community opposed this initiative. Pressed to explain what he would do to promote future reconciliation, Mr. Rajapaksa has offered no vision for healing the wounds other than stressing that the priority should be on promoting economic development and raising living standards.

Speaking about Sri Lanka’s militant monks and extremist Buddhist organizations for advocating and engaging in violence targeting Muslims, the former President has said that it is not consistent with public sentiments.

Responding to a query whether press freedom improved under his successor? Mr. Rajapaksa has said that he doesn’t think so, and has pointed out that the media is controlled by the government and is subject to various threats. He has also brushed aside accusations about the murder and disappearance of journalists on his watch. When asked about a journalist whose posthumous final column implicated Rajapaksa in his anticipated murder, he points out that in parliament Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe, his political rival, accused a prominent ex-general of ordering that hit.

Mr. Rajapaksa has also pointed out that there are no more political prisoners in Sri Lanka except for him and his family, who are subject to harassment by the media and government. He has bitterly complained about his son’s arrest, and that he has not been allocated an official bungalow — a privilege extended to other ex-presidents.

Responding to corruption allegations?  He has said that they say that he has stolen $18 billion, but if they find evidence of even $1, that he will cut his throat.

Asked about future plans, Mr. Rajapaksa has pointed out that now he is barred from seeking a third term as president, but it did not rule out running for prime minister. He has said that Politicians never retire.

In another interview published by Japan Times on 16th June, Mr. Rajapaksa has said that his country and Japan could work on more projects together, including hospitals and highways. He has said that the infrastructure projects are very important for Sri Lanka after the war.

According to the Sri Lankan foreign ministry, China now has the most ODA (Official Development Assistance) projects in Sri Lanka. Yet under the standard set by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Japan is the largest ODA sponsor in Sri Lanka. China is not a member of the OECD.

ECONOMICS AND THE MEDIA

June 21st, 2016

By Dr.Tilak S. Fernando Courtesy  Ceylon Today

The modern mass media undoubtedly blend with three things: economics, money and profit. For a start, any media organization needs to inject a huge amount of money as an investment to establish from its infrastructure up to the operation level, plus the wages and salaries to permanent staff and other sundry expenses paid to freelance journalists and columnists. In a business sense, therefore, it is natural for the investors to expect a reasonable profit out of their marketing produce for the risk they take.

In a contemporary businesses world media play a significant role. Media productions and operations are significantly influenced or determined by their financial strength. In such a backdrop from the time of Adam Smith in the 18th century to Karl Marx in the 19th century, people have come to accept that a number of basic economic concepts and principles are necessary.

Capitalism

The contemporary media function solely on a capitalist economy, as such, the basic principle of any economy depends on the difference of cost between two elements where media naturally concentrate on maximizing profits for the owner of media establishments. So the profits are generated in a number of means, either by selling directly or indirectly to consumers and selling access to their audience through advertisers.

In a consumer-based society anywhere in the world entrepreneurs are encircled by the media in every instance, while they (businesses) tend to utilize different types of media that involve disbursement for the production of media products.

In every case, someone has to pay for the production and distribution of the media products. Such expenses are finally met by customers of the media directly by various means such as buying books, CDs, tapes and compact discs of recorded programmes, thereby the cost of such physical entities are paid by the audience fully and directly.

 Subsidized

Consumers pay the media in a multitude of ways, at times subsidized by various other means in order that the consumer shares the cost with others. Newspapers and magazines are typical examples to demonstrate the above-mentioned theory. For instance, the cost of producing a newspaper or magazine costs only a negligible amount.

The newspapers at news stand cost a little less than what it costs the publisher to purchase newsprint that goes to print the paper. The rest is collected from advertising where two thirds of a typical newspaper publisher’s revenue comes from selling space to advertise with the hope of attracting the attention of the reader through such advertisements. Recorded music and tele-dramas are recent examples of media replacement. Magnetic tapes, eight track audiocassettes, compact discs and MP3 players have superseded 33, 45, and 78 RPM- speed records that had been the vogue once upon a time.

Advertising

When it comes to advertising, some internationally renowned magazines have been dominating for decades, which have proved to be a valuable means of advertising. Radio could advertise a latest car for example, but it is unable to display it. Instead TV, which is akin to the newspaper and radio for publicity, has managed to convey the message to the audience, as much as to exhibit the product in motion to a larger audience.

With the advent of TV, the circulation figures of popular magazines have dwindled, for the mere reason of their advertisers moving towards the television having found TV to be cheaper and an efficient media. TV not only affected the magazines, but it had a drastic impact on motion pictures and radio equally.

Interpretation

It is natural for people to interpret what they see and hear and evaluate their findings according to their personal choice, which vary from being excited, bored or debated. Though interpretation and evaluation are not identical, they are correlated in everyday practice. In its simplest form a transmission can maximize a communication in such a way that the receiver gets the exact meaning of the message sender intends to be.

Ideology

Every society aims to maintain its continuing existence by reproducing its social relationship structure. Ideology is not only a matter of ‘meaning becoming representation’ but it is also about the question of power and inequality.

Although the concept of ideology originated with the French philosophers in the 18th century, it was the German philosopher and political economist, Karl Marx, who developed the concept in the 19th Century.

Marx wanted to understand “how minorities were able to maintain power and why the vast majority of which seemed to be against their own interests. Why did subordinated populations accept their subordination and even act in ways that continue that status?”

Definite Relations

In the social production, which men carry on, they enter into definite relations that are indispensable and independent of their will. These relations of production correspond to a definite stage of development of their material powers of production. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation on which legal and political superstructures arise and to which definite forms of social consciousness correspond.

The mode of production of material life determines the general character of the social, political, and spiritual process of life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being determines their consciousness”. ((Marx –1975- P.425).

Marx was concerned with simple questions as to how societies maintain and reproduce structures of social difference and power? Why do some people see themselves as superior and thus justify their privileged position in society? More importantly, why do people who are subordinated accept their subordination?

In some societies, hierarchy is maintained through the use of force. Even 100 years ago, factory owners often used to force to subdue workers and to compel them to accept their exploitation. Even today power is often used against illegal immigrants in the West and in many Third World countries. However, most modern democracies eschew the use of force in favour of ideology. If those in power can succeed in constructing a dominant vision that justifies social inequalities, and they can win agreement to this vision, then their position of power is reasonably secure and force becomes necessary.

In the contemporary world, the media are involved in the production of ideology all the time. After all, they are perhaps the most important producers of meaning and the codes in modern society.

tilakfernando@gmail.com

THE PROVINCES OF MODERN SRI LANKA

June 21st, 2016

KAMALIKA PIERIS

The provinces of Sri Lanka, (Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, North Central, North Western, Uva, Sabaragamuwa    and Southern) are not ‘historical’ provinces set out by the Sinhala kings. They are not ‘natural’ provinces formed through migration and settlement either. These provinces are ‘new’ provinces imposed on the island by the British rulers in the 19th century. So it is not necessary to worship them.

On the recommendation of the Colebrook-Cameron Commission of 1832, the British rulers created five large provinces, labelled North, South, East, West and Central in 1833. The Northern Province consisted of the   districts of Jaffna, Mannar, Vanni and Nuwarakalaviya. Southern Province consisted of the districts of Galle, Hambantota, Matara, Tangalle, Lower Uva, Sabaragamuwa and Wellassa.  Eastern Province was composed of the districts of Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Bintenna and Tamankaduwa.  Western Province contained Colombo, Chilaw, Puttalam, Lower Bulatgama, Tun korale, Satara korale, and Sat korale.  Central Province contained the   districts in the central highlands.  The traditional administrative units of disawani and korale were absorbed into these five provinces.

kamalika

Starting from 1845, four new provinces were added to the list. The ‘North Western Province’   was created in 1845.   It contains today the Kurunegala and Puttalam districts. The ‘North Central Province’ was created in 1873. It comprises today of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa districts. ‘Uva Province’ was created in 1886 and ‘Sabaragamuwa Province’ in 1889. This completed the creation of the nine provinces which we use today. These provinces acquired legal status in 1987, when the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka established Provincial Councils.

The provinces are highly irregular in shape, with curves and jagged edges. They look like jigsaw pieces. One expects provincial boundaries to have straight or near straight boundaries. The boundaries have not taken geography and contour into consideration either.  You move from Central province to Sabaragamuwa province in the middle of Kadugannawa pass.  The provinces are grossly unequal in size too. North Central Province  had the greatest land area of  10,472 sq km , followed by  Eastern Province  with 9.996 sq km, Northern Province 8884 sq km, Uva Province 8500 sq km , North western Province  7888 sq km, Southern province 5544  sq km,  Sabaragamuwa Province 4968 sq km, Western province 3684 sq km and  last of all, Central province with  2.191 sq km  (2012 Census).

Population is also distributed unequally within the provinces.  The data is given here is ranked according to population density, starting with the lowest.  Northern Province has a land area of 8884 sq km,   population of 106,1315 and population density of 128. North Central Province   has a land area of 10,472 sq km,   population of 126,6663 and population density of 130. Uva Province has a land area of 8500 sq km, population of 126,6463 and a population density of 152. Eastern Province has a land area of 9,996 sq km,   population of 155, 5510 and a population density of 166.

North western Province has a land area of 7888 sq km, population of 238,0861 and a population density of 317. Sabaragamuwa Province has a land area of 4968 sq km   population of 192, 8655   and a population density of 392. Southern Province has a land area of 5544 sq km   population of 247,7285   and population density of 460. Central Province has a land area of 2.191 sq km   population of 257,1557 and a population density of 461. Western Province has a land area of 3684 sq km, population of 585, 1130 and population density of 1628. The total land area of the island is 65,610 square kilometres and its total population is   20,359,438. (2012 Census).

The British administration embarked on a Census of population in 1871. This census did not stop at enumerating the population. The census enumerators fell on the districts, calculated the racial percentages in each district, found a majority race for each, and then classed the districts as Tamil, Sinhala or Muslim districts. Census of 1891 provided three separate maps of Ceylon, giving the majority districts of the three communities. The districts of Mannar, Jaffna, Vanni, Trincomalee and Batticaloa   were assigned in bright pink to the Tamils,   making the Tamils the majority community in both North and East.

The Census of 1911 had a map which pictorially assigned the districts to the three races. A  Tamil figure with umbrella and turban stood firmly on the districts of Mannar, Jaffna, Mullaitivu, Trincomalee and Batticaloa.  He occupied the largest chunk of land. A Muslim wearing a fez is shown in just one district, Puttalam.  The Kandyan chief was depicted in the districts of Kurunegala, Matale, Kandy, Kegalle, Ratnapura and Badulla. The Low country sarong wearing figure was seen in the districts of Chilaw, Colombo, Kalutara, Galle, Matara, and Hambantota. (Denham 1911 p 197.)

The Eastern Province had a flourishing Sinhala population before the British took over. The British deprived the Sinhala villages of water by not repairing their tanks and the Sinhala villagers starved and died. Tamil immigrants then came in, on the invitation of the British. The British settled them by the shore where they are today, together with Muslim villages. Sinhala villages which came up later are found far inland.

The British saw the value of the eastern side of Sri Lanka, sliced off the full length of the east coast and made it into a separate Eastern province.  The Eastern Province is the longest province.  It starts below Kokilai and ends at Yala. It includes, in a single administrative sweep, the magnificent Trincomalee harbour   and the full shoreline facing the Bay of Bengal. On the opposite side are Burma, Thailand and the Kra canal. The Bay of Bengal is going to be a vital region in Indian Ocean politics and that is why powerful countries are wooing Sri Lanka. Most Sri Lankans, however, are unaware of this. They have been carefully fed the notion that the East Coast is   best used as a playground, for surfing, beaches and whale watching.  The media emphasis has always been on these features.

The British created three provinces, adjacent to each other,   carrying the word ‘North’. They are the Northern, North Central and North Western Provinces. There is no ‘North Eastern’ province. Though given the label ‘North’, the North Central Province and North Western Provinces are nowhere near the North. North Western Province is located beside the Gulf of Mannar and Northern Province faces Palk Strait, the seas closest to India. These two provinces together with the Eastern Province form a superb strategic region, with access to the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait on one side and the Bay of Bengal on the other. This is Eelam, anticipated many decades ago, carefully carved out, with a cooperative alien population settled inside it, and protected  by Section 29 of the Soulbury constitution,    for future use, when the Bay of Bengal became important in superpower warfare.( http://www.island.lk/index.php?page_cat=article-details&page=article-details&code_title=138530)

The Cultural Perspectives on Psychological Trauma in Sri Lanka

June 21st, 2016

Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge M.D.

A nation’s culture resides in the hearts and in the soul of its people.

Mahathma Gandhi

The Sri Lankan society experienced 30 year prolonged armed conflict and the 2004 Tsunami that changed the psychological landscape of the Islanders. A large number people underwent the detrimental repercussions of these manmade and natural disasters. The victims exhibited various types of trauma reactions. These traumatic reactions were unique and expressed it in different psychosomatic channels. Some victims used traditional healing methods and the cultural components to ease the suffering.  The Western experts who came to treat the psychological victims of the War and 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka noticed the cultural   traditions   symbols, narratives that had been used to treat the victims.

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The Cross-cultural studies indicate that human expression of grief is strongly linked with culture. Psychological reactions to death, disability and material losses differ from culture to culture beyond biological level. Every culture has its own way of dealing with mourning and grief. The relationship between trauma and culture is significant. Because traumatic experiences are part of the life cycle, universal in manifestation and occurrence, and typically demand a response from culture in terms of healing, treatment, interventions, counseling, and medical care (The Lens of Culture: Theoretical, and Conceptual Perspectives, in the Assessment of Psychological, Trauma and PTSD, John P. Wilson). Cultural differences can also be found in the beliefs about how people use healing methods. Many Sri Lankans for instance, hold that repeatedly talking about distressing experiences is a sign of weakness. When they talk about the dead, they often talk  good things rather than bad things about the deceased. The dead are respected and commemorated. People killed following violent traumatic circumstances are viewed with compassion.

Natural and manmade disasters experienced by the Sri Lankans over the past two millennia had been documented in the historical chronicles. Combat trauma is in Western culture the experience was described some 2 500 years ago in the Iliad and the Odyssey, which can be read as accounts of combat trauma and its sequelae (Shay, 1995, 2002) whereas the effects of combat trauma in Sri Lanka is discussed in the ancient chronicle -the Mahavamsa that was   written in the 6th Century A.D.,   by Ven. Mahanama. Therefore, the concept of psychological trauma was not new to Sri Lankans.  The religion and culture provided great resilience to cope with trauma.

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Culture and Trauma

Culture consist of traditions, values, customs, folklore,   rituals and artifacts that help to make meaning of physical world and its transmitted primarily through language and everyday interactions.  These cultural factors frequently play as trauma buffers   and help the victims to come to terms with psychological suffering. The essential point about the concept of culture is that culture constructs our reality. It is the template that guides our perceptions (Marsella, 2010).

Psychological trauma is a very complex and a damaging factor to the human psyche. It is a unique individual experience and the individual’s interpretation is mostly based on his subjective experience. Individual differences in posttraumatic response have been known to the mental health clinician for over many decades.  Numerous psychologists indicate the close association between trauma and the cultural factors. Some argue that the impact of trauma and trauma recovery sometimes depend on cultural factors as well. Therefore, the victims of trauma should be treated in a culturally appropriate manner.

Batista & Wiese  (2010) argue that the trauma must be considered within a culture, because it is the cultural context that shapes the life experiences including the ones that are considered traumatic.  No culture is immune to the pain and suffering caused by catastrophic or life-threatening events, but there are important cultural differences in how these events are interpreted and dealt with. (Watters 2010)

The Interpretations of and reactions to trauma can vary by culture. Some psychologists view PTSD symptoms as a social construction more than a description of a medical fact.  According to Ed Tick, the author of the groundbreaking book “War and the Soul,” PTSD is soul wound, and he has counted over eighty terms from languages around the world to describe what we now call PTSD. The clinical psychologist Roger Brooke (personal communication, 2012) says that what we call PTSD is the   social construction of a universal human experience misguidedly constructed as a psychiatric issue.

For authors such as Shay, Tick, Hillman, Brooke, and others, the psychological wounds of war are in essence moral and spiritual wounds to that sustaining ground of human life people have traditionally called the soul. According to Tick, traditional warrior cultures understood traumatized combat veterans as initiates in need of further initiation so that they could be spiritually transformed into warrior elders and cultural guardians. They need the traditional healing themes of purification, making peace with the dead, restitution in community, and honored status as veteran warriors.

According to Tick and Brooke, PTSD is only a chronic condition if it is iatrogenically (mis-)treated as only, or primarily, a psychiatric issue. According to Brooke, psychotherapy works best if it picks up those traditional themes in new and appropriate cultural ways, both in therapeutic conversations, and in groups. The presence of civilians in such groups is sometimes resisted by veterans but is more helpful than they typically imagine it will be. The presence of civilians bridges the gap to the civilian world, and is a process in which the civilian community shares the burden of the violence that has been done in its name. Another crucial aspect of healing is, for Brooke, that the veteran “own” his experience in combat, and take it up as a task to understand the lessons learned and to integrate these into the rest of his or her life.

The relationship between trauma and culture is an important one because traumatic experiences are part of the life cycle, universal in manifestation and occurrence, and typically demand a response from culture in terms of healing, treatment, interventions, counseling, and medical care……… The concept of traumatic stress and the multidimensional nature of cultures requires a  conceptual framework by which to address  core issues that  have  direct  relevance  to  understanding  the  nature  of  trauma  as embedded within a culture and its assumptive systems of belief and patterns of behavioral regulation. (  The Lens of Culture -John P. Wilson).

Summerfield ( 1999) argues that  when it comes to the issue of cultural differences and  posttraumatic  syndromes  (e.g.,  PTSD)  it  cannot  automatically  be assumed that advances in Western psychotherapeutic techniques can be exported  and  applied to  non-Western  cultures.

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The Americanization of Mental Illness

The author Ethan Watters examined trauma and cultural factors in depth. He expresses that the Western conception of mental health and illness might be shaping the expression of illnesses in other cultures is rarely discussed in the professional literature. Many modern mental-health practitioners and researchers believe that the scientific standing of Western drugs, Western illness categories and Western theories of the mind have put the field beyond the influence of endlessly shifting cultural trends and beliefs.

Dr Sing Lee a psychiatrist and researcher at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, watched the Westernization of a mental illness firsthand. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, he was busy documenting a rare and culturally specific form of anorexia nervosa in Hong Kong. Unlike American anorexics, most of his patients did not intentionally diet nor did they express a fear of becoming fat. The complaints of Lee’s patients were typically somatic — they complained most frequently of having bloated stomachs. Lee was trying to understand this indigenous form of anorexia and, at the same time, figure out why the disease remained so rare. (The Americanization of Mental Illness – Ethan Watters).

The Western  Conceptualizations of PTSD

The Western models have also been criticized for their strict consideration of the person as a self-contained unity, an individual completely independent of others (Bracken, Giller & Summerfield, 1995).

The author Ethan Watters is a popular author and his viewpoint includes how rational is to apply the Western based PTSD concepts in other cultures. Ethan Watters writes:

After the 2004 tsunami in Asia, many mental-health experts agreed that a ”second tsunami” of mental illness in the form of post-traumatic stress disorder would strike the region. Like doctors rushing to the outbreak of an epidemic, American counselors and trauma researchers soon arrived on the scene hoping to pass on useful knowledge about PTSD. A few years on, however, their efforts have raised a troublesome question: Were they bringing the wrong treatment to the wrong people?

At issue is not whether tragic events like the tsunami trigger debilitating psychological distress and even mental illness — everyone agrees that they can. The question is over the extent to which survivors’ cultural beliefs shape their symptoms. If culture has the impact that some researchers suggest, the PTSD diagnosis may be of little help (and even do potential harm) when applied wholesale in other countries. (The Way We Live Now: Idea Lab; Suffering Differently -Ethan Watters / New York Times. August 12, 2007   ).

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An Ancient Hospital in Sri Lanka 

Deviations from the DSM based PTSD Check  list.

People from different cultures understand and react to trauma in different ways. These reactions are unique. Each culture has its own symptoms of trauma, its interpretation and they have distinct healing methods. Therefore, it is difficult to categorize common symptoms of trauma in to one unit. The anthropologist Allan Young of McGill University argue that ”PTSD has become psychiatric Esperanto and interventions pressure other cultures to adopt Western beliefs about the meaning and impact of trauma.

Ethan Watters gives numerous examples on how PTSD is expressed in different cultures.

Ken Miller, a psychology professor at Pomona College, reached similar conclusions in his work on war-related trauma in Guatemala, Bosnia and Afghanistan. His study of Afghans who experienced trauma yielded 23 symptoms, including many that were not on the PTSD symptom list and several that had no ready translation into English. There was, for instance, ”asabi,” a type of nervous anger, and ”fishar-e-bala,” the mental sensation of internal stress or pressure. (The Way We Live Now: Idea Lab; Suffering Differently -Ethan Watters / New York Times. August 12, 2007)

In Sri Lanka PTSD like symptoms are often expressed in different psychological and somatic routes. The victims frequently complain of the heaviness in their chest and tension in the head. The fatigability they explain as : Angata Pana Nathi Gathiya,

and anhedonia  as: Mona De Karath Hithe Sathutak Nathi Gathiya. Apart from these common anxiety and depression related symptoms Sri Lankan suffers have a number of symptoms that is not highlighted in the DSM based PTSD checklist.

Dr. Gaithri Fernando of the  California State University argues that the deepest psychological wounds for Sri Lankans were not on the PTSD checklists; they were the loss of or the disturbance of one’s role in the group.”

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                        Sigiriya Frescoes  5 th Century A.D.

The Concept of  Trauma in the Ancient Sri Lankan  Societies

According to the archaeological evidence, the island was inhabited as early as 10,000 B.C.  The Sri Lanka’s ancient cultural heritage dates back over 2,500 years. The Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka in the 3ed Century. The Buddhism became an integral part of Sinhalese culture and civilization.  Sri Lanka became one of the few countries with a very vast and rich cultural diversity. The Sri Lankan culture was influenced by India and subsequently by Europe. The European influence was a result of invasion from the Dutch and Portuguese and finally the British in the 19th Century.

The concept of combat trauma dates back to the ancient times. Combat trauma had a profound historical, cultural, social, and religious significance to Sri Lanka and the notion of combat trauma is not new to the Sri Lankans. Throughout the Sri Lankan history, there were foreign invasions, internal conflicts and the Islanders had to confront fearsome battles.

According to the Mahawansa – the great chronicle history of Sri Lanka and one of the oldest chronologies in the world (a German translation of Mahavamsa was completed by the Deutsche Academic Wilhelm Geiger in 1912) describes the devastating impact of the great Wijithapura Battle that occurred in 205 B.C. The triumphant King Dutugemunu experienced severe depressive feelings soon after the battle. This could have been a negative emotional reaction due to post combat depression. The King had guilty feelings over the men that perished in the war. He felt that he was personally responsible for these lives. Later the King’s emotional suffering was healed by a monk.

From 103B.C to 89 B.C, Sri Lanka faced a series of foreign invasions from South India. The King Walagamba fought against the invaders for a long period. When he reestablished his kingdom, the King Walagamba was exhausted following long battles. The enemies had destroyed the irrigation systems, the economy had been collapsed and the country was suffering a starvation. The population manly consisted of war widows and orphans. The King Walagamba took unmourns measures to heal the land that was tormented by 14 year war.

In 110 A.D, South Indian Sovereigns invaded Sri Lanka and took 12,000 people as prisoners. The Bhilla tribal men kidnaped young healthy Sinhala males to work in the South Indian paddy fields. The men suffered immensely in these ancient day gulags. The King Gajaba conquered these kingdoms and rescued the POWs. Up-to-date the fear of Bhilla tribal men remains in the Sri Lankan collective unconscious. Even today, if a child does a mischief parents often say Billa the boogeyman will come and get you.

The King Wijayabahu who ruled Sri Lanka from 1055AD to 1110 AD had to fight   against the  Chola  invaders. His military campaign lasted for 17 years. During these years, he faced numerous war related stress conditions.

The Western Nations arrived in 1505 AD and until 1815 A.D, the Sri Lankans fought against three Western Nations- the Portuguese, the Dutch and the English. Some of the local warriors who fought against the foreign invaders later became the victims of combat trauma.

According to the Western chronological records, the first patients who showed PTSD like symptomatology were recorded in 1666. These records were based on Samuel Pepy’s diary which described the bizarre behavior pattern of   the survivors of the Great Fire of London.  Samuel Pepy vividly portrayed the nightmares, intrusions and flashbacks experienced by these survivors.

Although the Western World recorded PTSD like symptoms in 1666 the King Seethawaka Rajasinghe – the 16th century monarch of Sri Lanka is believed to have suffered from combat related PTSD and his disturbed behavior was recorded in the ancient scripts. The king’s abnormal behavior pattern was described in the Chulawansaya – the ancient chronicle and by the Portuguese historian Fernão de Queyroz .  In his publication titled ‘Temporal and Spiritual Conquest of Ceylon Queyroz writes about the King Seethawaka Rajasinghe ‘s behavior in the later stages in detail. These writings came prior to Samuel Pepy’s diary.

The Portuguese came to Sri Lanka in 1505 and launched a massive armed campaign against the islanders. The King Seethawaka Rajasinghe (1544 A.D – 1593 A.D) was a great warrior who came to the battlefield at the age of 16. He fought against the Portuguese invaders and witnessed many deaths and destructions. He was a fearless fighter who used proficient war tactics and overpowered the fully equipped and fully trained Portuguese Army that was considered as a superpower in the 16th century World. The King Seethawaka Rajasinghe defeated the Portuguese in a number of decisive battles. His military campaigns prevented Sri Lanka becoming a Portuguese Colony. Following long years of combat, the King Seethawaka Rajasinghe was exhausted and unquestionably suffered from battle fatigue. In the later years, the King Seethawaka Rajasinghe showed outburst of anger, irritability, deep mistrust, alienation, emotional numbing and various other PTSD related symptoms.

The Collective Trauma Following Foreign Invasions  

The Portuguese Army unleashed many cruelties against the people of Sri Lanka.  They committed a number of atrocities that were considered as genocide in the modern day standards.  They vandalized the religious buildings burnt ancient books and looted the wealth. They tortured the natives and forced them to renounce their traditional religion. The General Don Jeranimo De Azavedu is still remembered as a symbol of a bloodthirsty villain who ordered the Portuguese Army to launched brutality against the indigenous people. The Portuguese soldiers committed unspeakable horrors in their occupied territories in Sri Lanka. The infants were thrown to crocodiles in the Kelani River and the women were subjected to gang rape. The men were tortured and entire villages left for starvation. These ruthless inhuman actions created deep psychological scars in the natives.  Even today, these psychological horrors prevail in the collective unconscious of the Sri Lankan People. The  Portuguese invasion brought guns and germs. The waves of Leprosy started spreading among the indigenous people in the  16th Century Sri Lanka. The local people called the disease Parangi – the same name used to call the Portuguese invaders.

On the 18th  of November 2005 complete 500 years after Portuguese invasion in Sri Lanka. One prominent Sri Lankan Politician called the Portuguese Prim- Minister to celebrate this event. Many Sri Lankans protested against this idea of celebration and asked for National day of mourning. These actions show that even after 500 years   people have not forgotten the psychological anguish.

The Dutch rule in Sri Lanka started in 1640 and ended in 1796. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) controlled a large coastal area in Sri Lanka. The Dutch Forces launched several unsuccessful attacks on the Kandian Kingdom during these years.

In 1803, the British invaded the Kingdom of Kandy.  But the attempt was a failure. Then they changed the tactics.  With the help of the aristocrats, the British succeeded in taking over the kingdom in 1815.  A few years after the Kandyan Convention in 1818 natives stood against the British colonial rulers. Martial Law was declared and the revolt was suppressed in a vigorous manner. The British Army committed a number of atrocities in Sri Lanka during the Great Rebellion of 1817-1818.

Major MacDonald of the British Army set fire to the houses, burnt the grain and killed the cattle as an act of retaliation. The Army could shoot any native male over 14 years of age. Many collaborators were shot and some were exiled. Even the family members were taken prisoners. Keppetipola Disawe- the prominent leader of the Uva rebellion of 1918 was executed and his family was deported. Keppetipola Disawe ’s  son died under the captivity. After 30 years the British Army used the same cruel fist to defeat the 1848 revolt that was headed by Gongalegoda Bada and Puran Appu . Inhuman and sadistic punishments were inflicted on the villagers and the Army destroyed the fertile social fabric. Many people became the victims of hostile actions and starvation.

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1915 :The Hundred Days of Terror

In 1915 race riots broke out in  Gampola (a town, located in Kandy District) between the Sinhalese and the Muslims. The Colonial representatives of the British Government declared Martial Law from June 1915 to August 30, 1915. During this period the military forces commanded by the Brigadier General H.H.L.Malcolm, executed 63 people (according to some reports the number of people shot by the militia were 140 or more). Many were arrested mealy on suspicion and shot without fair trials. Some of the executions were conducted in front of the public. The Government arrested 8736 people and 4497 were imprisoned. Most of the rural villages and urban towns in Sri Lanka experienced the 100 days of terror. Mr. Armand de Souza – a newspaper editor and a social activist documented the terror and horror that was unleashed by the colonial rulers in 1915.  This dreadful period changed the psyche of the Sri Lankans. The people could not trust the Colonial Government anymore and the national leaders headed for a movement towards an independent Sri Lanka.

The Natural Disasters that Occurred in the Ancient Sri Lanka

The ancient Sri Lanka suffered several huge natural disasters that caused damage in astronomical propositions. According to the Mahavansa during the King Kelanitissa’s reign (around 190 B.C) a gigantic sea wave (Tsunami) destroyed hundreds coastal  villages in the Western part of Sri Lanka.  The sea flowed up to nearly 28 miles inside the Kingdom causing enormous devastation.  The survivors became so desperate and feared. They urged the King to sacrifice his daughter the young princess Vihara Maha Devi to the sea God. The princess was placed inside a   boat and set adrift on the sea. The boat reached the shore, at   Kirinda in the southern part of Sri Lanka. The King   Kavantissa the regional monarch rescued the princess and later married her.

The Rajavaliya – the 17th century historical chronicle of Sri Lanka narrates a vast famine that occurred during the King Valagamba’s period known as Baminithiya Saya  (around  89 BC) and this famine lasted for 12 years. Thousands of men women and children died due to starvation and many fled the country. The history reports several other famines named Bulu Ke Saya , Eknali Saya  that killed thousands of people in the subsequent years. These famines were directly connected to the foreign invasions and civil war conditions in the country.

Psychological Trauma Described  in the Ancient Sinhala Language

The culture and history of Sri Lanka reveal that PTSD type of conditions were common in the ancient days and these concepts were not imported to Sri Lanka from the West. The ancient chronicles like Mahavamsa ,Dipavamsa,  Rajavaliya etc.  give comprehensive accounts on distressing periods that the populations experienced.

According to the Archaeologist Dr. S.U. Deraniyagala the oldest Sinhala inscriptions found are from the 6th century. Some experts point out that the oldest extant prose work in Sinhala dates to the tenth century and is attributed to King Kassapa the 5th  in   913–923 A.D. The ancient texts vibrantly describe the human melancholies in literary form. For instance, The Buddhist Jathaka stories that were compiled from the 3rd Century B.C narrate the dynamics of the human psyche in different situations. The Buddhist Jathaka stories describe various types of mental disorders and how it affects the individual as well as the society.  The Jathaka storyteller describes the symptomatology of a monk (in the Maranabheruka Jātaka) that is well similar to the modern day PTSD.

The said monk had fear feelings, being panicked for a slightest sound (the ancient text describes that the monk was terrified even hearing a sound such as a drop of a leaf from a tree  – which is modern day viewed as hyper-arousal) , fearing the places where he received terrible experiences and reluctant to visit them (avoidance)  , troubled by the fearful mental images  (flashbacks?)  , morbid fear, unable to meditate (lack of concentration), sweating and heart pounding (activation of the sympathetic nervous system), lack of happiness (depressive feelings), mental worry etc.  The clinical picture, which is given in the Maranabheruka  Jātaka much similar to the present day DSM description of PTSD. The word Maranabheruka roughly translates into English as fear of death. For centuries, these stories helped the people to view individuals with mental illnesses with a compassionate eye.

The term for the PTSD in Sinhala language is Pschath Viyasana Klamatha Akramathavaya, which is   relatively a new term. But the ancient Sri Lankan texts describes numerous trauma related conditions using wide vocabulary. The old texts use many words that describe the psychological pain and anguish. Some of the words are…

Umathu – Being   insane,

Ukatali – Lack of motivation

Chithha  Viyadhi – Mental worry / mental disease

Vishada – Depressive

Bhithiya – Fear

Dhomnas- Unhappiness

Unmadaya – Mania

Ullasaya – Manic state

Rudhuru Svapna   – Nightmares

Koopa – Anger

Viyaapada – Rage

Chithha Rupa -Mental images / flashbacks?

Vikshiptha  – Confusion

Rujava  – Pain (body pain)

Laya Palena Sookaya – Severe Heartache

Thrasthava – Terrified

Divi Thora Kara Ganime Chithhaya – Suicidal idea

The Treatment of Trauma in the Ancient Days

The earliest system of medicine that prevailed in Sri Lanka was Deshiya  Chikitsa or Sinhala Vedakama,  which was a truly indigenous system of medicine that was handed down from generation to generation(Uragoda ,1997). The ancient Sri Lankans treated body and the spirit including the living environment of the patient. They did not separate body and mind as two different entities. For the treatment of psychological ailments, medicine (extracted from plants) and rituals had been used.

Kolam and Traditional Healing Ceremonies

The ancient Sri Lankans used Kolam or dancing rituals to heal the mentally and physically ill people. Kolam Dances are traditional comic folk plays that bring purification to the patient. It was geared to treat the patient as well as his surroundings – immediate family and the community. Hence, the ancient healers had more holistic view than present day individual psychotherapy.

Kolam is a dancing tradition rooted in the eastern and western coastal belts of Sri Lanka and is performed in a Kolam Maduwa specially constructed with special foliage.. Although the tradition is believed to date back to the early 19th century, anthropologists believe that kolam has a history beyond that. Over the years, the traditional kolam dance consisting of diverse stories and characters have been enriched by political, economic, social and religious factors. While anthropologists debate over the birth of kolam dance in Sri Lanka, folklore traces its origin to a craving of Mahasammatha Bisawa (Queen Mahasam-matha) who yearned to see masked dancers. ( Unmasking a craft By Naomi Gunasekara Sunday Times)

Sanni Yakuma

The ancient Sri Lankans identified demons as agents of illness.  This concept has nothing to do with the Christian view of Satan and Satanic influences on evil. Some of these traditions date back to before the birth of the Christ. In Sanni yakuma healing ritual, various demons causing illnesses are summoned and demand them to leave the patient without causing further harm. This method has profound hypnotic effect and it gives series of autosuggestions to the mentally ill. The patient strongly believes that the demon that caused the illness had been banished and he has been cured.  The patient’s family and the other community members too share this belief and this common belief help the mentally ill to become functional.

Sinhalese Cosmology and the Eighteen Sanni Yakku (Devils)

The cosmology of traditional Sri Lankan beliefs is a complex mixture of native Vedic gods, spirits, and demons, overlaid with imported Hindu and Buddhist deities, beliefs, and practices. This pantheon is vast, filled with hierarchies and sub-hierarchies which the uninitiated finds nearly impossible to grasp. The synthesis is a spiritual landscape where Buddha reigns supreme, but where the day-to-day is fraught with danger from the yakku (devils) and other malignant forces (vas) which seem all too ready to afflict man with scourges of every description. In this word, life is a constant struggle against these forces.

Paul Wirz, in his seminal work Exorcism and the Art of Healing in Ceylon (1954), lists the following demons and their effects: Kana-sanniya (blindness), Kora-sanniya (lameness/paralysis), Gini-jala-sanniya (malaria), Vedda-sanniya (bubonic plague), Demala-sanniya (bad dreams), Kapala-sanniya (insanity), Golu-sanniya (dumbness/muteness), Biri-sanniya (deafness). Maru-sanniya (delirium). Amuku sanniya (vomiting), Gulma-sanniya (parasitic worms), Deva-sanniya (epidemic disease, i.e. typhoid, cholera), Naga-sanniya (evil dreams particularly with snakes) (7), Murta-sanniya (swooning, loss of consciousness), Kala-sanniya (black death), Pita-sanniya (disease related to bile) (8), Vata-sanniya (shaking and burning of limbs), and Slesma-sanniya (secretions, epilepsy).

Surveys by individuals such as Alain Loviconi and E.D.W. Jayewardene, have demonstrated significant differences between various areas and the impossibility of creating a universally recognized list. One area might include 0lmada sanniya (babbling) and another area Avulun sanniya (breathing difficulties, chest pains). Contemporary ethnographers such as Obeyesekere have also noted the addition of certain more contemporary maladies to the list. For example Vedi sanniya as relating to gunshot wounds, dramatically reflecting the change in times and the adaptability of this indigenous system. ( The yakun natima – devil dance ritual of Sri Lanka –  by Alan Pate )

Kohomba Kankariya

Kohomba Kankariya is a very old healing ritual that dates back to 500 BC. The Kohomba Kankariya is performed to achieve freedom from ailments, restore the sense of community identity  and to invoke blessings from the heavenly beings for prosperous and healthy life.  The kankariya consists of more than thirty discrete acts and includes the building of the ritual hall and altars, offerings to the gods, solo and group dancing, drumming, chanting, comedy and dramas. (Kohomba Kankariya Ritual – Susan A. Reed)  In Kohomba Kankariya dances, the most common instrument for the background music is called Geta Beraya (traditional drum) that evokes bilateral auditory stimulation.

The ancient Sri Lankans believed that the bilateral auditory stimulation has some trauma healing effect and traditional drum sounds had been incorporated in healing ceremonies such as Kohomba Kankariya.

The Creator of EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) Dr. Francine Shapiro believes that the traumatic experiences and persistent unmet interpersonal needs during crucial periods in development can produce blockages in the capacity of the adaptive information processing system to resolve distressing or traumatic events. The combination of EMDR procedures and bilateral stimulation results in decreasing the vividness of disturbing memory images and related affect, facilitating access to more adaptive information and forging new associations within and between memory networks.

 

Thovilaya

The ancient ritual Thovilaya is a form of Psychodrama and it has been used to treat mentally and physical ill. It creates action methods, role training, spontaneous dramatization, and group dynamics to alleviate illnesses. For Thovilaya the entire village gets to gather and help. Hence, the community connections are strengthened and soothing atmosphere is created around the patient and his outer environment. The patents with Dissociate Disorders and various phobias were successfully treated in the old days using the ancient ritual Thovilaya.

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The  Buddhist  Psychotherapy in Treating Trauma

The Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka in 236 BC. The ancient civilization of Sri Lanka emerged and flourished with the Buddhism. For centuries, the Buddhist Philosophy helped people to deal with trauma.

The Buddhism teaches the universal truth of human suffering and impermanence.

The Buddhism declares that in this world there is nothing that is fixed and permanent. Everything is subject to change and alteration. (The Concept of Impermanence in Buddhism – Jayaram V)

In the Buddhist point of view, suffering is not caused by external, traumatic events, but by qualities of mind, which shape our perceptions and responses to events. These same words were repeated by the Psychologist Albert Ellis in 1953 when he introduced his action oriented therapeutic approach – Rational Emotive Therapy. According to Ellis not the event, that causes psychological distress but the belief held by the client. He further argues that one’s emotional distress is actually caused by one’s catastrophic thinking in appraising stressful events. Ellis theories that unrealistic appraisals of stress are derived from irrational assumptions.

The Lord Buddha used numerous kinds of cognitive therapies in trauma situations. In the story of Kisagotami the Buddha used   cognitive mode of interventions to give insight to a young mother who had lost her infant son. The young mother Kisagotami was devastated with grief. She went to the Buddha carrying the dead body of her son and asked for medicine that would restore her dead son to life. The Buddha told her to get some mustard seeds from a house where there had been no death. Kisagotami went from house to house but she could not find a single house where death had not occurred. She gradually got the insight and the meaning of death. She realized death is a universal phenomenon.

Patachara a young woman developed an acute stress reaction when she witnessed the death of her husband two children and the parents. She came to the Buddha with weeping and with utter confusion. After she became rational, the Buddha explained her true meaning of suffering and the nature of impermanence. The story of Patachara reveals an excellent case study of trauma counseling.

Existential Psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy that aims at enhancing self-knowledge. In the Buddha’s teaching existentialism is widely described. The Buddhism brings up questions about ethics and the nature of our existence. The goals of existential therapy are to enable people to become more truthful with themselves, to widen their perspective on themselves and the world around them, to find clarity on how to proceed in the future while taking lessons from the past and creating something valuable to live for in the present. In addition, it helps to explore the client’s physical, social, psychological and spiritual dimensions. The story of Mattakundali (in the Buddhist Jathaka stories) narrates the existential analysis that had been used by the Buddha.

In the Buddha’s teaching meditation has a special place. Meditation can be used for personal growth. Buddhist meditation is a process of mental clarification and geared to direct perception. The purpose of Buddhist meditation therefore is to gain intellectual understanding of the universal truth. Buddhist Vipassana meditation gives realization of impermanence, suffering and non-self. The Mettha (loving-kindness) meditation helps to reduce anger and a perfect way to control aggressive feelings. Generally, meditation helps to reduce stress and anxiety.  For generations the ancient Sri Lankans used mediation as a stress breaker.

Trauma and Search for Meaning

The Neo Psychoanalyst Erich Fromm argued that the human being needs to find an answer to his existence and this urge to search for meaning differs human from other animals. In addition, he highlights that human has an inner dynamism that directed towards personal growth. He viewed that living is a process that starts at birth and does not end at death. Fromm states that most of the people die before they are fully born. The notion of fully born according to Fromm is becoming fully functional as a human being.

The search for meaning has become the main theme of religion and philosophy. The meaning of life constitutes a philosophical question concerning the purpose and significance of life or existence in general. Dr Viktor E. Frankl in his influential book Man’s Search for Meaning states that the meaning of our existence is not invented by ourselves, but rather detected. (Man’s Search for Meaning- p.157) In 494 B.C, the Prince Siddhartha renounced his wealth and went in search for meaning. He spent six years travelling, exchanging ideas with different mentors and practicing meditation.

The people struck by trauma often try to find answers for their suffering. They often ask “Why Me? ” Inability to link and find the reason for their suffering could make the trauma related symptoms worse. Many Sri Lankan veterans with PTSD whom we have interviewed   tried to find the meaning of their suffering via religion or cultural factors.

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Combat Trauma Management in Ancient Time

The ancient Sri Lankans used the teachings of the Buddha to heal trauma. The Sri Lankan history illustrates that after major battles that caused many lives the ancient Kings were able to restore peace and then built large religious monuments. After the   Great Wijithapura Battle that occurred in 205 B.C., the King Dutugamunu built Ruwanwelisaya stupa in Anuradhapura. The stupa is one of the world’s oldest and tallest monuments, standing at 300 feet (91 m) and with a circumference of 950 ft (290 m).

The King Valagamba launched 14-year war campaign against the foreign   invaders and regained his throne in 89BC. The country was in ruins, a large number of people were perished in the wars and communities were displaced. Post war traumas were mounting. Nevertheless, the King Valagamba was able to bring harmony and prosperity. Between 89-77 BC the King King Valagamba builds Abhayagiri stupa and temple complex that becomes a Buddhist University Center in the ancient world in later years.

The King Vijayabahu 1 (ruled 1055- 1110 AD) faced 17 year prolonged war following invasion from South India. After restoring peace, the King Vijayabahu 1 took numerous measures to uplift the war-wreaked society. He renovated and constructed irrigation systems to increase the food production.

These historical events show that in the ancient days the county had an effective mode of combat trauma management system and rebuilt the civil societies.

 The  Cultural and Social  Perceptions of Trauma in Modern Day

Culture influences what type of threat is perceived as traumatic and how we interpret the meaning of the traumatic event. Culture also influences how individuals and communities express traumatic reactions. While reactions to trauma seem to be common throughout all cultures and based in the physiology of human beings, manifestations of responses may differ significantly. Culture forms a context through which the traumatized individuals or communities view and judge their own response. . (Cultural Perspectives on Trauma and Critical Response –  Kris Sieckert )

Wilson & Tang (2007) argues that the concept of traumatic stress and the multidimensional nature of cultures require a conceptual framework by which to address core issues that have direct relevance to understanding the nature of trauma as embedded within a culture and its assumptive systems of belief and pat-terns of behavioral regulation.

The cultural influence and regulating the perception of trauma is often stronger than the biological perception.  The two-factor theory of emotion introduced by Schachter states that emotion is a function of both cognitive factors and physiological arousal.

The victims see their suffering from a cultural perspective.

The word suffering has a deep philosophical meaning to Sri Lankans. The Buddhist Philosophy analyses the nature of suffering and the cessation of suffering.  According to the Buddha, the word suffering has a deep existential meaning. It is an universal explanation of the true human condition.

Mr.RXXC65 lost his son who was an Army Officer. He died in action and several years  Mr.RXXC65 experienced symptoms of pathological grief. When his grief reaction was at peak, he started reading books on Buddhist Philosophy. He was able to realize the meaning of death and could relate it to his son’s untimely death.

L/Cpl HXXV34 lost his leg due to an antipersonnel mine in 1997 went in to severe depression. Later he was able to come to terms with the disability. I am paying for my Karma says L/Cpl HXXV34. I have committed sins in my previous birth and in this life. Therefore, I am paying my debts and again I will be a free man.

Cpl WXXB32 sustained a gunshot injury to his abdomen in Sarasalei. His bowels came out and he was in deep pain. He was evacuated immediately and laparotomy was done at the Palali Military Hospital. After his recovery, he became more religious and gave up smoking and consuming alcohol. He relates his gun shot injury to bad Karma that he committed. In his own words, he described his experiences thus.

“When I was posted to the Elephant Pass Camp our food rations were not palatable. So we used to hunt wild boar and cattle that were abandoned by the fleeing civilians. I used to cut and clean the carcasses. I used to remove the bowels and then separate the meat. I have seen animal bowels many times while cleaning carcasses. But my experience at Sarasalei was dreadful. I saw my own bowels coming out. I was in shock seeing it. It was retribution and a warning from the sky. After the Sarasalei incident, I committed no sin , never killed even a mosquito and I will maintain that principle until my last breath. ”

Sgt. THXX42 was diagnosed with PTSD and had pessimistic view of his life. He saw no future for him and felt that his life had come to a standstill. Several times, he contemplated to commit suicide. In 2004, Sgt. THXX42 participated in spiritual therapy session and it changed his life forever. He started meditating and then to analyze his suffering in a philosophical angle. Our lives are short and the psychological agony cannot be everlasting says Sgt. THXX42. He started meditating and was able to concentrate for a longer period. By 2006, his depression subsided and he was free of suicidal ideation. His hyper -arousal reaction was significantly reduced.

Mr. TXX46 lost his house and several family members following 2004 Tsunami disaster. He was in mental pain for some time. After this tragic incident, he became an active member in his community helping needy people. He started reading Buddhist philosophy in depth. The life is impermanent and it is a universal truth says Mr. TXX46. Everyone is going to die someday and nothing is permanent. The world is constantly changing;   thinking about this unchanging philosophy, I was able to come to terms with my loss and trauma” he further expressed.

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The Cultural Impact of Combat Trauma in Sri Lanka

The cultural impact of combat trauma in Sri Lanka significantly denotes from the beginning of the Northern conflict in early seventies in the 20th Century. The combatants and civilians experienced the aftermath of combat trauma. The cultural values and religious believes played a key role in trauma management. Many Sri Lankan combatants believe in reincarnation and the effects of Karma. The victims believe that their physical and psychological symptoms are due to karmic actions in the past lives. Often these concepts help them to come to terms with their traumas.

Sri Lankan combatants have more somatic ailments when they manifest anxiety and depression. Many combat trauma victims with depression get treatment for migraine or joint pains before coming for psychological help. (Jayatunge 2004)

During the World War 1 Conversion, reactions were in abundance. Even Freud wrote about these war hysteria reactions. His famous case study – the soldier of Dardanelles (from the battle of Gallipoli) had dissociative reaction (according to the modern DSM classification) which Freud termed as Traumatic Neurosis.

Although in Europe and in North America conversion reactions became minimal with the WW2, Vietnam War and the Iraq War, the Eelam war in Sri Lanka has generated a large number of conversion reactions. (Jayatunge 2004)  It could be due to several factors. In the Sri Lankan conflict, soldiers had no psychological debriefing or similar trauma management soon after the traumatic combat events. The combatants were not informed about possible combat trauma reactions. There was no effective psychological treatment system until the later years.  The soldiers were reluctant to show their fear mixed emotions that were considered as acts of cowardice. Therefore, many combat reactions were expressed through disociative channels.

Dissociative reactions have a cultural significance in Sri Lanka -especially in rural areas. Some combat related dissociative reactions often interpret as the disturbances created by the bad spirits. Mostly in rural parts of Sri Lanka Psychogenic, paralysis is considered as an act of black magic and traditional healers use a ritual called Thovilaya to treat the sufferers.

Possession state that is categorized under the Dissociative Disorders could be seen among the soldiers with combat trauma. In possession, the person enters an altered state of conscious and feels taken over by a spirit, power, deity, or other person who assumes control over his or her mind and body. In many rural areas the possession state which is often regarded as mediation with the gods and goddesses.  Some soldiers with possession state had left the military and they had become so called spiritual mediators.

On most occasions the cultural factors and religious believes have helped the victims of combat trauma to integrate the traumatic experience into a meaningful context.  It has worked against a buffer to prevent further traumatization. After exposing to the combat trauma many people have embraced their cultural and religious practices strongly. These individuals interpret their posttraumatic symptomatology in spiritual terms. Somehow, these traumatic experiences had been transformed into meaningful and non-self-destructive plains.

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Treating  Trauma Victims based on Cultural Components

In the modern day Sri Lanka, the psychological victims of   trauma are treated with Allopathic medicine, traditional Ayurvedic medicine, Psychotherapy and Spiritual therapies. Psychiatrists treat the war trauma victims with depression and PTSD and other anxiety related disorders with SSRI s and sometimes combine antipsychotics when there are signs of severe disturbed behavior with psychotic manifestations. Ayurvedic specialists use various types of traditional remedies to ease the anxiety. Psychologists and Psychotherapists often use Cognitive behavior therapy, which is an effective form of insight therapy.  Exposure Therapy is one form of cognitive behavior therapy unique to trauma.

Spiritual therapy frequently helps the war victims to reduce their depression and anxiety related symptoms. Many Sri Lankan clinicians have observed that the spiritual therapy diminishes the suicidal ideation in combat trauma victims. Many combatants and civilians with war trauma are encouraged to practice mediation and yoga. Meditation methods such as Methha Meditation (Meditation of loving-kindness), Vipassanna meditation (mindfulness mediation) are widely used in rehabilitation centers.

Still the Sri Lankans use ancient methods of healing trauma. It has cultural as well as traditional value.  In trauma related dissociative symptoms in some areas Thovilaya is being performed.

Every culture is unique and it has distinctive way of interpreting psychological trauma. The client’s religious and cultural beliefs play an important role in the treatment process. Using these innate factors in trauma management obviously give promising results.

ලිට්රෝ ගෑස් සමාගමේ අධ්‍යක්ෂ මණ්ඩලය ඉවත් කිරීමේ සැලසුමක්

June 21st, 2016

මාධ්‍ය නිවේදනය – දූෂණ විරෝධී පෙරමුණ

හදිසියේ ක්‍රියාත්මක වන පරිදි ලිට්රෝ ගෑස් සමාගමේ විධායක සභාපතිවරයා සමඟ  අධ්‍යක්ෂ මණ්ඩලයේ කිහිප දෙනෙකු  ඉවත් කිරීමේ සැලසුමක් ක්‍රියාත්මක වන බව දැනගන්නට ලැබී ඇත.

මිලියන 1700 ක ලාභයක් ලැබූ ටෙන්ඩර් ප්‍රදානයකින් පසුව හදිසියේම මෙවැනි තත්වයක් ඇතිවීම බලවත් සැකයට තුඩු දෙන කරුණක් වන බැවින් මේ පිළිබඳව  වැඩි අවධානයක් යොමු කිරීමට දූෂණ විරෝධි පරමුණ තීරණය කර ඇත. 2016 වසර සඳහා  ලිට්රෝ සමාගමට ගෑස් සැපයුම් කරුවන් තෝරාගැනීස සඳහා වන ටෙන්ඩරය 2016 මැයි 27 වනදා විවෘත කිරීමත්, ජුනි මස 1 වන දින සිට අධ්‍යක්ෂ මණ්ඩලය ඉවත් කිරීමත් පසුපස යම් කුමන්ත්‍රණකාරී බලවේගයක් ක්‍රියාත්මක බව පෙනී යයි.

තාක්ෂණ හා වාණිජ ඇගයීම් කමිටුව සහ අමාත්‍යංශ නිලධාරීන් ඉදිරියේ  විධිමත් ලෙස සිදුකල මෙම ටෙන්ඩර් ප්‍රදානය නොරිස්සූ යම් යම් බලවතුන්ට උවමනා වී ඇත්තේ තමන්ට අවනත කරගත හැකි අධ්‍යක්ෂ මණ්ඩලයක්  ලිට්රෝ සමාගමට පත්කිරීම බව පෙනේ.

එමෙන්ම 27% ක කොටස් ලිට්රෝ  ගෑස් සමාගමට හිමි සිනෝ ලංකා ආයතනයට අයත් ග්‍රෑන්ඩ් හයට් හෝටලයේ ඉදිකිරීම් හිතවතුන්ට ලබාදෙමින් එම හෝටලය කුණු කොල්ලයට විකිණීමේ සූදානමකුත් පවතී.

එබැවින් මේ පිළිබඳව කරුණු වහාම සොයා බලා ඉදිරියේදී සිදුවීමට නියමිත අක්‍රමිකතා වළක්වාලමින් යහපාලනය ස්ථාපිත කිරීමට ජනතාවට දුන් පොරොන්දු ඉටකිරීමට පියවර ගන්නා මෙන් දූෂණ විරෝධී පෙරමුණ ඉල්ලා සිටියි.

 

එදත් අපි හිරේ අදත් අපි හිරේ 

June 21st, 2016

ධර්මසිරි සෙනෙවිරත්න

බෙදුම්වාදී ත්‍රස්ත කොටි වසර තිස් ගණනක් තිස්සේ මේ රට විනාශ කරනකොට 2009 දී ජීවිත පරදුවට තබා  සටන් කර රට බේරා ගත් තේ අපිය එනිසාම ජනතාව අපව හැ දින්නුවේ  රණවිරුවෝ කියාය පොදු ජනතාව  අපට  ගරුකලේ ඔවුන්ගේ ජීවිත බේරා දීමට අපි සටන් කල බව දන්නා නිසය් . ප්‍රභාකරන් සිටියදී අපි නොයෙක් නායකයන් යටතේ සටන් කළා පල ගිහින් ගහපිය කිව්වම ගිහින් ගැහැව්වා  දැන් ඉතින් ඇති ආපහු වර කිව්වම  අකුලා ගෙන ආපහු ආවා .අපිත් එහෙමය් ලොකු ජනරාල් වරුත් එහෙමය්  කොටින්ම සරත් ෆොන්සේකාත් අද කය්වාරු ගැහුවට  එදා අපි වගේම තමය අකුලා ගෙන හිටියේ  අපිනම් හිටියේ මේ ගැන තරහෙන් පුපුරා පුපුරා . ලොක්කන්ට නම් කීකරු කමට ඉහලින් නොයෙක් දේ ලැබෙන්න ඇති .  බැරිම තැන තමය අපේ පොඩි එකෙක් ඉන්දියාවේ ලොක්කට තුවක්කුවෙන් ගැහුවේ .වඩමාරච්චි මෙහෙයුමේදී අපි දිනාගෙන එනකොට ජේ ආර් ලොක්කා  බලුකුක්කෙක් වෙලා පිව පාවා දුන්නා චව්ර ස්ත්‍රිය මාමාගේ කනින් අල්ලා තර්ජනය කර අපි ඉදිරියට යන එක නැවැත්තුවා  මේ ගෑනි බලයට එන කොටම   කාරනා කාරනා දන්නා ය කිව්වා මෙකි එන්නේ බටහිර සල්ලි අරගෙන රට විනාශකරන්න කියල පල්ලියේ නියෝජිතයෙක් වුන නළු සැමියා  එක්ක බෙදුවාදීන්ට කත ඇද්ද මේ ගෑනිට කොටියෝම  බෝම්බ ගැහුවා ඒ නළුවා කොටි කඳවුරු වලට  ගිහින් උන්ගේ දුක සැප  බලල  කොටි සාධාරනය් කියල ලෝකෙට කිව්වා .මේ නළුබට්ටට ත් කල පවු  පලදුන්නා.  එහෙත් ඉතින් අපිව පාවාදීම නායකයෝ නැවැත්තුවේ නැහැ . ආණ්ඩු පෙරලන්න ආපු සිංහල තරුණයෝ ලක්ෂයක් විතර  කුරු විදිහට මරා දැම්ම ප්‍රේමදාස ආණ්ඩුවත් බෙදුම් වාදීන්හෝටල්වල නවත්තගෙන කන්න දුන්නා . අපිව කනදවුරුවල හිරකලා .කොටින්ට බංකර් හදන්න සිමෙන්ති දුන්නා  ඒවායේ ඉඳල අපිට පහර දෙන්න . අපේ හමුදා නායකයෝ එකෙක් වත් අපිට කිව්වේ නැහැ මේ අසාධාරණය ට විරුද්ධව නගීසිටිවූ කියල  .මමය් කෙරුමා කියල දැන් කියන සරත්  ෆොන්සේකා   එදා අකුලා ගෙන හිටියා .රටේ නායකයා කියනදේට ඉහලින් යන්න හමුදා ලොක්කෝ බය වුනා  භටයෝ 600ක්  කොටින්ට අමු අමු අමුවේ බිලිදුන්නා රටේ නායකයෝම අනේ දෙවියනේ එහෙම තමුන්ගේ හමුදාව බිලිදෙන රාජ්‍ය නායකයෝ වෙන රටවල ඉන්නවද   .එහෙත් මුන්ට තවත් චන්දෙ දෙන  උන් සිංහලයන් අතරත් ඉන්නවනේ

මහින්ද  ජනාධි පති තුමා විතරය්  අපිව කුඩුවලින් එලියට අරගෙන  නිදහස් කලේ අපේ දක්ෂකම් වලින් රටබෙරගන්න ඉදිරි පත්වුණේ එතුමා විතරය් ඉස්සර බලුකුක් ක් මෙන් කීකරු අද වෙල් විදානේ ඉස්සරහට ගියෙත් මහින ජනපත කකුලෙන් නොඇද්ද නිසය්   නැත්නම් වෙනා වගේම නිවටව ඉන්නවා  . මහින්ද නිසා අපි ගේම දුන්නා  හරි අගේට  රට බෙර ගත්තා අහිංසක දෙමලුත් මරක්කලයොත් ඒවගේම බෙර ගත්තා . දැන් ඇමතියෝ   ”ව්යාග්‍රා  ”’ පාවිච්චිකරමින්   අවල කෙලි යේ   යෙ  දෙන්නෙත් අපි හින්දය්   උරෝ කැකුණ තැලුවා   දැන් හබන් කුකුලන්ට රජ මගුල්  . රනිල් රනිල්   රවී  වාගේ ය  අපිට කි ව්වේ   යුද්ධ කරන ගොන් කියල . දැන් මහා ගොනෙක් වන වෙල්විදානෙත් ඇමතියෙක් රනිල් තරම් මිනීමරු රට පාවාදෙන දුෂ්ටයෙක් එක්ක අන්තිමේ ජනාධිපතිධුරයේ වැඩ බලුවය් කියන සිරිසේනත් එකතුවුනා රට පාවාදෙන්නය් අපිව ආයෙත් හිරේ දාන්නය්  දැන් අ පි ආයෙත් හිරේත්‍රස්තයෝ එළියේ ඇමතියෝ අවලකෙලියේ කොටි උන්ගේ  මිනීමරුවෝ සමරනවා රනිල් සිරිසේන අපිව නොමරා මරනවා  අනේ ලෝක පාලන දෙවියනේ  මේ රට රක ගන්න අපට ඉඩක් නැද්ද    හසලක වීරයානෙණි  නැවත ඉපදී එන්න සටනට . කන්ද උඩරටත් දැන් දෙමලුය් තම්බිලය්  අල්ලාගෙන 1818  1848 හිටපු උඩරට සිංහලයෝ   දැන් නැහැ .  උන්ගේ තටු කපල . රණවිරු සොයුරනි අපිතව  දුරටත් මේවා ඉවසමුද  මට තරහත් එනවා සෙනරත් රජ්ජුරුවෝ  එදා මරක්කලයෝ නොඑලවා පදිංචි කරපු එකගන  එතුමා කලින් භික්ෂුවක් . සිංහල බෞද්ධ කම දැනගන හිටියනමඅ භිධර්මයට වඩාඑතුමා එදා කරන්නේ යන තැනක පලයවූ කියල එලවන එකය් .

අලිමංකඩ පසුබෑම

June 21st, 2016

වෛද් රුවන් එම් ජයතුංග 

2000 වසරේදී  අලිමංකඩට, එල්ටීටීඊය විසින් ප්‍රහාරයක් එල්ල කරන ලදි. අලිමංකඩ හමුදා කඳවුර මුළුමනින්ම බිඳ දැමීමට  මුලින්ම එල්.ටී.ටී.ඊ. ය  අලිමංකඩ කඳවුරු භුමියේ ජල සැපයුම කපා  දැමීය​. මේ නිසා අලිමංකඩ කඳවුර අත් හැර දැමීමට ඉහල හමුදා නායකත්වය තීරණය කලහ.

අසර්ථක නායකත්වය හා අකාර්යක්‍ෂම ක‍්‍රමෝපාය සැලැස්ම නිසා  අලිමංකඩ පසුබැසිම හේතු කොට ගෙන ජිවිත රැුසක් විනාශ විය. අලිමංකඩ කඳවුරෙන් පසුබැසිම උපායශිලි වුවද එය සිදු කරන ලද්දේ උණුසුම් දහවල් කාලයකය. බොහෝ සෙබලූන් විජලනය හා දැඩි උෂ්ණය නිසා හටගත් ආඝාතයෙන් මරණයට පත් විය. අලිමංකඩ පරාජයේදී හමුදා සෙබලූන් 359 දෙනෙකු මිය ගියේය. 349 ක් අතුරුදන්ව ඇති බවට සටහන් විය. 2500 ක් පමණ සංඛ්‍යාවක් අනතුරට භාජනය විය. 2000 වසරේ අපේ‍්‍රල් 21 සිට 2000 අපේ‍්‍රල් මස 22 දක්වා සිදුවු සිදුවීම් කෝපරල් NB7 පහත දැක්වෙන් අන්දමට විස්තර කළේය.

( කෝපරල් NB7 මනෝ ප්‍රතිකාරයන් සඳහා මා වෙත යොමු කලේ කර්නල් වෛද්‍ය ටී. ඒ දයාරත්න මහතා විසිනි )

2000 අපේ‍්‍රල් මස 21 වන දින මා සිටියේ අලිමංකඩ කඳවුරේ ඉදිරි ආරක්‍ෂක පෙරමුණේය. කොයි මොහොතකදි හෝ එම ස්ථානයෙන් ඉවත්වීමේ ආඥාව ලැබෙනු ඇතැයි අපට දැනුම් දෙන ලදී. පසුදින උදේ 10.30 ට පමණ සතුරා බර අවිවලින් කඳවුරට පහර දුන්නේය. සතුරා පහරදෙන විට අපගේ සෙබලූන් කිලාලි කලපුව දෙසට පසු බැස්සහ. එහිදී අපට නිර්භීත නිලධාරියෙකු වූ බි‍්‍රගේඩියර් පර්සි ප‍්‍රනාන්දු මුණගැසුනු අතර ඔහු අප කණ්ඩායම ප‍්‍රතිසංවිධානය කොට, පහරදීමක් දියත් කොට ආරක්‍ෂාකාරී පසුබැසීමට යාමට උත්සාහ කලේය. අප සතුරාට පහරදී පලෙයි බලා ගියෙමු. ඛඔඔෑය අපට මෝටාර් වලින් පහර දුන් අතර, ඔවුන්ගේ ස්නයිපර්වරු අපගේ නිලධාරින් හා සංඥා බලකායේ සෙබලූන් වෙත ඉලක්ක ගත්හ. බි‍්‍රගේඩියර් පර්සි ප‍්‍රනාන්දු වෙඩි පහරකින් අනතුරු ලැබීය. එය ආපදා සම්පන්න මොහොතක් විය. බි‍්‍රගේඩියර් පර්සි අපට අත්නොහැර ගිය නිර්භීත නිලධාරියෙකු විය. සමහර බියගුලූ ජ්‍යෙෂ්ඨ නිලධාරීහු ඔහුගේ ජීවිත බේරාගෙන අප සතුරාට ගොදුරු වීමට ඉඩ තබා පලා ගියහ. එහෙත් බි‍්‍රගේඩියර් පර්සි ප‍්‍රනාන්දු අප සමගම හිඳ අවසානය දක්වාම අපට නායකත්වය ලබාදුනි. ඔහු බිම ඇදවැටුනු පසුව අප විනාශයට නියමවුනු බව මම දැනගත්තෙමි.

alimankada

අප ඉතා වෙහෙසට හා දැඩි විඩාවට පත්ව සිටියේය. අපගේ බොහෝ සෙබලූන්ට දෙපයින් ගමන් කළ නොහැකි විය. දැඩි හිරුරශ්මිය හා වියලි සුලඟ අපගේ ශක්තිය උරා ගත්තේය. මට දැඩි පිපාසයක් දැනුනද මගේ වතුර බෝතලය හිස්ව තිබුනි. අප අතරෙන් බොහෝ දෙනෙකුට ප‍්‍රමාණවත් ජලය නොතිබුනි. අප උණුසුම වැල්ලේ පණනැතිවූ මළමිනී මෙන් අපි ඇවිද ගියෙමු. සමහරු කලපුවේ ලූණුදිය පාලනය කළහ. තමන්ගේ මනස අවුල්වත්ම සමහරු ගී ගැයීමට පටන් ගත්හ. සමහරුන් දැඩි විඩාවෙන්ම බිම ඇද වැටි නැවත කිසිදා නොනැගිට්ටේය.

 

අප ඉදිරියට යත්ම සතුරා මෝටාර් වලින් අපට පහර දුන්නේය. බොහෝ සෙබලූන් වතුර හිඟකමින් මිය යමින්, සතුරාගේ පහරදීම් වලට මුහුණදෙමින් සිටියේය. සතුරන්ගේ වෙඩි තැබීම වැලැක්වීමට අපට ඉක්මනින් ඇවිදයාමට සිදුවිය. එහෙත් අපට ආවරණයක් නොවීය. මගේ දෑස් ඉදිරිපිට සමහරු ක්ලාන්තව වැටුනාහ. ඔවුන් කිසිදිනෙක නැවත නොපැමිණෙන බැව් මම දැන ගතිමි. එක් සෙබලෙක් සිහි විකල් තත්ත්වයට පත්විය. ඔහු ගී ගයමින් නටමින් තේ කෝප්පයක් ඉල්ලා සිටියේය. තුවාල ලත් සෙබලූන් ඔවුන් ඔසවාගෙන යන ලෙස අපට කිය. එහෙත් අප සියලූදෙනාම දැඩි වෙහෙසකට පත්ව තවත් සෙබල සගයෙකු ඔසවාගෙන යාමට තරම් ශක්තිමත් නොවීය. අප තනි තනිවම එකම මිනිසෙකු තමාම වෙනුවෙන් කි‍්‍රයා කළ යුතු විය. එය මගේ ජිවිතයේ අවසන් දිනය වනතෙක් අමතක කල නොහැකි ආත්මාර්ථකාමී මොහොතක් විය.

මගේ ශක්තිය හීනවෙමින් පැවතින. මට මගේ ආයුධ කට්ටලය රැුගෙන යා නොහැකි විය. මට අයිති දෑ ඉවතට විසි කිරීමට මට සිදුවිය. අවසානයේදී දිගු කාලයක් මගේ ගැලවුම්කාරයාව සිටි මගේ ආයුධය විසි කිරීමට මට සිදුවිය. අනෙකුත් සෙබලූන් සමග මම දැඩි හිරු රශ්මිය මැද ඇවිද ගියෙමි. මට අවශ්‍ය වූයේ වතුර පමණි. මගේ හිස කැරකෙන්නට වූ අතර මා බිම ඇද වැටුනි. මම උණුසුම් හිරු දුටුවෙමි. අහසේ වලාකුලකින් තොර විය. සෙබලූන් කිහිප දෙනෙකු මා පසුකර ගියද කිසිවෙකු මට උපකාර නොකළේය. මා එහි සිටියහොත් වැඩි වේලාවක් නොගොස් මියැදෙන බව මම දැන සිටියෙමි. මා නැවතත් ශක්තිය ගෙන සතුරු ප‍්‍රහාර වලින් වැලකෙමින් බඩගාගෙන යන්නට පටන් ගති. බියගත් සෙබලූන් මා පාගා දමමින් පලෙයි දෙසට දුවන්නට පටන් ගත්තේය. අතරමගදී මම මළසිරුරු කිහිපයක්ම දුටුවෙමි.

එක් සෙබලෙකු මගේ බූට් සපත්තු දෙක අල්ලා ගත්තේය. ඔහු තුවාල ලැබ ලේ ගලමින් සිටියේය. ඔහු මට ආයාචනා කළ අතර ඔහුගේ එම වචන දැනුදු මගේ දෙසවනේ රැුව්දේ. තමා මිය යන බැවින් ඔබ මා ඔසවාගෙන යා යුතු නැතැයි ඔහු කීය. පසුව ඔහු ඔහුගේ නම හා ලිපිනය මට දී ඔහු මියගිය බව දෙමව්පියන්ට පවසන ලෙස දැක්විය. මේ සිද්ධිය මට තවමත් අමතක කළ නොහැකිය. ඔහු කවුරුන්දැයි මා නොදැන සිටි අතර පලෙයි වලට එනවිට මට සිහසුන්ව Heat Stroke සැදී තිබුනි.ඔහුගේ නම හා ලිපිනය මට අමතකය. මේ වනතෙක් ම ඔහුගේ පණිවුඩය ඔහුගේ නෑදෑයිනට දීමට මට නොහැකි විය. එහෙත් දැඩි බලාපොරොත්තු රහිත වූ ඔහුගේ මුහුණ මට තාමත් මතකය.

වෛද් රුවන් එම් ජයතුංග 

US Power Elite Declared War on the Southern Hemisphere, East Asia and all non-Western Countries in September 2000!

June 21st, 2016

Andreas Schlüter  Courtesy WIPOKULI Wissenschaft, Politik, Kunst und Literatur

The State of Global Affairs

Division of the World by the US Military

Everyone who is not totally blinded by the advertising mainstream media can see certain things clearly about US politics directed by the US Power Elite:

Obvious are the Western imperial and colonial wars against Africa, Near and Middle East. Obvious is the collaboration of Saudi Arabia and Qatar with the US to destabilize and push Islamist militant fanaticism for example threatening to tear Nigeria apart. Obvious is also the aim to get Africa under US military control by the colonial institution US AFRICOM to handle the problems the US and their Islamist allies have created.

Obvious should also be the usage of African henchmen like Paul Kagame to plunder DR Congo (which led to more than six million dead Congolese in the last twenty years, see http://tinyurl.com/kkpvcf7). Obvious is also the brutal desire to plunge countries like Libya into a barbaric chaos and end the positive impulses the former regime gave to the efforts for more African economic independence. The same tactics they apply in their desire to destroy Syria. And their efforts to create chaos and repression they apply around the World, especially in Latin America and also in parts of Asia and Eastern Europe. It is all meant to prevent non-Western countries to choose their trade partners freely and to make the best use of their recourses for themselves. And the US Power Elite wants to hinder those countries to trade and cooperate with their “main enemies”, China and Russia (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5SjPLJOjqc).

Thus they are also not sparing Europe because their great fear is that Europe gets closer into cooperation with Russia and China (see the “Iron Silk Road” connecting via rail China with the great Duisburg harbor).

See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZzrsDZ8Uo8M

And thus the US Power Elite is not at all sad about the economic and social pressure in Europe by the many, many refugees they created by their operations to destabilize and destroy countries. The EU may break up before five years have passed. Well, Experts in Africa, Asia/Russia and Latin America might see this clearly.

Rebuilding America´s Defenses”, “Nine Eleven” and Biological Warfare

Africa, the whole Southern Hemisphere, East Asia and all non-Western countries should be alarmed! The democratic masquerade in the USA cannot blind the political analyst to the fact that there is a „Deep State“ in the US, run by the Super rich as well as by the heads of „intelligence“ and military (what US President Eisenhower those day called “the Military Industrial Complex”).

This US Power Elite may count between 50 and 100 persons in deed deciding were US politics will lead. Despite all differences between the „Soft Power“ faction (which is an Orwellian name since those are also not shy to strangulate whole economies) and the Neocons (who like the military boot on the ground) about tactical questions (http://tinyurl.com/bne6lnr) they are united in the fierce determination to gain or keep full control of the World. Moreover it´s more and more obvious that the Neocons are even to a high extend in control of the US government based on the Democratic Party. And the Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton is in fact the Neoncon spearhead in the Democratic Party. She brought Victoria Nuland (quote: “fuck the EU”) into the Obama administration. Nuland is the wife of Robert Kagan. Kagan is co-founder of the neoconservativeProject for the New American Century“.

Anyway, a US President is in office, not in power. The Deep State is the decisive force which is obvious at least since Kennedy´s assassination (http://tinyurl.com/ndzt8ho). A bit more complicated are things in the Near East, since another “player” plays his limited part, Israel´s Power Elite (http://tinyurl.com/nugvqjp) but the global situation is clearly dominated by US politics.

It is crucial for all people who don´t want being dominated by this self appointed small number of “World Rulers” to understand the guide lines, paradigms and strategies of the Neocon dominated US Power Elite to the full extend. In fact the closest military and intelligence association in this World are the notorious “Five Eyes” (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Eyes), the coalition of the USA, GB, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, all of them countries whose power elites consider themselves (predominantly) White Anglo Saxon Protestant (WASP), the World must consider them the “Club for maintaining White World Dominance”!

The dominant Neocon faction of the US Power Elite started planning monstrous deeds already in 2000 (in deed even earlier). There is a paper by the already mentioned Neocon “Project for the New American Century” issued in September 2000 (among the authors Paul Wolfowitz) under the name “Rebuilding America´s Defenses”:

http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/pdf/RebuildingAmericasDefenses.pdf

It is strange enough that one can find on page 51 something that sounds like the announcement of “Nine Eleven”. After talking about the difficulties to “sell” to the Western public after the end of the Cold War the stepping up of armament one reads: Further, the process of transformation, even if it brings revolutionary change, is likely to be a long one, absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event – like a new Pearl Harbor. Not too astonishing for those who have studied the absurdities of the “official narrative” about the event. Anyway, Nine Eleven was used to legitimize the “War on Terror” which is in reality a war of terror against the Southern Hemisphere and against civil rights. It did not only kill hundreds of thousands but polluted whole regions by depleted Uranium. The effect is similar to the pollution of Vietnam by “Agent Orange” during the Vietnam War.

What is overall alarming is to be found on page 60 of that paper: “And advanced forms of biological warfare that can “target” specific genotypes may transform biological warfare from the realm of terror to a politically useful tool.

This is a real fascist and racist concept and the direct continuation of those days Apartheid Regime´s concept of biological “Race War” in South Africa, manifested in the “Project Coast” under the notorious Wouter Basson. The contrast to the declarations of US politics of defending Human Rights, Democracy and Freedom couldn´t be greater!

The more or less Hidden Agenda

Actually the covert strategy of the US Power Elite doesn´t only aim at destabilizing and destroying states if they do not totally submit themselves under US control, but it aims at depopulating whole areas of this World. What this “elite” is seeing are coming recourse scarcity and climate collapse. The problem surfaced already for the “Club of Rome”. The Southern Hemisphere has paid for an enormous technical progress in the industrial countries (millions of dead people by slave trade and colonial wars, starvation, super exploitation), but now the Southerners also want their share.

Trying to avoid recourse wars and climate collapse could actually be managed by a more just and fair world order and by ending Western “over consumption” and waste, which would mean in the final analysis some sort of ecological oriented Socialism, cooperating closely with other countries on a basis of mutual understanding..

Such a solution is definitely not to the taste of the US Power Elite and their allies within the “Five Eyes”. They view the problem from another perspective. Anyway, their “scientific helpers” do a lot to deny climate change but that doesn´t mean the Power Elite wouldn´t be aware of it, but are just trying to prevent the majority from the awareness that social action against wild gone neoliberal capitalism is necessary. As said, they themselves are surely aware of the problem.

Today the problem shows itself more acute because science is now more aware of mechanisms of climate change. If world temperature rises four or five degrees it could make the hitherto enormous amount of frozen Methane Hydrate deep in the oceans come up and lead to another five degree warming which would finally damage world climate, because Methane is much more affecting climate than even Carbon Dioxide. Because of such a process the great mass extinction at the end of perm age might have emerged.

Those times an enormous area of volcanoes in what is Siberia today raised World temperature for about five degrees and then led to the coming up of Methane Hydrate. The result was the named Permian mass extinction:

http://geology.about.com/od/extinction/a/aa_permotrias.htm

& http://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-1/ocean-chemistry/climate-change-and-methane-hydrates/

What obviously is the solution in the minds of the Neocons is depopulation policy towards the Southern Hemisphere and East Asia. The West was medially bashing China for its “One Child Policy” (which might have been inspired by Milton Friedman´s “Chicago Boys” influencing Deng Xiaoping´s government in China). But the Western Elites like playing double games and there are growing concepts for depopulation policy, which were surfacing already in the “Kissinger Report” (http://nssm200.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/NSSM-200.pdf, further links see down at the end). So the paragraph on page 60 of “Rebuilding America´s Defenses” is the “consequent” step of the Neocons to “solve” the problem “their way” by a strategy of depopulation towards the Southern Hemisphere and East Asia. In the light of these concepts the recent epidemic outbreaks like HIV, Ebola, SARS and Zika makes one ponder whether they really came up “naturally” (http://tinyurl.com/mwgjhoo). See also:

Depopulation policy: http://rense.com/general59/kissingereugenics.htm

http://home.iae.nl/users/lightnet/world/depopulation.htm

http://real-agenda.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/KILLING-US-SOFTLY2.pdf

Bio Race War? “Zika Virus and a Strange Case”:

https://wipokuli.wordpress.com/2016/02/05/zika-virus-and-a-strange-case/

Conclusion

Obviously the US Power Elite is choosing the way of Fascism (in this case not the well known type with well known symbols, but “Corporate Fascism”) to solve the problems with the pending risks. They are not interested in a cooperative solution to mankind´s problems. All declarations coming from US politics are thus valueless. No doubt that not only the majority of US citizens might in the end be peace loving people, no doubt even that many in the state apparatus and the US government are not (fully) aware of those monstrous designs and concepts and blinded by the “Terror Narrative”. Often decision makers in other parts of the World are confronted with partially good willing representatives of the “Empire”, which could create illusions.

The deep analysis nevertheless shows the real extend of the dangers coming from the US Power Elite. Those ones know since long how to use innocent people of their own country not being aware of the final aims. The basic principle is the paradigm of “covert ops” is: “need to know. It is in the end like with modern production, hardly anyone knows all about the product to be produced. We have to be clear that the degrading term “Conspiracy Theory” and “Conspiracy Theorist”, now widely used, was in its negative connotation an invention of the CIA. It was invented to smear the skeptics towards the cover up of Kennedy´s assassination (http://tinyurl.com/ck8329d). In fact we have a monumental conspiracy which could cost the lives of the majority of mankind!

If all this is true, the World needs an Anti-Fascist alliance to counter these dangers. The BRICS states have much potential (despite internal social problems) and many countries of the Southern Hemisphere might be well advised to intensify cooperation with them and other countries struggling to get out of “Big Brother´s” grip. It could be dangerous for the time since US “intelligence” knows how to create “Terror”, but the alternative might be to totally fall victim to those concepts. Against those concepts not only military and intelligence cooperation is needed but also published analysis meant to reach the majority in Western countries, because the “games” of the US Power Elite are also meaning great hazard for them.

Andreas Schlüter

 

TAMIL STUDIES AND JAFFNA TAMILS

June 21st, 2016

KAMALIKA PIERIS

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, who started Christian missionary operations in Jaffna in 1816,    encouraged Tamil studies with special emphasis on Tamil literature. They wished to know the main Tamil texts. They wanted also to upgrade the Tamil language used by the inhabitants of Jaffna. The American Mission in Boston therefore wanted all subjects taught in Tamil in the mission schools of Jaffna.  Accordingly, an English department where all subjects had to be studied in English was started at Uduvil girls school in 1897.

Batticotta seminary, Vaddukoddai, the flagship school of the American Mission, placed much emphasis on Tamil language and literature. The teachers were American, including G.Dashiel for Sanskrit and P.K.Haselltine for Tamil.   H.R.Hoisington, a graduate of Cambridge University, who arrived in 1836, and became principal in 1845, mastered Tamil and Sanskrit, (presumably after he arrived in Jaffna.)   He studied Saivism and astronomy    and translated writings on these two subjects into English.  He also compiled a treatise on Hindu astronomy.

The Triennial reports of the Seminary stated that ola manuscripts of Tamil works were held by elite Tamil families, but that orthodox Tamils hid their books from the American Mission. The missionaries needed these as they were looking for points of contact between Christianity and the native religions. They were able to obtain, translate and study the Skanda Purana, a Hindu religious text, but when Batticotta wanted to teach Scanda Purana in 1828 there was a boycott. the Hindus had interpreted it as a move to ridicule the text.

Batticotta taught a range of other   Tamil writings,   by 1830,  including ‘Thirukural’ (Sangam literature) and ‘Nanool’ (Tamil grammar).   Ramayana was added later.    Tamil composition was encouraged at Batticotta  and there were exams on Tamil studies. Batticotta set up a Tamil class in 1828 to train Tamil teachers.  The Batticotta seminary, it is held, was responsible for the emergence of a Tamil intellectual elite and a Dravidian identity   in Jaffna.

The American Mission had two printing presses at Nellore and Manipay dating from 1820. Ancient Tamil texts were printed for the first time in the Mission press in 1835.    The Mission started a newspaper ‘Morning Star’ in 1841. It had four pages, two each in English and Tamil. Many journals were started in Jaffna thereafter.  In 1853 there was the ‘Vithyatharpanam’ with two equal sections in Tamil and English.  Weslyan missionary Rev Peter Percival’s Anglo-Tamil dictionary (1838) and A Collection of Proverbs in Tamil with their Translation in English, were published by Jaffna Book Society.

The linguistic and religious awakening among the Tamil Hindus in Jaffna was largely due to the pioneering efforts of Arumuka Navalar (1822-1879). His interest was in reforming the Saivite religion, not Tamil studies but he contributed to the revival of Tamil by making Tamil the language of the Saivite revival. This was an important contribution to the development of modern Tamil studies both in Ceylon and South India, said K.M. de Silva. His school, though only for Vellala, also promoted literacy and Tamil studies. Arumuga Navalar had a profound knowledge of Tamil classical texts and published critical editions of these. He was one of the early adaptors of modern Tamil prose, introducing Western editing techniques. He adopted a simple and lucid style of Tamil prose writing, said K.M. de Silva.

Navalar had two printing presses, one in Madras and the other in Jaffna. He bought his first press in 1849.He was one of the first to use the modern printing press to preserve the Tamil literary tradition.  His Madras press issued two texts prepared by Navalar, a teachers guide and a poem. These were the first efforts at editing and printing Tamil works for Saiva students and devotees. These were followed by graded readers, such as Bala Potam (Lessons for Children) in 1850 and 1851. They were simple in style, similar to those used in the Christian schools.

According to information held on the internet, Arumuga Navalar produced approximately ninety-seven Tamil publications of which twenty three were original writings. There were also forty   edited versions of works on grammar, literature, liturgy, and theology that were not previously available in print, as well as eleven commentaries. Commentaries on grammars included Kandihai Urai on the Nanool.  With this ‘recovery, editing, and publishing’ of ancient works, Navalar laid the foundations for the recovery of lost Tamil classics.

But much more had to be done to upgrade Tamil literature in Madras and younger alumni from Batticotta went across to help, notably C.M. Thamotharampillai (1833-1901). Thamotharampillai and Navalar were contemporaries and good friends (Hoole, 1997). Thamotharampillai learnt Tamil under his father, a first generation Christian, who had briefly attended Batticotta. Thamotharampillai also studied at Batticotta where he did a Tamil translation of the Book of Genesis from the Bible. He graduated from Batticotta in 1852.

Thamotharampillai did a stint at ‘Morning Star’ then moved to Madras to become the editor of the Tamil daily ‘Thinavarthamani’  started by the Wesleyan Mission. He also taught at Presidency College, Madras and gave Tamil tuition to high officials. He became ‘highly influential’ by 1855. Thamotharampillai got a Bachelor of Arts degree from Madras University in 1858 and passed the law exams of Madras University in 1871.  He was a High court judge for Puthukkodai, Tamilnadu, from 1887 to 1890.  But his main interest was in the Tamil literature available in Madras area.

Thamotharampillai advertised for Tamil manuscripts, obtained them, edited and published them, in Madras, using his earnings to do so.  He collated manuscripts, noting variant readings. His approach was philological and historical not       devotional. He published around 13 Tamil manuscripts including ‘Veerasoliyan’. He published several works which were considered lost, where only parts of the manuscripts   were found in olas here and there.  These included ‘Ilakkana vilakkam’   and, more importantly, the third part of Tholkayam, the ‘Porulathikaram.’ Thamotharampillai ‘searched high and low’ and brought this manuscript to light in 1885. He handed over manuscripts that he was not using to others to process. Thamotharampillai’s contribution to the Tamil language in discovering and publishing lost manuscripts is well recognized in Tamilnadu.

It is useful to compare the situation of the Tamil language with the status of Sinhala. The Tamil kingdom was conquered by Karnataka in the 14th century. The kingdom was thereafter administered in Telegu. The kingdom later splintered into small, weak kingdoms, Madura, Trichinopoly, and Tanjore, with Madura going under the Muslim Nawab of Arcot in 1734.  The language continued to be Telegu. The Nayek families, who supplied the Udarata kings in the 18th century, spoke Telegu, not Tamil.  There was a Telegu literature in Madras in the 19th century  and the British   rulers recognized Telegu. Telegu manuscripts numbering 3335 collected during British rule were sent to Hyderabad in 1960.

The neglected Tamil language was rescued and elevated by the Christian missionaries who arrived in Tamilnadu from the 17 century .They had to learn Tamil to convert the natives to Christianity and in the process they helped to revive Tamil language and literature. The leading personalities in this were two Italian Jesuit priests, Roberto de Nobili (1606-1656) and Constanzo Beschi (1680-1742) also German Lutheran priest B. Ziegenbalg (1682-1719). They collected Tamil manuscripts,   made translations and compiled grammars.

G.U.Pope (1830- 1857) a Wesleyan priest, translated many Tamil texts into English and British Civil Servant F.W.Ellis (1810-1819) made a large collection of Tamil manuscripts.  Rev. P.Percival (Wesleyan then Anglican) was appointed first Professor of Vernacular Literature at Madras University in 1857. He knew both Tamil and Telegu. Rev. Robert Caldwell introduced the notion of a separate group of Dravidian languages in his  ‘A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages, ‘(1856).

The situation was very different in Sri Lanka. Sinhala maintained its status as a sovereign language up to 1815 and continued in use thereafter, throughout British rule.   Sinhala literature and Sinhala grammar were carefully preserved and looked after by generation after generation of bhikkus and laymen. Complete manuscripts of major Sinhala writings, such as Mahavamsa and Jataka pota were available in plenty in personal and temple collections in the 1930s. Unlike Tamil, Sinhala literature was not in bits and pieces and no outside intervention was needed. The Christian missionaries only had to prepare Sinhala-English dictionaries for their own use. (http://www.island.lk/index.php?page_cat=article-details&page=article-details&code_title=142866)

Champika has threatened to kill everyone who oppose them – Nalaka Thero

June 21st, 2016

Adaderana

“We will kill everyone against us,” Minister Patali Ranawaka has told a monk, according to the Leader of the Jathika Emamuthuwa Venerable Bengamuwe Nalaka Thero.
The observation was made while speaking at a press conference held in Colombo this afternoon (21).

Nalaka Thero went on to say the monk had also quoted the Minister as saying that they would first kill those who were with them and defected to the other side.
“There are two evils in the Jathika Hela Urumaya. One is Minister Ranawaka, and the other is Rathana Thero,” Nalaka Thero added.
The Thero also pointed out if required, he would not hesitate to appear before a court to give evidence in this regard as well.
“I make this allegation with a responsibility,” Nalaka Thero said.

– See more at: http://adaderana.lk/news/35764/champika-has-threatened-to-kill-everyone-who-oppose-them-nalaka-thero#sthash.kWivKE0n.dpuf

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ,PROVINCIAL COUNCILS AND CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CONTROL

June 21st, 2016

Dr Sarath Obeysekera

We all know that Sri Lanka has miserably failed in coordination of development work in the country .

.J R installed provincial councils to satisfy India and also to show the world that he is quite genuine in decentralization of power .In the North Vartharajh Perumal thought that he is above the center ,and unilaterally declared a independent state and he ended up in India  who was behind his move ?

Now in the North Wiggy seems like having some hidden agenda and keeps talking about independent on and off .

In the East it is somewhat little controllable because they are little wary of getting absorbed into Nroth PC one day .

Nothing to say about South ,Central,Sabarabamuwa ,North Central and Western council as the Chief Ministers have their own agenda to raise up to become a Minister of the Centre one day,hence they tow the line of the incumbent governments.

In addition we have now Megapolis  and Western Development Ministry  ( poking their nose in not only Western but also southern and eastern provinces ) in town development , Southern Development Board under a minister ,Central development under a Field Marshal .

We see tug of war between all above agencies and councils, and Centre keeps watching helplessly .

I would like a cite a somewhat simple example to show that individual decentralized control of any development cannot work

We were all impressed regarding  the beautification work done by previous regime ,specifically establishment of walking paths with individual solar paneled lamp  posts ,which are equipped wth individual power sources such as ordinary replaceable batteries.

When I saw then being built, my comment to a colleague was that   “this is not sustainable “as successive regimes will not allocate funds to maintain the lamp posts .

Two years have passed and most of the lamps are burnt and batteries have   exhausted their life !

And the cost of each battery over 30,000 rs and the authorities had no clue how to keep the lamps burning .

Today I not that the Corporation in charge of the walking paths is trying to get away for having individual batteries ,but Installing Central Solar Panel connected to the street  light system as a back up

This is  a  convincing proof though it looks trivial ,that development can only be sustainable ,only if it is under Centralized .control .

We have to get rid of all the Provincial Councils and appoint area ministers under the Central Government to plan and execute all the development programs depending on Geographical and national needs

I will  happy to be managed by a old system of having a “ Gam Muladani” who is the representative of the President who can be easily controlled by the centre.

That is how our  kings carried out all the development in ancient Sri Lanka ,when the Westerners were climbing up trees.

Dr Sarath Obeysekera

Sri Lanka : A Government elected for a term of office has no right to sell State Land to foreigners

June 20th, 2016

Shenali D Waduge

The Daily Mirror of 20 June 2016 in an article titled ‘Government to allow foreigners to buy land’ has informed the public that the present government will amend existing land laws in a bid to liberalize laws to enable foreigners to make outright purchase of Sri Lanka’s state lands. This raises the question of what moral right a government that is elected for a term of office only can without seeking mandate of the citizens deem fit to give state land to foreigners permanently. Would we not be reducing the sovereignty of Sri Lanka when outright sale would mean the land rights will not belong to Sri Lanka? Sri Lanka is a small island have any in government thought of the long term repercussions when land is sold permanently to foreigners? Where is the voice of sanity?

Size of Sri Lanka – 65,610 km²

The yahapalana government is proposing to change the Land Act (Restriction on Alienation) which bars foreigners from owning lands brought in by former President Mahinda Rajapakse.

With the proposed changes any foreigner bringing USD1miliion can buy government lands for personal purposes. While there will also be no restrictions on foreign companies acquiring land for investments. In addition the government is going to offer 10 year temporary visa for ANY foreigner who will bring USD300,000.

A government can be desperate for money but this is bordering on lunacy simply to give a carte blanche for anyone extending money to have complete land rights in Sri Lanka.

http://www.dailymirror.lk/111195/Government-to-allow-foreigners-to-buy-land

Land laws in countries

Thailand

Foreigners may not own land in their name; however their Thai registered company may own the land. A foreigner can buy land in Thailand if he is married to a Thai however the non-Thai spouse, needs to state that he/she has no rights over the land; effectively waiving rights to claim the property. The property must be in the name of the Thai spouse even if paid by foreigner. Married couple have to sign declaration at Land Department detailing how funds were raised.

Philippines

Foreigners cannot own land in the Philippines, they can purchase units in condominium buildings, so long as foreign ownership in a single project will not exceed 40 percent. If married to a Filipino, the foreigner can buy land provided the title will be in his or her spouse’s name.

South Africa

The nation where at one time whites were owning black lands during apartheid. The South African government recently announced “foreigners — who currently own some five to seven percent of South Africa’s land — would be allowed only to lease property for between 30 and 50 years, and may be required to cede land considered “strategic”. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-2953652/New-S-African-law-ban-foreigners-owning-land.html

Australia

Excellent laws and administrative procedures are in place in Australia to decide what type of foreign investment is conducive to the needs of the people. http://www.australia-migration.com/page/Foreign_Investors_Buying_property_as_a_foreigner_or_Temporary_Resident_in_Australia/178

National security is an important motivation in some countries that have prohibited foreign citizens from buying property in certain regions.

In Greece, non-EU/EEA citizens are not allowed to purchase real estate near military bases and state borders (e.g. near the Balkan borders, Dodecanese archipelago, Crete, and Rhodes). Similar bans are in place in Turkey and Estonia.

National preference – there are countries where whole districts are closed to foreign buyers.

Austria is an excellent example as there are limitations on half of the country’s federal states: Burgenland, Vienna, Lower and Upper Austria, Salzburg, Carinthia, Tyrol and Vorarlberg.

Switzerland has extremely strict rules on residency and citizenship, it has a famously restrictive “Lex Koller” property law, which limits foreign purchases to resort property in specific cantons: Valais, Vaud, Graubünden and Ticino. In Finland, foreign citizens cannot buy property on Åland Islands. In Switzerland, foreign citizens cannot buy property over 200 sq m in size or land exceeding 1,000 sq m. In Montenegro, purchases of land for development may not exceed 5,000 sq m.

Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia have taken steps to prohibit non-EU/EEA citizens from buying farmland – as Agricultural land belonging to natives is important to these countries.

Turkey bans nationals of Armenia, Yemen, Cuba, Nigeria, Syria and North Korea from buying real estate — but they can buy it through a company.

Russia

Foreign companies and individuals cannot buy land near state borders and within the territory of a port

Denmark prohibits non-EU nationals from buying a home unless they have lived in the country for five years – and, like Finland and Malta, is allowed by the EU to restrict EU citizens from buying second homes in the country.

Britain allows millionaires in Singapore to buy land and property in Britain, but Singapore bars British and other foreign nationals from buying in their country.

Brunei (island size is 5,765 km²)

Only Brunei citizens are allowed to purchase land. Foreign firms need a local partner to purchase land.

Fiji (island size is 18,274 km²)

Fiji government amends Land Sales Act to restrict foreign property ownership.

Haiti (island size is 27,750 km²)

Land holdings of foreigners are limited to 1.29 hectares in urban areas and 6.45 hectares in rural areas. Additionally, foreigners may not own property or buildings near the border. (even Haiti has better laws and concerns for protecting its land than Sri Lanka!)

Maldives (an island size is 298 km²)

Foreigners can own land provided 70% of it is reclaimed from the sea but they need to produce $1 BILLION (NOT USD 1MILLION Sri Lanka is offering)

The result of economic liberalism

The new Sri Lanka government is seeking any means to remain in power but selling the nation out is not the solution. The capitalist liberal system has destroyed the world and it is ruining the semblance of humanity in people. Has globalization served any purpose? 4.4billion people living in Africa, Asia and Latin America are struggling to survive, while the inequality statistics reveal that the richest 1% in the world own the rest of the 99%. There are close to 800million people who do not have enough to eat.

The present government came into power supported by the West openly acknowledged too. It takes us back to when Chile under General Pinochet who with US support came into power from a coup in 1973 and ousted the democratically elected leader Salvador Allende who was tortured and incarcerated in 1976. “Pinochet did not build a single hospital in all his years of power and the country’s infrastructure was left practically untouched. “In 1970, 20 percent of Chile’s population had lived under the poverty line; by 1990, when Pinochet left office, the poor had doubled to 40 percent. Pinochet guided by Western corporates abolished the minimum wage, outlawed trade union bargaining rights, privatized the pension system, abolished all taxes on wealth and on business profits, slashed public employment, privatized 212 state industries and 66 banks (removing restrictions on the nation’s banks was said to enable Chile to attract foreign capital to fund industrial expansion. Eventually the 2 conglomerates that bought the banks defaulted) Chile was a showcase of de-regulation gone berserk (exactly what Sri Lanka is heading towards)

The next example is that of Evo Morales who has proved that socialism doesn’t damage economies. He transformed Bolivia from an “economic basket case” into a country even praised by IMF and World Bank ironically Morales refused both IMF and World Bank policies.  According to a report by the Centre for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR) in Washington, “Bolivia has grown much faster over the last eight years than in any period over the past three and a half decades.”

There is no right or wrong policy. Policies must however be homegrown and in the best interest of its citizens. Policies that are parachuted can never succeed.

Ideals of human civilization seen through civility, harmony, peace, mutual help, justice are no more or fast fading and have been replaced with greed for wealth, obscene wealth, control over and destruction of the working class. People do not realize what capitalists have destroyed because they have been destroying by substituting – replacing genuine with counterfeit, replacing democracy with capitalist fascism, creating one-party charades in lieu of genuine elections, fake news take role of intelligent journalism, legalized corruption and totalitarianism replacing freedoms

State of Fundamental Human Values

Positive Value Perversion
Reason, Intellectual Autonomy, Self-Awareness Cunning, Mind-Control, Deliberate Ignorance
Individualism Egomania, License, Greed
Altruism, Social Cohesion Totalitarianism, Capitalism
Rule of Law, Justice Rule of Corrupt Officials
Learning, Education Programming, Training, Conditioning
Commonwealth, Democracy Dictatorship, Plutocracy
Economic Commonwealth Fascism, Imperialism, Globalization
Prepared Military, National Defense Pre-emptive Unending War, Militarism
Information as Basis of Commonwealth Misinformation, Propaganda, Brainwashing

Capitalists have destroyed all structures of civilization creating a dog-eat-dog ideology through its capitalist system – owners, looters and the oppressed working class.

“Civilizations can only be understood by those who are civilized.”

Alfred North Whitehead

Sanity must prevail. The Sri Lankan Government must seriously stop and take stock of their governance. Their decisions are detrimental to the entire nation and likely to lead to irreversible damage.

Shenali D Waduge

A global issue: Minority Incursions – ‘legitimately’ acquiring illegitimate ‘rights’ 

June 20th, 2016

Shenali D Waduge

What happens when minorities begin calculated demand campaigns which they have no legitimate right to and thereafter once enough public attention is gained they agree to settle for a compromise? They end up gaining what they have no right to gain and those compromising totally ignore this fact because world media, foreign funded NGOs are all mischief makers paid to create trouble while another lot wait for trouble to arise for only then their jobs are secured and they can enter the scene as conflict resolutionists. The end result is minorities have gained illegitimately what they had no right to gain and these later become their ‘legitimate rights’ while anyone questioning these immediately become labelled ‘racist’ ‘fascist’ and whatever names the dictionary can dig out.

Policy of ‘little now more later’ has been the hallmark of minority policy in Sri Lanka.

The divide and rule policies of the colonial invaders ensured the majority suffered and minorities given privileges alongside those in the majority who were willing to betray their own and follow terms and conditions of the white rulers. The mentality indented to the minorities spurred their demands – 50-50 representation and minority-rule mindset. The latest is the demand for homeland and a compromise of federal-divided state when they have no right to be getting either. If Sinhalese had been living in the North far before any fictitious claims for ‘homelands’ or ‘kingdoms’ why should political correctness even consider compromising. This is the issue at hand. Lands, areas, towns, districts and provinces are being compromised in this manner. Bizarre demands are resulting in gains where no gains should even be entertained.

Minorities have found that all they need is to come out with a bizarre demand, fund people and propaganda and publicize the demand loud and strong enough and then agree to settle for a compromise which would have gained them what they were not entitled to at all.

This ploy and game is what needs to be clearly understood. The Muslims have also mastered this game and have now made incursions to Buddhist sacred citadels – illegal constructions are ignored under right of religion and thereafter the areas become turned into Muslim citadels totally ignoring its original status. The plan to build a minaret/mosque infront of Dalada Maligawa and the manner Muslims are surrounding other Buddhist citadels should be eyeopeners where cultural invasions are taking place using right of religious freedom. Non-Muslims cannot even put a foot into Holy Mecca. Vatican will not allow a single non-Catholic structure inside Vatican City. Why do Buddhist sacred cities have to always compromise?

If the majority cannot find solutions for this perhaps they too should play a long and make equal bizarre demands as well.

The UNHRC ‘war crimes’ game is another ploy. Propaganda on war crimes has got a weak government to agree to hybrid courts and virtual acceptance of war crimes when the government should be saying isolated cases of crimes committed must first be supported with evidence while individuals committing the crime if found guilty can be punished by local laws (military courts) whereas a country cannot be accused of war crimes for isolated cases.

In the past what was gained with the sword and gun is now being discretely done with terminologies like multiculturalism and political correctness. No nation is born multicultured. A multicultural state carries in it’s geneses the seeds of eventual national destruction. All multicultural nations will be found to be in a state of political, moral, economic and social decay. Modern day multiculturalism is an elitist jobless liberal thinking manoeuvre to play one or more racial or ethnic groups against another. The dominant culture is attacked from all sides (Sri Lanka being a perfect example). Vilifying and weakening the dominant culture is needed to create an environment for social, political, and economic turmoil.

Sponsors of multiculturalism will use media & politicians to stress on race, gender, and diversity ignoring the real issues so that further division is created.

Notice the campaign on elephant torture with the explicit mission to remove the perahera elephants thus destroying Sinhala Buddhist cultural tradition. If animals are the concern why do these activists not stop animal sacrifice? Not a word is said about killing MILLIONS of animals for religious festivals even inside places of religious worship, the entire campaign is surrounded on the demand to stop the elephants being used for the perahera (using a countable number of incidentals but showcasing them as a national problem), no one has even suggested the removal or punishment of mahoots who are unkind to elephants. The demand is solely to stop perahera elephants.

The other aim is to remove a country’s national identity while creating disharmonious units (forcibly federated states). It is nothing but another divide & rule tactic. The multiculturalists promoting multiculturalism are often those who have the least personal culture appertaining to them.

America, Canada, Australia are all created countries after throwing out the indigenous and installing white immigrants who had to in later years depend on other immigrants to build their nations. It is these countries that are bound to have shared cultures because their countries were built by people who were not indigenous. However, this same template cannot be drilled into countries that have civilizational histories and cultures extending to thousands of years and who much later in years allowed traders and migrants to stay on. These parties cannot impose their cultures upon others.

Nevertheless even these created countries are now realizing that whatever they believed as ‘their culture’ is getting drowned by people who arrived later who are demanding that foreign cultures and traditions are given precedence.

White Brits are predicted to become an ethnic minority in 50 years following politicized immigration policies of British politicians. British MP Cox was murdered by a man shouting ‘Britain first’ which displays the anger at the average British citizen. 4.1million ethnic minorities live in white minority areas where in 2001 only 1m ethnic minorities lived. London is now home to more than 8.6m people where white Brits have become a minority making up 45% of Londoners. White Brits have even been forced out of their neighborhoods by foreign migrants all now using hyphenated terms – Black American, Indian-American, Muslim-American, Asian-British, Indian-Britisher etc.

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-21511904

http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/397416/White-Britons-abandon-ethnic-minority-areas

It is a result of the mischief behind multiculturalism and political correctness that the majority in every continent are facing some sort of incursion from minorities demanding their rights are given precedence over the majority.

Muslims are now demanding the government change the historic Hagia Sophia church which is a UNESCO world heritage site into a mosque. Muslims have demanded the end to the Oktoberfest in Munich, Germany claiming it is anti-Islam, in 2008 Muslim taxi drivers refused to carry blind and disabled passengers with guide dogs because Islam says animals are ‘unclean’ (Australia, in 2013 a Muslim who raped a 13 year old girl whom he groomed on facebook was spared prison sentence because the judge accepted the argument that he had attended an Islamic faith school where he was taught women are ‘worthless’, while also in Australia another Islamic teacher who sexually abused a 11 year old girl was spared jail because his wife couldn’t speak English. In Washington Muslims have demanded the removal of crosses from Catholic schools, while in Iraq where US & NATO liberated the new government has imposed a new law on Christians – if they reject Islam and accept only Christ, they will be forced to be Muslim. In Alabama Muslims tried to pass Shariah law but citizens said no.

Hindu India is objecting to the adoption of Pongal by Christians as tactic of ‘inculturation’ as a ploy being used to show Christianity as indigenous to India. Fr. Saju George a Jesuit priest was accused of infusing Hindu dance Bharatanatyam with Abrahamic religion of crusaders and inquisition. The Christian Brahmin Seva Samiti has been accused of distorting Hindu scriptures to advance Christianity. DMK Government even started a government sponsored festival “Sangamama’ advanced by Christian NGO Tamil Maivam founde by Father Jegath Gaspar Raj who had links to LTTE. The Roman Catholic Church had even printed a ‘New Community Bible’ christened as ‘Indian Bible’ which included sacred verses from Gita, Vedas and Upanishads. The Bible even had a picture of Virgin Mary barefoot wearing a sari and sporting a bindi on her forehead. An Indian commentator writes “Every Hindu symbol and every Hindu practice is being Christianised with an evil motive of de-Hinduising this society and the nation. This is creating havoc in the psyche of the Hindu majority provoking it beyond the limits of tolerance. Obviously the generic Church is scoring brownie points over the privilege of “propagation” given to the minorities in the Constitution.” Lets not forget how the British ambassador to Nepal declared that Nepal would be turned into a Christian country.

http://www.hindujagruti.org/news/36329.html
http://www.asiantribune.com/index.php?q=node/4959
http://www.thepoliticalinsider.com/muslims-try-pass-sharia-law-alabama-citizens-say-hell-watch/

In Sri Lanka

Over a period of time there has been a deliberate and planned effort to increase the number of mosques as well as churches and now kovils in the country over and above the actual needs and totally out of proportion to the percentage of Muslims in the country. There is total silence over the destruction to ancient Buddhist sites even the report by late Cyril Mathew to UNESCO has been ignored – http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items/2016/04/26/unp-mp-cyril-mathew-report-to-unesco-proof-sinhalese-were-living-in-the-north-before-tamils/

The takaran shed put up in Anuradhapura in close proximity to the Sacred Bo Tree is claimed as “historical” but without proof and evidence to establish a legal title. In 1980 there were just 2 mosques in Anuradhapura today there are 16 because of political correctness. Use of loudspeakers at Mosques daily five times a day and force feeding and harassing non–Muslims with sounds of Islam in violation of their fundamental right to silence and quiet enjoyment of property. The loudspeaker usage continues to violate the Supreme Court interim order. Now a mosque has been put up within 60metres of Buddha Gaya – meditation of peaceful Buddhist monks at the venue is deliberately disturbed five times a day beginning at 5. 00 a.m. in the morning by the mosque – The muezzins wail is an intolerable display of triumphalism. http://wikimapia.org/#lang=en&lat=24.69568 5&lon=84.991495&z=18&m=b

Halal certificates became a type of extortion method from non-Muslim business enterprises but opposition to it was projected as anti-Muslim without dealing with the crux of the argument that a minority had no right to impose its food wills on others. Nine per cent cannot dictate eating habits to 91 per cent of the population along the lines of religion when among themselves they practice selective halal/haram. Integration is hampered when Muslim children attending non-Muslim schools are told by their parents not to take birthday treats given by non-Muslims on the ground that it is not halal. Muslims of Sri Lanka never dressed in the black attire and the current attire has nothing to do with Islam but a new culture created via the British created Wahhabi religion which is on its own witch-hunt against Sufis and other non-Wahhabi practicing Muslims

Political correctness is silent over evangelical and Islamic Wahhabi preachers descending and being allowed to go to all corners of Sri Lanka and use their money to buy over poor ‘converts’. Poverty has become a bane to the survival of a country’s national identity.

Political correctness in the west is in for some hard times. Trump salvo on sending back immigrants in one such tempo that has received wide support from most. The Dutch Interior Minister Donner declared “The government shares the social dissatisfaction over the multicultural society model and plans to shift priority to the values of the Dutch people…. With this change, the government steps away from the model of a multicultural society.”…. “it is not the government’s job to integrate immigrants.”………. immigrants will be required to learn to speak Dutch, without exception, including followers of Sharia law. Austria has introduced a new law which says Muslims have to now speak German and not Arabic and all Korans have to be written completely in German.

It is time people woke up and realized the bigger plan taking place riding on the demands of freedoms and rights when in reality these are nothing but incursions promoted by parties continuing the divide and rule quest.

History demonstrates that no nation can long survive if it forgets why it exists.

An ancient proverb reminds us: “There are none so blind as those who will not see.”

Shenali D Waduge

§  http://shoebat.com/2015/11/09/muslims-impose-new-law-on-christians-if-you-reject-islam-and-accept-christ-as-your-savior-we-will-force-your-children-to-worship-allah/

The Bond Game (The Whenever Show w/ Indi)

June 20th, 2016

The Whenever Show explains bonds. Dodgy bonds.

https://www.facebook.com/YAMUtelevision/videos/1021425711243787/

Dear HE the President of the DSR of SriLanka, As a patriotic SriLankan Diaspora I have multitude of multi-dimensional grievance to be conveyed to you

June 20th, 2016

Kanthar Balanathan DipEE(UK), GradCert(RelEng-Monash),DipBus&Adm(Finance-Massey), C.Eng., MIEE (Retired) Former Director of Power Engineering Solutions Pty Ltd, Consulting Electrical Engineers

His Excellency Mr. Maithripala Sirisena
Executive President of SriLanka
Presidential Secretariat
Galle Face,
Colombo 1,
Sri Lanka

Dear HE the President of the DSR of SriLanka

As a patriotic SriLankan Diaspora I have multitude of multi-dimensional grievance to be conveyed to you, Sir, which has deep concerns to majority of citizens of SL, both local & overseas, as the gravity of situation is quite colossal to carriage severe threat to the nation on: (i) Human Rights violation to the majority (ii) violation of the constitutional rights of the majority sons of the land (දේශයේ පුතුන්) of SriLanka (SL), (iii) driving the country to economic bankruptcy, and opening avenues for foreign powers to walk into SL in the name of economic assistance, allowing room for secessionist radicals to continue to promote separatism, both overseas and locally, and build up sleeping cells for another war, plus several corruption, frauds and malpractices.

The Constitution of SL, since independence provides public government information in all three languages. Every Tamil in the island has the provision to read, write and learn, Tamil Language anywhere in SL, and conduct communication with the government offices in any language. Every school, college had all three medium. However, the Colleges in the North & East do not provide Sinhalese Language as a medium of instruction. SriLankan children in the N&E are deserted in learning science, arts and technology in Sinhalese language. What is prevailing now is HR violation against the majority people of the island? Or should I state that the coward behaviour of the government is to fear for the minority Tamils & Muslims? Sir: යුක්තිය සෑම පුරවැසියෙකුටම සඳහා විය යුතුය. ජාතිය පමණක් සීමා නොවේ.

In the North (NPC), judgement made in courts should be printed in all three languages for police, prisons, and other departments to take action. Constitutional directive should be followed. If provision is absent, then Constitutional amendments should be made. (සියලු පුරවැසියන්ට සමානව සැලකිය යුතුය). Courts and government departments are funded from the SriLankan government Treasury only.

Since 1949, SriLanka has gone through devastating destruction, politically, militarily, loss of human life, and through billions of dollars of assets destroyed. Can we Tamils, replace these assets, or even payback the cost with inflation added for all these years? Can we Tamils bring back to life, those who were killed/murdered? How long do we Tamils intend to demand for power, which is nothing but satisfy that power-hunger, dictatorial, egotists? To maintain law & order the minster in charge of L&O in the NPC has only got to take the phone and give a call to the SDIG. The issue here in the NPC is that the Chief Minister of the NPC is a former Chief Justice, and he still has that egoistic, megalomaniac, attitude that he is still the CJ. He may be thinking that he is above all people in the North. What we can observe is that our CM-NPC has a negative outlook, and never makes any positive, constructive remarks or messages. As a CJ, he might have convicted an innocent man, or even acquitted a true criminal/convict, because they go by evidences and law books. We engineers do not only go by the book, however, the plant has to run and stay in operable condition for not less than 50 years or so.

I am talking “real” against, “imaginary”. In third world politics: power, bribery and corruption is government. Every politician wants to show that he is better than the other through punitive acts. SriLanka had great leaders like late DS Senanayaka, Dudley, and Srimavo.

Are we forced to believe that we have a new Vellupillai Prabakaran in SriLanka, among the Muslim Community, which is Rishad Bathiudeen, from the Vanni district, who is also holding a portfolio as the Minister of Industry and Commerce? Rishad Bathiudeen is more interested in proliferating Muslim population, Islam, and creating Muslim villages, towns, Island wide, rather concentrating on industrial development. (i) Group calls for Marichchikatti in Mannar to be made Muslim village-Ref: http://newsfirst.lk/english/2015/06/group-calls-for-marichchikatti-in-mannar-to-be-made-muslim-village/98800, (ii) Wilpattu national park illegal settlement Ref: http://nation.lk/online/2015/06/27/illegal-settlements-around-wilpattu-national-park.html, (iii) constructing mosques in places of Vihare, (iv) Early morning loud speaker blabbering taking ownership of the sky and disturbing the environment, (v) trying to enforce Zaria law.

It is relevant to note that no outsider can build a Vihare, church or temple in Saudi Arabia (SA). They enforce their own law to all people who live in SA.

As a Minister of Industry and Commerce, Rishad Bathiudeen has disregarded his duties and functions, but engaged in ethno-racial declaration, thereby indoctrinating and intoxicating the poor Islamic peasants in the island. It could be comprehended that it is the fault of the political party, (UNP), and the leadership to appoint, such an ethno-racial, fanatic to generate divisibility concept among the Muslims. It is pertinent to ask a question: Do the Muslims of SriLanka think that Sinhalese people (රටේ පුතුන්) are foreigners? Or are they trying to misrepresent Sinhalas as foreigners in SL, to the Middle East? An issue with this ethno group is that they are quite rigid, and have only one concept in their mind, which is jihad & Zaria. Terrorism incidents in Nigeria, Europe, Syria, USA, UK etc. are significant issues. Terror groups around the world with only one concept in their mind, which is “Jihad & Zaria” are trying to conquer the globe. Current political tactics by the Muslims is anti-Buddhism war.

SriLanka should not promote to have villages for “Muslims”, “Tamils” and “Sinhalese” separately, isolated as racial villages. Such demand will categorise them as racially oriented people. Such people should remember that their native villages are in Arabia and not SriLanka. All humans in SriLanka, are, “SriLankans”. Proliferation action: Ref: (i) http://nrnmind.blogspot.com.au/The Sinister Moves to change the composition of the population and the ethnic ratios of SriLanka, by Ranjith Soysa

[In 2014, an Islamic cleric came over the SriLankan TV and stated that the sun is rotating around the Earth and that Muslims should not believe that the earth is rotating around the sun. It is better for such a backward community to integrate with an advanced community (සිංහල) and learn modern technology and astrophysics].

It is the general opinion that GOSL should stand up against any threats to the government, or the people of SriLanka by Muslim extremists taking over the country. GOSL shall not be pulled into by the Muslim extremists, and allocate portfolios controlling important ministries. History records that Pattanis came from Arabia as businessman and married “Mukkuvars” of Kerala origin in the East and were forged as Muslims. This is how they were drawn into talk Tamil.

GOSL is focussing on retributive, punitive action against potential young people, who could be leaders in the future, on some flimsy grounds. This does not mean that the current regime is pure and honest with high integrity. Example:

In February 2015 CBSL advertised the sale of Rs. 1 billion in 30 year government bonds at an indicative rate of 9.5%. The sale was oversubscribed with 36 bids of totalling Rs. 20 billion. The majority of bidders, 26, bided for Rs. 100 million or less at a rate of 9.5%–10.5%. However, a few bidders, including Perpetual Treasuries Limited, wanted interest rates of 11%–12%. On 27 February 2015 the CBSL accepted Rs. 10 billion in bids at rates of 9.5%–12.5%. The issuing of ten times the advertised bonds, and at a higher than expected rate, was alleged to cost the Sri Lankan government an additional Rs. 40–45 billion ($300–$340 million). Perpetual Treasuries was issued, directly and indirectly, with Rs. 5 billion in bonds at 12.5%. Perpetual Treasuries was one of the primary dealers in the sale and is owned by Mahendran’s son-in-law Arjun Aloysius.

In 30 years of time, Arjuna Mahendran may not be in SL, neither you, Ranil Wickremasinghe nor your associates, and the economic condition of SriLanka could be worse with the Muslim’s and Tamil’s activism, and their nil contribution to the wealth of the nation. When the time to payback the bond (on maturity) is expected, Sir, are you sure that, definitively, SriLankan Treasury will have the funds to payback OR will it rollover for privatisation of a few assets in SriLanka in lieu of the funds? Neither you, nor Arjun Mahendran will not be worried, because you guys are not going to be in power. The poor peasants who assume power will be forced to make decision of privatisation by selling assets.

This is the strategy and tactics exercised by the west for privatisation of assets in countries with dummy politicians, so that the extremely rich people can rule countries with their dollars.

Arjun Mahendran spends Rs 10,000.00/day on eating which can be justified by his norm, plus other expenses, totalling, may be Rs 14.5 million. Before the election you promised a 100 days program optimising the number of ministers etc. We have 92 ministers in all, spending may be approximately Rs 460 million. Where are all your election manifesto promises? Sambanthar is the Leader of Opposition with 16 members. This is the most ridiculous laughable matter in democracy. Is this third world democracy distinct from other world politics? It is difficult to understand how your political vision and mission works. Current Chief Minister spits out rubbish quite often. It seems GOSL is only appreciating his spits, rather taking any action. Your government will only realise when things become worse in SL. Sir, turn your political books back to 1948. We are only cycling in simple harmonic motion with mothballing issues. Currently our PM’s objective is to dismantle the military. Military is the backbone of a country in the defence network. Can’t the PM, and you, visit countries and study why they have such a large defence network?

With respect to Tamil issues, you can never, ever, satisfy Tamils because they are infested with power bugs. Quite soon Tamil Diaspora may be bundled in foreign countries, because of the extensive domination they influence in regions such as Canada, UK, Europe, and Australia etc. No native of any country will tolerate behaviours like our Tamils.

HE the President, Please grasp this fact. Sinhala people came into the island in 5 BC. Tamils came in 14 AD. Muslims are a mixture of Pattanis and Mukkuvars. While not being racial, but being a SriLankan, I appeal that all people in SL are “SriLankans”. As the executive president, please exercise your authority in developing the nation, and consolidating the people as SriLankans. There are ministers working behind your back in bringing disastrous results to the regime and the country. Punitive, Vindictive actions can worsen the unity of the people. Please make efforts to consolidate and make SriLanka as a melting pot for all people to be identified as SriLankan.

Buddhism should be given the foremost place in SriLanka.

President, Why not meet and have a discussion with the SriLankan Diaspora. The intellect SriLankan Diaspora in Australia are in a better position to highlight, and open up a can of worms that are generating retarding effect to the progress of the country, through a brain storming session with the President and the PM. (May be a group of three to four people).

Yours Sincerely

කන්තර් බාලනාතන්

Justice for all Animals – need of the hour

June 20th, 2016

Senaka Weeraratna Dharma Voices for Animals

If a lawyer is unable to extend justice to animals who are eternally seeking freedom and liberty from the inhumanity and injustice of humans then the legal training of such a lawyer in a holistic sense is not worth a tuppence.

If we cannot see the injustice committed on animals day after day almost everywhere man inhabits then it begins to raise questions about our own sense of justice.

The most noble form of advocacy is when you plead on behalf of those who cannot articulate their pain and suffering, and cannot even dream of paying you back.

To the extent that our law schools fail to instill this ethic in our law students they remain morally diminished notwithstanding the facade and hyperbole of providing a splendid legal education.

Lawyers must begin their careers with the fundamental thought to provide advocacy services whenever and wherever required to non – human animals upon the conviction that animals too like humans have a moral entitlement to both compassion and justice from humanity.

Senaka Weeraratna

Dharma Voices for Animals

(Colombo, Sri Lanka Chapter)

Act against poachers with an iron hand: Activists

June 20th, 2016

Nava Thakuria

Guwahati: Nature’s Beckon and Journalists’ Forum Assam (JFA) have expressed utter dismay at the poaching of another one-horned rhinoceros at Kaziranga National Park (KNP) in a fortnight, and demanded stringent actions against the culprits.

Both the organizations opined that the killing of seventh rhino till date this year at the most protected forest reserve establishes that the poachers are more organized and the international wildlife trade remains too aggressive to be dealt with than it was understood. Assam witnesses the killing of altogether 12 rhinos this year where the KNP

(7) lost the highest number of the precious animals with Orang National Park losing 3, Burhachapori Wildlife Sanctuary and Manas National Park losing one each till date.

“The relentless poaching of rhinos in KNP reflects the desperate attempt by those criminals to sabotage the anti-poaching conservative initiative. But it must continue to target the poachers and also the illegal wildlife traders across northeast India,” said a statement issued by Nature’s Beckon and JFA.

Both the organizations appreciate the recent crackdown on rhino-poaching by the new government at Dispur which resulted in the arrest of many professional poachers. Effective interrogation of those poachers and necessary investigations may lead to some vital clues regarding the illegal wildlife trades, added the organizations.

“It needs no mention that both Nature’s Beckon and JFA claimed a decade back that a section of Assam forest officials were involved in the illegal wildlife trade, which is now vindicated by the recent statement of the State forest minister Pramila Rani Brahma,” asserted the statement.

However, the forest department still possesses dedicated forest official and workers. They should be strengthened by the department and their conservation initiative should be supported by the nature loving people. In addition to it, the fringe villagers as well as the committed skilled youths may be engaged effectively in the protection initiatives.

වැඩේ වැරදුනා අපි එකතු වෙමු; සෝභිත හාමුදුරුවෝ කිව්වා…..

June 20th, 2016

* දෙමළ අය ඉල්ලපු විස`දුම දීලා ඉවරයි
* මෛත්‍රී ඉන්න ඕනෑ තමන්ට ගැලපෙන අය එක්‌ක
* දැන් ප්‍රශ්න ඇතිකරන්නේ බෞද්ධයන්ට…

රට දියුණු කරන්නට නම් රටේ ජනතාව ආරක්‌ෂා කරන්නට නම් ආර්ථික හා සමාජීය ප්‍රශ්නවලින් මෙන්ම විවිධාකාරවූ ජාත්‍යන්තර බලපෑම්වලින් රට බේරා ගන්නට නම් මෛත්‍රීපාල සිරිසේන ජනාධිපතිවරයා සහ මහින්ද රාජපක්‌ෂ හිටපු ජනාධිපතිවරයා වහාම එක්‌විය යුතු බවත් එම ඒකරාශී කිරීම වෙනුවෙන් මහා සංඝරත්නය මැදිහත් විය යුතු බවත් කොළඹ 07 , ධර්මායතනාධිපති අතිපුජ්‍ය ඇල්ලේ ගුණවංශ නාහිමියෝ පවසති. ඒ සම්බන්ධයෙන් උන්වහන්සේ ‘දිවයින ඉරිදා සංග්‍රහය’ට කරුණු දැක්‌වූයේ මෙසේය.

අද මේ රටේ සිංහල ජනතාව අපේක්‌ෂා භංගත්වයට පත්වෙලා සුළු ජාතීන් නම් අපේක්‌ෂා සහිතව ඉන්නවා, මහා ජාතිය ලෙස සිංහලයා විශේෂයෙන්ම බෞද්ධයා සැකයකින් ඉන්නා බව මට පේනවා. ඔවුන් අපව හමුවෙලා දක්‌වන අදහස්‌ අනුව. රජය පත්වූවාට පසු ගත් යම් යම් ක්‍රියාමාර්ග නිසා මේ තත්ත්වය ඇතිවුණේ. එල්ටීටීඊ සංවිධානයේ ඉතාම දරුණු පිරිස්‌ නිදහස්‌ කරමින් හමුදා බුද්ධි අංශ වල පිරිස්‌ අත්අඩංගුවට ගැනීම, භික්‌ෂු ජාතිවාදය හා ආගම්වාදය ලෙස පනතක්‌ ගෙන ඒම, භික්‌ෂු කතිකාවතක්‌ ගෙන ඒම වගේ කාරණා වලින් විවිධ සැකයන් ඇතිවෙලා. මේ හින්දා භික්‌ෂුවත් සැකෙන් ඉන්නේ රට ජාතිය ආගම ගැන යම් තරමකින් වත් සිතන සිංහල බෞද්ධයන් යම් සැකයකින් ඉන්නේ. ඉට්‌කා ගිවිසුම හින්දත් රටේ ජනතාව සැකයෙන් ඉන්නේ. බලයේ ඉන්න දේශපාලනඥයෝ කියන දේවල් ජනතාව පිළිගන්නේ නැහැ. මොන රජයක්‌ තිබුණත් රජයක්‌ බලය රැක ගැනීම සඳහාත් ඔවුන් කරන ක්‍රියාදාමයන් සාධාරණීකරණය කර ගැනීම සඳහාත් පළාත් සභා ගෙන එන වෙලාවේ, ඉන්දු ලංකා ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කළ මොහොතේ ඒ අවස්‌ථාවේ බලයේ සිටි දේශපාලනඥයන් කියපු දේවල් අපට මතකයි.

දේශපාලනඥයන් ගැන තියෙන විශ්වාසය බිඳ වැටිලා, ඒ බිඳ වැටීම නිසා සිවිල් සමාජයේ නැගිටීමක්‌ ඇතිවෙලා. වෛද්‍යවරුන් ඉංජිනේරුවන් පරිගණක හා තොරතුරු තාක්‌ෂණ ක්‌ෂේත්‍රයේ අය ගොවීන් තමන්ගේ අයිතීන් ගැන සංවිධානය වෙනවා මොවුන් සිවිල් සමාජයේ පිබිදීම හා සංවිධානය වීම පෙනෙන්න තිබෙනවා. ජාත්‍යන්තර වශයෙන් මැදිහත් වීම ගැන මිනිස්‌සු ඉන්නේ සැකයෙන්, රටේ ඒකීය භාවයට හානියක්‌ වෙයි කියලා ජනතාව ඉන්නේ සැකයෙන් . එදා එල්ටීටීඊය හා දෙමළ ඩයස්‌පෝරාවේ ඉල්ලීම් අද එකින් එක සිද්ධ වෙනවා . විවිධ රජය නායකයෝ වරින්වර එනවා, අද ඇමරිකාව ඇතුළු රටවල නියෝජිතයෝ, ලේකම්වරු නිරන්තරයෙන් එනවා. මේ ගොඩක්‌ අය කෙලින්ම යන්නේ යාපනයට , මේ ගැන සිංහල ජනතාවට සැක ඇතිවීම සාධාරණයි, මේ අය ඇවිත් මොනවද කරන්නේ කියලා කවුරුත් දන්නේ නැහැ , ආණ්‌ඩුව ඒ ගැන මුකුත් කියන්නෙත් නැහැ . ජනතාවට පික්‌පොකට්‌ ගහන්න ලෑස්‌තිවෙන්න එපා කියලා මම රජයට කියනවා.

ශ්‍රී ලංකා නිදහස්‌ පක්‌ෂයේ පාර්ශව දෙකක්‌ තියෙනවා ඒ මෛත්‍රී හා මහින්ද පාර්ශ්ව, රටට ආදරේ නම් ජනතාවට ආදරේ නම් මේ නායකයෝ දෙන්නා එක්‌විය යුතුයි. ඒ එක්‌ කිරීම සඳහා වගකිවයුතු භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලා සම්බන්ධ විය යුතුයි. යම් යම් සැක සංකා විවිධ ප්‍රශ්න ඇති ඒ දෙදෙනා අතරේ භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලා මැදිහත්වෙලා. ඒවා විසඳිය හැකියි.

මහනායක හිමිවරුන්ගේ යුතුකම හා වගකීම යන හැම කෙනාටම සෙත් පතන එක නෙවෙයි. යන කෙනා දෙයක්‌ කිව්වහම ඒක හොඳයි කියන එක නෙවෙයි. මේ දෙදෙනා එකතු කරලා රට ආරක්‌ෂා කිරීම උන් වහන්සේලා මැදිහත්වෙලා කළ යුතුයි. මහා මංගල සුත්‍රය වගේම අවශ්‍ය වෙලාවට වසල සූත්‍රය දේශනා කරන්නත් මහා සංඝරත්නයට හැකියාව තිබිය යුතුයි.

මෛත්‍රිපාල සිරිසේන මහතාට මෙහිදී පොඩි පරිත්‍යාගයක්‌ කරන්න වෙනවා මේ ඒකරාශී වීමට, ඔහුට සිදුවුණු අසාධාරණකම් මම පිළිගන්නවා. ඒත් නායකයෙක්‌ පාලකයෙක්‌ ප්‍රඥාවන්තයෙක්‌ වුණහම ඔහු තම ඇස්‌ දෙකින් මුළු මහත් රට දෙසම බැලිය යුතුයි. අපට වුණත් යම් යම් කලකිරීම් තියෙන පිරිස්‌ සමඟ පොදු සන්ධාන ගතවෙන්න සිදු වෙනවා. එම නිසා මේ ගැන සිතිය යුතුයි. ඔහු එහෙම කළොත් ඔහු ඉතිහාසගත වෙනවා, ඒ සඳහා අපි මැදිහත් වෙන්න කැමතියි.

මෛත්‍රීපාල සිරිසේන මහතා සිටිය යුත්තේ ඔහුට පෑහෙන පිරිස්‌ සමඟයි. හැන්දෙන් ගෑරුප්පුවෙන් කන මිනිස්‌සු අතරයි අතින් කන මිනිස්‌සු අතරෙයි කුරුම්බා ගෙඩියක්‌ කටේ තියලා බොන මිනිස්‌සු අතරෙයි ඒකට ස්‌ට්‍රොa එකක්‌ දාලා බොන මිනිහ අතරෙයි සිංහල හාලේ බත් කන අය අතරෙයි හොට්‌ඩෝග් කන මිනිහ අතරෙයි මැඩෝනගේ සින්දු අහන අය අතරෙයි පැල්කවියක්‌ රස විඳින අය අතරෙයි ලොකු වෙනසක්‌ තියෙනවා. මම හිතනවා මේවා තේරෙනවා කියලා මෛත්‍රිපාල සිරිසේන මහතාට. ඔහු නිවැරදි තීරණ ගත යුතුයි.

මොනවා වුණත් මෛත්‍රිපාල සිරිසේන මහතා පනස්‌ හයේ දරුවෙක්‌. ගමක ඉපදුනු දරුවෙක්‌. වෙලේ ඉපනැල්ලේ සුවඳ දැනුනු නායකයෙක්‌. ගල් විහාරේ නිතර එන යන කොට පෙනුණු මනුස්‌සයෙක්‌. එයාට මේ රටේ සිදුවෙන හැමදේටම වගකීමක්‌ තියෙනවා. ඔහු අනාරාධිතව පවා මෙහෙ ඇවිත් ගියා. දුරකථනයෙනුත් කතා කරනවා. ඔහු කවදාවත් රටට ජාතියට ආගමට විරුද්ධ වෙන්නේ නැහැයි කියලා මට විශ්වාසයි.

ඒත් අද සිදුවෙන දේවල් බැලුවහම ජනාධිපතිවරයටත් හොරෙන් යම් යම් දේ සිදුවෙන බව පේනවා . අද මේ රටේ බහුතරයක්‌ රජයේ වැඩපිළිවෙල විවේචනය කරනවා. මේ රජය බලයට පත් කරන්න මැදිහත්වුණු ඇතැම් රාජ්‍ය නොවන සංවිධාන පවා දැනටමත් රජය විවේචනය කරන්න පටන් අරගෙන.

රටේ බෞද්ධයන්ට යම් ප්‍රශ්න ඇතිවෙමින් තිබෙනවා. මුලින්ම දියවඩන නිලමේට විරුද්ධව නැගිට්‌ටා. එහෙත් ඔහු වරදක්‌ කර තිබේ නම් එය කළ යුත්තේ පුද්ගලිකව ඔහුට එරෙහිව මිස තනතුරට නෙවෙයි. ස්‌වාමින් වහන්සේලා වරදක්‌ කර තිබේ නම් වරදට එරෙහිව පියවර ගත්තට අප විරුද්ධ නැහැ. යම් යම් ආගම්වල පූජ්‍ය පක්‌ෂය වැරදි කළහම ඒ අය සම්බන්ධයෙන් කටයුතු කරපු පිළිවෙලක්‌ තිබුණා. ඒත් මේ දැන් භිකෂුන් වහන්සේලා සම්බන්ධයෙන් කටයුතු කරන ආකාරයට කළේ නැහැනේ. භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලා බෙඩ් ෂීට්‌ වලින් ඔතලා ගෙනියනවා. මේ ආකාරයට භික්‌ෂුව නින්දාවට අපහාසයට උපහාසයට පත් කිරීමක්‌ මම මීට පෙර දැකලා නැහැ. මෙතරම් භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලා පිරිසක්‌ සිරගත කරපු මුල්ම අවස්‌ථාව මේක. ජාතියේ මුරදේවතා යන නාමයෙන් භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලා හඳුන්වන එකම රට ශ්‍රී ලංකාව.

ගම්වල මිනිස්‌සුන් අප කියනදේ පිළිගන්නවා, අප කියන දේ අනුව තමයි ගමේ මනුස්‌සයා තීරණ ගන්නේ, භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලා දේශපාලන පක්‌ෂවලට එක්‌ව වැඩ කිරීම මම අනුමත කරන්නේ නැහැ. මම කවදාවත් දේශපාලන වේදිකාවට යන්නේ නැහැ. ලුණු ඇති කරන්නෙත් වතුර. නැති කරන්නෙත් වතුර වගේ, ආණ්‌ඩුව හදන්නෙත් ජනතාව. නැති කරන්නෙත් ජනතාව. ඒකට නායකත්වය දෙන්නේ භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලා, දේශපාලනඥයන්ට ඕන ඕන දේ කරන්න මේ රටේ ඉඩ දෙන්නේ නැත්තේ භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලා.

මේ විදිහට දිගටම භික්‍ෂුන් වහන්සේලා මර්දනය කරනවා නම් දහස්‌ ගණන් භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලා කැඳවලා අපි විරෝධය පළ කරනවා

එල්ටීටීඊය ඇතුළු දෙමළ අන්තවාදී ජාතිවාදී කොටස්‌ මුල ඉඳලා කිව්වේ කහ සිවුරු පොරව ගත්ත අය ඉන්නකම් අපේ ඉල්ලීම් ලැබෙන්නේ නැහැ කියලා. අපට අවශ්‍ය දේ ලබාගන්න බැහැ කියලා. සෝභිත හිමියන්ගේ අපවත්වීම සැකයි. විදේශ බලවේග ශක්‌තිමත් වුණු හැම මොහොතකම භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලා අපවත් කළා., කොටගම වාචිස්‌සර හිමි අපවත් කළා. පානදුරේ අරියධම්ම හාමුදුරුවෝ අපවත් කළා. ගංගොඩවිල සෝම හිමි අපවත් කළා.

සෝභිත හිමියන්ගේ අවසන් දිනවල මම උන්වහන්සේ බලන්න රෝහලට ගියා. උන් වහන්සේ කිව්වා අපට වැරදුනා කියලා. මම කිව්වා මේ තත්ත්වයට ඔබ වහන්සේ වග කියන්න ඕන කියලා. බලමුකෝ, අපි එකතු වෙමු කියලා ඒ අවස්‌ථාවේ සෝභිත හිමියන් කිව්වා. ඒ අවස්‌ථාවේත් උන් වහන්සේ හොඳ සෞඛ්‍ය තත්ත්වයෙන් හිටියා. හැබැයි අන්තිම දවස්‌ වල රටේ සිදුවුණු දේ ගැන උන් වහන්සේ මානසිකව වැටිලා හිටියේ. ඉස්‌සර මටත් වස දුන්නා. එල්ටීටීඊය මට වෙඩි තිබ්බා. මම බේරුණා. මම ඉස්‌පිරිතාලෙන් බෙහෙත් ගන්නේ නැහැ. එක දොස්‌තර කෙනෙක්‌ගෙන් විතරයි බෙහෙත් ගන්නේ. ඒ තරමට භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලාගේ තත්ත්වය අනාරක්‌ෂිතයි. මේ රටේ ප්‍රශ්න හදන්නේ සුළු ජාතීන් විසින්මයි, අපි හැමදාම කිව්වේ අප රටේ සියලු ජාතීන් සියලු දෙනාම එකට ඉඳිමු කියලා. අදත් එකට ඉන්න බැහැ කියලා වෙනම අයිතීන් ඉල්ලන්නේ ඒ අයයි. එක්‌කෝ ස්‌වයං නිර්ණය අයිතිය එක්‌කෝ ෙµඩරල් ඉල්ලනවා.

එදා ඒ අය ඒ වෙනුවෙන් තුවක්‌කුව හා බෝම්බය අතට ගත්තා. අවුරුදු තිහක්‌ සටන් කළා. ඒ අයට අවශ්‍ය විසඳුම දුන්නා. නන්දිකඩාල් කලපුවේදී ඒ විසඳුම ලබා දුන්නා ආයේ ඒ ගැන කතාවක්‌ නැහැ. හදිස්‌සියෙන්වත් ඒ ගොල්ල ගහලා ලංකාව ඇල්ලුවා නම් ඇතිවන තත්ත්වය මොකක්‌ද ?

කවුරුවත් කියන්නේ නැහැනේ දෙමළ අයට දෙමළ වීම නිසා තියෙන ප්‍රශ්නය මොකක්‌ද කියලා.

අදත් සමහර අය කතා කරන්නේ උතුරු නැගෙනහිර කියලා වෙන්කරලා. ඇයි එහෙම කරන්නේ මේක සංස්‌කෘතික ආක්‍රමණය ඊලාම් කියන එක සියයට හැත්තෑ ගණනක්‌ වුණු අප පවා ව්‍යවහාර කළා . අපේ හුනුගම චුන්නාකම් වුණා. වැලිගම වලිකාමම් වුණා. තඹලගමුව තඹලකාමම් වුණා. දැන් ව්‍යවහාර වෙන්නේ ඒවානේ.

ලෝකේ කිසිම රටක මෙවැනි දේ නැහැ. අපි ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට ශ්‍රී ලංකාව කියද්දී දෙමළ අය ඉලන්කෙයි කියනවා. අප මීගමුව කියද්දී මීර්කුලම් කියනවා ඉංග්‍රීසියෙන් නිගම්බු කියනවා. හලාවතට සීලවතුර කියනවා ඉංග්‍රීසියෙන් චිලව් කියනවා. මෙහෙම තත්ත්aවයක්‌ ලෝකයේ කොහෙවත් නැහැ. දෙමළ ජනතාව කියනවනේ ඒ අය සමහර ප්‍රදේශ පාලනය කළා කියලා. ඒවා ආක්‍රමණ මිසක්‌ වෙන කිසිවක්‌ නෙවෙයි. එහෙම නම් ලන්දේසීන්ගේ කාලේ මුහුදුබඩ පළාත් පාලනය කළේ ලන්දේසීන්. එහෙමනම් ලන්දේසි මිනිස්‌සුන්ට පුළුවන්නේ වෙනම කෑල්ලක්‌ ඉල්ලන්න. ඒවා ආක්‍රමණ මිසක්‌ වෙන දෙයක්‌ නෙවෙයි. විදේශ රටවලින් එන අය කවුරුවත් කතා කරන්නේ උතුරු නැගෙනහිර දෙමළ අය ගැන. මේ කවුරුවත් යාපනයෙන් එළවපු සිංහලයන් විසි එක්‌දහසක්‌ සිංහල ජනතාවට නැවත ආපසු ඔවුන්ගේ අයිතීන් ඉඩම් දෙන්න ඕන කියලා කතා කරන්නේ නැහැනේ. අපේ භික්‌ෂුන් වහන්සේලා ඝාතනය කළා. ඒ ගැන කවුරුත් කතා කරන්නේ නැහැ. පුරා වස්‌තු 276 ක්‌ උතුරේ තිබුණා. ඒවා ගොඩක්‌ විනාශ කරලා

දෙමළ අය ඉල්ලපු විසඳුම දීලා ඉවරයි ආයෙත් ඒ ගැන කතාවක්‌ නැහැ. අද පාසල් පෙළ පොත් පවා වෙනස්‌ කරන්න උත්සහ කරනවා. සමහරුන්ට ඕන මේ රට හොඳ පෘට්‌ සැලඩ් එකක්‌ කරන්න , අපි ඒ ගැන හොඳ අවධියෙන් ඉන්නවා. අපේ රටේ විදේශ ප්‍රතිපත්තිය අනුව අප නොබැඳි රටක්‌ ලෙස කටයුතු කළ යුතුයි. ඉන්දියාව සමග අපේ රටේ සම්බන්ධය ප්‍රවේශමෙන් කළ යුතුයි.

ඉන්දියාවේ බිහිවුණු නායකයන්ගේ ප්‍රතිපත්තිය අනුව තමයි ඒ රටේ විදේශ ප්‍රතිපත්තිය නිර්මාණය වුණේ. ඉන්දියාව බෞද්ධත්වය පෙන්වා ගෙන වැරදි දේ කළ යුතු නැහැ. ජාත්‍යන්තර වෙළඳ සම්බන්ධතා තිබිය යුතු වුවත් අනවශ්‍ය මැදිහත්වීම් හොඳ නැහැ, ඉක්‌ටා ගිවිසුම භයානක තත්ත්වයක්‌. ඉන්දියාව බිලියන හතක්‌ දීලා, ඒ දෙන ගමන් ඉක්‌ටා කොන්දේසි දැඩි කරනවා . අද ඉන්දියාවෙන් කොන්ඩේ රැවුල කපන්න පවා කට්‌ටිය ඇවිල්ලා. උතුරේ මැරුණු අය ලෙස වෙනත් පිරිස්‌ ලංකාවට ඇවිල්ලා පෙනී සිටිනවා. ඉන්දියාවෙන් එන මිනිස්‌සු යන්නේ නැතුව මෙහෙ ජීවත් වෙනවා. රටේ ජනතාව ගැනවත් හරියට තොරතුරු නැතුව කොහොමද ආණ්‌ඩුව මේවා අල්ලන්නෙ. අද පොලීසිය ආණ්‌ඩුව ආරක්‌ෂා කරනවා හැර ජනතාවවත් රටවත් ආරක්‌ෂා කරන්නේ නැහැ. ප්‍රතිපත්ති ප්‍රකාශනවල තිබුණු දේ නෙවෙයි මේ ආණ්‌ඩු අද කරන්නේ.

මට නම් අංක එක රට. රට නැතිවෙනවා නම් නිවන් දකින්න ඕනත් නැහැ මට.

අපි අවුරුදු තිහක්‌ අවිනිශ්චිත ජීවිතයක්‌ ගෙව්වේ, නායකයෝ ඉතිහාසගත වෙන්නේ තමන් දෙස හෝ තමන්ගේ බලය සඳහා හෝ පරපුර ගැන හෝ බලලා ගන්න තීරණ මත නොව රට වෙනුවෙන් ගන්න තීරණ හින්දයි.

දේශපාලන මැච් එකේ ජනතාවයි රටයි පන්දුවක්‌ කරගන්න එපා , මගේ ශක්‌ති ප්‍රමාණයට වඩා මම රටට හමුදාවට බොහෝ දේ කරලා තිබෙනවා. හමුදාවට තරුණයෝ හොයලා දුන්නෙත් මම. ඒ නිසා රට තුළ සිදුවෙන හැමදේම මට දැනගන්න ලැබෙනවා. මේ රට යළිත් බෙදන්න දෙන්න බැහැ.

සාකච්ඡා කළේ ජනිත සෙනෙවිරත්න ඉරිදා දිවයින

රහස් පොලීසියේ කලිසම මහේස්ත්‍රාත් ඉදිරියේම ගලවයි

June 20th, 2016

www.lankanewsweb.today

මලයාසියාවේ සිට ජනාධිපති මෛත්‍රීපාල සිරිසේන මහතාට ෆේස්බුක් සමාජ ජාල වෙබ් අඩවියෙන් මරණ තර්ජනය කළ සුමල් ලක්මන නම් තරුණයා සම්බන්ධයෙන් නිවැරදි තොරතුරු මේ දක්වා අනාවරණය නොවු අතර සුමල් ලක්මන මානව හිමිකමි කොමිසම හමුවට පැමිණිමෙන් පසුව සත්‍ය අනාවරණය වි තිබේ.ඒ අනුව මෛත්‍රීට,රනිල්ට කඩේ යන රහස් පොලීසිය කොළඹ ප්‍රධාන මහේස්ත්‍රාත් අධිකරණයේදී ගිහාන් පිලපිටිය ඉදිරිපිට නිරැවත් වි තිබේ.

 

MEGAPOIS,CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES ,INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT BOARD AND MUCH NEEDED COORDINATION FROM CENTRE……Need of the hour .

June 20th, 2016

Dr Sarath Obeysekera

Almost 18 months since the new regime came to power ,and both UNLP’ers .SLFP ,JVP and JOC all in similar frequency Vis a vis failures of development drive and the management of the proposed development  gaols and plans .None of them are talking good about the progress and yet expect something to happen like a last minute goal in a decisive foot ball match.

Attached letter sent by UDA from Ministry of Megapolis and Western Development indicates conditions to be fulfilled to establish a small yard of 20×60 feet workshop roof .Investor has to run around and get all the recommendations in order to get approval to put up such a building .

We have been running around last two months to get recommendations from all relevant agencies.

None of the understand that this a venture which will provide employment to youths in the southern town of Galle

This proves that centralised coordination committee should be established to expedite speedy implementation of projects which will benefit the country.

Having involved in public and private sector for many years in Sri Lanka and Abroad I would like to propose following .

Honourable Prime minister to powers to give instructions to all State Agencies to cut the red tape and assist in the development drive

Teams with a Dynamic head for appoint committees and execution team targeted for development , and give executive powers .

Committees involving  following sectors to be appointed

Fishery Sector

Road /Transport Sector

Health Sector

Port/Airport Development

Housing Sector

Plantation Sector

Town Development

Environment sector /Garbage disposal

Etc etc

Prime minister should hold a meeting every week with the participation of Finance  Minister with few dynamic secretaries to review the progress and give orders for  execution  as planned

All heads of state agencies should attend the meeting and undertake to provide their concurrence in order to allow commencement of the development project .

Any unnecessary objections should be overruled at this meeting and make provisions to grant approval within a short period

Current haphazard way of making decisions should be stopped and I am sure within next two years country will back to high development gear

Final advice is to disband FCID because the name gives shivers to many state officers ( who are reluctant to execute any order)  and may  establish a new Unit with a more friendly name such as WARWY ( We ARe Wathing You )!!!!!!!!

Dr Sarath Obeysekera

ලොතරැයියකින් නොකියවෙන කථාව

June 20th, 2016

ධර්මන් වික්‍රමරත්න

ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ ජනගහණයෙන් තුනෙන් එකක් පමණ වාර්ෂිකව ලොතරැයි සමඟ ගණුදෙණු කරති. දෛනිකව අළෙවිවන ලොතැරැයි සංඛ්‍යාව ලක්ෂ 25කට ආසන්නය.  රටේ විවිධ ප්‍රදේශවල ලොතරැයි අළෙවිකරුවන් රැසක් සෑම ගම් දනව්වක පවා නෙත ගැටේ. ඉපැරණි ලොතරැයි පත් දෙකක්ද මෙහි දැක්වෙන අතර 1967 ලොතරැයි පතක මිල ශත 50කි. 1968 ජාතික සම්පත ලොතරැයියක මිල රුපියල් 2කි. වර්තමානයේ සාමාන්‍ය ලොතරැයියක මිල රුපියල් 20කි. ඉකුත් 2005 වසරේ ලොතරැයි මණ්ඩලයේ ආදායම රුපියල් බිලියන 17කි. මෙම වසරේ එනම් 2016දී අපේක්ෂිත ආදායම රුපියල් බිිලියන 20කි.

dharman20061601

දිස්ත්‍රික්  අළෙවි නියෝජිතයෝ 78 දෙනෙක් යටතේ ප්‍රධාන අළෙවි නියෝජිතයෝ 2,460ක් සහ අළෙවි සහායකයින් 12,000ක් හරහා මෙම ව්‍යාපාරය ක්‍රියාත්මකය. ලොතරැයි කර්මාන්තයෙන් යැපෙන සේවක සංඛ්‍යාව 280,000ක් පමණ වන අතර ඉන් යැපෙන පවුල්වල සාමාජිකයින්ගේ සංඛ්‍යාව ලක්ෂ 7කට ආසන්නය. සතියකට දිනුම්වාර 19ක් ඇති අතර දිනකට ලොතරැයි වර්ග 4ක් පමණ වෙළෙඳ පොළට හඳුන්වාදි ඇත.  මේ ලොතරැයි පිටුපස ලොතරැයි ජයග්‍රාහකයින්ගේ පමණක් නොව ලොතරැයි අළෙවිකරුවන්ගේද ලොකු කථාවක් ඇත. ඒවා අතර දිරිය මිනිසුන්ගේ සාර්ථක කථා පුවත් රැසකි. ඔවුන්ගේ ජීවිත දෙස නැවුම් පැතිකඩකින් බලන කථා පුවත් සැකසීමට ඉකුත් දින කිහිපය තුළ විවිධ ස්ථානවලදී තොරතුරු එක්රැස් කර ගනු ලැබීය.

dharman20061605

ඇතමුන් කියන්නේ ලොතරැයිය සූදුවක් බවය. එහි ගුණ අගුණ කෙසේ වෙතත් එය රටේ ආර්ථිකයට යම් දායකත්වයක් ලබාදී ඇත. ජනතාවට අවශ්‍ය නිදහසේ කාටත් අතනොපා ජීවත්වීමටය. එම නවෝදය බිහි කිරීම සදහා සංවර්ධන විශේෂඥයින් ‘කෝකටත් තෛලයක්‘ සොයා වෙහෙසුනත් එවැන්නක් නොමැති බව මෙම කථා පුවත් පෙන්වාදේ. මිනිසුන්ගේ අත්දැකීම් දෙස අවධානය යොමුකිරීමෙන් නැවුම් පැතිකඩකින් සංවර්ධනය දෙස බැලීම සැබෑ නවෝදයක් උදා කිරීමට මංපෙත් විවර වනු ඇත. – ධර්මන් වික්‍රමරත්න Dharman Wickremaretne විසිනි.

THE AMERICAN MISSIONARIES AND JAFFNA TAMILS

June 20th, 2016

KAMALIKA PIERIS

The ‘American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions’ originated in 1810 in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Several different churches such as the Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed Church participated in it. The Board   was in touch with the British missionary societies too.  By the 1830s is had developed into a huge organization with many branches and a worldwide network. It was   meticulously organized and   fairly satisfactorily underwritten. Its objective was to spread Christianity worldwide by creating local churches that would be self-governing, self-supporting and self-propagating, no longer needing missionaries.  Between 1813 and 1903  the Board  sent missions to  Angola, Borneo, Bulgaria, China, Czechoslovakia, Greece,  Hawaii, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Micronesia ,Persia,  Philippines, South Africa, West Africa,  Spain, Sri Lanka ,Sumatra, Syria , Thailand, Turkey   and  also to  the  American Indians  in the USA.

The very first mission sent by the American Board was to Bombay in 1813. The second was to Jaffna in 1816, on the recommendation of the Bombay missionaries. Jaffna was selected due to its proximity to the Coromandel Coast (south east coast) of South India.   Native preachers and teachers from India and Ceylon were to be trained in Jaffna   and sent to start missions in India. Accordingly, a mission was established in Madurai (1834) by Daniel Poor, one of the American missionaries in Jaffna with the help of three Jaffna Tamil Christians. One was Francis Ashbury. A second mission was set up in Madras (1836).

The American Board dominated the missionary scene in Jaffna. It worked in 17 of the 32 Jaffna parishes, while the Church Missionary Society (CMS) was in ten parishes and Wesleyan mission in three parishes. Rev. J. Knight, the first CMS representative in Jaffna started his work in 1818 at Nallur. He found it difficult at the start, since he was treated as a low caste or outcaste. By 1834 American Board had missions in Batticaloa, Manipay, Uduvil, Pandatharippu, Tellipallai and Chavakachcheri with two ‘native’ stations at Varani and Udupiddy and  British Governor Horton said that London had given permission for more American missionaries to come .  In 1838 there were 7 stations and 6 outstations with about 500 converts.  The Tellipallai church was successfully burned down in August 1834, after a failed attempt in July.

The American mission also provided a health service in Manipay and some medical training but its greatest success was in secondary education. The American Mission was the earliest and most enterprising pioneer of western education in Ceylon. In 1816 itself they started two native free schools. Within five years, the   five principal stations, Tellipallai, Uduvil, Manipay, Vaddukoddai and Pandatharippu had large boarding schools.  In 1822 there were     42 schools with 1800 pupils. In 1824 there were 90 primary schools. Pupils learnt Christianity, English, Tamil grammar and geography.     Tuition was free. Donors in the USA   sent the money needed for the pupils and the pupils took on the names of the donors. Sinnatamby Saravanamuttu became E. Cornelius, Saravanamuttu Murugasu became Gerard H Hallock, Valauthar Sidemparapillai became David Riggs, Antho Simon became Ira Gould and Kathiraser Periatamby became Joshua Danforth.

The Jaffna schools excelled over all others set up abroad said the Board at its Annual General Meeting in Boston in 1834.  (AR 1834) The pupils were so promising that the mission had established Batticotta seminary, Vaddukoddai for the boys (1823) and Uduvil for girls (1834). Batticotta seminary   predated Christian College, Kotte (1827) and Royal College (1836). It brought together the best pupils from the boarding schools at Manipay, Tellipallai, Uduvil, and Vaddukoddai. They were mainly Vellala caste. They were taught in English and Tamil. Two thirds of the time in English, one third in Tamil. Period of study was six years.  Subjects were Christianity, English language and literature, Tamil language and literature, Sanskrit,   mathematics, native arithmetic, European and Hindu    astronomy, geography, history and chemistry.

A total of 12 American missionaries taught at Batticotta with the assistance of native teachers, who at any given time did not exceed five. The American missionaries had university degrees   and some    taught in American universities before or after their period   of service in Jaffna. Pupils’ expenses were looked after by American patrons in the USA who made yearly donations of not less than twenty dollars.   The pupils took on the names of these donors.

Martyn (1923) observed that Batticotta seminary had a laboratory with modern equipment and a museum which displayed the geology of Ceylon. In addition to the ordinary branches of learning, the school taught ‘all the higher departments of mathematical and physical science’.  Tennent said In 1848    ‘The pupils when tested showed great knowledge and Batticotta is entitled to rank with many an European University’  Batticotta was set up to train preachers and teachers and the full training, collegiate and professional, took ten years. The Board wished to set up a degree awarding theological institute but the British government refused permission. Batticotta produced good Christians and excellent Tamil scholars, such as C.M. Thamotharampillai. Several Batticotta pupils were effective abroad, in Madras and elsewhere.  Batticotta closed in 1855.

Batticotta Seminary marked the start of modern education in Jaffna.  Uduvil Girls School was free up to 1852. It was the first girls boarding school in Asia.  Drieberg College, Chavakachcheri was established in 1875.  They also set up teacher training colleges, such as Kopay Christian teachers college. Other Christian missions also set up schools in Jaffna region. This led to the creation of a highly educated and professionally qualified community of Tamil Christians. The CMS set up St John’s College, Jaffna (1823) and Chundikuli girls school (1841). Methodist Mission started Hartley College, Point Pedro (1838) and Vembadi girls high school. (1837).

Catholic Church had St Patrick’s College, Jaffna. (1850). St Patrick’s had surveying, leveling, architecture, mechanical drawing and typewriting classes in 1901, fully equipped science labs in 1911, powerhouse and workshop in 1913 and  new chemistry laboratory in 1914. Holy Family Convent Jaffna (1845) was run by French nuns from 1862.  St Xavier’s girl’s college, Mannar (1870) by Good Shepherd nuns.  Rambaikulam Girls maha vidyalam, Vavuniya was established in 1890 for Catholic children. K.M. de Silva observed that the missionary societies were much stronger in Jaffna and its environs in the 19th century than elsewhere in the island   and their network of schools was run far more efficiently.

Jaffna College started in 1872as successor to Batticotta at the urging of Batticotta alumni. The upper class Tamils wanted to sit the Indian University exams.  Jaffna College taught Tamil, Latin, English, Indian history and the history of Rome and Greece    Jaffna College was affiliated to Calcutta University   in 1891 and to Madras University in 1907. In 1921 London University Intermediate classes were started. From its very inception, Jaffna College had no corporal punishment.  Over 20% of the teachers were from South India, mostly Kerala and they taught the sciences.   Jaffna College had pupils from Malaysia, Singapore and even two from Uganda. The College had several Sinhalese students from the south and an occasional Muslim student. In the 1920s when the Gandhian movement was ascendant in India and Jaffna Youth congress had been founded Jaffna College pupils    started to wear ‘national dress’. (Silan Kadirgamar, 2013)

The American Mission used the Fabricius translation of the Bible and provided a Bible based on this in simple Tamil. A nascent Tamil Christian literature consisting of lyrics, hymns and books, composed by the Jaffna Tamil Christians started to emerge. Tamil scholar Arnold Sathasivampillai, a student of Batticotta, composed over    500 Christian devotional songs. The missionaries spoke fluent Tamil. This was essential otherwise they could not communicate with the Jaffna people. They   prepared books on Christian theology explained in Tamil.

The Christian missions in Jaffna were able to create a body of staunch Christians. Roberts (2011) stated that judging by the undergraduates at Peradeniya University, (probably   1950s) Tamil Christians in Sri Lanka were more strongly religious than the Sinhala Christians.  A few embodied a depth of religious faith that was quite exceptional, he said. Missionaries had encouraged the Christians to marry    each other. It was observed that ‘If you look deep enough you would find that all Tamil Christians are related’. (Gunasekera ‘Chosen ground’ p 79).

The American mission    was able to create a Tamil Christian community which felt distinct and separate. Converts took on American names. Cyrus Kingsbury (b. 1808) was originally Gurunather Vayiravi. When he converted to Christianity he took on the name of an American missionary who was working with American Indians in the USA. The link with South India was maintained. When the Church of South India, a united church of Anglicans, Presbyterians, and other Protestants, started in 1947, Jaffna became a diocese of the Church of South India.

The Christian missionaries faced the usual problem of converts reverting to their earlier religion. When Jaffna Christians went to Madras for further study, they found that in Madras Christians were considered low caste. This induced them to abandon Christianity.   The American Mission therefore tried to prevent its students going for advanced studies to Madras as they were then reconverted to Saivism there.

Unlike in Sinhala areas, where, in the initial period, changes of religion were accepted, with resignation (grandmother Buddhist, grandson Christian), in the Jaffna Tamil community this has led to clashes both ways.  C.A. Thamotharampillai’s father, Cyrus Kingsbury was a first- generation Christian.  Thamotharampillai   therefore started off as Christian. He then went to Madras, converted to Saivism and became virulently anti-Christian. His son Francis reverted to Christianity and became virulently anti Hindu. He even refused to officiate at a Hindu funeral.  Neelan Thiruchelvam, Devanesan Nesiah and S.R.N. Hoole are descendants of Cyrus Kingsbury, (Hoole 1997) so the mix of Christian and Hindu has continued, but probably without the acrimony of the earlier generation.  Published in Island 2016.

ACCOUNTABILITY IS CARDINAL PRINCIPLE IN YAHAPALANA MANAGEMENT-Small advise …

June 20th, 2016

Dr Sarth Obeysekera

Let us start with power failures lasted for few days inconveniencing not only the public but all manufacturing processes which are the life line of an economy .

Chairman CEB made a bold statement that he shall resign and qualified his promise by adding that he will do so after restoration of power .There were opinions obtained   from even foreign experts and found that someone is at fault.

He is still there !

Again the  Flooding in Colombo and other law line areas and extended delay of subsiding of water from Kelani watetr basin .Sand banks were not removed  and some gates along Hamilton Canal were not opened .

Who ever responsible is still out there  !!

Then can Salawa explosion and devastation .Many pointed figure at some top army brass ,No punishment .

There are still there  !!

Many purportedly wrong doers in the past embezzling money and ineffective law enforcement delaying punishment

Head of Law enforcement agencies may be responsible and he is still there !!!!!!

Law and order in day to day driving and obvious blatant violations of traffic laws by three wheelers and some private buses

Someone on charge of traffic law enforcement is responsible,

He is still there >>

A DIG of an elite forces made some serious threats to journalists

He is  still there

Finally over all delays in efficiency in state sector decision makers and some  obvious culprits found Ministers in charge of those state institutions are responsible

There are still there !

Some one accused of bond trading seems to be singled out

He is still there

Finally leaders of the country who have not taken action and punish all culprit listed above ( and may be ,many more) are

Still There !!

We just have to watch the dramas unfolding everyday

Dr Sarth Obeysekera

රටට සතුරු ව්‍යවස්ථාව සූදානම්.. ඊට පෙර විරුද්ද නායකයන් සිරගත කරනවා.. ගම්මන්පිල පලමු ගොදුරයි..

June 20th, 2016

lanka C news

විරවංශ මහතාගේ අත්සනින් යුතුව නිකුත් කර ඇති සම්පුර්ණ නිවේදනය මෙසේය.

අසත්‍ය චෝදනා ඉදිරිපත් කොට උදය ගම්මන්පිල සිරගත කිරීම තරයේ හෙළා දකිනවා…

පිවිතුරු හෙළ උරුමයේ නායක, පාර්ලිමේන්තු මන්ත‍්‍රී උදය ගම්මන්පිල මහතා අසත්‍ය පැමිණිල්ලක් පදනම්කොට ගෙන අත් අඩංගුවට ගෙන සිරගත කිරීම, ජාතික නිදහස් පෙරමුණ තරයේ හෙළා දකින්නෙමු.

එක් අතකින් රටේ ජාතික ආරක්ෂාව බිඳ වට්ටවා බෙදුම්වාදයට යළි හිස එසවීමට හැකි වාතාවරණයක් නිර්මාණය කරමින් අනෙක් අතින් රටේ ආර්ථිකය බිඳ වට්ටවා ජනතාව මත අධික බදු බර පටවමින් ගෙන යන මේ ආණ්ඩුවේ ජනතාද්‍රෝහී – දේශද්‍රෝහී පාලනයට එරෙහිව පොදු ජනතාව මේ වනවිට ස්වයංව වීදි බසින තත්වයක් ඇතිව තිබේ. ඒ නිසා ආණ්ඩුවට ජනතා අවධානය වෙනතකට හැරවීමේ දැඩි උවමනාවක් ඇති අතර තමන්ට එරෙහි ජන බලවේගයක් ඒකරාශීවීම වැළික්වීමටද අවශ්‍යව තිබේ.

රටට සතුරු ව්‍යවස්ථාව සූදානම්.. ඊට පෙර විරුද්ද නායකයන් සිරගත කරනවා.. ගම්මන්පිල පලමු ගොදුරයි..

එසේම නුදුරේදීම රටටත්, ජනතාවටත් සතුරු නව ආණ්ඩුක‍්‍රම ව්‍යවස්ථාවක් කෙසේ හෝ ගෙන ඒමටත් ත‍්‍රස්තවාදය වැළැක්වීමේ පනත අහෝසි කිරීමටත්, රණවිරුවන්ට එරෙහිව නඩු ඇසීමේ දෙමුහුන් අධිරකරණයක් පිහිටුවීමට අදාළ නීති ගෙන ඒමටත් මේ ආණ්ඩුවට අවශ්‍යය.

මේ අනතුරුදායක තත්වය පිළිබඳව ජනතාව කල් තියා දැනුවත් කරන, ඊට එරෙහි ජන බලවේග ඒකරාශී කරන ඒකාබද්ධ විපක්ෂයේ නායකයන් නිහඬ කිරීම කඩිනමින් කළ යතුතක් ලෙස මේ ආණ්ඩුව දකී. ආණ්ඩුවේ එකී ඒකාබද්ධ විපක්ෂයේ නායකයන් දඩයම් කිරීමේ මෙහුයුමේ පළමු ගොදුර ලෙස උදය ගම්මන්පිල මහතා මේ ඉරණමට ලක්ව තිබේ.

වසර 17කට පෙර සිදු වූ සිදුවීමකට අදාළව අසත්‍ය පැමිණිල්ලක් ඉදිරිපත් කරවා, සැලසුම් සහගතව සිදු කළ මේ දේශපාලන දඩයම මේ රටේ ප‍්‍රජාතන්ත‍්‍රවාදය, නීතියේ ආදිපත්‍යය අගයන සියලු ජන බලවේග තරයේ හෙළා දැකිය යුතු අතර ඊට එරෙහිව නැගී සිටිය යුතුය.

මෙසේ පිළිකුල් සහගත ලෙස තම දේශපාලන ප‍්‍රතිවාදීන් දඩයම් කරන යහපාලන ආණ්ඩුවේ මේ නින්දිත ක‍්‍රියා පිළිවෙත යළිත් තරයේ හෙළා දකින්නෙමු.

විමල් වීරවංශ(පා.ම)
නායක,
ජාතික නිදහස් පෙරමුණ

අසත්‍ය චෝදනා ඉදිරිපත් කොට පාර්ලිමේන්තු මන්ත‍්‍රී උදය ගම්මන්පිල මහතා සිරගත කිරීම තරයේ හෙළා දකින බව නිවේදනයක් නිකුත් කරමින් ජාතික නිදහස් පෙරමුණේ නායක පාර්ලිමේන්තු මන්ත‍්‍රී විමල් වීරවංශ මහතා පවසයි.


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