What is that device again?

June 21st, 2013

Dr. Mareena Thaha Reffai,

The newspapers have mentioned in a small article,ƒÆ’-¡  on the page before last, (Daily Mirror June 10th, page A13) thatƒÆ’-¡  a student named Miss. Lasika Sevvandi Silva has invented a decide to eradicate the dengue mosquito breeding on roof gutters. Now, with what the dengue menace rising and everyone coming out withƒÆ’-¡  all sorts of stupid solutions like ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” no more gutters, letƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢sƒÆ’-¡  fumigate the whole island etc. shouldn’t this inventionƒÆ’-¡ had ƒÆ’-¡ taken the island by storm? Not so. What the device does even is not published, not even in the internet. Not a hum about it afterwards.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ If it was in another country they would have gone to town with the invention, if it works. By now it should have been produced in millions and distributed in to every household with gutters,even free. But our country does not even give it a second look.

ƒÆ’-¡ Just like our country. And our leaders. We have simple solutions just under our noses, but will look for difficult, impractical, foreign solutions wasting a lot of money, probably that way the politicians can collect huge commissions.

ƒÆ’-¡ Sometime back another ƒÆ’-¡ student came out with an excellent solution of tapping all the larvae of the mosquitoes by using plastic bottles cut into two and inserting one part into another, upside down. Simple, effective, inexpensive means. But the success depends on all the people in one surrounding must follow the practice, and avoid providing any other breeding areas, so that ALL mosquitoes lay eggs only within these bottles. Spoken about for a little while and forgotten. Why, Oh, why?ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ The PHI and the armyƒÆ’-¡  people were inspecting the houses for sometime but are not seen for months ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” anyway all what they did was to demand a bribe not to report the housesƒÆ’-¡ stagnated water. While they were threatening the houses where there have been hardly any stagnated water, the large drains outside on the lanes were blocked and overflowing day after day with no one bothering about them. Who is responsible for them and whom to complain and whom to be punished is anyone’s guess.

ƒÆ’-¡ The one and only method of eradicating dengue in our country is to educate the housewives, ƒÆ’-¡ even if by rewarding them to make sure the environment is free of mosquito breeding. Whatever else we doƒÆ’-¡  it will only be a temporary measure.ƒÆ’-¡ 

WHAT BENEFIT IS THERE IN DAYANƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢S DEAL IN GENEVA?- The following is H. L. D. Mahindapala’s reply to Dr. Dayan Jayatilleka’s response to the criticism of his controversial role in Geneva. Scroll down to read Dr. Jayatilleka’s defence of his role

June 20th, 2013

H.L.D. Mahindapala

ƒÆ’-¡ I welcome my friend Dayan’s response to my lengthy review of his book, Long War, Cold PeaceƒÆ’-¡  published in yesterday’s Daily News.ƒÆ’-¡ May I also add that it was long overdue. I also note his metaphor in which he compares his responseƒÆ’-¡ as “the intellectual equivalent of entering a Taliban held area of remote Afghanistan.” I hope he realises the meaning ofƒÆ’-¡ what he says:ƒÆ’-¡ the so-calledƒÆ’-¡ superior Americans (i.e, the likes of Dayan) have failedƒÆ’-¡ to combat the challenges of Talibans (i.e. the likes of me and myself) ƒÆ’-¡ in remote Afghanistan and are retreating with their tails between their legs!ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Leaving aside the bullet that had ricocheted on him,ƒÆ’-¡ let me deal with the main thrust of his response which isƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ mainly to defend his roleƒÆ’-¡ in Geneva. I must confess that I, like most others, was impressed initially by his role inƒÆ’-¡ turning the tables on the West in Geneva. He also lambasted the WestƒÆ’-¡  which riled ourƒÆ’-¡ compatriot Radhika Coomaraswamy at the UN who dismissed it as an “obnoxious tirade” mainly because her political objective of scoring a victory for her side was defeated for the umpteenth time at the UN. She and her friends like Hilary Clinton were doing their damndest at the UN to bring the Sri Lankan issue before theƒÆ’-¡ Security Council. Our quietƒÆ’-¡ and seasoned diplomats like H.M.G.S. Palihakkara outfoxedƒÆ’-¡ the WestƒÆ’-¡ every step of the way andƒÆ’-¡ kept the Sri Lankan issue confined to the basement of the UNƒÆ’-¡ — an ineffective area which hadƒÆ’-¡ no force in the wider international arena. Realising that they can’t win inside the glass box inƒÆ’-¡ New York, the defeated WestƒÆ’-¡ shifted their battle groundƒÆ’-¡ to the easier arenaƒÆ’-¡ at UNHRC in Geneva.

ƒÆ’-¡ In New York allƒÆ’-¡  players bat against a tough leather ball. In Geneval they play with a soft tennis ball. It was in Geneva that Dayan scored his pyrrhic victory. In fact,ƒÆ’-¡ the bulkƒÆ’-¡ of ƒÆ’-¡ his reply confirms what I said earlier: his “victory” was not due to any diplomatic skills as such but due to a surrender to Indian demands. He says he cut a deal to offer devolution (read 13th Amendment) in place ofƒÆ’-¡ accountability. To quote him he won becauseƒÆ’-¡ of “aƒÆ’-¡ trade-off in Geneva in 2009: devolution for accountability.” In other words, he caved in to India’s demand for 13th Amendment in exchange for theirƒÆ’-¡ support. Surrendering to demands of bigƒÆ’-¡  powers doesn’t require much diplomatic skill, does it?ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ His victory would have had all the glory if Sri Lanka won onƒÆ’-¡ our own terms. As he concedes, it was “a just war” and our task was to win on “the moral legitimacy of our victory”ƒÆ’-¡ withoutƒÆ’-¡ surrendering to rapacious demands of imperialist India. We didn’t have to apologise for anything, especially for “accountability” in the last stages of the war when we had “the moral legitimacy of our victory” on our side. But what did we do? Having won all the way from Mavil AruƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ (2006) to NandikdalƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ (2009) ƒÆ’-¡ — the impossible victory –ƒÆ’-¡ we go toƒÆ’-¡ Geneva (first class with diplomatic privileges) andƒÆ’-¡ agree to surrender all that was won in the battlefield.ƒÆ’-¡ That is what the trade-off means in real terms.ƒÆ’-¡ So what’sƒÆ’-¡ the big deal about that!ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Extracting the maximum fromƒÆ’-¡  the negotiating table is the ultimate success in diplomacy. Victors — especially if they have “the moral legitimacy ofƒÆ’-¡ … a just war” on their side — don’t concede everything won in the battle field to the defeated at the negotating table. Conceding in totoƒÆ’-¡ the 13th AmendmentƒÆ’-¡ — the fundamental issueƒÆ’-¡ on which we fought the just war –ƒÆ’-¡ is no great sign of a Metternich. Great diplomats are known for winning not for losing.ƒÆ’-¡ Besides, as he states, it helped us only to buy timeƒÆ’-¡ to stave off (temporarily) the bogus issues of discrimination, dignityƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ and equality of Tamils etc., cranked upƒÆ’-¡ endlessly by the Tamil diaspora.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ The Jaffna Tamils never had it better ƒÆ’-¡ — neither under centuries of the dominant Vellahla oppressorsƒÆ’-¡ norƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ under the 33-years of Pol Potist Tiger regime ƒÆ’-¡ — than when they worked jointly with the Sinhalese.

ƒÆ’-¡ To get back to the issue at hand,ƒÆ’-¡ where has buying timeƒÆ’-¡ in Geneva taken us? It has only postponed the demands forƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ the perennialƒÆ’-¡ pound of fleshƒÆ’-¡ in the peninsular poilitical agenda.ƒÆ’-¡ Where is the victory in this surrender? Even The EconomistƒÆ’-¡  concedes that it “warded off the threats of war crimes”– but only for another day. It did not eliminate the threat. The real victory would have been in eliminating threats not in postponing it. In any case,ƒÆ’-¡ The Economist is wrong because his deal has not “warded off the threats of war crimes,” as admittedƒÆ’-¡ by Dayan. He saysƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ candidly: “The main threat was and still is one of an independent international inquiry on accountability for actions allegedly committed during the last stages of the war.” So if “the main threatƒÆ’-¡ still is”ƒÆ’-¡ there what has Sri Lanka gained by the victory of my friend Dayan?

ƒÆ’-¡ Dayan seems to be utterly confused in hisƒÆ’-¡ self-contradictory response to my review.ƒÆ’-¡ He begins by saying that his victory is in the trade-off: exchanging devolution for accountability. Then he concludes by saying: “The Tamil Eelamist Diaspora networks do not care about devolution; they scorn the 13th amendment. They are focused on accountability. So are Susan Rice, the incoming National Security Advisor to President Obama, and Samantha Power, the Ambassador/Permanent Representative designate of the USA to the UN Security Council.”ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ This plainly means thatƒÆ’-¡ on his own admission his trade-off was not worth the paper on which it was written. It wouldn’t have worked because the Tamil diaspora and the West are out to get the GOSL if both can’t get their pound of flesh. As I said earlier, his “trade-off” didn’t last long. It seems to be a mere private deal between him and the Indian wheeler-dealers who have let him down after squeezing the best they could get out of him like a lemon.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Besides,ƒÆ’-¡ the deal he cut opens up serious issues. If he did cut a deal then he owes it to the Sri Lankans to let them knowƒÆ’-¡ withƒÆ’-¡ whomƒÆ’-¡ he cut the deal? Is it India? America? orƒÆ’-¡ EU? If so what are the contents of his deal? Was the deal done on hisƒÆ’-¡ own initiative or with the consent of the Foreign Ministry? If he didn’t have the approval of the Foreign Ministry what authority did he have to bind the nation to his private deal? Would it have been binding on both sides when he admits now that neither the Tamil diaspora nor the West is interested in devolution but only in accountability?ƒÆ’-¡ What then is the point in cutting a dealƒÆ’-¡ on devolution when the Tamil diaspora and the WestƒÆ’-¡ were not giving up on accountability?ƒÆ’-¡ Wasn’t his deal doomed to fail with noƒÆ’-¡ lasting benefitƒÆ’-¡  to Sri Lanka?ƒÆ’-¡ Judging from his statementƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ and the unfolding events itƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ is clearƒÆ’-¡ that he has cutƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ a deal with India — i.e, conceding 13th Amendment to acountability as seen in black and white in 2009 Resolution — without any reciprocal benefits.

ƒÆ’-¡ His other blunder is inƒÆ’-¡ assuming that accountability can come only from the so-called independent judges imported from abroad.ƒÆ’-¡ When Sri Lanka won the war it was meant to be liberation not only from the tyranny of Tamil Tiger Pol Potism but also from meddlesome external forces.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ This also means thatƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka still has the option of showing a willingness and capability of dealing with accountability on the alleged charges in the last stages of the war. It does not needƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ inquiries from abroad. Sri Lanka also has the option of going beyond the politically motivated accusations confined to the last five months of a 33-year-old war. Where is the justice in an independent inquiry confined only to the last five months excluding the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the Tamil Tigers and their agents abroad (violating UN Security Council Resolutions on terrorism) and, more importantly, that of Indian IPKF forces which raped, tortured, incarcerated, killed and ran amok in Jaffna and the north?ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ For instance, will Britain allow Adele Balasingham and India allow its generals and other involved forces to be extradited to face trial in a court established in Sri Lanka? Accountability is raised only as a one-way issueƒÆ’-¡  confined only to GOSL. But it goes beyond the borders of Sri Lanka involvingƒÆ’-¡ the Western and Indian havens provided to raise funds and promote terrorism in Sri Lanka. India stands accused of violatingƒÆ’-¡  international law in breeding and exporting terrorism to a friendly neighbour. India should be made to pay reparations for the destruction, destabilisation and the displacement of civilians due to its deliberate foreign policy launched against all civilizedƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ and international norms. India posing as a holy sadhu in Geneva is not going to cut any iceƒÆ’-¡ in any independent court of justice. If push comes to shove Sri Lanka should set up its own independent inquiry, invitingƒÆ’-¡ judges drawn from the international community,ƒÆ’-¡ to judgeƒÆ’-¡ the entire period of the 33-year-old war, starting from the Vadukoddai ResolutionƒÆ’-¡  in 1976. India and other agents of Tamil Tiger Pol Potism, including Fr. S. J. Emmanuel, Adele Balasingham, Catholic priests who handed over children to the Tiger terrorists, TNA collaborators with the Tiger criminals, NGO supporters who legitimized the violence of the Tamil Tigers in the name of promotingƒÆ’-¡  peace, shouldƒÆ’-¡ be hauled up before any court of accountability.

ƒÆ’-¡ Finally, Dayan should have in the first place avoided the special session in which the March 2009 Resolution was launched by the West. Being in charge as the Ambassador to UNHRC he shoud have seen it coming instead of waiting till the last moment to fight back.The move to holdƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ theƒÆ’-¡ specialƒÆ’-¡ session was passed by only a majority of one. If he had been up and awake he could have forestalled it avoding all the consequencesƒÆ’-¡  that flowed in its wake.ƒÆ’-¡ That is howƒÆ’-¡ seasonedƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Sri LankanƒÆ’-¡ diplomats at the UN and UNHRC won on previous ooccasions.

ƒÆ’-¡ Having said all this I must concede that Dayan had to carry a lot of baggage left over from the failure of the Foreign Ministry –ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ perhapsƒÆ’-¡ the bestƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ home forƒÆ’-¡ senile retirees inƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ theƒÆ’-¡ public service. Leaving aside a handful of committed and knowledgeable diplomats, who had rescued Sri Lanka on numerous occasions, the whole place is overloaded with 9 – 5 bureaucrats who neither has the heart nor the capability of meeting the international challenges. But then Dayan accepted his responsibilites knowing the crises within the Foreign Ministry. HeƒÆ’-¡ walked in with his eyes open.ƒÆ’-¡ Like in Cabinet responsibility, if you are in it you cannot escape by shedding responsbility. Besides, if Dayan can claim credit for victory then he must be equally responsible forƒÆ’-¡ his failures as well.



ƒÆ’-¡ My friend HLD Mahindapala is writing a book length diatribe on my latest book, Long War, Cold Peace (Vijitha Yapa, 2013). I have chosen not to respond as entering his discourse as contained and represented in his extended review, would be the intellectual equivalent of entering a Taliban held area of remote Afghanistan. However, in the public interest as well as in fairness to myself I have to set the record straight on his latest effusion which is a grotesque distortion of Sri Lanka at the UN HRC in Geneva in 2009, and my own role there.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ What HLD Mahindapala fails to grasp is that Sri Lanka made a trade-off in Geneva in 2009: devolution for accountability. In so doing we bought ourselves three years of time and space. How the Sri Lankan authorities used that time and space is another question. The main threat was and still is one of an independent international inquiry on accountability for actions allegedly committed during the last stages of the war. The target was and is not only our countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s present leadership but its armed forces. We in Geneva at the time, set out to protect our armed forces and the moral legitimacy of our victory. I am proud of having played my part.

ƒÆ’-¡ As for the strategy, tactics and dynamics of May 2009 and my own role in Geneva, it is best not to be detained either by my protestations or Mr MahindapalaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s strange indictment and look instead to more authoritative and independent sources. The Economist (London) described by Karl Marx as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-the most intelligent defender of capitalismƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ referred to in its August 6-8 , 2009 issue to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-…Dayan Jayatilleka, Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Ambassador to Geneva, who warded off the threatened UN war-crimes probe in May [2009]…ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Thanks to Wikileaks what is now known is that US Secretary of State instructed its Mission in Geneva to throw its weight behind the move on Sri Lanka at the UN HRC Special Sessions in 2009.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Mission Geneva is requested to convey to the Czech Republic and other like-minded members of the HRC that the USG supports a special session on the human rights situation in Sri Lanka and related aspects of the humanitarian situation. Mission is further requested to provide assistance, as needed, to the Czech Republic in obtaining others, signatures to support holding this sessionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦Mission is also instructed to engage with HRC members to negotiate a resolution as an outcome of this special session, if held. Department believes a special session that does not result in a resolution would be hailed as a victory by the Government of Sri Lanka. Instructions for line edits to the resolution will be provided by Department upon review of a draft.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ [Cable dated 4th May 2009 from Secretary of State (United States)]

ƒÆ’-¡ Wikileaks shows that as early as September 2007, just two months after I had taken over as Ambassador/PRUN, the Western Group, led by the UK, was revising and reactivating a resolution that had been hanging over Sri Lanka in the previous year, 2006 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” a danger and challenge which I had inherited.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦.a UK Mission contact told us that work is only at an early stage on the text of a possible resolution, which would update one that the EU put forward in last yearƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Council session.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ [Cable dated 10th September 2007]

ƒÆ’-¡ A US Mission cable described the effect of our strategy as follows:

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ There was general agreement that Sri Lanka, and in particular its outspoken ambassador here, were effectively playing off the West against less developed countries.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬[Cable date 10 March 2008]

ƒÆ’-¡ A considerably important cable conveys the assessment made to Susan Rice, until a few days ago the Cabinet-ranked US Ambassador/Permanent Representative in the Security Council, by Human Rights High Commissioner Navi Pillay, on the results of the Special Session on Sri Lanka. The assessment was that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Sri Lanka and its allies, meanwhile, had a draft resolution ready to go and simply outmanoeuvred the EU.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ [Cable date 25 June 2009]

ƒÆ’-¡ This is not a one-off assessment. The Wikileaks cables report a conversation in Paris, significantly between the US Ambassador-at-large for War Crimes Issues, Clint Williamson, and senior officials of the French Foreign Ministry (widely respected as the fount of modern European diplomatic tradition and practice). A cable from the US Embassy in Paris to Washington DC quotes FranceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Official Representative for International Penal Tribunals, Christian Bernier, as saying that Sri Lanka was ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-very effective in its diplomatic approach in GenevaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬:

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Bernier opined that the Sri Lankan government is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-very effectiveƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in its diplomatic approach in Geneva and said France is in an information-collection phase to obtain a more effective result in the HRCƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. [Cable dated 16 July 2009]

ƒÆ’-¡ Outside of purely partisan ethnic propaganda, the most serious negative account of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s war and the conduct of the Sri Lankan state is the solidly researched, well written, intelligent and readable book, The Cage by Gordon Weiss. It contains an entire chapter, 30 pages long, on the international and diplomatic dimension of the conflictƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s closing stages (Ch 9: The Watching World).

ƒÆ’-¡ The UN Geneva is brought to life in WeissƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ volume: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-On 27 MayƒÆ’-¡  at the Palais des nations in Geneva, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navanetham Pillay, addressed the Human Rights Council and called for an international inquiry into the conduct of both parties to the war. While the EU and a brace of other countries formulated and then moved a resolution in support of PillayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s call, a majority of countries on the council rejected it out of hand. Instead they adopted an alternative motion framed by Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s representatives praising the Sri Lankan government for its victory over the Tigers…ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (p229)

ƒÆ’-¡ In his concluding chapter Weiss describes my role: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Dayan Jayatilleka, one of the most capable diplomats appointed by the Rajapaksa regime, had outmanoeuvred Western diplomats to help Sri Lanka escape censure from the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva. He had also been one of the most trenchant advocates within the government for meaningful constitutional reform, including the devolution of power to the provinces (p256-7)ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. In his Notes he makes this evaluation: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Jayatilleka was the most lucid of the vocal Government of Sri Lanka representatives…ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (p 330)

ƒÆ’-¡ Research scholar David Lewis presented a paper at the University of Edinburgh, entitled ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”The failure of a liberal peace: Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s counterinsurgency in global perspectiveƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, and published in Conflict, Security & Development, 2010, Vol 10:5, pp 647-671. Lewis is Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for International Co-operation and Security in the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, and headed the International Crisis GroupƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Sri Lanka programme in 2006-7. In the study, he writes:

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Many of the battles over conflict-related norms between Sri Lanka and Europe took place in UN institutions, primarily the Human Rights Council (HRC)ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦it was Sri Lanka which generally had the best of these diplomatic battles…ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Although this process of contestation reflects shifting power relations, and the increasing influence of China, Russia and other ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Rising PowersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, it does not mean that small states are simply the passive recipients of norms created and contested by others. In fact, Sri Lankan diplomats have been active norm entrepreneurs in their own right, making significant efforts to develop alternative norms of conflict management, linking for example Chechnya and Sri Lanka in a discourse of state-centric peace enforcement. They have played a leading role in UN forums such as the UN HRC, where Sri Lankan delegates have helped ensure that the HRC has become an arena, not so much for the promotion of the liberal norms around which it was designed, but as a space in which such norms are contested, rejected or adapted in unexpected ways…ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-As a member of the UN HRC Sri Lanka has played an important role in asserting new, adapted norms opposing both secession and autonomy as possible elements in peace-buildingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚trends that are convergent with views expressed by China, Russia and IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

(Lewis: 2010, pp. 658-661)

ƒÆ’-¡ So there we have it; thatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s the story as seen by critical observer-analysts. It is entirely at variance with HLD MahindapalaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s grotesque version. We were defeated in Geneva in 2012 and 2013 and are on the defensive internationally because we did not fulfil our part of the devolution for accountability strategic trade-off. The more we retreat or delay on devolution, the more our critics advance on the all-important and dangerous front of accountability. ƒÆ’-¡ The Tamil Eelamist Diaspora networks do not care about devolution; they scorn the 13th amendment. They are focused on accountability. So are Susan Rice, the incoming National Security Advisor to President Obama, and Samantha Power, the Ambassador/Permanent Representative designate of the USA to the UN Security Council. India however, still focuses more on the 13th amendment. Can we fight on both fronts? Should we try? Which is the lesser danger and what is the more prudent compromise?


June 20th, 2013


The TNA leadership has once again gone to IndiaƒÆ’-¡  to meet the Big Brother to bring pressure on the President of Sri Lanka in regard to pending amendments to 13A of the Constitution.ƒÆ’-¡  TNA has consistently maintained a mind-set that their godfathers are in India.ƒÆ’-¡  They consistently believed in that they are duty bound to the Indian Government.ƒÆ’-¡  For TNA and their henchmen Tamils, Sri Lanka is only a playground but the game umpires are residing in India.ƒÆ’-¡ 

Following a meeting with the Sri Lankan separatist TamilƒÆ’-¡  leadership, the Hon. Prime Minister of India Dr Manmohan Singh had saidƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-the proposed changes raised doubts about the commitments made by the Sri Lankan government to India and the international community, including the United Nations, on a political settlement in Sri Lanka that would go beyond the 13th Amendment”.

The Indian Government is fully aware that they cannot dictate terms to Sri Lanka as Mr Ranil Wickremasinghe (RW) is no longer the Prime Minister ( or the Executive President) of Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  At the time the 13 amendment was tabled in Parliament by the then UNP government, there were several UNP members who were opposed to it.ƒÆ’-¡  The UNP had to confine those MPs to hotels to prevent them from attending the Parliament and voting against the amendment. Forcing the 13A was only the first step by the Indian Government on Sri Lanka to divide the geographically and strategically centre piece island on ethnic grounds.

It is a well known fact the 13 amendment was forced upon the Sri Lanka government by the Indian Government without providing an opportunity for a public debate or a referendum.ƒÆ’-¡  The spineless Sri Lankan government succumbed to the Indian pressure.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  The cunning Indian Leaders used the so called non-existing ethnic problem in Sri Lanka to their advantage.ƒÆ’-¡ 

As part of the second phase of the long term plan to strengthen theƒÆ’-¡  LTTE and divide Sri Lanka,ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ the Indian Leadership and Velupillai Prabhakaran drafted the Ceasefire Agreement. ƒÆ’-¡ MrƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ Ranil Wickremasinghe (RW) ƒÆ’-¡ blindly signed it ƒÆ’-¡ (even though he is a qualified lawyer) without providingƒÆ’-¡  an opportunity for a public debate or a referendum.ƒÆ’-¡  So, on two occasions Indian Leaders were able to twist the arms of our leaders and forced corrugated Indian political high-handed acts on Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡  After signing the Ceasefire Agreement, RW gave a free hand to the LTTE to import or locally procure basic raw materials and earth moving heavy equipment/machinery etc. to the LTTE to build bunkers, air strips etc.ƒÆ’-¡  For committing this cardinal sin, RW has not yet been politically fully punished by the Sri Lankans.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 

The situation in Sri Lanka today is vastly different .ƒÆ’-¡  Having developed the North and East with most of the infrastructure facilities, should these two areas be now handed over to the TNA in a Golden Platter with full powers vested in the 13A?ƒÆ’-¡  If land powers are given to these goons, will there be any future possibility for Sinhalese to buy land and establish homes and ƒÆ’-¡ businesses in those provinces, a privilege otherwise freely granted and enjoyedƒÆ’-¡  by ƒÆ’-¡ Tamils ƒÆ’-¡ residing and ƒÆ’-¡ operating in all other Provinces in Sri Lanka. At present Sinhalese are an inferior group of citizens in Sri Lanka whereas minority Tamils are in a superior class,ƒÆ’-¡  at a much higher elevated rank than their counter partsƒÆ’-¡  in Tamil Nadu or other Provinces in India.

ƒÆ’-¡ Messrs Vasudewa Nanayakkara, DEW Gunasekera, Athawuda Seneviratne Group represent anti Sinhalese and their ƒÆ’-¡ voices have been rejected by the voters many times.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  If they leave the government, this group will become an instant politically bankrupt pedestrians with the JVP.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  By contrast with the political will of progressive forces in the SLFPƒÆ’-¡  and the UNP, Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ability to maintain the central controlƒÆ’-¡  within a Unitary State is enhanced with the collective active participation, devotion and commitment by the JHU, MEP andƒÆ’-¡  JNP.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 

Tamil Tigers and Diaspora will continue with their struggle, whether at the CHOGM meeting in Perth, Australia or at Oval Grounds in London in a Cricket Match.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Dr Manmohan Singh may decide to refrain from attending the CHOGM meeting in Sri Lanka to avoid internal political dangers in India for the Congress Party, with the impending elections in 2014.

If you do attend the CHOGM meeting, you will be treated by the Sri Lankans exactly the same traditional manner in which we will welcome all other leaders and visitors.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  We urge you to attend the meeting and also make a ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ visit ƒÆ’-¡ to North and East to form your own opinions as to how we have looked after the Tamils who were denied of their basic human rights by Velupillai Prabhakaran and contemporary Indian Leaders for 30 years.ƒÆ’-¡ 


June 20th, 2013

Chanaka Bandarage, Lawyer

The procedure that needs to be followed for the amendment/repeal of any provisions of the 13th Amendment is articulated in the following two Articles of the Constitution:

  1. Article ƒÆ’-¡ 154G (2) – this provision requires a Bill to amend or repeal any provisions of the 13th Amendment to be referred by the President ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-to every Provincial Council for the expression of its views thereonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. If ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-every Provincial Council agrees to the amendment or repealƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ such a Bill could be passed with a simple majority. On the other hand, if ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-one or more Councils do not agree to the amendment or repealƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ such a Bill needs to be passed by a 2/3 majority. (Article 154 G(3) is similar to 154G (2), it deals with the Provincial Government List.
  2. Article 82 (5) – a Bill for the amendment of any provision of the Constitution or for the repeal and replacement of the Constitution , shall become law if the number of votes cast in favour thereof amounts to no less than two-third of the whole number of Members (including those not present) and upon a certificate by the Presidient or the Speaker, as the case may be, being endorsed thereon in accordance with the provisions of Articles 80 or 79.

It is clear that the 1st ƒÆ’-¡ part ofƒÆ’-¡  Article ƒÆ’-¡ 154G (2)ƒÆ’-¡  (if ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-every Provincial Council agrees to the amendment or repealƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ such a Bill could be passed with a simple majority of the members of the Parliament), contradicts with Article 82(5), which demands a 2/3 majority of the members of the ƒÆ’-¡ parliament. This is a serious drafting error of the Constitution (there are several such errors). No doubt if referred to the Supreme Court, it will say that the Article 82(5) prevails over Article 154G(2). This is because the Article 82 (5) clearly covers Amendments to the Constitution (Chapter 12).ƒÆ’-¡  Repeal of ƒÆ’-¡ the 13th Amendment, amounts to an amendment of the Constitution.

In our previous media Releases, the 1st time being on 21 April 2013, ƒÆ’-¡ we showed two Referendum Pathways to repeal 13A:

Note Articles 3 andƒÆ’-¡  4 (a) of the Constitution:

(i)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Article 3 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” in the Republic of Sri Lanka sovereignty is in the People and is inalienable.


(ii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Article 4 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”the Sovereignty of the People shall be exercised and enjoyed by the People at a referendum.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Referendum Pathway 1 (this is better than the 2nd)

1. Articles 80 (2) and 85(1) process

This is a 3 stage process as follows:

(i)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Stage 1 – ƒÆ’-¡  Per Article 80 (2): A Bill to abolish the 13th amendment should be put for the approval of the Cabinet of Ministers (a simple majority in the Cabinet is sufficient). The current JHU Bill, with amendments, is sufficient. The Cabinet of Ministers should issue a Certificate stating that they intend to submit the Bill for approval by the People at a Referendum.


(ii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Stage ƒÆ’-¡ 2 – ƒÆ’-¡  Per Article 85 (1): The President is required to submit the Bill to the people by Referendum (note,ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”shallƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ which imposes an obligation upon the President)

ƒÆ’-¡ If the People have votedƒÆ’-¡  in favour of abolishing the 13th Amendment, ƒÆ’-¡ then,

(iii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Per Article 80 (2), The President is required to issue a certificateƒÆ’-¡  in the following form: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-This Bill/provision has been duly approved by the People at a Referendum.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ 

We previously stated that the above i), ii) and iii) stage process is sufficient to abolish the 13th amendment, and we standby this.

True, it is possible to argue that pathway 1 does not comply with Article 82(5), due to the following reason:

Article 80 (2) refers to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-any BillƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, whereas Article 82 (5) is specific, and refers to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-A Bill for the amendment of any provision of the Constituion or for their repeal and replacement of the Constitution ..ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬; and ƒÆ’-¡ the Article 82 (5) expressly requires a 2/3 majority vote from the parliament, which has not been complied with on this occasion.

We say this argument has no merit and it does not apply to pathway 1 (ie, ArticleƒÆ’-¡  85(2) will not apply to same). This is due to the following two reasons:

(i)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Although not expressly stated, Article 85 (1) covers amendments to the Constitution. We say this because the words ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-not being a Bill for the repeal or amendment of any provision of the Constitution;ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ found inƒÆ’-¡  Article 85 (2) are not found in Article 85 (1).


(ii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Article 80 (2) clearly states ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-such provision shall become law upon being approved by the People at a ReferendumƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡  Article 80 (2) also states that the certificate issued by the President ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-shall be final and conclusive and shall not be called in question in any courtƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

Therefore, issue of the certificate by HE the President will lead to the abolishment of the 13th Amendment; that will also abolish all of the 9 provincial councils


  1. 2.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Pathway 2 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Article 86

Article 86 is clear and unambiguous ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The President may, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ submit to the People by Referendum any matter which in the opinion of the President is of national importance.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Therefore, it seems Article 86 is another pathway available to HE the president to hold a ƒÆ’-¡ Referendum, (without the involvement of the Cabinet).

Although it is not set out in the Constitution, JR Jayewardene after he won the 1982 referendum to postpone the General Election, held under the Article 86, ƒÆ’-¡ referred the matter to the Supreme Court for sanction, and he obtained same. Thereafter, he passed a Bill in the Parliament with 2/3 majority.ƒÆ’-¡  If ƒÆ’-¡ JRJ method is ƒÆ’-¡ followed, His Excellency ƒÆ’-¡ the President may be able to ƒÆ’-¡ refer the matter to the Supreme Court for approval and pass an ƒÆ’-¡ Act in the Parliament with 2/3 majority. Given that the people have voted in favour of theƒÆ’-¡  referendum, the members of the parliament will have to provide the 2/3 majority to pass the legislation.ƒÆ’-¡  Otherwise, those who fail to vote in favour of the Bill should be regarded ƒÆ’-¡ as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”traitorsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ by the people.


Seeking India’s Help Over 13A By Terrorist SupportiveTNA Sounds Feeble Minded.

June 20th, 2013

In Retrospect By Sarath Kumara

June 21st 2013

In a somewhat asinine perspective the TNA who appear to be losing their foothold in Sri Lankan politics as their terrorist supportive role in the past is gradually coming to light,ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ have once again mired themselves in controversy while synonymously attempting to dragƒÆ’-¡ India into a situation which could embarrass the Indian Administration if it chose to dance to TNA tunes as it involves an issueƒÆ’-¡  far removed from IndianƒÆ’-¡  jurisdiction and entirely an internal Sri LankanƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ matter.

This namelyƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ beingƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka Not India!!! set in place by a previous adminitration .

This is an issue many political analysts believe was a grave Faux Pas made by the JR Jayawardena administrationƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ in 1987ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  which not onlyƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ risksƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ compromising NationalƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Security but also gives false hopes to a miniscule minority within Sri Lanka some of whomƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ to all intents and purposes have never given up attempting to divide Sri Lanka using illegitimate means to do so where their call would more rationally be favourable towards being aligned with national unity amongst all Sri Lankans comprising a single unitary state and one leadership.

Hence, at times it seems quite bewildering to theƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ rational mind that in the aftermath of almost three decades of an internal illegitimate armed insurrection

by the infamous Tamil Tigers,ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ put down by the present administration,ƒÆ’-¡ despite its redundant state they seem toƒÆ’-¡ live on aided and abetted by the TNA who having gained entry into the political spectrum by some ungainly means as they really should have been stripped of their political rights on the basis of their links to the Tamil Tigers albeit curiously tolerated perhaps by the leniencies and moderation ofƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ theƒÆ’-¡  pragmatic President who in all probabilities now

needs to begin calling their shots and confronting them as contentious and detrimental towards the well being of Sovereign Independent SriƒÆ’-¡ Lanka particularly when they start running to the Indian AdministrationƒÆ’-¡  yelping like a pack of disoriented jackals thatƒÆ’-¡ ~quotinfg from some late breaking news reportsƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ” India should take ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-measuresƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to ensure that the Sri Lankan government does not succeed in robbing provincial councils of certain powers under the 13th amendment, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-We hope that India will take measures to arrest the trend and reverse the process and hold Sri Lanka to its word (of going beyond the 13th amendment),ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ quoting M A Sumanthiran, member of the six-member Tamil National Alliance delegation,ƒÆ’-¡  as posted on Indan Express.

In this respect it needs to be made clear thatƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ neither is Sri Lanka robbing anyƒÆ’-¡ provincial councils of any powers related to 13A in anyƒÆ’-¡ verifiable sense as

any related powersƒÆ’-¡  conjoiningƒÆ’-¡  theƒÆ’-¡  amendmentƒÆ’-¡  was never incorporated fully towards implementation,ƒÆ’-¡ nor is there a needƒÆ’-¡  to arrest any trend or reverse any process beyond reversing the powers allocated to the 13th Amendment at ratification time if applicable or atƒÆ’-¡ the leastƒÆ’-¡  re-structuring itƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ as it is non Nation friendly and provides platforms forƒÆ’-¡  secessionary elements like the TNAƒÆ’-¡  towards reviving the meticuloisly eliminated Tamil Tigers which some of their supportives including a few flybynight politico sensationalists in Tamil Nadu have sworn to do using the term revival of Tamilealam.

Surely an aberration of the norm which provides all the present freedoms enjoyed by all SriƒÆ’-¡ Lankan citizens including the TNA which therefore becomes a contentious issue if those within this spectrum are attempting to ursurp it for all the wrong reasons involving their own agendas and attempting to involve India where far more pressing issuesƒÆ’-¡  appear to be an ongoing concern for India to deal with

What Indian Administrators in all probabilities need to realise if they already haven’t is that all the rhetoric emanating from the TNA Camp about devolution of power, non fulfilment of agreements reached towards vesting powers to the Tamil community and the role played by provincial councils towards themƒÆ’-¡  are worthless and deemable as null and void on a two pronged basis ~ there are many Tamils who overwhelmingly support the GOSL and repudiate attempts by the TNA to represent them on the basis that they were Tamil Tiger supportives and still are and

there is no felt need towards this call to block the proposed changes to the 13th Amendment( depite it being an internal matter not a real concern for India beyond appeasing its block vote in Tamil NaduƒÆ’-¡ relative to the ruling party!)

The vociferous call to abandon or change the venue of the Commonwealth Prime MinistersƒÆ’-¡  summit also seems a wasted effort which has visible links to the TNA’s agitations over 13 A.

Furthermore from a Sri Lankan StandpointƒÆ’-¡  the Administration has concluded that the Provincial Council System does not really serve the needs of Sri L

anka where there may be other options which primarily revolve around a united Sri Lanka andƒÆ’-¡ Tamils too are an integral pert of her existence and functioning as there is a strong indication that the PCS too needs to either be re-vamped or discontinued altogether by virtue of its misuse.

13 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­

June 20th, 2013

ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¥ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

13ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚):

  1. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’-¡  (NFF) – 13 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 2/3 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ . ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · (ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚).
  2. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º (JHU) – 13 ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 2/3 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 2/3 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ – ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ )ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · (ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚).

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ 1 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ 2 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ – ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ . ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º (ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±). 1 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ 2 ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  7ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ 3ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘

3.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º). ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¨ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 129 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘). ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’-¡ – 1987 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” 13 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¨ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯?

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º -ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 2/3 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¨ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­; ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ (i), (ii) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ (iii) ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · (iv) ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘:

(i)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’-¡  – (80 (2) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 13 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± [ƒÆ’‚ ¶"‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·"‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶"‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·"…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡) ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·"' ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·"‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶"‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·"…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·"'. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶"'ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ·"‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·"…"ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·"‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡]. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 2/3 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡).

(ii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  85 (1 ) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º – ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ [ƒÆ’‚ ¶"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·"‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶"' ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·"…"ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·"- ƒÆ’‚ ¶"‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (discretion) ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­; ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·"…"ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·"…" ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·"…"ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·"' (ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…"shallƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢)].

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º:

ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·, 1987ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 13ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ (ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ), ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ 13ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’-¡ (ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±)

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  [(ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º -(ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…"NoƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ Vote) ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·"'ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ]; ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ :

(iii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  80 (2) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ – ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · 9ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘! ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘! (ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡).

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 3ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± – ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 4 (a) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± -ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡:

(ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦) ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ .

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± 13 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡.

(iv) ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ 80 (2 ) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ 85 (1) ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 86 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ (ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”national importanceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢) ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ (JR ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  1982ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º).

ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ 1987ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’-¡ 13ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º,ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­/ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ 13ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 2/3 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’-¡  (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶») ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§/ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶») ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ – ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (referendum) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ HƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡, ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (discretion) ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚: ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”, ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (good faith) ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·,ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶») ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  13 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

13 jk ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ) ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»/ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚.

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­) ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸, CHOGM ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡),ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ (ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¨ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘). CHOGM ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ . ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¨ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘; ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ,ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ – CHOGM ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡).

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · TNAƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ /ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ) TNA ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘? ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”/ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º/ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” (ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚) ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ (by-laws) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ – ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶©) ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

13ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- TNA ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘? ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (leaflet) ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±:

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» (ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ (ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ).


ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º

  • ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-,ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  (TNA) ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚.
  • ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ – ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” TNA ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’-¡ CHOGM ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘, TNA (ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§) ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ – ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”.
  • ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ /ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ /ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘) ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”/ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­.
  • ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (USA), ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (France), ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (Malaysia) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­.
  • ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§, TNA/ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶± 23,000 ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.
  • ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘) ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’-¡  (ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ km 6ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘) ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  15 ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ TNAƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ 100% ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ‘ TNA ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯/ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.
  • TNA ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ – ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡.
  • ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­.
  • ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘, ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘,ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ – ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± 9ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬) ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­) ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  1/3 ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  2/3ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­.
  • ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¨ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º 1987ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ 13ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘) ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ 1987ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚.

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘, ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±.ƒÆ’-¡  13ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±.

ƒÆ’-¡ lttestampsplus

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

  • ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ (ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘). ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚
  • ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± TNA ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» 4ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚, ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ /ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­.

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ – ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚

13ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« (ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘).ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±:

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶±: 071 13 34 224 (ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¹)

ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ : srilankasupportgroup@bigpond.com

ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s just not Cricket

June 20th, 2013

Michelle Alexander

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-At approx. 21:00hrs on Monday 17 June, officers on-duty outside the Oval Cricket Ground became aware of a number of items being thrown by members of the crowd. The crowd had dispersed by 21:35hrs.ƒÆ’-¡ No arrests were made in connection with the incident.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ London Metropolitan Police.

Sri Lankan cricket fans in London became the focal point (perhaps a target) of protests of British Tamils Forum supporters, members of the Diaspora who still support the LTTE. The LTTE has been proscribed by the United Kingdom, yet it continues to receive patronage, as evident in the picture given below.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ LTTEdemo

  • One of the main objectives of this group is to put pressure on the international cricket establishment to boycott the Sri Lankan team, similar to boycotting South Africa due to the Apartheid. Perhaps the protestors should familiarize themselves of the abuses perpetrated in South Africa due to Apartheid, and the difference of what took place in South Africa and what took place in Sri Lanka. If it is about 1983, they should be reminded that while mobs shielded by the government rampaged, many ordinary Sinhalese folk risked their own lives and the lives of their families to shelter and protect Tamils. Further, citizens from all communities suffered due to the war.
  • ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Sri Lankan ethnic Sinhala fan mobs gathered an assaulted Tamils, as they do in Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Do they know something that we, the folks living in Sri Lanka donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t? The protestors are welcome to forward irrefutable proof of such on-going abuses on Tamils in Sri Lanka, if any, for all to see.ƒÆ’-¡  And no, not just Channel 4.

  • Politics, especially of this nature should not be mixed with sports. Sports should be used to strengthen ties between people and communities. Leave cricket out of this mess. ƒÆ’-¡ 
  • Does the diaspora truly care about the welfare of their brethren in Sri Lanka? This question itself requires in-depth researchƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ and a separate article altogether.ƒÆ’-¡ 

This is in no way a generalized view of all Tamils living in the United Kingdom. But the fact that the LTTE supporting sections of the diaspora could operate freely, while flouting laws is beyond belief.

IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Prime Minister dismayed over Sri Lanka moves to dilute the 13th Amendment

June 20th, 2013

Asada M Erpini

Many peace-loving Sri Lankans, who love their country, are bound to respond, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-We are dismayed at the pretended ignorance of the Indian Prime Minister as regards what goes on in Sri Lanka as far as Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Tamils are concernedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

The meeting of the six-member team from the Tamil National Alliance (TNA) with the Indian Prime Minister, reported in the media on 19 June, has bought up quite a few worthwhile issues that deserve closer analysis.

The current Indian Prime Minister is probably the most educated Indian who held the prestigious position in a country that has a population of over one billion. He very well knows that the 13th Amendment is not any amendment to Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s constitution that the citizens of the island nation ever wanted: it was merely an intrusion into the sovereignty of a friendly country that one of his predecessors hatched with the advice of the pundits in India’s External Affairs Ministry.

Sri Lanka is under no obligation to implement any of the stipulations stated in the 13th Amendment. The entire amendment was signed under duress by the then President of Sri Lanka in 1987. Whether Sri Lanka implements the 13th Amendment, goes beyond the 13th Amendment, dilutes the 13th Amendment or throws the garbage into the dustbin – where it really belongs – is a matter for the current Sri Lanka government and the people of Sri Lanka. If Sri Lanka desires amendments to its constitution, there are many Sri Lankans who can do an admirable job, without leaving it to India.

The Indian pundit goes on to add, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The changes would also be incompatible with the recommendation of the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC)ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. At least the gentleman had the generosity, probably unwittingly, to then continue that the LLRC was set up by the Sri Lanka government itself. The obvious logic in this situation is that if the Sri Lanka government set up the LLRC, the very same government has every right to do whatever it wants with the report produced by the LLRC.

The most absurd aspect in the reported statement is that he ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-(the Indian Prime Minister) was deeply concerned about the welfare and wellbeing of the Tamil community in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. Before the gentleman sheds buckets of tears on behalf Tamil citizens of a separate independent and sovereign country, he can devote his energies to improve the lot of the over 70 million Tamils in Tamil Nadu, who happen to be citizens of India.

What is unpardonable in the Indian Prime MinisterƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s pronouncement is his desire that the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Tamil community (in Sri Lanka) would lead a life of dignity, as equal citizens, and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ that India would make every effort to ensure the achievement of a future for the community marked by equality, justice and self-respect”. It is the LTTE that deprived hundreds of thousands of Tamils the opportunity to live with dignity: many Tamil political leaders were gunned down, and in the final stages of the war, which all the western pundits are fond of harping about, nearly 300,000 Tamil civilians had been herded from the north east to the north west of Sri Lanka by Pirabaharan ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the Godfather of the present day TNA delegation members. It is only after the armed forces of Sri Lanka managed to rescue the civilians from the grip of the LTTE leader, the Tamils living in the north have had the chance to rebuild their lives.

The ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-equality, justice and self-respectƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ that the Indian leader laments about, and which he implies are deprived from the Tamils in Sri Lanka, are there in plenty for the law abiding. What they have is no different from that that the other ethnic groups enjoy. In fact, if one considers the north, the Tamils have privileges that none of the other communities possess: the thesavalamai law prevents Sinhala or Muslim people buying land in the so-called Tamil areas, whereas some of the previously Sinhalese-dominated areas such as Wellawatte, Bambalapitiya and Kotahena in the Colombo District are today almost twin towns of Peduru Tuduwa, Nagadipa or Kankesanthurai.

It is worthwhile in this connection to quote an item of news that appeared in Times of India on March 15, 2012 which has been quoted by SCAD, a charity that is pleading for contributions (http://www.scad.org.in/2012/shocking-figures-on-open-defecation-in-tamil-nadu/). It is reported that nearly half the population in Tamil Nadu do not have proper toilets and that caste-based discrimination has deprived millions of Tamils of their rightful place in society. The report referring to open defecation inTamil Nadu ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the land of the Tamils ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” quotes IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s 2011 Census and states, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-45% of the stateƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s population resorts to open defecation due to the lack of sanitation facilities.ƒÆ’-¡  The article reads ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The situation is worse in rural areas where only 2% of the population is covered by the pipeline sewerage system. As a result, over 73% of rural population defecate in the openƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. The bleeding heart of IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Prime Minister has the work cut out within his own country if he is sincere about the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-lack of dignity for TamilsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬! It is surprising that readers have not come across utterances by the doctor vis a vis such deplorable, pathetic and disgusting state of affairs in his backyard.

The writer strongly believes that one should never stop learning. What the Indian Prime Minister needs today is a few good lessons on the demography of Sri Lanka and the educational, health and employment opportunities enjoyed by the Tamils. The TNA certainly should not be his teachers.


Remove 13 Amendment to stop India interfering into internal affairs of Sri Lanka.

June 20th, 2013

By Charles.S.Perera

ƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka, despites its Independence in 1948, despite its breaking away from Colonial values in 1956, despite its single handed military operations against a ruthless group of terrorists and eliminating them, despite the new diplomatic relations and considerable development of the Island within 5 years after elimination of terrorism, is having itsƒÆ’-¡  SovereigntyƒÆ’-¡  damaged by incessant interference of India over the Tamil issue having an indirect control over Sri Lanka because of the India Sri Lanka Pact under which a nefarious Amendment was forced into our constitution holding the then president under duress.

ƒÆ’-¡ The 13Amendment with its beginning in India is the only handle India has to dictate terms to Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡  TNA the proxi terrorist party too gets revitalised through the 13Amendment to cross the border to meet its diaspora sponsors to championing the cause of Rudrakumaran and Father EmmanuelƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Global Tamil Forum ƒÆ’-¡ to divide Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ America too uses the 13Amendment to activate the TamilNadu against Sri Lanka andƒÆ’-¡  ensure India performsƒÆ’-¡  the role it had been allocated by USA to disrupt Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s unitary status.ƒÆ’-¡  A divided Sri Lanka would allow America to have a military base in Trincomalee to check the progress of China into the Indian Ocean.

Therefore the way to keep away these anti Sri Lanka forces is to withdraw theƒÆ’-¡  13 AmendmentƒÆ’-¡  which would paralyze their anti Sri Lanka Activities.ƒÆ’-¡  It is the 13 Amendment which makes the unpatriotic separatist Tamil M.A.Sumanthiran of the TNA dare say to The Indian Express:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- India should take ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-measuresƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to ensure that the Sri Lankan government does not succeed in robbing provincial councils of certain powers under the 13th amendment and that they, hope that India will take measures to arrest the trend and reverse the process and hold Sri Lanka to its word (of going beyond the 13th amendment)ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

And to add insult to injury the Indian External Affairs Ministry has issued a statement that Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-dismayedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ at the Mahinda Rajapaksa government for trying to remove key powers of the provincial councils just before elections to the Tamil-majority northern provincial council in September ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-, and added that, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-..such proposals raised ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-doubtsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ about the commitment made by the Sri Lankan government to India and international community of reaching a political settlement that would go beyond the 13th amendment.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

How could India dare address such a statement vis ƒÆ’†’  visƒÆ’-¡  Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s internal administration if not for the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-handleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ the 13 AmendmentƒÆ’-¡  ?ƒÆ’-¡  India in reprimanding Sri Lanka invokes the intervention of the International Community.ƒÆ’-¡  The statement the President Mahinda Rajapakse is supposed to have madeƒÆ’-¡  about a political settlement that would go beyond the 13 Amendment could mean any thing, but that he will introduce the 13 Amendment fully and add some more privileges above and beyond what had been specified in the 13 Amendment. That is a misunderstanding by India and often repeated by the unpatriotic separatist proxi terrorist TNA MPs

Apparently UNP has asked for two weeks delay to nominate its members to the PSC and the TNA has not responded.ƒÆ’-¡  If the Government were to wait for them to nominate their participating members to hold the PSC it may take a long time, perhapsƒÆ’-¡  even after the proposed PC elections in September.

Resorting to a delaying tactic is the possible way to stop the Parliamentary action against the removal of the 13Amendment, or passing an Amendment to reduce its effect.ƒÆ’-¡  The Government should therefore issue a final notice to UNP and TNAƒÆ’-¡  giving them a day for the nomination of their members, after which the government should go ahead with the PSC sittings.

If the Government keeps on hesitating, next it will be Ban Ki Moon and Navineetham Pillai who will come into the seen followed by the Amnesty International , Human Rights Watch, ƒÆ’-¡ the International Crisis Group, and the American State Department with the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-big mouthedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Robert OƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢Blake.ƒÆ’-¡ 

If as usual the Government and the SLFP talks without taking action to make the issue urgent, it will be all talk without action.ƒÆ’-¡  Hence the Government should provideƒÆ’-¡  means to go ahead with the repeal of the 13 AmendmentƒÆ’-¡  without any further delay.

India dismayed ?

June 20th, 2013

Ranjith Soysa

According to the Times of India report the Indian Prime Minister in his discussions with pro-separatist TNA has indicated his dismay over the ” Sri Lankan government’s attempt to dilute the 13 Amendment imposed on Sri Lanka by force by India.

ƒÆ’-¡ The question remains why the Indian government was having discussions with the TNA and not with other political parties such as the JHU, the JNP and the MEP and the JVP who have expressed their intention in no uncertain terms as to the unsuitability of the 13 A. Why should India still attempting to derail democracy in Sri Lanka by entertaining racist TNA ONLY for discussion of a domestic Sri Lankan issue which has come up for criticism ever since 13 A was introduced in 1987.

ƒÆ’-¡ Referring to the Sri Lankan government’s position with regard to 13 A, Mr Gotabhaya Rajapakse, Sri Lanka’s defense secretary has mentioned that Sri Lanka has in fact conveyed to India that the Police powers will not be devolved to the Provincial councils and Sr Lanka will come up with a hone grown solution to the issue of empowering people at the periphery in delivery of services.

ƒÆ’-¡ India may be dismayed -or may not be -as ‘reported’ by the Times of India over theƒÆ’-¡  reexamination of Indian made 13AƒÆ’-¡  by the majority of SrI Lankans in the post-LTTE war period as it should be. The threat of the gun totting LTTE is no more. Having liberated the Sri Lankan people from the yoke of the LTTE , the time is up for new thinking for a old problem.

ƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka ‘s policy in relation to decentralizing should be a home made one as the Government has advised India and not automatic adoption of 13 A and 13 A plus as desired by the forces who are keen in ignoring the unrealistic and unscientific provinces created by the British to suit their ulterior motives.


US lied about WMD in Iraq. If UN allows Syria to fall the UN must close shop

June 20th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

Plenty of fabrications went into preparing the grounds to militarily invade Iraq. There were no WMDs, Saddam had no links to 9/11 or Al Qaeda and he may have been dubbed a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-dictatorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ but he did not do any of the damage the US and Allies have done to the Iraqi people. So who really is the villain? Now President Assad is being called all sorts of names ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” whether true or not is irrelevant in the light of the manner that the West is carrying out a proxy war in Syria. We must look at the situation not by judging from what the Western media or its Governments tell us but by the TRUTHS of all the military interventions in the past. They were all LIES and nothing but LIES. These lies destroyed an entire nation and ancient civilization ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the world cannot allow the West to tell any more lies. Can President AssadƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s wrongs be corrected by arming Islamic rebels and then using the brunt of the Eurocentric international laws at their disposal to do what the West likes to people and countries they hate? If UN is going to simply allow another repetition of Iraq, Afghanistan and Libya ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” it is now time for the people of the world to demand the closure of the UN system and for nations to prepare for self-defense. The UN is only working for the West and its cohorts. If at all UN member states must now demand reparations for the damage that the US and West has caused in all of the nations that they militarily intervened in under the bogey of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-humanitarian interventionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ or R2P.

Illegality of arming rebels

Libya was an open case of the West arming rebels and being obnoxious enough to publicly state so. The UN Charter and Resolutions 1970 and 1973 says it is illegal for any entity to arm rebels. Violating this means a breach of international laws. Can we count the number of international laws the US and NATO has violated/breached? What has been done by the UNSG about these violations? Absolutely nothing. Navi PillaiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s slip is showing too. Did the puppet UN Secretary General even issue a statement that arming rebels cannot be permitted? Of course not.

What is the legal principle on which the UN Charter was built ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” to AVOID war and ENSURE peace. Has the UN followed its main principle? Certainly not.

So when local peace dove agents come flicking pages of the UN Charter, Human Rights manuals donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t forget to ask some of these questions.

Hillary Clinton lied when she said Resolution 1973 substituted Resolution 1970 no different to the lie that there was a war zone in the Balkans. As such Obama, Clinton, Sarkozy, Alain Juppe, Cameron and Hague stand guilty of deploying military equipment against forces which were not attacking civilians in Libya.

How many nations are to fall for the people of the world to demand a stop to this bloodshed? Are we not guilty of allowing murder by simply watching it take place? Is the future of our children to live in a world that is full of the debris caused by the nuclear weapons and chemicals being used with impunity? Are our children to be deformed and subject to various health and physical ailments that we are to subject them to pharmaceuticals for life? While we will continue to need to be treated for eating foods that are equally contaminated with water suffering similar fate? Where do these perpetrators think they can live, eat and drink after they have poisoned the world? A handful of selfish egocentric and money-hungry people cannot be allowed to ruin the world of 7billion people. Attacking nations, killing people, dropping bombs appear to be games for them but what is the damage they are causing to some of the ancient historical civilizations of the world? These criminals should not be given even an invitation to speak or grace any occasion. People should shun them to give a message and all those who are linked to them should be equally treated.

Hillary admits the US created Al Qaeda ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” if that is so what is the nonsense behind the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-war on terrorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and who are we really fooling? Even 9/11 may say was a set up. What has been the cost of a trillion dollar war on the American people and subjecting millions of others to various tortures mental and physical?

If the US Government is linked to the Al Qaeda and they in turn have links to other terrorist organizations all of which are radical Islamic groups being indoctrinated to kill people especially Muslims by Saudi money this troika is a dearth to the entire world. So when we ask why are Muslims killing Muslims it does make sense but it hasnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t yet made sense to most Muslims who do not wish to accept that their Arabian brethren are actually killing their own people. The Wahhabi connection is prevalent in all. Muslims need to accept that Saudi has spent over $100billion over 20 years on spreading its radicalism. Boston bombers and the men who killed an unarmed British soldier in the streets of London all have links to ƒÆ’-¡ Al-Muhajiroun. All it takes is to look at all the conflicts of the world and the fact that in virtually all the conflicts are between Muslims. SyriaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s conflict has now been turned into an open fight between SunniƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s and Shias. But the sectarian element is something that has been planted by the West ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” just as they have pinned the minorities against majorities as a tool for interference. The Wahhabis hate Sufis, Buddhists, Christians, Jews, Hindus and atheists too.

The rebel jihadists number over 40,000 and these same men are being imported from country to country with the blessings of the West to be used as supposed ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-nativesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ angry with ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-itsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ government. These same lot were used in Libya too aided by Saudi and Qatar on behalf of the West. In a guerilla warfare where the enemy does not apply conventional war methods and strategies why should the Syrian army especially when the enemy has been handed unconventional and illegal weapons?

The fact that these jihadists are not delivering results has obviously prompted the West to go for their next option with the no fly zone. We saw that take place in Libya. But the 500,000 strong Syrian military is a more formidable opponent than GaddafiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s forces.

Why would 40,000 extremists need to be imported to Syria if Syrians were opposing their leader? For starters the rebels are not even Syrian and probably are those who had been fighting in all of the conflicts that were known as the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Arab SpringƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ manufactured according to the West and funded by its Saudi ally.

Why would these extremists need to be given arms, ammunition and training by the West if there was no sinister plan involved?

People need to start asking these questions and not simply watching fellow human being been targeted and destroyed. The conniving, the lies, the bloodshed must now stop. Media is equally to blame for helping spread fabrications instead of exposing the truths. If the West doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t like Assad ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” well tough luck. Most of Asia donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t like the West and what they do but we have to put up with them. It doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t mean that anyone can arm, train and fund people to cause mayhem and these are the very countries that beckon nations to sit at conferences, shake hands and talk of a solution over a cup of tea!

A question for HRW and Amnesty both mouthpieces of the WestƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s democracy dogmas may like to answer how West is transplanting democracy in Africa and Middle East through supposed ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-humanitarianƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ intervention and handing over the reigns of power of these nations to Islamic radicals who plan to create anarchy in the entire region?

Israel would surely like to wonder too whether all these Islamic radicals being placed by the West surrounding Israel is actually to neutralize IsraelƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s strength and when friends who are used to double crossing for profit one can never guess which way the pendulum is shifting.

The US is nothing but a rogue state. A nation that dropped 2 nuclear bombs on Japan and thereafter dropped leaflets of warning they would use force cannot stand on any podium and preach human rights and morality ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” it is a nation whose Governments have had no morals. Whatever Government has changed, the US has attacked nations or deposed democratic leaders, install puppets, says it doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t talk to terrorists who they created, says its citizens have freedom of speech and the Americans actually think so but then comes the NSA leak and now we know that Americans are being bugged and so too is the entire world and the US thinks the whole world are fools to buy all their lies ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” but the world has been fools and this is where we now need to change the status quo.

US led attack on Syria started in 2011 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” 2 years on the Syrian army is teaching more than a lesson or two and now the rebels are in retreat having lost ground and strategic areas as well.

As RussiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Putin asked David Cameron ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-I think you will not deny that one does not really need to support the people who not only kill their enemies, but open up their bodies, eat their intestines, in front of the public and cameras,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Putin said at a joint news conference in London with Prime Minister David Cameron.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Are these the people you want to support? Is it them who you want to supply with weapons?ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

As for the UN ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” it is an organization that has been hijacked by powerful nations to be used according to their whims and fancies using laws that were defined by then and applies to everyone other than them. If the UN memberships are simply to attend annual sessions and take a group photo with beaming facing while elsewhere millions of people are dying for some sort of reason that is not natural then we need to now question how valid and necessary the UN is.

It is now time to stop the bloodshed and killing. People are not bait for a handful who enjoy seeing others suffer and to give a clear signal to say NO to the practice of profiteering from wars UN members must now demand awarding reparations for all the damage that Syria and all other nations that faced a bogus humanitarian intervention had to suffer ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” otherwise it is better that we look for stewardship elsewhere other than US, UK and EU nations that contributed all these years to campaigns and bloodbath for no country that they intervened in can boast of leading better lives after the West landed.



Oh, what a tangled web theyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ve weavedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦.

June 20th, 2013

Michelle Alexander

The Government of the USA has been rocked by the allegations made by Mr. Edward Snowdon on the practices of the NSA. As the saga continues, more political and diplomatic embarrassments appear to be in the pipeline. However, putting aside the ongoing revelations and whether or not Mr. Snowdon is a traitor, this saga underlines deeper issues.

  • The actions of Mr. Snowdon reveal a major lapse in security as the fundamental principal is authorized intelligence officers should have access only to the material they need to do their jobs.
  • Was an in-depth background check carried out on Mr. Snowdon before he was hired?
  • Was there a level of complacency in the security systems and protocols by the NSA, which would have allowed Mr. Snowdon to work within the system without being noticed?
  • Would the NSA have knowledge of major crimes that have taken place both locally and internationally? If that is so and details have not been passed on to the relevant agencies, wouldn’t that make the NSA complicit in these crimes
  • Has the program really been successful? ƒÆ’-¡ It was reported that this program helped prevent several terror threats, yet it did not prevent the Boston Marathon bombing.
  • Would other parties now be able to hack into the system and obtain information relating to the general public in order to use it against them
  • Did the NSA consider the ramifications pertaining to relations with other countries should such a breach happen.

The coming weeks and months will reveal the true extent of the political and diplomatic damage caused by these revelations. For us regular Jane’s and Joe’s, how can we protect our privacy? maybe we should go back to the good old days of sending letters!

PCs wonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t have police powers-Govt. has told India

June 20th, 2013

By Shamindra Ferdinando Courtesy Island

India had been informed of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s decision not to devolve police powers to provinces at the height of the conflict, Defence Secretary Gotabhaya Rajapaksa said yesterday.

The Defence Secretary said that both, President Mahinda Rajapaksa and he, had emphasised during deliberations with senior Indian officials that devolution of police powers would be inimical to the national interest as well as political stability. “We made our position clear during talks involving top level delegations from Sri Lanka and India”, he toldƒÆ’-¡ The Island.

The three-member delegation comprised Presidential Secretary Lalith Weeratunga, then Senior Presidential Advisor Basil Rajapaksa and the Defence Secretary. The troika functioned as an informal group on behalf of President Mahinda Rajapaksa to inform and interact with all those who matter, within and outside the country, in general and on events unfolding in Sri Lanka from time to time and visited New Delhi several times during the war.

India was represented by National Security Advisor M. K. Narayanan, Foreign Secretary Shivshankar Menon and Defence Secretary Vijay Singh.

The Defence Secretary was responding to Indian media reports of Indian Premier Manmohan Singh expressing concern over President RajapaksaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s decision to amend the 13thƒÆ’-¡ Amendment to the Constitution.

The Defence Secretary said vesting provinces with police powers would be inimical to the interests of minorities. Recollecting a discussion they had in New Delhi, Rajapaksa said that when Narayanan queried from Singh what he thought of RajapaksaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s opposition to police powers being devolved to provinces, the Indian Defence Secretary had agreed fully with him.

When it was pointed out that President Rajapaksa had assured India as well as other countries that his government would offer 13thƒÆ’-¡ Amendment plus, the Defence Secretary said that what the President had meant was that he would give a better solution acceptable to all communities. It would be nothing but foolish to misinterpret the PresidentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s assurance to propagate the falsehood that the government was ready to implement the 13th Amendment, which was forced on the then President JRJ.

Responding to allegations that Sri Lanka had gone back on its promise to implement the 13thƒÆ’-¡ Amendment after the conclusion of the conflict, the Defence Secretary alleged that it was the government of India that voted for the US-led resolution against Sri Lanka at the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) after having promised to throw its weight behind Sri Lanka. “India let us down in Geneva, very badly,” the Defence Secretary said.

Commenting on the proposed Parliamentary Select Committee (PSC) to study the national issue and make recommendations, the Defence Secretary said that the tangible actions would have to be taken to ensure the 13thƒÆ’-¡ Amendment wouldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t be the cause for further chaos. If implemented fully as it is it could create a volatile situation not only in the Northern Province but other regions as well, the Defence Secretary said.


June 19th, 2013

By Kanthar P Balanathan Melbourne, Australia

Hon Mr Rahul Ghandi

Vice President

Indian National Congress

12, Tughlak Lane,

New Delhi – 110 011


Honourable Vice President,


LTTE & India

The world is aware of the past pursuits of India, on how and why they trained the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE) in the 70s and 80s. In the 80s LTTE was quite active in Tamil Nadu (TN), where MGR gave the fullest support with funds etc. I was in India in 1984 on holiday, and I came to know the activities of the LTTE. LTTE was a cancer to India. They were domiciled in Indira Nagar, Thiruvanmaiyur and militarily active in Koyambathoor.

It was courage, wise, and a strategic decision, late Rajiv Ghandi took to drive all terrorist out of TN. However, subsequent actions have led to a state of confusion and instability in the region. Thrusting the 13th amendment was a shortfall without proper strategic studies.

The racial and xenophobic issue in SL started with SJV Chelvanayagam kicking off the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Tamil Kingdom PartyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, which is virtually telling Tamils that his vision was secession from SriLanka (SL). The reason for forming this party is believed to be because SJVC was not given a portfolio, but GG Ponnambalam was given one. SJV was a Congress party member prior to the portfolio differences.

Sir, we cannot debate on this human behaviour, which is a natural psychological sickness in politics. In India, the Dravida Kazhagam deviated into branches and currently, every Tom, Dick & Harry who forms a party has that word included in their party name, and thatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-DRAVIDAƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. Today, how many Dravida parties are there? This is indicative that they are not patriotic but xenophobic and racial. Apart from INC and BJP are there any parties that are patriotic? Every political party in India and among Tamils reflect racial outlook.

Ceylon & SriLanka

Since 1949, Tamils have been triggering severe problems to GOSL; On the other hand, Tamils had free education, free health, subsidised items for their living etc. They took most of it free and did not refuse to go to the University. Most of the Tamils who had free education to PhD level and degree level emigrated and they were assisting those separatists (LTTE) in SL. That is indicative of lack of gratefulness, patriotism, and loyalty. We, Tamils are a bunch of ungrateful rustics & country-dwellers. In spite of late Rajiv Ghandi attempted to solve the issue, the ungrateful LTTE went on to assassinate the former Prime Minister, which is a good example of our psychiatric culture.

While we appreciate the actions of late PM Rajiv Ghandi, his feat to include police and land powers to the N&E PC is not appreciated. India did not do a strategic study on this provision to the PCs.

History, Elam and Tamil as Classical Language

Sir, history proves that South Indians have been plundering and invading SL for several centuries. That is a time when UN did not exist. In the pre-scientific era, people assessed people by their strength & courage of their ability to kill people. Meaning of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-KshatriyaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is only for defence of their nation and not to invade and murder citizens.

Sinhalese settlers came into Ceylon in 5th century BCE with Budhdhism from King Asoka in 273BCE. The city of Jaffna in the North was established in the 14th century AD, which is approximately 1,700 years after the Sinhalese settled. The language spoken in the North was said to be Prakrit and Brahmi. (Excerpt from Britannica: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Almost from the beginning of Ceylon’s recorded history, sporadic invasions by the Tamils of South India had been commonplaceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.)

The claim by the Tamils, of Tamil Elam existed in the island is a falsified claim. Of course, the land called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ElamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ existed in Persia, which was inherited by Sumerians/Dravidians.

My research reveals that proper Tamil scripts were originated only in the 15th century. Some of scripts like, ehaaram, ohaaram were formulated by the Italian, Constantine Joseph Beschi,ƒÆ’-¡ locally called, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-VeeramaamunivarƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in the 18th century. What is the reason for the creation?

(Ref: http://newindianexpress.com/states/tamil_nadu/article2777.ece.)

The so called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-BrahmiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ script was used by all races and there may not have been a separate ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Tamil BrahmiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. The villages and region in the North are Sinhala words, may be denounced from Brahmi. Regions like Weligama (m), Araly: These words do not carry any Tamil (old or current) meaning, but carry Sinhala meaning. It is known that Sanskrit was developed from Prakrit. Several Prakrit and Sanskrit words do appear in Sinhala and Tamil.

Countries called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ElamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-& ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-PartiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ existed in Persia and are said to be related to Sumerians and/or Dravidians. Partia invasion later converged into Parathions and subsequently into Pallavas dynasty. Pallavas used Prakrit and developed Sanskrit.

(Please Refer: http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/brah11.gif)

These facts are being highlighted here for reasons of convincing that language is not something that is constant or fixed as it is, but changes, depending on the quantitative and qualitative aspects of human life. For example: An Italian had to reform the Tamil Language in Tamil Nadu. Could we then assume that Tamilians were incapable of developing scripts for use with definite meaning?

Within the 2500 years, several inventions and creations have led to finding new words to identify items. Particularly, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-VeeramaamunivarƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ reformed Tamil Language in the 18th century. Word starting with ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-OhaaramƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ etc. was not in existence 2500-3000 years ago. Hence categorising Tamil Language as one of the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Classical LanguageƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (Chemmozhi) is disputable. Within the last 150 years, Tamil Language may have undergone several changes.

Another example is: Urdu and Hindi are similar and understandable. However, the scripts are different. One is like Arabic and the other like Sanskrit. Both exist in India. Which one is the oldest?

Therefore, Tamils to boast that their language is superior to others is profligacy. Also to claim that Tamil Elam existed in the island of SriLanka is a kind of imprudence.

Sir, you are aware that the sub-continent of India was invaded by several races from Persia, China and the continent of Russia. The only force that keeps them bonded like those ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-GravitonsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (gravitational pull), is the religion; Hinduism. Even Hinduism had its difference in the early centuries, like Vaishnavam, Saivism, etc. The wise men of India removed the differences and gave it a common word: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-HinduismƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

SriLanka-Demography, Peace, Political & Economic Stability


Critical issues: 1) the negative impactƒÆ’-¡ of foreign forces impeding the achievementƒÆ’-¡ of peace, economic and political stability and, 2) theƒÆ’-¡ propagandaƒÆ’-¡ fabricated by the Tamil diaspora, which lacksƒÆ’-¡ veracity. We, SriLankan are able to view the multidimensional diplomatic and economic forces on SL and the disproportionate level of stress, and how the non-patriotic politicians are dancing to the programmed foreign rhythm of music.

SriLanka was known as the island of Paradise and even today, it is so rich in literature, culture and history. It gives us significant level of pain to read, view the actions of the separatist Tamil politicians, may be because most Tamils are congenitally imbecile.


It is evident that the SriLankan politics has gone beyond mind control of foreign nationals, and it is evident that foreign powers are injecting vituperative and toxic proclamations with intent to destroy SriLanka. India and UN could spend more time in developing and educating nations (third world), rather wasting time in reaping assumed blemishes.


Demography as defined in the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-business directoryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is the study of both quantitative and qualitative aspects of human population. Quantitative aspects includeƒÆ’-¡ composition, density,ƒÆ’-¡ distribution, growth, movement, size, andƒÆ’-¡ structureƒÆ’-¡ of the population. Qualitative aspects are the sociologicalƒÆ’-¡ factorsƒÆ’-¡ such asƒÆ’-¡ education quality,ƒÆ’-¡ crime,ƒÆ’-¡ development, diet and nutrition, race,ƒÆ’-¡ social class,ƒÆ’-¡ wealth and wellbeing.

Ref: http://www.statistics.gov.lk/PopHouSat/CPH2011/index.php?fileName=pop42&gp=Activities&tpl=3

Department of Census & Statistics, SriLanka-Year 2012

Total population:ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  20,263,723

Sinhalese:ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  15,173,820

SriLanka Tamils:ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  2,270,924

Indian Tamils:ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  842,323

ƒÆ’-¡  Persons Percentage %
Total population






SriLanka Tamils



Indian Tamils



Statistics of SL Tamils outside N&E

Province No of Persons % of SL Tamils % of Total population
North 987,692 43.49% 4.87%
East 609,584 26.84% 3.01%
Out of N&E 673,648 29.66% 3.32%

ƒÆ’-¡ Percentage of SL Tamils inhabiting SriLanka on an ethnic concentration.

From the statistics it is evident that 29.66% of the SriLankan Tamils; i.e. 3.32% of the total population dwell outside N&E, and only 43.49% of the SriLankan Tamils i.e. 4.87% of the total population, populate the North. 231,318 Tamils populate Colombo.

On a demographic array of the N&E, i.e. qualitative facets of human life, for almost 30 years, the N&E was infested with crime, terrorism,ƒÆ’-¡ racial conflicts,ƒÆ’-¡ and social class division among Tamils, which inflicted the minds of the Tamils with terrorism, separatism, and racial xenophobic outlook.

Provincial Council

Dr. Laksiri Fernando in his article in Asian Tribune on the 15th April 2011, has highlighted the following: The recurrent expenditure in the provincial councils was dramatic; increasing from 28,856 million in 2000 to 111,336 million in 2009 (Source: Central Bank). This was almost a fourfold increase. While personal emoluments constituted around 77 % of this expenditure, these personnel were employed apparently to deliver certain services both economic and social.

Ref:ƒÆ’-¡ http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2011/04/14/provincial-councils-sri-lanka-political-economy-perspective

There has been Provincial Councils functioning for the past donkeysƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ years. As far as SriLankan economy is concerned, what added value has the PCƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s delivered to the people and the country?ƒÆ’-¡ We were able to hear and read PCƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s complain only.

  1. PCs have been only complaining on lack of funds.
  2. Proliferation of bribery & corruption?
  3. The PCs want more power, but does not want to improve their provinces.
  4. Personal enrichment of status and wealth.

What our PC politicians want is political power for their own self-esteem and personalƒÆ’-¡ economic well-being while millions of people struggle to push through their day to day living.

On an intellectual level of rational assessment and judgment, is it justifiable to devolve power to only 4.87% of the population at the expense of the 95.13%, where most foreign exchange earning yields from the South?

Well, India walked into SriLanka and ordered JRJ with an agreement; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-13th amendment; pass it on and implementƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. It is of view that Indian Government did not think on a comprehensive profoundness, perspicacity and complexity. Here, this is considered an abnormal action by the Indian Government, because a nation has ordered to note heavy liability to another nation without proper analysis and judgment.

Devolution of Power

Devolution of power and the need to decentralise power to Provinces or states is not to be construed as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-LUXURYƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. A country with inflow of large foreign capital or revenue may require power to be devolved to regions for effective and efficient financial management. In addition, a large population (just society) may require devolution of power on a Human Geographical and Demographical perspective as a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Political CommunityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. In the case of SL, PC is considered a luxury and further, devolution of power is a heavy liability on the economy of SL.

An example: SriLankan foreign exchange earning accrual is from Tea, Rubber and gems, all of which are resources in the South. The North was a liability to the South and the South is considered an asset. South subsidised the N&E for its survival. Qualitative aspects are the sociologicalƒÆ’-¡ factorsƒÆ’-¡ such asƒÆ’-¡ education quality,ƒÆ’-¡ crime,ƒÆ’-¡ development, diet and nutrition, race,ƒÆ’-¡ social class,ƒÆ’-¡ wealth and wellbeing.

We have a distressing and demoralizing caste system, whereby Tamil Elite thoughts are: A barberƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s son should do barber job. Mr Sambanthar is no different to this thought. Further Apartheid prevailed and is still prevailing in SriLanka.

The negating viewpoints of Provincial Council are as follows:

  1. The population concentration of 4.87% (987,692 people) against 95.13% in a country does not demand a separate political structure and governance. This will only blow up expenditure driving the country towards paucity. It is a luxury to a small number of people.
  2. The natural resources in the North are quite negligible compared to the rest of the country. Economic sustainability in the North can be construed as quite weak. Resource such as water is quite low and can affect agrarian development.
  3. Qualitative aspects such as the sociologicalƒÆ’-¡ factors;ƒÆ’-¡ race,ƒÆ’-¡ social class,ƒÆ’-¡ wealth and wellbeing, magnanimity, openness and readiness to develop the region is deficient in the minds of the Tamils in the North. Tamils want easy job such as trading, temple management for monetary accrual, and most of students want white collar jobs. Their commitment to entrepreneurship is quite low.
  4. Tamils have, over the past 65 years, proved that they are unpatriotic to SriLanka.
  5. Cost analysis would expose that the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-opportunity costƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ would have developed the provinces rather wasting gabbing ideological politics.
  6. 3.32% of the SL Tamils reside outside N&E. University graduates, Para-professionals and others may have an eager to drift out of the N&E to Colombo or the South in time to come. This may have an effect on the supply and demand. The comfort of these drifters (Tamils) from the N&E will be at the expense of the local natives who have lived there for donkey years. The question is; will the hoboes add value to the economy of the province? Eventually the imbalance in the supply and demand may weaken the inflation and impact GDP.
  7. Could Sampanthar & Co explain to the SL parliament, the cabinet ministers and the Indian government, their strategic plan to create jobs for the graduates, within Provincial Council administration? How do they propose to create jobs for the students coming out of the, trade schools, Technical Colleges and Polytechnics? Do they depend on the center for subsidies?
  8. If the system will not change, but continue to have an inflow to the South, then what is the added value of having PCs? Is it for racial segregation, and power devolution based on racial basis?
  9. India prodded the 13th amendment onto SL to satisfy the Tamil Nadu people. India has war fronts in the North, East and West (not eliminated). India has lived on with that fear of Tamil Nadu people rise against separation. This fear forces them to dance to the tunes of the Tamilians in TN. Further LTTE was domiciled in TN and was becoming popular among the TN separatists. A strategic move by Delhi drove LTTE out of TN and forced JRJ to accept the 13th amendment. However, is the fear towards TN based on coalition or secession demand?
  10. 10.ƒÆ’-¡  India is a country that practices Human Rights Violation. E.g. Assam terror and killing of Dalit. Killing of Dalit students at the Chennai Law College.
  11. Provincial Council to the N&E is like feeding lamb(s) to the Hyenas. The threat of separatism cannot be extinguished from the minds of the Jaffna Tamils. It will be a gradual, infinite move by the Tamils, and with the help of the TN, separatism may explode in time to come.

Strategic Outlook and Security Threat to the Region


It is of view that your challenger countries(s) would not dislike India being broken into several republics.

Threat Option 1

If India, by palpable mistake, decides to carve out N&E for a Provincial Council administration with Police and Land power, in time to come N&E will roll back into the 70s to take up arms to fight for a separate country. By default, TN will give their support to this action. What will be the gravity of the situation for India then? Impact on economy, political stability and threat coming from Tamil Nadu is inevitable.

Threat option 2

If India decides to follow the Bangladesh pattern of invasion into SL with an option of carving out the N&E from SL, it is inevitable that Tamils alongside with the Sinhalese mass and the military will fight to the last drop of blood flowing in their body with the Indian army. Where will your human rights violation be then? India should not assume that all Tamils in SL are with Sampanthar.

Tamil Nadu (may) love this option for them to join hands with N&E and fight for their separation. If India inadvertently grants secession to TN, then it is inevitable that India will be broken into several republics. This is what the west and East wants, so that the west can walk in freely in the name of investment into the N&E of SL. The West now adds its Indian Ocean power center to its global power position.

Do you think that the West and the East would want two opposing powers to sit next to each other?

Threat Option 3

India has three weak fronts which are dominated by the military. East, North and West (dormant). South is waiting for an opportunity to open up a front, and may be alongside with the West (Punjab). India should be able to analyse from the political behaviour of some irrational politicians in TN, that they are power hunger. Opening up four fronts: what will be the gravity of the situation? What is the guarantee that TN and Punjab will be loyal to India? History proves that demographic changes have always led to military intervention and/or secession. Can India prove that such disintegration will never happen on a 10-30 year horizon, if India makes a mistake in their political strategy?

India is stressing SL to push for the 13th amendment with police and land powers. May be India has not understood the consequential damage to its political stability and SL political stability.

Sir, with due respects just an innocent question: India is stressing for police and land power to 2 million Tamils in the N&E. There are 72.1 million (7.21 Crores) Tamils in Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu has a square area of 130,060 sq. km with a population density of 555/sq.km. The density is considered much higher than normal average. India advocates a separate administration for N&E of SL. Would India consider, with such high population density in TN, to break up TN into 35.0 regional, district or provincial Councils with police and land power and have a Chief Minister and Ministers for each of the administration?

On whatever threat option, the west wants to creep into N&E to establish their power base.


Transnational Government of Tamil Elam_TGTE

India supported, fed and trained armed terrorist groups in the 70s and 80s. This led to catastrophic destruction of assets and human life, including late Prime Minister Hon Rajiv Ghandi. Today, India has left TGTE to operate freely in Tamil Nadu and India, the reason is not understood by most. Is India preparing to carve out N&E as a country? If ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-yesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, has India (RAW) understood the consequential damages and potential threat emanating from such secession? Has India concluded with an analysis?


On a birdƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s eye view of the current situation, it is clear that Tamil Diaspora has a strategic plan of pushing for a PC in the N&E and subsequently hovers towards separatism. The fictitious Transnational Government of Tamil Elam (TGTE) is working with Tamils around the globe and funding foreign experts as collateral to support their activities. Are you aware that TN scholars and Professors are members of the TGTE?

We request India to do a proper study and analysis of the threat that surround India at the present time.

Just another point: Cuba is a small island (country) next to US. US do not interfere with Cuba; although CubaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s political ideology is different. This is because US is not driven by any other country, but takes its own decision to maintain its stability. Cuba minds its own business and is a friend of US.

Sir, do you think India and SL can be like US and Cuba.

Kind Regards

Yours Faithfully

Kanthar P Balanathan

Paul Dewar and Rathika Sitsabaiesan, You campaign for Canada to boycott the Colombo Summit

June 19th, 2013

Asoka WeerasingheƒÆ’-¡  Kings Grove Crescent . Gloucester . Ontario. Canada

19 June 2013

Paul Dewar , NDP Member of Parliament for Ottawa Centre; Rathika Sitsabaiesan, NDP Member of Parliament for Scarborough-Rouge River, House of Commons, Ottawa

Dear Paul and Rathika:

On 27 April 2013, I wrote a letter addressed to both of you and copied it to Mr. Kamlesh Sharma, Secretary-General of the Commonwealth, in reference to NDP launching a national campaign to boycott Commonwealth Summit in Colombo.

I quoted your Press Release which said that you two ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-have launched a national campaign to pressure the Conservatives to fully boycott the Commonwealth meetings in Sri Lanka unless an independent and international investigation into alleged war crimes are accepted by the government of that country.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

I suppose you two naively believed that the rest of the Commonwealth nations were squeaky clean and would and could turn to Sri Lanka, thumb their nosesƒÆ’-¡  and say ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-We are Holier than ThouƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡  Right, Paul and Rathika?

You two also believed that when you say ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-internationalƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ that our Canada is automatically included in the word ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-internationalƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and that Canada is squeaky-clean too.ƒÆ’-¡  Right, Paul and Rathika?ƒÆ’-¡  How naƒÆ’†’¯ve can you be!

But here is a surprise for you two naƒÆ’†’¯ve friends.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Here are some headlines of news items in the OTTAWA CITIZENƒÆ’-¡  of Tuesday, June 18, 2013, which reveals howƒÆ’-¡  immoral and unethical Canada is, has been, and will be.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  HmmmmƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦I am disgusted, myself and I am ashamed to confess that I am a card carrying Conservative.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Clerk approves expenses Harb (Liberal Senator).ƒÆ’-¡  Senate staffer gave OK for living, travel costs in 2003- Harb contends basic legal rights deniedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-MP Del Mastro ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”slanderedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ me in Commons: witness.ƒÆ’-¡  Ottawa man had been named in court order for Elections Canada probeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-RCMP probe former Senate stafferƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Charity demanding refund linked to Tories. Records show board member is director of riding association, wife got appointmentsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Montreal suspends three police officersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-MontrealƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s former mayor faces bribery charges.ƒÆ’-¡  Charges tied to bribery involving real estate projectsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Ex-Tory staffer arrested in corruption probe.ƒÆ’-¡  Zajdel ran as Conservative in 2011, but lostƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬; Tory ads target Wynne as McGuinty Part 2. Liberal leader ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”active participantƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ in gas-plant scandal, Hudak saysƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬; The ethics of MP moonlightingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (editorial).

Page 5 of todayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s (June 19) OTTAWA CITIZEN head lines say: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Montreal mayor quits amid scandalƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Aboriginal children living in povertyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡  And the news item reads ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Half of CanadaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s First Nations children are living in poverty, triple the national average, according to a new analysis of census statisticsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡  Rathika, tell your partner in crime Paul Dewar howƒÆ’-¡  well the Tamil children are treated in the North and East of Sri Lanka. How theyƒÆ’-¡  enjoy three meals a day; living in houses with running water with no leaking roofs; enjoying free education from kindergarten through University.ƒÆ’-¡  Paul is going to have a shock of his life and puke on CanadaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s human rights efforts.ƒÆ’-¡  ThatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s for sure.ƒÆ’-¡  LetƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s be honest.

I will certainly back you two not wanting Prime Minister Stephen Harper attend the Colombo Summit, for the very reason, that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-creepy and bullishƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Canada has no place in that summit.ƒÆ’-¡  LetƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s keep the leader of the not so honest and not so squeaky-clean nation out of it.ƒÆ’-¡  The Commonwealth doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t need CanadaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s presence and it will be another insult to Sri Lanka after the Canadian Three Musketeers ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” John Baird, Jason Kenney and Hugh Segal, did their song and dance, and ƒÆ’-¡ tried to preach Sri Lanka on ethics and human rights, when Canada has a failing grade on both..ƒÆ’-¡  Look at howƒÆ’-¡ Canada treat the First Nations peoples. Ask the UN and AI and they will tell you all about CanadaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s records on human rights.

Well, Paul and Rathika, stop drinking those strong brain debilitating coffees first thing in the morning and switch to drinking the best Ceylon Orange Pekoes, which will infuse the Sri Lankan honesty into your system and brains, and calm you two acting and inciting irrationally about Sri Lanka.


Asoka Weerasinghe

No cadmium in rice grown in Sri Lanka, says Minister

June 19th, 2013

Bodhi Dhanapala

The WHO sponsored study (which took over three years, and the collaboration of over 50 top notch Sri Lankan scientists and doctors) issued a report on toxins in our environment in the context of chronic kidney disease.ƒÆ’-¡  Page 15 of it says that 234 water samples were analyzed for Cadmium, Arsenic and other toxins. ALL samplesƒÆ’-¡  had very safe levels (i.e., a few parts per billion). Fish and vegetables analysed were also OK.

However, they noted that lotus root was found to have a slightly higher level of these toxic metals as some plants and some fish can concentrate toxins.

The knee-jerk reaction of people is to blame fertilizers and pesticides.

It is true that people in Sri Lanka use excess fertilizer and pesticides. But if the fertilizers etc were responsible, then the water table should have been polluted. Up-country people would have got CKDU first as the tea estates use a lot of fertilizer. No body has found that tea leaves have As, Cd, etc.

Luckily, the torrential rains that we have in Lanka wash out the toxins into the rivers and send them to the sea. However, if people could reduce fertilizers and pesticides, that would produce a better, more healthy environment, although it involves more demanding and thoughtful methods of agriculture.

The problems of healthƒÆ’-¡  arises mainly because of the foolish life-style of a lot of people, congested living and congested, polluted roads.ƒÆ’-¡  People drink coca cola, pepsi and other drinks full of sugar, and start getting diabetes, with weakening of kidney. According to various writers (Prof Weeraratne, Prof. Chandre Dharmawardana, and others), people (especially males working in the hot sun of in the Rajarata) don’t consume enough water to flush out any toxins.ƒÆ’-¡  If people drank enough water every day, toxins would get flushed out naturally.ƒÆ’-¡  But instead of drinking water, they drink a few cokes, pepsi and such “prestige” drinks, followed by kassipppu in the night!

However, we do have a few people like Dr. Jayasumana of Rajarata University claiming that it must be metal toxins. Prof Nalin de Silva ( ex-math professor at Kelaniya) claims that a ladyƒÆ’-¡  who hears voices had heard from “divine sources” that the CKDU is because of Arsenic in the Rajarata soil. Normally, we regard such people who hear voices as schizophrenics (a type of mental sickness) who can be cured by suitable medication.ƒÆ’-¡  A chemistry lecturer at Kelaniya, following Nalin de Silva’s claim,ƒÆ’-¡  should have analyzed the rajarata soil. Instead she analyzed hair and nails of CKDU patients and showed that they had excess Arsenic. But this merely shows that such CKDU patients cannot flush out the toxins (bad kidney) and so they have concentrated the toxins in their bodies. The Kelaniya lecturers should have also looked into the life styles of these patients that made them sick in the first place.

Anyway, it is good to have the minister confirm that many chemical analyzes of the rice have been made and the rice is found to be safe.

General Secretary of the Bodu Bala Sena organisation Ven. Galabodaaththe Gnanasara thera had admitted drink drive offence in courts

June 19th, 2013

Courtesy lanka C news

For this weekƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Derana television programme 360 the General Secretary of the Bodu Bala Sena organisation Ven. Galabodaaththe Gnanasara thera participated. This programme is popular as a social political discussion was conducted by Dilka Samanmalee

In this discussion Gnanasara thera emphasised the fact about the culture of our Buddhist people, the manner they should live devoid of liquor, gambling etc. This was a much concern to the Buddhist Monks .He had reiterated about the habits and addiction to liquor and gambling, for which as Monks they condemn those acts.

At this moment when Gnanasara thera quipped this Dilka interruptedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦

She produced a judiciary report. The suspect was Gnanasara thera. There were nine charges. The biggest of them was driving a motor vehicle at high speed under the influence of liquor. Dilka who conducted the discussion continuously questioned the thera on this matter. Gnanasara thera had tried his best to divert from her questions by talking on other subjects, but Dilka interrupted and was determined.in questioning the thera on the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”driving after liquorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ incident. The medical reports obtained also had revealed that the thera had been under the influence of liquor. The thera was exhausted in listening had ultimately had said ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”we will now go the next questionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¥ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·






June 19th, 2013

Acclaimed Sri Lankan born author Ru Freeman will be reading from her new novel, On Sal Mal Lane, and discussing the book with author Deborah Baker (The Convert) .

Date :ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Thursday June 20, 2013

Time :ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 7 p.m.

Venue :ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ The Center for Fiction ,

ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ (between Fifth and Madison)

ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 17 E. 47th Street

ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ New York, NY ƒÆ’-¡ 10017

ƒÆ’-¡ salmallane

About On Sal Mal Lane

The Sri Lankan Civil War (1983-2009) claimed tens of thousands of lives and pitted friends, neighbors, colleagues, and lovers against one another: Tamils and Sinhalese, Buddhist and Catholic and Hindu, rich and poor. In Ru FreemanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s stunning new novel, On Sal Mal Lane, we are transported to a quiet street in Colombo in the years leading up to the deadliest conflict in Sri Lankan history. The children growing up on Sal Mal Lane fill their days with cricket matches, romantic crushes, and small rivalries. But the tremors of civil war are mounting, and the conflict threatens to engulf them all. In a heart-rending novel poised between the past and the future, the innocence of the childrenƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚a beloved sister and her over-protective siblings, a rejected son and his twin sisters, two very different brothersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚contrasts sharply with the petty prejudices of the adults charged with their care. In Ru FreemanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s masterful hands, On Sal Mal Lane, a story of what was lost to a country and her people, becomes a resounding cry for reconciliation.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Lovingly written, historically rich and compassionate to all sides of the turmoil.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚Kirkus Reviews

Ru Freeman is the author of A Disobedient Girl, which was a finalist for the DSC Prize for South Asian Literature and has been translated into seven languages. She is an activist and journalist whose work appears internationally. She calls both Sri Lanka and America home.

Deborah Baker is the author of The Convert, a 2011 National Book Award Finalist; In Extremis: The Life of Laura Riding, a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize; and A Blue Hand: The Beats in India. She divides her time between Calcutta, Goa, and Brooklyn.

India — the cause not the solution to Sri Lankan problems-Continuing review of Dr. Dayan Jayatilleka’s book, Long War, Cold Peace

June 18th, 2013

H. L. D. Mahindapala

AccordingƒÆ’-¡  to my friend Dayan Jayatilleka’s own admission his latest book, Long War, Cold Peace, was rushedƒÆ’-¡ to the printerƒÆ’-¡ in the hope ofƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ getting it out on time toƒÆ’-¡ impact on the UNHRC sessionƒÆ’-¡ in March — a critical session in which the big powers, including India, were preparing to nail Sri Lanka. This, of course,ƒÆ’-¡ implies that it was meant to be more of a political tract than a scholarly book exploring in-depth the pros and cons (in MarxistƒÆ’-¡ jargon “dialectics / contradictions”) of the post-Nandikadal complexities, particularly the external forces poking their unwanted fingersƒÆ’-¡ in the Sri Lankan kiri buth.ƒÆ’-¡ Besides, the main thrust of the book doesn’t indicate that it was written to defend Sri Lanka.

On the contrary,ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ the contents, by and large, go toƒÆ’-¡ back the anti-Sri Lankan forces. For instance, in his book he cites approvingly the latest anti-Sri Lankan international mafia consisting of Frances Harrison, the BBC correspondent who is still counting the dead, Gordon Weiss who is caged in his own phobias and fantasies and even S.V. Kirubukaran, the pro-LTTE activist from Paris who is a permanent anti-Sri Lankan feature in the lobbies of the UNHRC in Geneva.ƒÆ’-¡ Dayan picks up every bit of muck thrown at Sri Lanka by these one-eyed Jacks and Jills andƒÆ’-¡  hails each bitƒÆ’-¡ asƒÆ’-¡  a part of the growingƒÆ’-¡ external forces that are rising to flattenƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka in one single stroke. He even cites in one of his recent articles a posting in the CNN made by a member of the TGTE (Tamil Ghost of Tiger Eelam) — the mythicalƒÆ’-¡ government of Jaffna Tamils which can’t even issue aƒÆ’-¡ visa to its bogus Prime Minister, V. Rudrakumaran in New York,ƒÆ’-¡ to go to the toilet next doorƒÆ’-¡ –ƒÆ’-¡  as another piece artillery fired at the GOSL.ƒÆ’-¡ Reading all thisƒÆ’-¡ one does not have to be a political scientist to guess onƒÆ’-¡ whose side Dayan is right now.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ForƒÆ’-¡  good or for bad, his book couldn’t make theƒÆ’-¡ Geneva deadline. Most probably, he was hoping it would be hisƒÆ’-¡ equivalent ofƒÆ’-¡ Channel 4 films.ƒÆ’-¡ What better authority thanƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ a formerƒÆ’-¡ representative ofƒÆ’-¡ Sri LankaƒÆ’-¡  at the UNHRC to demonise Sri Lanka!ƒÆ’-¡ ButƒÆ’-¡ Vijitha Yapa’s printing schedulesƒÆ’-¡ failed to make it in time for Geneva.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ This, however, hasn’t prevented hisƒÆ’-¡ textƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ beingƒÆ’-¡ quoted by his favourite anti-Sri Lankan propagandists like Gordon Weiss. Quoting an ex-diplomat of the Sri Lankan governmentƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ lends greater authority to anti-SriƒÆ’-¡ Lankan lobbyists abroad than their own voices.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

This raises a serious moral question. The Sri Lankan situation at the 11th session of UNHRC in Geneva (March 27, 2009)ƒÆ’-¡ was not radically different from what it is today.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ It was the first post-conflict session of the UNHRC in Geneva. ƒÆ’-¡ As stated by Dayan, within a matter of hours Hilary Clinton pushed the EU to move the resolution against Sri Lanka. More importantly, she moved against Sri Lanks with hardly any evidence — not even a cooked up one like that of Colin Powell against Iraq –ƒÆ’-¡ to put Sri Lanka on the mat.ƒÆ’-¡  They were out to get Sri Lanka. They were playing politics. They were determined to teach Sri Lanka that it can’t do what America does day in day out to protect its internal security, with orƒÆ’-¡ without Indians tightening theirƒÆ’-¡ turbans round theirƒÆ’-¡ giddy heads.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

The onlyƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ significantƒÆ’-¡ change since then has beenƒÆ’-¡ India’s stance against Sri Lanka. According to Dayan, it is India’s stance that is critical for victory in the international arena. So was the victory in Geneva due to his diplomatic skills or due to his following the Indian line abandoningƒÆ’-¡ the long-term interests of Sri Lanka? India’s line was to commit Sri Lanka internationally to the 13th Amendment. Dayan’s resolution did just that.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Since that is the realityƒÆ’-¡ should the creditƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ then go to DayanƒÆ’-¡ or to India? According to Dayan’s logic, any Sri Lankan donkey can win in the international arena if it follows the Indian line. So on what basis does Dayan claim it to be a personal victory for his diplomatic skills when he admits that to win all what is necessary isƒÆ’-¡ to say “yes sir, no sir, three bags full sir”, to India? Does he consider such aƒÆ’-¡ subservientƒÆ’-¡ role as diplomatic skill or stooging?

There is no rationale for any self-respecting Sri Lankan — particularly in view of the political and administrative costs and failuresƒÆ’-¡ caused byƒÆ’-¡ the 13th Amendment forƒÆ’-¡ the last 25 years — toƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ perpetuate the 13th AmendmentƒÆ’-¡ as God’s gift to Sri Lankans.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Its presence in theƒÆ’-¡ Statute Book is theƒÆ’-¡ most degrading insult to Sri Lankan dignity and self-respect.ƒÆ’-¡ Why? The 13th Amendment isƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ the ultimate symbolƒÆ’-¡ of naked Indian imperialism. All of Dayan’s political theory — Marxist or otherwiseƒÆ’-¡ — shouldƒÆ’-¡ have made him recognise instantly the nature of Indian intervention.ƒÆ’-¡ Even Indian commentators have gone as far as saying that India’s interventions amounts toƒÆ’-¡ “bullying” of a small nation. As a “political scientist” he should have been the first to spot the imperialisticƒÆ’-¡ characterƒÆ’-¡ of Indian arm-twistingƒÆ’-¡ to serve Indian interests. As an anti-imperialist Marxist it should have been his moral duty to condemn India’s role in Sri Lanka. InsteadƒÆ’-¡ he welcomes it as a benignƒÆ’-¡ act of a benefactor whose aim is to restructure Sri Lanka according to his gospel.ƒÆ’-¡ 

Throwing out the 13th Amendment is only way to kick Indian imperialism out of Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡ Right nowƒÆ’-¡ India isƒÆ’-¡ piqued and highly agitatedƒÆ’-¡ because Sri Lanka isƒÆ’-¡ making a strong bid to overthrow the Indian yoke.ƒÆ’-¡ However tardy it may be there is an established tradition of Sri Lankans working out their own salvation through their nativeƒÆ’-¡ genius. For instance, it may have taken 33 years to end the Vadukoddian violence launched by the northern Tamil leadership. But they did end the war triumphantly by (1) ƒÆ’-¡ saving the lives of 300,000 Tamils held as hostage and, above all, (2) restoring normalcy and democracy to the Tamils of the north who were suppressed under the jackboots of theƒÆ’-¡ brutal Tamil Pol Pot.ƒÆ’-¡ America, after ten years and spending $60 billion, is still struggling toƒÆ’-¡ avoid anarchy in Iraq, let alone restoring normalcy.

Giving Sri Lanka the breathing space to work out its own paths to peace, reconciliation and progress is the prime need of the hour. Dayan in his Geneva resolution tooƒÆ’-¡ argued on “the principle of non-interference in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of tates”. Despite the pompous rhetoric India has to yet to convince the world that it is committed toƒÆ’-¡ the Gujral or Panchaseela doctrines. The Sri Lankans have to fight back to regain theirƒÆ’-¡ freedom and their right to solve their problems withoutƒÆ’-¡ IndianƒÆ’-¡ interventionistsƒÆ’-¡  assuming the pretentious role of having answers to Sri Lankan problems.ƒÆ’-¡ The IndiansƒÆ’-¡ must first prove that they have the capacityƒÆ’-¡ to solve their own problems — from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh — before they step in to solve their neighbours’ problems. On top of this, theƒÆ’-¡ irony is that India expects Sri Lanka to be beholden to the Big Brother each time the bully kicks Sri Lanka in the guts.ƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka owes nothing to IndiaƒÆ’-¡ — not even the help it gave in the last stages — because as Lalith Weeratunga, President’s Secretary, said recently Sri Lanka would not be in this position if India kept its hands off Sri Lanka

Furthermore, the Jaffna Tamils are realistic enough to realize that the 13th Amendment was not introduced to serve their interests. If so they wouldn’t have opposed it with guns and going as far as assassinating the Indian author of the 13th Amendment. The merged north and east was the best strategic deal devised by the Indians toƒÆ’-¡ consolidate their position in the Indian Ocean. Having their proxy in command over the Trincomalee harbour was better than the Chinese having a foothold in Hambantota. With the 13th Amendment we were not handing over power to the Jaffna Tamils. We were handing over the entire northern and eastern coastal belt to the proxies of Indian puppet masters.ƒÆ’-¡ This wasƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ confirmedƒÆ’-¡ in the case of Varatharaj Perumal, the first stooge of India. And it is revealed even now with TNA being summoned to Delhi to hold pow-wows on how to further mutual interests.

From the word go,ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ the 13th AmendmentƒÆ’-¡ has beenƒÆ’-¡ the legalisedƒÆ’-¡ backdoor in Sri Lanka forƒÆ’-¡ IndiaƒÆ’-¡ toƒÆ’-¡ creep in andƒÆ’-¡ manipulate politics in its southern flank.ƒÆ’-¡ Nobdoy wanted it ƒÆ’-¡ — not even the TULF or Prabhakaran. Dayan knows only too well that it was pushed down the throats of all communities and political parties by India throughƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ gun boat diplomacy. His distinguished father, Mervy de Silva, has written enough and more on this topic.ƒÆ’-¡ Besides, if,ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ by any chance,ƒÆ’-¡ IndiaƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ had doneƒÆ’-¡ this to Cuba –ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Dayan’sƒÆ’-¡  ideal MarxistƒÆ’-¡ havenƒÆ’-¡ run by “Saint Castro” — he would be doing an anti-imperialistƒÆ’-¡ Kavadi, in his loin cloth, opposite the South Bloc in Delhi, with Ranil Wickremesinghe and SampanthanƒÆ’-¡ beating theƒÆ’-¡ IndianƒÆ’-¡  drums to theƒÆ’-¡ Tamil extremistƒÆ’-¡ rythmƒÆ’-¡ of “Goo-ooo-urang! Goo-ooo-urang!”ƒÆ’-¡ 

The 13th AmendementƒÆ’-¡ was India’s solution to India’s neo-colonial problems caused byƒÆ’-¡ India’s determination to get a foothold in Sri Lanka. It wasƒÆ’-¡ theƒÆ’-¡ veneer for painting India as the goody-goody benefactor when in reality it was the creator of the political evil of destablising Sri Lanka through the violenceƒÆ’-¡ of Tamil terrorism bred in the womb of mother India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, the vindictiveƒÆ’-¡ witch of Indian politics. India’s foreign policy is based on the hypocrisy that it has been the protector and benefactor of Sri Lanka without acknowledging its unpardonable crime of violating international law, war crimes and crimes against humanityƒÆ’-¡ every step of the way, startingƒÆ’-¡ from training camps in India to theƒÆ’-¡ failed IPKF operations. My friend Susantha Gunatilake hasƒÆ’-¡ convincinglyƒÆ’-¡ demonstrated the reaction of the unofficial international community, represented by The New York Times, TheƒÆ’-¡ Guardian etc.,ƒÆ’-¡  (Daily News –ƒÆ’-¡ 6/6/2013), exposingƒÆ’-¡ India’s violation of international lawƒÆ’-¡ by invading Sri Lanka on theƒÆ’-¡ pretext of dropping humanitarian assistance.ƒÆ’-¡ 

Furthermore,ƒÆ’-¡ the 13th AmendmentƒÆ’-¡ has not served any positive or significantƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lankan interests, either for any community or the nation as a whole.ƒÆ’-¡ It has created more problems than solving any. But since 1987 when it was introduced India needed internationalƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ respectability andƒÆ’-¡ legitimacy for itsƒÆ’-¡ imperialistic interventions in Sri Lanka. Dayan was the first to give that legitimacyƒÆ’-¡ in an international forum, in writing, by includingƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ the 13th AmendmentƒÆ’-¡ inƒÆ’-¡ his Resolution in March 2009. ƒÆ’-¡ And having done that he and his allies in India and Tamil diaspora are using it as the legal bench markƒÆ’-¡ against Sri Lanka.

Right now he seems be obsessed with the aim of pushingƒÆ’-¡ the 13th Amendment as the panacea to all the national and international problems facing Sri Lanka. Irrespective of the rapidly changing dynamics of the post-Nandikadal developments he sticks doggedly to the 13th Amendment. His ideological roots go back to the time when he was a minister in the puppet regime of Varadaraja Perumal whoƒÆ’-¡ was a slimy stooge ofƒÆ’-¡ India. Eventually, DayanƒÆ’-¡ together with his leader, Vardaraja Perumal, foundƒÆ’-¡ refuge in India. India, pursuing its self-interests, naturallyƒÆ’-¡ harbours itsƒÆ’-¡ agentsƒÆ’-¡ who serve its foreign interests.ƒÆ’-¡ Perhaps, it is either loyalty to India or the mistaken belief that India can do whatever it wants in the India Ocean — including what Michael Ondaatjee’s grandmother did, “piss into it” (See Running in the Family)– that makesƒÆ’-¡ DayanƒÆ’-¡ feel that Sri Lankans are there to polish Indian shoes.

Of course,ƒÆ’-¡ in the resolution steered by him in 2009 at the UNHRC he had committed Sri Lanka “to a political solution with the implementation of the 13th Amendment to bring lasting peace and reconcilliation in Sri Lanka.”ƒÆ’-¡ Whether it was necesary for him to go that far — mainly to appease India — isƒÆ’-¡ questioned by cool-headed, senior diplomats who would have handled the situation more expertly without pushingƒÆ’-¡ Sri LankaƒÆ’-¡ into a difficult cornerƒÆ’-¡  by committing itself to India’s 13th Amendment.ƒÆ’-¡ InƒÆ’-¡  hindsight, it is clear thatƒÆ’-¡  he should have confined the commitment “to a political solution to bring lasting peace and reconciliation in Sri Lanka.” That would haveƒÆ’-¡ confirmed him as a sagacious, far-seeing, adroit “political scientist” who had foreseen the coming events and outfoxed the enemies threatening the security and theƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ overall ƒÆ’-¡ interests of the nation. But he was blinded by his commitment to the 13th Amendment which heƒÆ’-¡ should have knownƒÆ’-¡ was a cure worse than the disease.ƒÆ’-¡ It was an IndianƒÆ’-¡ move that even the Indian forces — the fourth largest army in the world — could notƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ implementƒÆ’-¡ through its puppet Varathraja PerumalƒÆ’-¡ orƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ enforce to subdue Prabhakaran — the monster created by India.ƒÆ’-¡ As a realist, let alone political scientist, he should have seen it coming. Trying to force it down the throat of the nationƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ now by raising the bogey of Indian goni-billa does not justify his claims to beƒÆ’-¡ a political scientist who can read the future.

Moreover, nothing that wasƒÆ’-¡ inscribedƒÆ’-¡ by him in the resolution of 2009 including –ƒÆ’-¡ 1.ƒÆ’-¡ the principle of non-interference in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of States, 2. the liberation tens of thousands of its citizens that were kept by the LTTE against their will as hostages, as well as the efforts by the Government to ensure safety and security for all Sri Lankans and bringing permanent peace to the country; 3.ƒÆ’-¡ the duty and responsibility (of the state)ƒÆ’-¡ to provide protection and humanitarian assistance to all segments of the population, including Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), without discrimination; 4. ƒÆ’-¡ reaffirming the obligations of States to respect human rights law and international humanitarian law while countering terrorismƒÆ’-¡  (Dayan agrees it was just war fought with less violations of humanitarian law than US etc); 5. reaffirming the respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, and its sovereign rights to protect its citizens and combat terrorism, 6. condemning all attacks that the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) launched on the civilian population and its practice of using civilians as human shields; 7.ƒÆ’-¡  recognizing that the promotion and protection of human rights should be based on the principle of cooperation and genuine dialogue and aimed at strengthening the capacity of Member States to comply with their human rights obligations for the benefit of all human beings — mattered to the West and the anti-Sri Lankan lobbies.ƒÆ’-¡ Any commitment by the GOSL toƒÆ’-¡ implement LLRC / 13th Amendment didn’t matterƒÆ’-¡ either.ƒÆ’-¡ They were determined to run over Sri Lanka like a steam roller.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

So why is Dayan stoking the fires ofƒÆ’-¡ that steam roller now?ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Is it because he feels that hisƒÆ’-¡ 2009ƒÆ’-¡ “victory”ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ in GenevaƒÆ’-¡ hasƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ not produced anyƒÆ’-¡ lasting benefitƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ to the nation? It cannot be considered as a landmark victory because it evaporated in the next sessions. His role in 2009 can be dismissedƒÆ’-¡ as a pyhrric victory whichƒÆ’-¡ helped India more than Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡ In fact, the West could claim that they feel vindicated andƒÆ’-¡ justified inƒÆ’-¡ opposing his resolutionƒÆ’-¡ because the very man who steered the resolution is nowƒÆ’-¡ arguing against the nation he represented, regurgitating the accusations of the West.ƒÆ’-¡ Since nothing substantial has changed between 2009 and the time he wrote the book — all the blackmarks he highlights in his book were there in 2009 too — his moral obligationƒÆ’-¡ is to jettison the imperialistic flotsam and jetsamƒÆ’-¡ on board andƒÆ’-¡ stand byƒÆ’-¡ theƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ main objectiveƒÆ’-¡ of defending the nation.ƒÆ’-¡ But when he goes against his own resolutionƒÆ’-¡ what is the obligation for others to uphold it?

What Dayan has failed to recognise is that his current standƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ is condemnedƒÆ’-¡ in the words of his own resolution. (I refer to 2009 Resolution as “his resolution” because, rightly or wrongly, he claims ownership of victory to his diplomatic skills. Secondly, a section of the Foreign Ministry states Dayan interpolated some parts –particularly the reference to the 13th Amendment –ƒÆ’-¡ on his own initiative to appease India.) Among other things, his resolution said that the UN “(W)elcomes the resolve of the Sri Lankan authorities to begin a broader dialogue with all parties in order to enhance the process of political settlement and to bring about lasting peace and development in Sri Lanka based on consensus among and respect for the rights of all the ethnic and religious groups inhabiting it and invites all stakeholders concerned to actively participate in it.” The operative part of it states categorically the need to “enhance the process of political settlement and to bring about lasting peace and development in Sri Lanka based on consensus among and respect for the rights of all the ethnic and religious groups inhabiting it and invites all stakeholders concerned to actively participate in it.” In brass tacks, this means that anyƒÆ’-¡ consensus must contain the consent of both theƒÆ’-¡ north and the south.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ History has rejected the misleading notion thatƒÆ’-¡ the 13th AmendmentƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ introduced to appease theƒÆ’-¡ Indian and Jaffna political leadershipsƒÆ’-¡ adds up to a consensual agreement that would fulfill the aspirationsƒÆ’-¡ of all communities.ƒÆ’-¡ ThatƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ cannot beƒÆ’-¡  the meaning of consensusƒÆ’-¡ because it applies only to one community, plus India.

Nor will the rights of all ethnic groups be fulfilled only by implementing the 13th Amendment because it violates the rights of non-Jaffna Tamil ethnic groups.ƒÆ’-¡ And since he knows, through existential experience, that the 13th Amendment, has been bone stuck in the throat of ethnic groups the consensus has to “begin (with) a broader dialogue with all all parties / stake holders.” His resolution ended by urgingƒÆ’-¡ “the international community to cooperate with the Government of Sri Lanka in the reconstruction efforts, including by increasing the provision of financial assistance, including Official Development Assistance, to help the country fight poverty and underdevelopment and continue to ensure the promotion and protection of all human rights, including economic, social and cultural rights.” So where does this leave Dayan when heƒÆ’-¡ is condemning his own resolution and aligning himself with the pro-13th Amendment forces?ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 

HisƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ obsession with theƒÆ’-¡ 13th AmendmentƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ blinds him toƒÆ’-¡ theƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ unravelling ƒÆ’-¡ dynamics of the post-Nandikadal developments.ƒÆ’-¡ ThisƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ is partly driven by hisƒÆ’-¡ over-exaggerated impression of India’s power in global affairs which even the Indians do not believe in. Indian analysts like Dr. Subramaniam Swamy are warning India not to overreact and alienate Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Swapan Dasgupta of the BJP too has taken a broad swipe at the external interlopers meddling in the internal affairs of Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡ Identifying the current source of interferenceƒÆ’-¡ asƒÆ’-¡ the Tamil diaspora he says: Today, the LTTE has been militarily defeated but the diaspora funds are being used to keep alive the old Sinhalese-Tamil divide in politics and international relations . There is peace and growing prosperity in the Tamil areas, and only the political loose ends remain. This in itself is a challenge but the reconciliation process isnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t helped if the diaspora is determined that its unchanging historical memory and hateful vision for the future must set the tone for the country they left behind.”

This statement conveysƒÆ’-¡ aƒÆ’-¡ profound meaningƒÆ’-¡ to the current situation. He is just not blaming the Tamil diaspora for funding “to keep alive the old Sinhala-Tamil divide and international relations”. He goes further and putsƒÆ’-¡ hisƒÆ’-¡  finger in the right place when he says that “the diaspora is determined that its unchanging historical memory and hateful vision for the future must set the tone for the country they left behind.”ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Isn’t Dayan too afflicted by the sameƒÆ’-¡ “historical memory and hateful vision for the future…”?

In a sense,ƒÆ’-¡ DasguptaƒÆ’-¡ is also hinting at India’s interventionist policies when he says: “Imagine our reaction if IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s politics was sought to be remote-controlled from Southall and New Jersey.”ƒÆ’-¡  Indeed!

Dasgupta is right again when he says that the “remote-control” button must be switched off, permanently. It must begin with India — the mother of all Sri Lankan problems. Any concessions to India like the way Dayan did in Geneva is going to bedevil Sri Lankan politics further. Post-independence history proves that Indian imperialist interventions have dragged Sri Lanka and India into the depths of varied disasters.ƒÆ’-¡ India could have achieved better results if its spent the money and the IPKF forces in the poverty-stricken state of Chattisgarh where it is facing, according Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, the most dangerous threat from the Maoists to its peace, stability and progress.

Moreover, the time has come for India to calculate the cost benefit ratio of its interventions. What has India gained so far except loss of face and humiliation at the hands of a Sinhala naval rating and finally death to the author of the 13th Amendement?ƒÆ’-¡ If Indian continues to pursue its current aggressive stand against Sri Lanka it is boundƒÆ’-¡ to boomerang on its own security in the region. India will find it more and more diffcult to manage her economic, political and strategic interests in the southern flank if she attempts to bulldoze her way into Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡ Nobody likes a bully. And India should not make the same mistake twice. ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

In the resolution steered byƒÆ’-¡ DayanƒÆ’-¡ in 2009 at the UNHRC he hadƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ gone too far to appease India with no positive gains either for India orƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡ Dayan’s “victory” in Geneva was only a side show for India. Her most substantial victory was in Nandikadal. Eventually, India was rescued by Sri Lanka in Nandikadal. Defeating Prabhakaran — the assassin who killed their Prime Minister — stands out as, perhaps,ƒÆ’-¡ the biggest victory India scored in the region.ƒÆ’-¡ As President Mahinda Rajapakse said once:ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ “We fought India’s war and won!” Three cheers for that, Mr. President!

After handing over Prabhakaran’s head toƒÆ’-¡ IndiaƒÆ’-¡ — a feat that India’s army failed to get –ƒÆ’-¡ it has no role in Sri Lanka except toƒÆ’-¡ assist Sri Lankans to tie upƒÆ’-¡ “only the political loose ends (that)ƒÆ’-¡ remain”.(Swapan Dasgupta). This can be achieved only if India backs off. It can’t be solvedƒÆ’-¡ byƒÆ’-¡ Dayan raising the bogey of Indian goni-billaƒÆ’-¡ .ƒÆ’-¡ India should be mature enough by now not to put its boots down in their neighbourhood after its repeatedƒÆ’-¡ miserable failures in the SAARC region.

(To be continued)

People who care about the Sri Lankan Public must demand removal of Provincial Council system

June 18th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

There are plenty of people in competition with the Government claiming to know what is best for the people of Sri Lanka. So let us work upon the premise that their work is solely to ensure the masses, especially the downtrodden and poor are given the best of State services. Given that we assume that all what these representatives from forums, organizations and association say and do connotes to mean that they care for the people ideally what they should be demanding is the complete removal of the Provincial Council system because for 24 years it has offered zero-service to the people who matter and the scale of crimes and abuse committed by these provincial councils is enough reason not to continue to support a system. So why do these organizations demand the continuance of the 13th amendment and the provincial council system?

Here are the reasons why we need to categorically tell the Government that they need to take immediate action on the PC system and not simply be satisfied to take case by case disciplinary action which is simply to remove party membership and deny nomination. That cane strategy has not stopped the increase in crimes in the least. ƒÆ’-¡ 

2013 – Crimes and Abuse in Provincial Councils

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  UPFA North Western Provincial CouncilƒÆ’-¡ arrested for making a teacher kneel at his feet

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  North Western Provincial Councillor of the UNP arrested for attacking vehicle of fellow MP

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  UNP Sabragamuwa Provincial Councillor arrested for assaulting 2 foreigners

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Attanagalle MagistrateƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Court impounded the passport of Deputy Petroleum Industries Minister after the case against him for issuing death threats and kidnapping of a child in 2009 was taken up in court.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Rambewa PS Opposition Leader remanded for swindling Rs.1million from a village death society fund.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Ridimaliyadda PS Chairman arrested for assaulting a 49 year old woman and her 21 year old daughter.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Embilipitiya PS Chairman surrenders after absconding for a week on charges of assaulting 2 police officers.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Embilipitiya PS Deputy Chairman is issued notice for not appearing in court charged for driving 8000 cattle into Maduru Oya National Park, where it is illegal to graze.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Karuwalagaswewa PS Chairman assaults 18 year old. The same PS Chairman warned for drunken misbehavior in 2012.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  UPFA Karandeniya PS member remanded for molesting 36year old woman

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Deputy Chairmn of Akurana PS arrested for attacking another PS member.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Moratuwa Deputy Mayor arrested by CID for killing a Chief Monk

2012 – Crimes and Abuse in Provincial Councils

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Central provincial councilor involved in school admission racket

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Ruling party Tangalle local government councilor and 2 others surrender for raping 13 year old

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Chairman of the Akuressa Pradeshiya Sabha arrested for sexually abusing a 14-year-old

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Central Provincial Health Minister arrested for assaulting a specialist doctor at the Kandy General hospital.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Ruling party Pradeshiya Sabha member arrested for assaulting employee of the Badulla Water Board office.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  UNP member of Galenbindunuwewa PS arrested for assaulting a resident in a nearby area

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Ridigama PS member arrested for hurling stones at a vehicle of a Kurunegala District parliamentarian

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  UPFA member of Warakapola PS arrested for assaulted a 72 year old woman in Dedigama.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Wattegama UC Chairman surrenders after assaulting fruit vendor in Wattegama.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Mawathagama PS Chairman arrested for assaulting a 28 year old.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  UNP Southern PC arrested by Akmeemana police for causing traffic congestion in their drunken state.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Balapitiya PS Vice Chairman arrested and fined for unruly behavior due to liquor.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Ruling party Kelaniya PS member arrested for creating a commotion with residents over garbage issue

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Kalutara PS Chairman arrested by Bribery officials for accepting 3million bribe from a property developer.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  PS member arrested for involvement in double killing of mother and daughter in Kahawatte, Ratnapura

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  UNP Southern Provincial Councillor known as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-raththaranƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ arrested for disrupting traffic police

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Member Horana Pradeshiya Sabha arrested for felling a jak tree without license

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Member of Sapugaskanda Pradeshiya Sabha arrested for taking bribes from those transporting sand without license

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Secretary to a Minister arrested for taking Rs.2.6milion bribe.

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Member of Mahawa Pradeshiya Sabha arrested for killing a deer

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Vice Chairman Eastern PC arrested for threatening and abusing Trinco Court staff

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Member of Western PC arrested for murder of a millionaire

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Coordinating Secretary of a Kalutara Deputy Minister abducting a Pradeshiya Sabha member

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Chairman Karuwalagaswewa Pradeshiya Sabha assaults staff member of the PS

In 2012 alone 42 politicians belonging to the provincial councils have been filed with legal action.

2011 – Crimes and Abuse in Provincial Councils

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Killing of a British national in Tangalle by Tangalle PS Chairman and 8 others as well as sexually assaulting his girlfriend.

2010 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Crimes and Abuse in Provincial Councils

ƒÆ’-¡·ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  UPFA Western Provincial Councillor arrested for murder of millionaire in Anamaduwa


Yes, the defense establishment are ensuring that these criminals are being arrested and charged, a scenario that was non-existent previously but at what cost is all this and do we need to put up with this any longer?

We are all well aware that the PC system came about after India forced Sri Lanka to sign the Indo-Lanka Peace Accord in 1987 and therafter to amend its Constitution to introduce a system that replicated the federal system in India. Those drafting the amendment and PC system on behalf of Sri Lanka must have forgotten the size of Sri Lanka or its population as compared to that of India. ƒÆ’-¡ 

Anyway the Constitution of Sri Lanka was forced to accept the 13th amendment and PC system on 14 November 1987.

IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s reason for the 13th amendment was that it would address Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ethnicƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ problem. Agreeing to the 13th amendment was UNP, SLMP of Vijaya Kumaratunga, CP, LSSP and NSSP ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” we demand to know from them where the ethnic problem is and how in 24 years has the ethnic problem being solved? If it hasnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t been solved in 24 years and the terrorist problem was solved in 3 years it certainly shows these political parties that they have erred. Now some of these members are MPs enjoying backdoor privileges and yet using their office to undermine the national security of the nation.

Of course it was anyones guess as to why India insisted the merger of North and East subject to a referendum within a year which was never held and the demerger of the 2 provinces took place after the JVP filed an FR and successfully demerged the 2 provinces in 2006. With that precedent some advisors have fooled the President into agreeing to simply passing a bill removing his right to merge 2 or more provinces. Maybe the best option is to merge all the provinces and make it into a unitary state which is what Sri Lanka has to be and nothing else.

A good look at the 24 years that the PC system has functioned reveals not so much the lack of delegation of powers which is often a complaint made against the Government but if the simple things that the PCs are assigned to do are not done, how can they be empowered to do far more serious matters? And with such a crime wave these PCs are asking for parliamentary privileges along the lines that the Government MPs are given ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” we shudder to think how they will use these privileges given the scale of crimes that exist.

When funds are allocated if they misappropriate those funds instead of utilizing them for basic requirements for the people of these provinces should anyone but they be blamed for their inability to perform instead of complaining that PCs cannot even transfer a laborer or summon a high government official. When we see the type of characters that get elected to these PCs would any official wish to even meet them and find their fate no different to what happened to a teacher who was forced to kneel infront of a PC member inside her own class. What a traumatizing experience for the teacher and what message does it give to children who are already victims of a poor education system?

Yes, political parties are to blame ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” it is they who claim to carry out stringent campaigns to select their nominees and what do they produce ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the above records show the results. So if political parties do not encourage professionals and learned people who are respected by the people of the province and rely on thugs and goons to nominate naturally we know where Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s political stature is going to lead and no political parties will end up producing leaders for tomorrow and leaders who would serve the nation without plundering it.

There are many reasons why IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s 13th a and its PC system should be thrown into the bin ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” with such an incompetent lot of people, PCs that cannot even draft statutes (laws) and end up having to send to the AGƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s department where it gathers dust, or when they cannot represent their case at the Financial Commission yet what is the use when they end up spending funds allocated on nothing that serves the province ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” we need to now say that the Government has to seriously address this once and for all.

Maintaining provincial councils is an unnecessary burden on the people. That money could easily be used for proper welfare measures and not to fatten the purses of PC members and their families. For 5 years people have to endure tremendous suffering and if they decide to choose the opposite camp the story is no different either. ƒÆ’-¡ 

Lets hear it from the horses mouths: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- most provincial ministers and members are only interested in the enlistment of their families and not that of the people. They want to make money. So when the centre doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t give money and the members get keen on making money, there is no purpose of provincial councilsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. Gamini Jayawickreme Perera ( UNP). Former Chief Minister, Wayamba Province.

Rs.60million was spent to maintain 114 members of 3 PCs (Eastern, Sabaragamuwa, North Central)

Rs.650million was spent by the Elections Department to hold 3 elections.

How many Provinces still suffer from the lack of basic amenities like a decent road? How much of funds is needed to put some gravel on to a muddy road so that the children donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t get splattered with mud before going to school and pregnant mothers donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t risk falling and hurting themselves or the elderly escape injury too?

The Government does not need to spoon feed PC members into prioritizing what they need to do. Even the Municipalities for that matter ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” how much of money do they waste and then bemoan that they need more funds to eradicate dengue when they donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t come to pick the garbage on time or clean the drains and the people end up having to pay the municipality to collect their garbage as well as hire laborers to clear the public drains.

If the Chief Minister of the Eastern Provincial Council Abdul Majeed Mohammed says that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Sri Lanka doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t need provincial councilsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ that is a start and it is time that the others stop hiding behind various masks in view of what merits their existence and put the country before self for a change.

The ranaviruwo and the Defense Secretary has led the way by eradicating terrorism and now 4 years after that victory the politicians are still dabbling away picking straws without doing what they are voted to power to do. They are not voted to please India.

When the organizations that profess to also be concerned about the public carry placards and send aggrieved notes to foreign climes bemoaning that the Government is diluting the 13th amendment and thinking of abolishing the PC system they are no different to the PC members listed above because by wanting such a system to exist they are only encouraging crimes against people. That shows their true colors too.

We are at a critical juncture. If the armed forces led by Defense Secretary cleaned the stables and eradicated the terrorists it is now time to clean the political stable starting with removing all the foreign imposed legislatures beginning with the 13th amendment and the PC system and introducing an indigenous one. Nothing is impossible to do if there is a will to do it. If we successfully introduced and ran an indigenous rehabilitation and reintegration program while the West still has scores of prisoners in donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t know where locations, the previously functioning district councils are the best solution. Moreover, it would be good for the political parties to put an end to nominating goons and thugs and start to nurture people of respect and until such time the people must stop casting their votes for such characters without complaining after voting for them.

As for the organizations professing to be concerned about the people ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” we now know that their concern has nothing to do with the interest of the people of Sri Lanka.



ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Abolish PC SystemƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ – Jathika Hela Urumaya

June 18th, 2013

Asada M Erpini

One of the most welcome news items for peace-loving Sri Lankans, who value the sovereignty and the national integrity of their beloved Mother Lanka, is that reported in the media on 18 June: the Jathika Hela Urumaya (JHU)ƒÆ’-¡ introduced a bill today to abolish the provincial council system. Sri Lankans would, no doubt, hope and pray that the bill is passed in the Parliament and that they would no more be saddled with the provincial councils, and the offensive 13th Amendment that gave birth to it.

ƒÆ’-¡ The writer has no personal or political connections to those in JHU, or for that matter, to any of the political groups in Sri Lanka. In fact, he is not even a resident of Sri Lanka. But it is sad that the only country that defeated the most ruthless terrorist gang in the world using its own armed forces ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” when all the military pundits and the so-called developed countries said that a military confrontation against the LTTE was unwinnable ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” is now facing a non-military threat orchestrated by the Sri Lanka-based anti-Sri Lankans and their backers operating from the affluent countries.

ƒÆ’-¡ Many writers have repeatedly pointed out that the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka is not an amendment that the Sri Lankans ever wanted or in which they had a say: the bullying India when Rajiv Gandhi was at the helm forced it on a hapless and powerless nation. There is absolutely nothing sacrosanct in this amendment: it is, in fact, an illegitimate child that Sri Lanka has no moral or legal obligation to continue with.

ƒÆ’-¡ It is unpardonable that the leaders of some of the minority political parties have voiced that the 13th Amendment was introduced (in 1987) to solve the problems that Sri Lanka faced at the time. They have conveniently ignored the fact that the main problem that Sri Lanka faced was terrorism and it was the armed forces of Sri Lanka that dealt with it conclusively and ushered in an era of peace in May 2009.

ƒÆ’-¡ All that the peace-loving Sri Lankans want is peace to continue and the divisive forces and the provisions that promote their actions to be demolished. The writer earnestly hopes that JHU succeeds.


June 18th, 2013

Susantha Wijesinghe.

The 13th Ammendment has become theƒÆ’-¡  ” Aandi hath denaage kenda haliya ” among the now lunatic Politicians. Each one is putting a fistful of lunacy into the pot as their contribution.
One say that after the Elections, it is possible to go to courts, and remove clauses. Another say thatƒÆ’-¡ they will go to courtsƒÆ’-¡ to stop the removal of Police and Land Powers.ƒÆ’-¡ Yet, still another set, hops to India to tell their step father, that they are hurt. ƒÆ’-¡ So the Political Lunatics, keeps on threatening the President and the Government,ƒÆ’-¡  saying,ƒÆ’-¡ different courses of action they will take,~~if you donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t give us that, we will do this~~, tryingƒÆ’-¡ a kind of brain storm.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Indian Politicians say that the Sri Lankan Government cannot take unilateral actionƒÆ’-¡  to alter the 13th ammendment. ƒÆ’-¡ Was not this 13th ammendmentƒÆ’-¡  unilaterally pushed down JRJs throat, under duress, and with Military intimidation ofƒÆ’-¡  ‘parippu drops’, ‘aircraft carriers around galle face,’ and ‘jets zooming over Colombo ‘ƒÆ’-¡ ?ƒÆ’-¡  Not even a Megolomaniac wanted it. So he decimated its author with a woman blasting him to pieces. Sri Lankans have not forgotten this.
Why is it that His Excellency, is taking all this stone throwing, when he has the POWERFULƒÆ’-¡  PEOPLESƒÆ’-¡  POWERƒÆ’-¡  PISTOL,ƒÆ’-¡  theƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ R E F E RƒÆ’-¡ E N D U MƒÆ’-¡ ,ƒÆ’-¡ to decimate the 13th ammendment with one bullet. It takes only a once and for all shot.
The President is in his seat by the Peoples Power. So, he must go to the people and ask them to decide whether to get rid of the 13th ammendment~~YES or NO. It is so simple.ƒÆ’-¡  Not India, TNA or any Sri Lankan Traitor can contest the Peoples Power. So President should not miss the Bus.
Also, this will completely eliminate the envisaged unrest that will follow, if the LTTE Proxy is given the chance to break Sri Lanka into pieces, and negate the SACRIFICES made by Ranviruvos.
Let us prevent a catastrophe. Let the beautiful people of Sri Lanka live in peace.
Blessings of the Noble Triple Gem that wise counsel will preva

LalinƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Coloumn: Holbrooke, Devolution and War games

June 18th, 2013

By Major General (Retd.) Lalin Fernando– Asian Tribune -

(Admiral Leighton W Smith USN, C in C US Navy Europe and NATO and Allied Forces Southern Europe (1994-6) ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” who with his staff had prepared a military briefing on Bosnia for Holbrooke, the chief US envoy to Yugoslavia(1995+)

I always think of this excerpt whenever I read Dayan Jayathileke (DJ). Coincidentally Holbrooke US Ambassador to Germany, Assistant Secretary of State and head of the US negotiating team at the Dayton Peace talks wanted to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”bomb for peaceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. He also used to encourage the Croats and Bosnians to take additional territory before the cease fire even while negotiating peace. He was known to give unsolicited advice to others especially military officers and was regularly rebuffed by them especially so by Brit Gen Sir Rupert Smith Commander UN PROFOR Sarajevo and Admiral Smith. So Holbrooke impressed DJ but not the warrior Smiths. Strike a chord?

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-We got all the briefings ready and met in my office and we were treated to a couple of hours on Dick Holbrooke by Dick HolbrookeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

As for devolution, there are many experts on the subject (this does not include DJ and imitators). I have no intention to dwell on it. It was clear that at one time very few wanted it. When 8 of the 9 Provincial Councils started functioning, the country, less the corrupted, cursed. Why then is DJ carrying out propaganda, including veiled communal slants, for it?

Whatever is decided by the politicians should ensure the Tamils of Jaffna are given every opportunity to enjoy life and progress much the same as everyone else in SL. The Sinhalese meanwhile should not be made to regret whatever course their leaders take. Recent history and its cost if it is not already forgotten, will no doubt guide and weigh heavily on the minds and conscience of all concerned.

What is of concern is DJƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s urge to paint a doomsday scenario if his gratuitous warnings, veiled threats and advice on devolution are not heeded. One wonders whose cross he is carrying? It is certainly not the Tamils.

He misinterprets, invents, conjures, insinuates, threatens and boasts while hurtling an assorted and bewildering number of double edged shafts. Many have heard him before. There is no panic. He has been a politician (Minister), author, journalist, diplomat and of course a political scientist ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”but not an accurate oneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ (Don Mahindapala).

DJ rummages around and produces a Holbrooke quote addressed to Milosevic the Serbian President (both no longer living) ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”I donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t give a damn what happened half a millennia ago, weƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢re living nowƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ .Was this mentioned to deliver a smashing if not slanted left hook to drop Sinhala Buddhists for the count. Nobody should take HolbrookeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”s lack of refinement seriously. This was his pet phrase. But is this, when quoted by DJ, a barb aimed at the Sinhalese who quote their history? Prof GH Peiris (Island Mid week review 5 June 13 page III) says to DJ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-demonizing Sinhala Buddhists ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦. is an objectively counterproductive past timeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬?

Is DJ who is also an expert in ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”strategic cum military mattersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ as Peiris, tongue in the cheek alludes and DJ gratefully laps? DJ does not select non Buddhists for vilification. Is it his view everything bad in SL is Buddhist Sinhala?

DJ has always sweated hard to impress that he is at one moment in Moscow, (INTEG?) next having breakfast in Singapore with the PM there, then in Paris, Vienna, Delhi (oops), Havana (cigars?) and of course lecturing diverse militaries. The people he knows are all famous including we are reminded ad nauseum, Maj Gen Mehta (Indian) and one Stephen Ratner.

He conjures a R2P scenario to sort out what is absolutely and only a SL sovereign issue (13 A) that concerns no one else including his Indian friends. He produces MK Anthony, Indian Defence Minister to bolster his blows.

The latter apparently made a reference to SL at the opening of what DJ states (Island 5 June) is the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-brand newƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ IAF air base at Thanjavur, (Tanjore) Tamil Nadu from where a squadron of SU 30s Mk1, air superiority, heavy, all weather long range (3,500kms) fighters are based. They are in about 5 other air bases too for that matter. It is as though DJ wishes SL to believe that IAF Thanjavur (less than 15 minutes flying time to Jaffna) was ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”scrambledƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ on 27 May 2013 to put SL on red notice? ThanjavurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s objectives outside of its primary air defence rol, as also stated by Anthony, will be to provide protection for its Navy, Indian Ocean shipping lanes and vital installations in the area. Anthony spoke of defence to the Islands, quite clearly Andaman and Nicobar.

The Times of India, Deccan Herald and the Hindu reports of the opening ceremony of the base said nothing about SL. Indian media referred to the base as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”newƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ but not ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬brand newƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ for good reason. It has been in existence from 1940 when it belonged to the RAF who handed it over to the Airports Authority. The IAF took it over in 1990 and upgraded it unhurriedly from air field to air base. Certainly the IAF did not upgrade Thanjavur and station SU 30 Mk1s to devour SL even if the prospect makes DJ hysterical. Why was this misinterpreted by DJ? Is this ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”the eagles are comingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ scenario an intellectual interdiction?

DJ strains to educate readers on basic geography if not IAF strategy, as if no one else but he knew that Pakistan and China are to IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s west and east respectively, and SL is to the south. Has India not got amongst others, intercontinental and intermediate, air to air, air to surface, surface to surface missiles from Prithvi, (range 700kms) to Agni III (3,500kms) that can carry nukes too. So what is the sudden threat to SL that DJ discovered if not invented at Thanjavur to coincide with his devolution download? Has Mehta or even Ratner told him something confidentially? Should we all start getting into air raid or is it nuclear bomb proof shelters straight away or wait for DJ to give the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”all clearƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ 13 A signal?

We have had 4 years of a wonderful peace and much happiness after 26 years of harrowing conflict. So why is DJ hallucinating that the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”international communityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ wants to reappear in SL? Are they the ghosts or proxies of the Diaspora terras? DJ slyly disparaging the SL forces says that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-in any future scenarioƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦.. there will be no Tamil army ( was there one before?) fighting the Indians or anyone else who may come alongƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. Is this his hope and prayer? For whom? He presses on ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-There will be no foreign troops in the Sinhala areas and therefore no possibility of a protracted heroic guerilla war of national liberationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. Is he at the same time mocking our troops and predicting Armageddon for the Sinhalese?

Are there International Community mercenaries being tasked to take out SLƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s army in Jaffna so that thereafter the Sinhalese can be separated and isolated from the people of Jaffna and then engaged/ destroyed, vaporized? DJ calls it R2P.

DJ must know that if anyone decides to attempt to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”come alongƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, it wonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t be like the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”last timeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ (1987) either.

Our troops are already in Jaffna to give a fittingand extremely warm welcome especially to anyone DJ has in mind. The TNA says there are 16 army Divisions in the North. If so, they are in but not confined to barracks as in1987. They are some of the most battle hardened, professional and skilled troops around. In 1987 there was only an ersatz division with little artillery and just wheeled armour in Jaffna with enthusiastic but severely limited air and sea defences. Of course there were ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”terrasƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ too who gave the invading R2P 100,000 strong IPKF a bloodier nose than the Chinese did in the Aksai Chin mountains in 1962. A reminder was given them recently when just 30 Chinese soldiers sojourned in Ladakh for 2 weeks. India sat tight.

Has DJ any idea what the R2P martyrs strength will be? Or is he predicting a Bosnia type NATO bombing campaign even though Holbrooke, had he been alive, (Vietnam was his first foreign service posting) would probably ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-not care a damnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬? DJ who doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t want ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-protracted heroic guerrilla warƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ must know ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-the next timeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ will be in an almost totally Tamil area? Will he clarify about and for whom does he speak?

Whose victory or remembrance will it be if the 13A is jettisoned and DJƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s dire prediction of R2P occurs? The last time 23,000 soldiers and 77,000 others were killed, many as a consequence. They will be remembered. Does SL need to hear DJ by DJ anymore?

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Military officers are not trained to be politicians, we do not eat like them, drink like themƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦.. talk like them. And thatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s not good or bad. ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s just a fact of lifeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (Admiral Leighton Smith USN).


Scientific energy saving

June 18th, 2013

Dr Hector PereraƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  London

ƒÆ’-¡ I practice what I preach; itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s not limited to words only but applied practically as well. If I just talked using some scientific terms, it would be some kind of double Dutch to ordinary people, a boring session. When I met a top official in ITN TV station, I told him politely that if I had an interview as a chat show, the ordinary people would not understand me at all. That was very near a long Vesak holiday period so it was difficult to get enough personal to get a recording of the scientific energy saving cooking demonstration. Then I mentioned that I have very limited cooking facilities just like to majority of people so I wanted to do a demonstration at the place where I stayed.

I knew in advance that my demonstration should help the general public to save wasting gas and energy. Energy prices have gone up and up not only in Sri Lanka but in England as well. The reason I choose gas because one could visually see any increase or decrease of the flame but in an electric cooker this is not quite easily visible. In most other cooking programmes, the cooks just add this and that quickly so the general public do not get a clear idea what was going on. I think the chefs are not scientifically educating the general public because they themselves are unaware of application of science to cooking and energy saving but they just add this and that without due care for wasting gas.

ƒÆ’-¡ In that case our servants in the past are no better than some of these TV chefs. Recently I saw a cooking programme while I was in Sri Lanka, where the interviewing young lady was talking near the chef who cooked something in an open pan which was fuming and bubbling furiously at that moment. Occasionally it caught fire on the volatile chemicals and interviewing young lady considered it very exciting. I think he was unaware that those chemicals were supposed to be in the cooking pan for whatever it cooked so it gives the flavour, instead those chemicals got burnt or just wasted.

I really wanted to make it different to any other cooking demonstration. I am sure it has fulfilled, you may witness it once you see the actual cooking demonstration in ITN. I am not sure when it would be broadcasting, hopefully soon.

In the ITN cooking demonstration, I washed three cups of rice and before that I placed four cups of water to boil in a stainless steel cooking pan. I could have put the rice and water together and cooked rice but when I got the water boiled or warmed while I got the rice ready that really saved me a few minutes. Once I put the rice into the pan, I knew it would take less than five minutes to boil because the water was already fairly warmed. Then as it showed the first signs of froth coming, I immediately reduced the flame to about 30% from the original flame. That means nearly 70% of the gas was not used for cooking. From the start I showed some gas can be saved. ƒÆ’-¡ The time is important in chemistry practicals then here as well, I noted the time it started to show the first signs of steam coming out. From that time after a given time, I just switched off the gas when I assumed that rice was cooked. I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t open the rice pot to check whether it was cooked or any water left at the bottom. You would notice no over flowing when it started to froth. How did I know that rice is cooked, by experience? Please tell me how many times some of these Sri Lankan ladies cooked rice, may be two times a day for a number of years. Every time it froths what they do is to take the lid off and let is subside or do something like stirring to make it go down. That type of cooking is quite normal to many house wives. I am certain they do not think of the time, they just check the water in the rice pot by using a long handled spoon. They check if rice is cooked, if not add some cold water. Then after a few minutes they again open the rice pot and repeat the process. I am sure they do not realise that the process looses some heat then there is a drop in temperature gradient inside the pot. Sometimes they stir it so that rice gets mixed then by doing that so much heat is lost to the surrounding. Which lady with nice face make ups would like to open the steaming pot of rice? If they do that certainly some make up would dribble down, that is what I think. Is that why they use rice cookers? Present day most Sri Lankan ladies use rice cookers because they do not know the art of cooking rice in the normal way, what a shame? Once you see my method, you would understand that even a child can cook rice or anything. How did I cook, just simply applying some science?

We also had servants in the past, they cooked on firewood stoves but they got the technique right to get cooked rice. How did they cook perfectly in clay pots on firewood stoves? Those days, I was not observing the techniques to cook rice just see something in passing by that is all. The moment I had to cook, sleep and study in a single room in England that really worried me. I had to device something so that my clothes do not smell curry smell. This is where my energy saving scientific cooking idea initiated. Where did Isaac NewtonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s gravitational force theory initiated, yes by sitting under an apple tree.

During the Vesak season, in the cooking demonstration to the ITN, there I showed how I cooked two other curries, one was a vegetable curry then the other was a chicken curry. I wanted to show what an average family would prepare for a normal daily meal, rice, vegetable curry then a fish or chicken curry. According to my ideas, it doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t take that long to prepare a family meal, could be done under 45 minutes.

Unlike those days, now everything is made so easy. Fires for cooking by gas, not firewood, all ingredients are easily found in supermarkets in nice packets or in bottles. Those days one needs to grind them on chilli grinding stones or on ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Miris galaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ or pound in traditional ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”WangediyaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, that time has long gone. Now a days cooking is so easy, just think in the right direction, save gas and apply some science then job done. Here the qualitative and quantitative matters that means what is put into it and how much to be added. I told that a certain amount of curry powder, chilli powder and all other ingredients were added to each curry but not to exceed certain ingredients such as chilli powder and also salt. ƒÆ’-¡ Believe me too much salt is bad for health. Sometimes certain ingredients were the same to both vegetable and chicken curry but the quantity was different and some ingredients were not added to chicken such as maldive fish. Certainly less chilli powder was added to vegetable curry than to the chicken curry. ƒÆ’-¡ When the ingredients were added and mixed to chicken curry, I left it for few minutes so that the ingredients gradually get absorbed into the chicken, same was done to the vegetables. Some ingredients remained on the top and some inside the cut pieces of the vegetables and meat pieces. In Chemistry we call this chemisorption. Some people call it, marinade or time to get some absorbed. I told the reason why vegetable and chicken were cut into smaller pieces because that increases the area so that there would be better contact with the ingredients and reaction would be better. In any occasion, I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t touch the curry powder or ground chilli by hand because that could stain the skin on the palm. Try not to touch turmeric with bare hands because it would badly stain. If you really wanted to mix by hand try and put the hand in a polythene bag then mix the ingredients by hand. I have seen how our servants mixed them by hand. You need to keep all the ingredients in an orderly manner on a table or on plates so that you want miss any of them; otherwise you tempt to open the boiling chicken curry to add them from time to time. This is how you get showered with chicken cologne. Try and add all the ingredients at the right proportion, in right quantity then you would get a tasty dish. How would you know that, of course by experience? One come to know how much of each to be added by past experience. May be one need a little practice before get the confidence? A simple ingredient called cloves give a special taste to chicken curry but if one added more than three pieces then by eating the resulting curry, one has to experience a burning sensation from mouth to the other end, so please do not add too much of cloves and nutmeg. These two spices give a special taste to chicken curry but too much is absolutely spoil the taste. If you keep on opening the boiling curries from time to time, so ingredient smells escape that means these volatile chemicals tempt to deposit on any cold surfaces such as on your face, hair, hand and on any exposed part of the upper chest. I regard these curries as chemicals and cooking or heating is somewhat like chemical reactions. In chemistry we need to heat certain chemicals for a certain time to complete the reaction for example in refluxing. Certain reactions need to be done for long time sometimes over an hour or more but some just heating would complete the reaction. When there are so many ingredients in a boiling curry, these ingredients react, interact with each other. That means there are intermolecular and intramolecular reactions taking place. I explained these terms with respect to actual cooking then the viewers certainly would understand but if I just mentioned in words only but no demonstrations then the viewers would find very difficult to keep their eyes open, make them very sleepy, may be a good sleep dose. That is I why requested an actual cooking demonstration than a chat show.

While I was getting the vegetable curry and the chicken curry ready to cook, rice was gradually boiling and getting ready to finish. You would witness in the programme that the rice pot didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t over flow with froth and I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t open it all to check any water. As soon as the rice was finished, I placed both curries on the fires but I made sure no flame went out of the base. Any flame out of the base just radiates and is wastage of gas. Again I left the rice pot on the same spot because there is some more absorbed heat on the gas rings that helps to cook even without flame, itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s thermal capacity. I wanted to get the flame hit the base only not spreading out of the base. Any wind from the fan or the air conditioner or a wind from the window was avoided. That means I kept the windows open to get fresh air but not too wide to disturb the flame. I started with about 60% flame because 100% flame could spread out of the base of the cooking pan. Then within a matter of few minutes, fumes came out of the vegetable curry because there was no water or only very little water was added to the vegetable curry then immediately cut the flame to about 30% to avoid any burning. The chicken curry also had little liquid other than some from vinegar and any juice oozed out of the cooking chicken and some tomatoes. When the first trace of steam came out of the lid, I knew it started to boil then I cut down some heat, then watched out for more steam to come. I reduced the flame to about 30% so that there was not enough fire for vapours to gush out of the cooking pan. The kinetic energy of the molecules was limited by reducing the flame. Some escaped water vapour get condensed under the lid then dribbled down to the brim of the lid then condensed as water, there by making a water seal all round the lid. If there was not enough heat, the vapours would not escape from the lid; most of it get condensed under the lid and fall back into the cooking pan. Then the process repeats somewhat like water recycle process. I explained all these with respect to actual cooking than just by words only. When the lid was in closed position, the curries or rice had uniform temperature throughout. The steam pressure cooked all the rice and curries. The cooking demonstration together with some scientific words made the viewers aware of these scientific terms. I allowed this recycling to take place for about 20 minutes for the vegetable curry and about 30 minutes to the chicken curry. Unlike meat, vegetables get cooked faster; there are fewer tissues unlike in meat. Both vegetables and meat are bad conductors of heat so you need to heat them slowly otherwise water escapes quickly as water vapour then temperature rises, eventually burn the whole thing. Since the lid remains in closed position, the temperature inside the pans remains almost even but if the lid was opened, some of the ingredient vapours escape with volatile chemicals then only these ladies gets a cooking aroma on their face, hair and on cloths. Those chemicals came from ingredients added to flavour the dishes but now you have allowed some of them to escape so how would you regard the curries be tastier? Ladies, try and get the ingredients all at the beginning, otherwise you would be walking with curry smell, a mobile kitchen. Let me ask a question, who would like to be a mobile kitchen, certainly none of you. In my demonstration, I clearly showed by action that I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t open the cooking curries to add something or to taste something, so why some others do?

As I mentioned time is important that means after 20 minutes after it attained the state of dynamic equilibrium, heat for the vegetable curry must shut down. Then 30 or 35 minutes after the state of dynamic equilibrium, heat for the chicken curry must shut down but that does not means you are allowed to open the lid. I showed by practice when they attain that state of dynamic equilibrium. At this stage, I call the molecules are very aggressive and unsettled that means it has high entropy. If I mentioned this single word in an interview, certainly the listeners would go to sleep or make them sleepy because they do not understand but when I explained with respect to a cooking demonstration then they certainly understand. That is why I mentioned to begin with that I wanted a demonstration than a chat interview.

Once the cooking was finished, I allowed about ten minutes cooling down that means the entropy to settle down. I opened the pot of rice and served into a dish until the pot was more than half empty so that the camera gets a good view of the bottom of the pot. Once you see the ITN demonstration, you would believe me there was not a single grain of rice got burnt? There was over no flowing or frothing like in most cases. The curries didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t give out any appreciable vapours to settle on me while cooking. I was standing quite close to cooking pans while cooking but I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t get a shower of the curry smell. I cooked chicken so I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t get chicken cologne on me. There was only a trace of vapour came out while cooking and that had less kinetic energy and the molecular speed was not enough to settle on other places. They were opened again after a few minutes.

The best thing to check was to taste the food that I cooked. Some people tried them out and the people admitted it cooked well, taste better because the ingredient vapours didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t escape since I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t open them while cooking.

My question is why couldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t the viewers as well cook in that manner? I hope some energy saving experts also would witness my work to see if the technique really saved, gas, time and the curry smell. Just imagine if millions of people could follow my simple scientific energy saving cooking, how much wasting gas can be saved just on one day then for a week then for an year, how much money burnt on wasting gas could be saved? I have a feeling about 60% or more gas can be saved, the best thing is for the viewers to judge. Would you think I was foolish enough put Rs Two millions as a challenge? Now I would like to increase it to Rs six million from Rs two millions. That means if any energy saving expert or a scientist came forward and said my scientific energy saving cooking do not save gas, do not save time waiting in the kitchen do not cut down curry smell then I would have happily handed over that increased challenged money. What would I get for teaching the whole nation how to save about 60% wasting gas? Millions of people certainly save some money that would have burnt on gas, cut down some air pollution as well. What do I get in return by teaching the public how to cook scientifically saving gas? Would I get any reward, an official recognition? I just have to wait and see. All this time the general public have been burning truck loads of money unnecessarily on gas, am I correct? I am sure apart from energy saving authorities; millions of people would witness my kind of scientific energy saving scientific cooking demonstration, I am sure here after, cooking would never be the same again. In Vesak season people give ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”dansalƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ can I regard this as a kind of such a meritorious deed, a rare opportunity to serve the whole nation? Once you see the ITN cooking programme please let me know if you got any comments to perera6@hotmail.co.uk



Sri Lanka need not do IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s bidding: Sri Lanka does not need to please India

June 17th, 2013

Asada M Erpini

Sri Lanka is an independent, sovereign nation. The decisions on its constitution and any amendments to it are a matter for its citizens.

The Tamil National Alliance (TNA) keeps on harping on the need of implementing the 13th Amendment to the Sri Lanka constitution, which was forced upon Sri Lanka under the threat of invasion by the Indian armed forces. Now, it is the turn of the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC) to join the fun: ƒÆ’-¡ SLMC wants to take the Sri Lanka government to courts if the latter amends the 13th Amendment ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-to take away police and land powers from Provincial CouncilsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

As far as the peace-loving Sri Lankans are concerned, the matter of how to deal with the issue of the 13th Amendment is quite straightforward. There is no need to go beyond the 13th Amendment or worry about taking away police and land powers from Provincial Councils through legal, parliamentary procedures: what is needed is to dump the whole 13th Amendment – lock, stock and barrel – in the garbage heap, where it really belongs. The 13th Amendment was not born through legal means, and Sri Lanka need not be concerned about pleasing its illegitimate parents or the midwives who gleefully assisted in its delivery.

The fear that many in Sri Lanka have is that India is a powerful neighbour, which possesses the fourth largest army in the world. The question that one should ask in this context is, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-What has Sri Lanka gained by giving into the whims and fancies of the rulers of modern-day India?ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Indira Gandhi was happy to provide assistance in the form of military training through its military training facilities in Dehradun and many other locations in India to a rag tag bunch of no-good ruffians from the north of Sri Lanka, thus transforming them into a ruthless killing machine that had the audacity to take on the tri-forces of the legally constituted Sri Lanka government. Rajiv Gandhi ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” one can only feel sorry for the misguided man, considering how he was forced to bid adios ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” who took over the mantle from his mother was glad to continue with the intrusive policies vis a vis Sri Lanka, which ultimately resulted in the birth of the 13th Amendment to the constitution of Sri Lanka, a country over which it had no jurisdiction ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” except for the adage ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Might is rightƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

If India opts to invade Sri Lanka to impose its will on the island nation that minds its business, let it go ahead. The fighting forces of Sri Lanka are no longer a ceremonial appendage of the government: after all, they managed to annihilate the so-called invincible fighting machine as well as Pirabaharan, the superb military strategist of the western pundits. India is certain to pay a heavy price for its folly ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” much more than the over 1000 Indian jawans who had to return to Bharath in body bags. And, there will also be many who will be ready to contribute their two centsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ worth to the valiant efforts of the men and women in uniform, by working at least as cooks or cleaners, in defence of Sri Lanka.

Why this dissension amoung the Cabinet Ministers on the 13 Amendment ?

June 17th, 2013

By Chareles.S.Perera

ƒÆ’-¡ Tissa VitharanƒÆ’-¡  the Technology and Research MinisterƒÆ’-¡  representing the LSSP had said that the 13 Amendment is already a weak Amendment and therefore there is no reason that it should be removed.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  But if that is the case why not remove ƒÆ’-¡ it instead of keeping a weak controversial amendment.ƒÆ’-¡  Tissa Vitharana had added, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Whatever amendments to the 13A, could be presented to the legislature after the polls were over, as the peopleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s representatives could take a decision at that stage.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

The removal of the 13 Amendment if a decision is taken to remove it would take a period of time- drafting the relevant Act, presenting it to the Supreme court for legal approval and then present it to the Parliament. In the mean time ƒÆ’-¡ the elections could still be held in the North under the provisions of the 13Amendment, but the action for its removal should be initiated now.ƒÆ’-¡  Thereafter a new system of provincial administration should be prepared to affect all Provincial Councils once the 13Amendment is removed.ƒÆ’-¡  All actions pertaining to land and police powers etc., under the 13 AmendmentƒÆ’-¡  should in the mean time beƒÆ’-¡  suspendedƒÆ’-¡  until its removal from the Constitution, and new provisions made under a new Act.

The 13Amendment which our legislators do not seem to understand ƒÆ’-¡ is a foreign law-thought out and prepared by India and forced to be includedƒÆ’-¡  in our Constitution. It will neither help the Tamil people, nor the other communities. Its is its ƒÆ’-¡ removal and adopting a system appropriate to the country which would help reconciliation and uniting the people and provide them with a true representative system of Provincial Councils.

Tissa Vitharana had further added that, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- The Northerners, who had undergone enough suffering over the last three decades, should be left in peace to exercise their franchise at a free and fair election without creating unnecessary issues and confrontations. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

This in fact is the very reason why the 13Amendment should be removed, as it is foreign to our people who went through untold, suffering and misery since its introduction in to the Constitution in 1987.ƒÆ’-¡  India when it forced the 13Amendment on Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka wasƒÆ’-¡  in disarray andƒÆ’-¡  nobody knew what was going to be the outcome of terrorism, which was very powerful at the time ƒÆ’-¡ and thought invincible.

ƒÆ’-¡ 13 Amendment was an attempt to subjugateƒÆ’-¡  a sovereign State according toƒÆ’-¡  whims and fancies ofƒÆ’-¡  the leaders of aƒÆ’-¡  neighbouring State profiting from the weakness of Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡  Therefore, one cannot understand the logic of those Cabinet Ministers demanding ƒÆ’-¡ the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- Amendment of shameƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’-¡ to be retained inƒÆ’-¡  Constitution of Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ The 13 Amendment should be removed in its entirety, and removing of the PresidentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s right to merge two provinces is not the worst that has beenƒÆ’-¡  removed.ƒÆ’-¡  In fact there is already a legal ruling which removed theƒÆ’-¡  merger of North and East. And the decision to remove the right of the President to re-merge provinces is an eye washer to fool the people.

ƒÆ’-¡ The government has not said any thing with regard to the removal of the police and land rights or ƒÆ’-¡ given any reason ƒÆ’-¡ why the whole of the 13 Amendment should not be removed, instead of removing bits and pieces of it..

ƒÆ’-¡ In the meantimeƒÆ’-¡  Rauf Hakeem the Minster of Justice says,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-We must remember that the 13th Amendment came as a solution to the National problem after a long-drawn-out process.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡  This is ƒÆ’-¡«ƒÆ’-¡ bull shitƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡».ƒÆ’-¡  This man seems to have no ideaƒÆ’-¡  how the 13 Amendment came to be included in the Constitution.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Rauf Hakeem was a sympathiser of the terrorists and even signed a MoU with Prabhakaran.ƒÆ’-¡  He is not a patriot who loves the Country.ƒÆ’-¡  His interest is in his Community and an eventual Islamizing of Sri Lanka. Rauff Hakeem says that the13 Amendment came after a long drawn upƒÆ’-¡  process as a solution to the National problem.ƒÆ’-¡  We wonder from where ƒÆ’-¡ he got that idea .

ƒÆ’-¡ It is only the Sinhala Buddhists, and those with real patriotic sentiments who ƒÆ’-¡ want the 13 Amendment removed, as they are ƒÆ’-¡ concerned about the unitary status of Sri Lanka and will not hesitate to sacrifice their lives to save the country even if the other Communities were to look askance.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Karu Jayasuriya, who is a copy confirm of Mangala Samaraweera bleats his protests against the government, having failed to be the second in command in the UNP after leaving theƒÆ’-¡  Cabinet of the President Mahinda Rajapakse.

ƒÆ’-¡ Ranil Wickramasinghe is crying over a repealed 17 Amendment andƒÆ’-¡  threatens to boycott the PSC.ƒÆ’-¡  These UNP stalwartsƒÆ’-¡  are only politically motivated about keeping the 13 Amendment, and do not seem to be over concerned about the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢sƒÆ’-¡  future and the reconciliation of the Communities. They do not see that the 13 Amendment is a deterrent for reconciliation of Communities , which will keep alive the hatred of the Tamils against the other Communities. ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ ItƒÆ’-¡  had been a habit with Ranil Wickramasinghe under the previous ƒÆ’-¡ President as well ƒÆ’-¡ to refuse to cooperate to find solutions for national ƒÆ’-¡ problems. Under the President Chandrika Kumaratunga ƒÆ’-¡ Ranil WickramasingheƒÆ’-¡  refused to attend ƒÆ’-¡ all party discussions to find solutions to terrorism to which he was invited.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Ranil Wickramasinghe panders to the TNA hoping that he may be able to get theƒÆ’-¡  votes of the North in a future Presidential Election if the TNA win the PC elections under the 13Amenment.ƒÆ’-¡  He is the man who has still refused to give credit to the Armed Forces of Sri Lanka for the elimination of terrorism.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ He has demanded that the Army Personnel should not be appointedƒÆ’-¡  Governors inƒÆ’-¡  Provinces.ƒÆ’-¡  The Army Personnel have on the other hand every right to hold positions of importance in the North and East as it was they who contributed for the emancipation of the people in the North and East, from the bonds of terrorism, risking their lives in that effort.

ƒÆ’-¡ The people of Sri Lanka should take note of these non progressiveƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  reactionary attitude of the UNP leadership and politically isolate UNP under Ranil WickramasingheƒÆ’-¡  and refuse to vote for the UNP in any future election.

ƒÆ’-¡ The Catholic Bishops also have ganged together against the removal of the 13 Amendment.ƒÆ’-¡  This is no surprise as the Catholic Church had a very close connection with the LTTE and Catholic Father Emmanuel is all out to divide Sri LankaƒÆ’-¡  with his World Tamil Forum.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  The Catholic Priests ofƒÆ’-¡  Sri LankaƒÆ’-¡  do not take patriotic decisions onƒÆ’-¡  any issue that concerns the country as a whole, as they are first bound by the dictates that come from Rome, and their patriotisms is towards the Holy See. So much for their love for Sri Lanka.

ƒÆ’-¡ India fears a break away of TamilNadu if the Central government does not give into all their demands,ƒÆ’-¡  and fears that with it several other Indian States may follow. The President of Sri Lanka perhaps considersƒÆ’-¡  a broken away TamilNadu may be a worstƒÆ’-¡  alternative than a TamilNadu as a part of the Government of India.ƒÆ’-¡  But those are politicalƒÆ’-¡  moves that are beyond the control of Sri Lanka, therefore ƒÆ’-¡ Sri LankaƒÆ’-¡  should take precautions to meet such political evolutions in India, while doing what is necessary for Sri Lanka as an Independent Sovereign State.

ƒÆ’-¡ The LSSP and CP having been reduced to mere Name Boards. They are hoping to comeback making their decision to oppose the removal of the 13AmendmentƒÆ’-¡  as their determination to uphold their absurd principle, which isƒÆ’-¡  toƒÆ’-¡  assure theƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  diminishingƒÆ’-¡  party cadre and keep themselves politically ƒÆ’-¡ afloat. Their opposition to the 13 Amendment is with that selfish object in view, and to present a different opinion to that of the JVP, which incidentally is for the removal of the 13 Amendment.

ƒÆ’-¡ In evaluating the issue there appears to be noƒÆ’-¡  valid reason for these errant members of the Cabinet to oppose the 13 Amendment.ƒÆ’-¡  They should ask inƒÆ’-¡  one voice to remove it from the Constitution.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ The Minister who stands by his unwavering conviction to remove theƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-unholyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ 13 Amendment isƒÆ’-¡  Champika Ranawaka of the JHU.ƒÆ’-¡  Rajitha Senaratne has gone to the extent of saying that he would resign from his Ministry if the 13 Amendment is removed. One cannot understand what he stands to gain by maintaining the 13Amenment in the Constitution. He may have a secret agenda for his vehement protest.ƒÆ’-¡  But his leaving the Ministry is not a great loss, as Sri Lanka stands to gain much more from removing the 13 Amendment.


June 17th, 2013

Don Wijewardana

ƒÆ’-¡ When the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed in July 1987 it was hailed as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-New Delhi’s biggest diplomatic coup, which had immense strategic valueƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬[i]. Indeed. The conditions imposed on Sri Lanka were intended to end the freedom it enjoyed in having independent defence, foreign affairs and regional administration policies.

ƒÆ’-¡ A significant outcome of the Accord was the establishment of the provincial council for North and East. Couched as a means for nurturing the distinct cultural and linguistic identity in the northern and eastern provinces, which were “areas of historical habitation of Tamil speaking peopleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, it was Rajiv GandhiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s answer to the separation demanded by the LTTE.

ƒÆ’-¡ It was in spite of experiencing persistent problems with its state system ever since independence[ii] that India forced the 13th amendment on Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡  Growing pressure to reorganize states on ethnic and linguistic lines had grown to such an extent that not long after independence, in 1953, it was forced to create the state of Andhra for Telegu speaking people. And now there are signs of further disintegration with the Talangana region clamouring to break off from Andhra Pradesh. There is also mounting pressure in the tribal areas of Bihar, Malayalam speaking areas of southern and western parts and Tamil Nadu and others. A movement also persists to this day within Tamil Nadu to secede from the union.

ƒÆ’-¡ In Sri Lanka, even before the ink was dry, the Accord was getting unravelled. With severe dissention within the government and outside it was passed by parliament with a curfew in force. While Rajiv Gandhi knew that JR did not have much choice in it, his greatest fear was Prabhakaran rejecting it. It was strange that Gandhi was entertaining such concerns when he portrayed the PC as the way to meet aspirations of the Tamils people. However, to prevent any embarrassment by a display of resentment Gandhi sent an Air Force Helicopter to Jaffna to fetch Prabhakaran and his political adviser Anton Balasingham, to New Delhi, on 28 July 1987. That was the night before the accord was to be signed. They were held at the Ashok Hotel before being ushered to a meeting with Gandhi.

ƒÆ’-¡ Prabhakaran was indeed outraged by the proposal. He rejected the idea of PCs in place of Eelam. But for Gandhi this was the furthest he could go. With the persistent threat from Tamil Nadu to break off, a separate Tamil state next door was the last thing India needed.ƒÆ’-¡  Gandhi coaxed and bribed the LTTE supremo with the promise of new arms and ongoing funding. When none of it worked he appealed to Prabhakaran to remain silent at least till the agreement came into force. ƒÆ’-¡ For India there was a lot at stake.

ƒÆ’-¡ But Prabhakaran could not contain his anger for long at GandhiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s audacity to undermine his long cherished dream. ƒÆ’-¡ Before the week was out he called a public meeting in Jaffna and told the people this was not what he wanted but what has been thrust upon him. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-When a big power decided this was the way things happen, there was nothing we could doƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, Prabhakaran lamented. And that was the day Rajiv Gandhi became a marked man.

ƒÆ’-¡ The fact that the Northern provincial council remained confined to the statue book for 26 years shows that it was not a deal wanted by any one, other than India.


ƒÆ’-¡ The forthcoming CHOGM has forced the issue once again. There is growing pressure from many quarters for elections to the northern provincial council as a key step in reconciliation. Foremost among them is India, along with some major powers and NGOs.

ƒÆ’-¡ There are different reasons for different groups to push for elections but for all of them any measure that discredits the government and ties it up in knots was an achievement. For India it is unfinished business, which has become even more critical after China entered the scene in recent years. Besides that, is the need to satisfy the demands of Tamil Nadu politicians especially in the lead up to a general election next year. ƒÆ’-¡ At the same time the Diaspora, through its funding and promise of electoral support, is manipulating several western governments. The clearest example of this is Canada, which preferred to paint itself into a corner without attending CHOGM. It was prepared to forego the opportunity to display its muscle as a founding member of the Commonwealth in preference to wooing its Tamil electorate.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ The other prominent groups include NGOs whose livelihood depends on ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”discoveringƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ human rights abuses and this group also includes sections of the United Nations. ƒÆ’-¡ They have to keep the pot boiling to ensure the continued flow of backhanders from foreign regimes to destabilise vulnerable governments. The current legal spat between an NGO and the Norwegian government when such a deal went sour, shows how the system involving big money, works. Then of course there are a number of opposition parties within the country for whom this issue is bread and butter.

ƒÆ’-¡ These ongoing manoeuvres make one thing clear: it does not mean that once the elections are held the pressure will cease. By definition all these interlocutors have to move on to another, since that is the only way to justify their existence.

ƒÆ’-¡ Should the government simply yield to these demands and hold elections or consider the issue carefully to implement an option that serves the best long-term interest of the country?

ƒÆ’-¡ There are enough reasons to show that Sri Lanka will be greatly disadvantaged if the provincial council system is perpetuated with an election to the Northern PC.

ƒÆ’-¡ For geographically large countries such as the United States, India and Australia establishing decentralised systems of government is not only desirable but also essential.ƒÆ’-¡  In most of these countries administering the periphery from the centre is difficult and inefficient. Reaching some distant places from the centre in an emergency will take several hours. By comparison Sri Lanka is minute. For instance in terms of area it is only 0.002 per cent of India and in relation to population it is only 0.02 per cent. There is no place in the country that cannot be reached by air within one hour.ƒÆ’-¡  In recent years new technology and a good roading network have made the country even smaller.

ƒÆ’-¡ In this situation another layer of provincial government only adds inefficiencies and works as an unnecessary drain on public resources. The government currently provides Rs 130 billion of direct funding to provincial councils each year, while the councils themselves collect another Rs 38 billion in local taxes. Without a comparable return such a large-scale burden on taxpayer funds only tends to divert valuable resources away from productive uses. Apart from the waste of funds the more invidious cost to the country is the red tape, corruption and the delays that such a system generates.

ƒÆ’-¡ Apart from increased wastefulness there is another fundamental economic issue involved here. Achieving high rates of growth is a major national objective of the Rajapaksa government. That requires the optimum use of available resources, land, labour, technology and capital.ƒÆ’-¡  While the last three are mobile and can be moved around and supplemented with imports, the first, land resource, has a finite limit and is immovable. Hence the best way to gain optimum output from land is to take the other resources, in particular labour, to where land is available.

ƒÆ’-¡ The critical requirement here is land availability. The 2012 census shows the distribution of population by district and the population densities of each. (Table 1).

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Table 1: POPULATION DENSITY BY DISTRICT, 2012


Area (kmƒÆ’-¡²)

Census of 1981












































Nuwara Eliya















Sri Lanka











































































Source: Department of Census and Statistics

ƒÆ’-¡ It shows more than half the districts have population densities less than the average for the country of 309/kmƒÆ’-¡². Population density in Moneragala, for instance, is 79 which is 25 per cent of the average.ƒÆ’-¡  Mullativu with 35/kmƒÆ’-¡² has the lowest density of 11 per cent of the average. In other words Mullativu has almost four times the land area of the Colombo district but only 0.04 per cent of its population. The effect of this divergence is that districts such as Colombo are so densely populated that people tend to get in each otherƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s way while places such as Moneragala and Mullativu are crying out for more labour, for their growth is hampered by the shortage. Of course the availability of other resources is critical but all those can be brought in from outside unlike land.

ƒÆ’-¡ If the objective of high economic growth is to be achieved the central government should be able to move resources around the country to help maximise national gains. Provincial Councils, on the other hand will not be seeing land under their control from the same national viewpoint. By definition what they will want is to protect their patch. Land and police powers will further reinforce that trend.

ƒÆ’-¡ In this regard it is worth noting that in Paragraph 6.104 of its report the LLRC makes a far-reaching recommendation:

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Any citizen of Sri Lanka has the inalienable right to acquire land in any part of the country, in accordance with its laws and regulations, and reside in any area of his/her choice without any restrictions or limitations imposed in any manner whatsoever. The land policy of the Government should not be an instrument to effect unnatural changes in the demographic pattern of a given Province. In the case of inter provincial irrigation or land settlement schemes, distribution of State land should continue to be as provided for in the Constitution of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

ƒÆ’-¡ The most important advantage of a unitary administration is that its decisions, by very nature, are to promote national interest and not parochial advantage. Even without granting land and police powers devolution could hamper government management of the country. This is clear from IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s experience. ƒÆ’-¡ For instance the Indian central government has been forced to make compromises due to the need to maintain state government political support for the centre. In some instances the centre may be made completely impotent by a regional administration by injudicious use of authority. As a recent example of this it has been said that during the last Indian general election the plane carrying Congress Party leader, Sonia Gandhi was not given permission to land in Uttar Pradesh, a state under the control of the opposition.

ƒÆ’-¡ Does not address issues

ƒÆ’-¡ There is a perception abroad that giving greater autonomy to the northern province will lead to reconciliation. This is not a realistic expectation.

ƒÆ’-¡ The reason is that only a minority of Tamils live in the northern province. The latest census data on population for 2012 shows the total Sri Lankan Tamil population in Sri Lanka as 2.27 million or 11 per cent of the total population.ƒÆ’-¡  Out of this the Tamil population in the Northern Province is 0.98 million or 43 per cent. In other words less than half the Tamil population live in the five administrative districts comprising the Northern province and the rest live among the Sinhalese and Muslims and other communities in other parts of the country.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ The Indo-Sri Lanka Accord indirectly recognised the dispersion of the Tamil population by declaring as the rationale for setting up the provincial administration the facilitation of the return of Tamils living in other areas to these enclaves. But what has happened is quite the opposite. The 2012 census data confirms this (Table 2). In all but four districts the number of Sri Lankan Tamils living in the south increased significantly between 1981 and 2012. This was in spite of having a Tamil administration under the LTTE and despite declaring the region as Tamils only by Prabhakaran by ousting all Muslims and Sinhalese.











Per cent



Per cent


























Nuwara Eliya

































































ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Source: Dept of Statistics, Census of population, 1981 and 2012

ƒÆ’-¡ There are a number of implications of the movement of Tamils to other areas in increasing numbers.

a)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  The needs of those living in the north and those dispersed elsewhere are different. Addressing reconciliation on the basis of the situation of a minority of Tamils who live in the north will therefore be ineffective;

b)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Restricting the Council territory to Tamils would invariably be the stance with the representatives of the PC after the elections. This is evident even without granting land powers, from TNA MPs currently campaigning against return of the Sinhalese and Muslims ousted by Prabhakaran.

c)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  When Tamil citizens of the country use their democratic right to live anywhere in the country it would be inequitable to artificially restrict non-Tamil citizens settling in the northern province.

d)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Elections will be counter to the recommendations of the LLRC, which was intended to provide a sound basis for reconciliation. One of the conditions it proposed was that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Devolution of power should not privilege or disadvantage any ethnic community, and should not be discriminatory or seen to be discriminatory by the people belonging to any ethnic community within the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. As noted earlier it also reiterated that any citizen of Sri Lanka has the inalienable right to acquire land and live in any part of the country.

ƒÆ’-¡ Recommendations of the LLRC

ƒÆ’-¡ The LLRC recommendations are widely recognised, within the country as well as by the international community, as a suitable basis to bring about reconciliation. ƒÆ’-¡ The Commission had far reaching proposals relating to devolution of power in the eight paragraphs 9.229 to 9.237. They include the following:

ƒÆ’-¡ a.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Devolution should essentially promote greater harmony and unity and not disharmony and disunity among the people of the country. The promotion of this ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”onenessƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and a common identity should be the principal aim of any form of devolution while protecting and appreciating rich diversity.

ƒÆ’-¡ b.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Need to ensure that the people belonging to all communities are empowered at every level.

ƒÆ’-¡ c.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Devolution of power should not privilege or disadvantage any ethnic community, and should not be discriminatory or seen to be discriminatory by the people belonging to any ethnic community within the country.

ƒÆ’-¡ d.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Empowerment of the people should take place within the broader framework of the promotion and protection of human rights.

e.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Empowering the Local Government institutions to ensure greater peoplesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ participation at the grass roots level.

f.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  The lessons learnt from the shortcomings in the functioning of the Provincial Councils system should be taken into account.

g.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Provide for safeguarding the territorial integrity and unity of Sri Lanka whilst fostering its rich diversity.

h.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  An additional mechanism to be considered is the possibility of establishing a Second Chamber comprising Representatives from the Provinces.

i.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Any power sharing arrangement needs to have inbuilt mechanisms that would effectively address and discourage secessionist tendencies and safeguard the sovereignty and integrity of the State.

LLRC also cautioned that all parties must commit themselves to finding solutions internally through negotiation with each other. The report noted that the Tamil leaders should take account of the unnecessary internationalization of the ethnic issue and the external pressures exercised by the Diaspora and its impact on the negotiations for a political settlement. The perceptions of external threat and intervention, the Commission noted, can create a sense of insecurity that can seriously impede the progress towards an acceptable solution. It also reiterated the need to launch a good faith effort to develop a consensus on devolution, building on what exists ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” both, for maximum possible devolution to the periphery especially at the grass roots level, as well as power sharing at the centre. This consensus should be one that will enable peoplesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ participation in governance decisions affecting them and avoid costly and unnecessary duplication of political, bureaucratic and other institutional structures that hamper efficient, cost-effective and transparent governance.

Four important considerations relating to provincial councils emerge from the recommendations of LLRC:

1. ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Safeguarding the territorial integrity and unity of Sri Lanka whilst fostering its rich diversity.

2. ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Ensure that any power sharing arrangement has inbuilt mechanisms that would effectively address and discourage secessionist tendencies and safeguard the sovereignty and integrity of the State.

3.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Build on what exists ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” both, a) for maximum possible devolution to the periphery especially at the grass roots level and to ensure greater peoplesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ participation, b) as well as power sharing at the centre.

4.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  To accommodate provincial viewpoint in legislative decision-making consider the possibility of establishing a Second Chamber comprising Representatives from the Provinces.

What is evident from these is the incompatibility of the 13th Amendment with LLRC recommendations. For instance 13A does not allow for maximum devolution of power to the periphery – the grass roots level. The peripheral unit it defines is the Province. Nor does it accommodate power sharing with the centre. Neville Ladduwahetty has provided more details in a recent article. It is important that the government takes note of the LRCC recommendations for they are seen, both within and outside Sri Lanka, as the key to reconciliation.ƒÆ’-¡ 

The President has echoed many of the views expressed by LLRC. In the 2013 budget speech he underlined the need for ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-A change in the prevailing Provincial Council system to make devolution more meaningful to our people. Devolution should not be a political reform that will lead us to separation but instead it should be one that unifies all of us. It should not involve high spending and complex governance structures that will impose further burden on people.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’-¡ The President also identified the issues that people are concerned with. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Everybody who met me from all corners of Sri Lanka whether they were Tamils, Muslims or Sinhalese, asked for greater access to education, health, employment opportunities, better living and equal standards across the nation. The elimination of provincial disparities using national standards is the main weapon through which national reconciliation can be promoted. This Government remains committed to ensure that these aspirations of our people will be fulfilledƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. The point to note is that the delivery of these expectations of the pubic is best undertaken by the central government and not any regional administration.

ƒÆ’-¡ The significance of the Northern PC Elections

ƒÆ’-¡ The particular significance of the Northern Provincial Council elections is that the area covered is the same territory the LTTE was claiming as the base for Eelam, a separate state.ƒÆ’-¡  During the three decades of confrontations the Tamil National Alliance (TNA) represented the terrorist group in parliament. Since its defeat there has been no official group representing the LTTE although its agenda continues to be promoted by the TNA. If the group wins the forthcoming elections, as it has been predicted, it would amount to giving official recognition to continue the LTTE agenda. It would turn out to be the rallying point for all the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s enemies. That is why the Defence SecretaryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s recent warning thatƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-having paid a heavy price in the battlefield to eradicate the LTTE, it would be foolish on our part to create conditions for a new warƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, resonates with the public.

ƒÆ’-¡ Is there a better way?

ƒÆ’-¡ We are in a bind right now. International pressure to hold northern elections has come to a head with several forces bent on cashing in on the vulnerability of the government leading up to the CHOGM. IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s leaning on Sri Lanka resembles somewhat the pressure applied on JR Jayawardene prior to signing of the Accord in 1987. But the present government is not in a similar sticky situation since it has other options.

ƒÆ’-¡ There are some key points that need to be recognised in any decision the government takes. The first is whatever the choice, it has far reaching implications for the country in the long term. Hence it is important to base it on maximising the nationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s benefit rather than as an expedient to respond to external pressure. Secondly a measure that satisfies the critics will only create a temporary lull in interference, for by very nature they will move on to another issue.ƒÆ’-¡  Thirdly, President Rajapaksa has the rare capability to make the change since he has the vision and commands the support of the parliament and the public. The crisis offers the opportunity to make the gains made in 2009 enduring.

ƒÆ’-¡ Although there has been considerable criticism of devolving power to Provincial Councils and holding elections no one has disagreed on the principle of devolution. In fact the LLRC has underlined the need for devolution as a means of helping in the reconciliation. But what it recommends is that power should be devolved to the grassroots level in a way that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-discourages secessionist tendencies and safeguard the sovereignty and integrity of the StateƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. The Northern Province will be a competing entity as it was coveted by the LTTE as their base for Eelam.

ƒÆ’-¡ Devolving power to the District will meet both conditions laid out by LLRC: giving power to the grassroots level and discouraging secessionist tendencies and safeguard the sovereignty and integrity of the state.

ƒÆ’-¡ The LLRC also suggested considering the possibility of a second chamber to involve the people at the periphery in decision making. This is debatable for there is already such representation in parliament through the existing electoral system. LLRC itself did not put forward the idea as a recommendation but as a matter for consideration. What is required in devolving power to grassroots level is a clear definition of the role and responsibilities of District Councils and to ensure that no amalgamation of District Councils is possible. They could be empowered to meet the expectations of the public in relation to health, education and other services as the President identified in the budget speech.

ƒÆ’-¡ This is the revised version of an article published earlier in the Ceylon Daily News.

[i] [i] M R Narayan Swamy, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-India-Sri Lanka Accord: Does It Still Flicker?ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, IPCS, August 2007.

ƒÆ’-¡ [ii] Myron Weiner, India’s Political Problems: The Longer View, The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Jun., 1956), pp. 283-292

ƒÆ’-¡ Don Wijewardana is an economist and freelance writer. He can be contacted at donwijewardana@gmail.com



Buddhists are victims of Hate Speech and Media Manipulation in Sri Lanka

June 17th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

They say you cannot fool the people all of the time and the recent announcement by a Minister who thinks he is doing a favor to those he closely associates with is like a blessing in disguise for the real victims of hate speech and the likelihood that it is going to boomerang on the very authors of the proposed hate speech legislation is something they have not yet taken into consideration. Almost 50 years ago the Press Commission Report of 1964 revealed some startling truths on the conduct of the Press and its manipulative activities, which 50 years on remains relevant. Victims of hate speech were and continue to be the Buddhists and there is ample evidence to prove it.

To approach the argument of hate speech we need to re- visit the Report and re-state the golden words contained in paraƒÆ’-¡ 112, page 56ƒÆ’-¡ of the 1964 report of the Commission that was chaired by Justice K D de Silva, Press Commissioner:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬If these English language newspapers were sufficiently patriotic they could have made a very usefulƒÆ’-¡ contribution to bringing about unityƒÆ’-¡ among the various communities after the country achieved its independence. They should have advised the minority groups to adapt themselves to the changing circumstances and exhorted the majority to be generous towards the former. They failed to do that. What they consistently did was to poison the minds of the minority groups and encourage them to fight to retain the unjust privileges they had received during the era of foreign domination. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

In todayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s context is the above statement not relevant to the manner in which the private English language mainstream newspapers function?

Taking into consideration the editorial population: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”

  • How many of these editorial posts are held by Buddhists?
  • How many of these newspapers belong to non-Buddhist ownerships?
  • Who are the regular columnists and to what ethnicities and religions do they belong to?
  • How many articles are regularly featured that denigrate Buddhists through these private English newspapers or subtly attribute the fault at the doorstep of the Buddhists?

Now the answer to the real victims of hate speech becomes easier to comprehend.

Buddhism Bashing Columnists

The regular columnists appearing in all the private English newspapers are:ƒÆ’-¡ Anne A ( never misses a chance to engage in Sinhala and Buddhism Bashing), Dharisha B, Dushey R, Harim P, Kishali P, Kumar D, Latheef F, Shanie (Notebook), Tisaranee G,ƒÆ’-¡ Uvindu K, R Philips, Sonali S, Fredrica J, RM Senanayake, Izeth H etcƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ these articles are then complimented with another set of regular columnists that include Kumar R,ƒÆ’-¡ Surendra Ajit, Basil F, Nimalika F, Pakisothy, Jehan P, Dayan J. Their writings do not shower praises about the Sinhalese, the Buddhists or their love for the country.

What they write is not their personal opinion either. By virtue of their profession, the allegiance to forums, organizations and other associations they are tasked to denigrate the Buddhists in a plan to project a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Mahavansa MentalityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ so as to take away the nationalistic pride that the Sinhalese Buddhist possess in view of their heritage and Buddhist civilization. Recolonization and subservience appears to be the goal. We now need to call their bluff.

A closer look will also reveal links to foreign funded organizations most of whom back destabilizing of the nation, distorting history by regularly feeding lies which the English readers come to accept, most linked to non-Buddhist organizations that have a clear plan to demonise and denigrate the Sinhala Buddhists, break their will and confine them to a corner even legislatively by slowly planting their people into key Governmental roles secured by virtue of their English education, contacts that promote their position and because they belong to the fashionable circles of Colombo society.

Thus, Sri Lanka has been accustomed to opening the English newspapers to read headlines that almost always carry ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-fascist BuddhistsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Buddhist extremistsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Sinhala supremacistsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Racist Sinhalese BuddhistsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and the list is endless. Some headline names are appalling.

In contrast, how many articles are written that praise the Rajapakse Government or our Buddhist Kings or heroes in our ancient past? The literary achievements of the Sinhalese in the pre ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” colonial era is hardly covered. And if anyone writes about how nice the roads are in Colombo, or how well the infrastructure is in the North ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” is that equated to mean that the writers are pro-Rajapakse? Can people not write about the good things the Government does without them being labeled? Do people always have to write like the above columnists painting a sordid picture of a failed state?

What appears to be the difference from then and now is that the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-THENƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Buddhism Bashing or slandering slogans were silently accepted by the majority Buddhists without challenge and thus these ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-hate speechesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ had been so commonly used that it did not appear as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-hate speechƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and it was almost as if every article had to use these terminologies to get published. But, the ballgame has now changed. There is a limit to what the people can tolerate or should tolerate. Now, when the Buddhists are demanding fair play and equal platform with right of replies and equality in newspaper coverage in the private English media ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the response is to quickly garner the editors and columnists together and project a picture of victimhood using the statistical reality of the population yet ignoring the statistical reality of how the minorities were using the private English media to totally ridicule the Sinhalese Buddhists and generate contempt for them. This is the issue that needs to be highlighted and addressed.

False depiction of Buddhists as intolerant

The 1964 Commission report perfectly summed this up:ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ With regard to the English reading public, the impression has been created that the communal and religious minorities must get together and oppose the Sinhalese Buddhist majority if they are to get any rights at all. The point of view is put forward that the Sinhalese Buddhist majority is intolerant and is trying to deprive the minorities of their rights. As a matter of fact it is not so.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (PCR para 46, pages 25 -26)

This is further strengthened by Sir Nicholas Attygalle, the Vice ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Chancellor of the University of Ceylon in his evidence who said that he had come across mischievous propaganda against the Sinhalese on his visits to England and USA, and he believed that the source of this false news was our own leading newspapers. (PRC para 49, page 27).

All the columnists mentioned above are regularly quoted internationally ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” therefore should we be in the least surprised why the world gets a wrong impression of Sri Lanka? Some of them are even invited to international conferences where they ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-tearfullyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ bemoan the fate of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-journalistsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and the lack of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-good governanceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in Sri Lanka. No one is bold enough to challenge them at the virtuous ways they function!


The challenges therefore are that there are many local journalists who are being funded and sponsored to write against their own country. Most are now located in foreign stations claiming to be ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-victimƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. Some of these are able to quickly pack a suitcase and take a flight, get a scholarship and a job while for us the process of visa application, submission of financial statements and sponsorship letters and interview decides whether we are to be given visa or not. They are paid to use their local knowledge and talent to fabricate lies, create mischief, engage in slander, twist stories and promote disunity amongst communities through well-funded websites and email campaigns. If we say this is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-gutter journalismƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ who can disagree and who will demand freedom of expression for such journalists?

So where in them do we find ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ethicsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬?

Take a segment of any private newspapers ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” browse through the articles published and count the number of articles that ridicule the Buddhists and blame the Sinhalese for all the troubles in Sri Lanka. When a former Roman Catholic editor who got a Buddhist to write under a Muslim pseudonym to ridicule the Buddhists and this same editor held mandatory Bible classes for Buddhists after office hours what more is there to say about the lack of ethics and the need to have a thorough investigation into the content of the news being published?

Buddhist Channel

The media fraternity that is ever ready to cry foul over freedoms denied may well like to explain why they have selected attacks on what and about whom they write. A good example is how all these years the media kept very silent on Lalith Kotelawala and his corrupt investment activities because they were all part of what was called the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-kept pressƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. How many can afford to silence media from publishing news by virtue of how well they can ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-look afterƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ the press? Is press freedom and journalism equated to mean that the English press can laugh at a heritage or be paid to write untruths? Is it unfashionable for them to speak about the Sinhala Buddhist kings who kept the civilization of Sri Lanka together and they would prefer to write more about how many times the Queen sneezes or the DNA of Prince William? As against the pro-West news that dominate the English newspapers how many articles are published about Asian heroes, Asian leaders or their high achievements? Does the media ever attempt to promote links between Sri Lanka and Buddhist Asia?ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Do we want to belong to the Asian continent? Are we to always follow copy cat type of journalism where we do not create our own niche but replicate what is available in Western news? Do we always have to wait for a Westerner to praise Asia to write about something Asian? The editors of English newspapers in Sri Lanka feel satisfied by running a one page poya day supplement to argue that equal status to Buddhism is given in a nation that has over 70% Buddhists but are poorly served with a lack of quality feature articles and news stories concerning Buddhist events and Buddhist personalities. The ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Buddhist ChannelƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ based in Kuala Lumpur provides a good role model for choice of content.


The discrimination is very visible. The Hate Speech will certainly provide an opportune platform with which to bring out with examples of how not a single editorial was written when Wahhabi gangs in Bangladesh attacked Buddhist temples and destroyed the artifacts, when even the Thai PMƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s visit to Sri Lanka was given step motherly treatment and not a single line was written about the Thai King while she was in Sri Lanka. Juxtapose this was the manner the newspapers were full of articles when the Middle East went on a rampage over a video that the rioters hadnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t even seen!

The situation is really no different in India. The mainstream English media is owned by the Christians and Muslims and when Hindus make their voice the immediate reaction is to claim ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-hate speechƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and this was well articulated by Dr. Subramaniam Swamy as well.

No Government should think it can throw a lavish cocktail and court media personnel and think they can twist their stories to national advantage. Those that are bagged by foreign interests earn far more than what the Government can afford to give. Therefore, the best way to move forward is to properly remedy the problem and that remedy must come in the form of another National Media or Press Commission along the lines of the JusticeƒÆ’-¡  K D de Silva Press Commission of 1964 where a thorough content analysis can be made of print and electronic media and expose the anti-national, anti-Buddhist, pro-LTTE bias of the media. Hate speech must first target those that created, initiated, and planted the chaos before going after those that react. Those that cause the conflict must be first named and accused.

Witch Hunt

The Government which has come to power on the exclusive Buddhist vote must not fall into traps laid by those who support the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”NGO ChinthanayaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ attempting to slyly promote sinister agendas. These legislative proposals must be rejected because the country is now beginning to open their eyes and to understand what is taking place. Certainly hate speech is welcome for it will enable the Buddhists to come out in their numbers and log complaints with the police given that they have been the victims of the witch hunt all these years. It is now time to name and shame. In all matters the playing field must be level ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” then only there is fair play.

Sri Lanka, thuggery and the culture impunity

June 17th, 2013

Michelle AlexanderƒÆ’-¡ 

During the course of this year alone, there have been many reported cases of violence and thuggery. This seems to reflect even with the off-spring of the highest in the land. Sadly, this culture has permeated to schools where even students now engage in acts of violence, and is spreading to every sphere, ranging from acts of basic vandalism (spray painting crude images and derogatory language on walls), to cruel forms of ragging (or hazing) in the Universities, to damaging ƒÆ’-¡ business and private property, to that of rape and murder. While some incidents are publicized, reports of other incidents donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t even see the light of day

Some of the factors for an increase in acts of thuggery and violence include:

  • Prolonged frustration or disruption of goal seeking -ƒÆ’-¡ This factor, together with a sense of helplessness, makes one more susceptible to being influenced by powerful and influential individuals to carry out their own ends, much to the detriment of many.
  • Socially learned behavior- Neal E. Miller and John Dollard at Yale University who published ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Social Learning and ImitationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in 1941, begin their work with the statement that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Human behavior is learned; precisely that behavior which is widely felt to characterize man as a rational being, or as a member of a particular nation or social class, is acquired rather than innateƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡  By witnessing violence being committed by others increases the odds that observers will engage in similar behavior in similar circumstances either immediately or in the future.
  • Effect of rewards that come attached to violent behavior ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” When acts of violence by others are justified, protected or rewarded, it creates the impression that by carrying out acts of aggression, and one may be rewarded or protected. Rewarding and justifying acts of violence may lead to an increase in potential future acts of aggression.
  • There are also other factors to take into consideration, such as previously aggressive or violent behavior, being the victim of physical abuse and/or sexual abuse, exposure to violence in the home, exposure to violence in media, use of drugs and/or alcohol, combination of stressful family socioeconomic factors (poverty, severe deprivation, marital breakup, single parenting, unemployment, loss of support from extended family)

One of the many ways to combat this situation is by ensuring that, depending on the crime committed, the offender, if convicted, is given a suitable jail term, community service/military duty in the case of brawling or vandalism and destruction of property, or, in the extreme of cases, the death sentence. This will only work if:

  • There is quick and efficient policing and criminal investigations, which is free from outside interference. For this purpose the Police must be empowered carry out their duties. The same should be extended to Lawyers and the Judiciary.
  • The punishment must be prompt and certain.
  • The punishment must be meted out within a reasonable and specific time frame, and MUST be unavoidable.
  • The public must also play their part in speaking out against acts of violence. We remain silent, and laws will continue to be broke. There is no other way around this.


June 16th, 2013

Vichara Bandara

Some leading news papers recently reported that India’s External Affairs Minister has conveyed to the Government of Sri Lanka that withdrawing Police and Land Powers to the Northern Provincial Council) by the Government of Sri Lanka would be “at its own risk” and would force the New Delhi Government to react with “firm measures.” He has also cautioned that Sri Lanka would be isolating itself in the international community.”

This report has been repeated in Sri Lankan news papers as well. If there is any truth in this report it appears that India which hatched and forced the 13th Amendment to the constitution of Sri Lankaon a spineless Sri Lankan government is now demanding the proverbial pound of flesh and wielding the big stick for the full implementation of this obnoxious piece of legislation.

It is on record that Rajiv Gandhi, who was the chief architect of the Indo- Sri Lank Accord, had given an assurance to Prabhakaran that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”the newly-created North-Eastern Province for Tamils will enjoy as much powers as Tamil Nadu enjoys in India.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (Triumph of Truth: The Rajiv Gandhi Assassination-Investigation by Kaarthikeyan and Radhavinod Raju Karthikeyan).

In their eagerness to fulfill this promise the Indian GHOST writers of the 13th Amendment while adopting the Indian model and granting vast powers to the Provinces have not taken into consideration the fact that Sri Lanka has an Executive President elected by the popular vote of all citizens of the land.

They have also ignored the bicameral structure of the Legislatures of States of India which provides an essential check on hasty legislation and promotes good governance.

ƒÆ’-¡ The attached document is an attempt to compare and contrast the powers enjoyed by the States of India under the Indian constitution and the powers conferred on the Provinces of Sri Lanka under the 13th Amendment to the constitution of Sri Lanka. In the context of the fast moving events on the subject the document has been prepared with some haste and may need refinement. But the purpose is to draw attention to the treacherous trap that has been set.

Not only is 13 A following the Indian model, it confers more power to a Province of Sri Lanka exceeding the powers enjoyed by the States of India, from the time of Independence. Some political analysts surmise that this was a ploy by the predominantly South Indian authors of the Bill to establish a new model of devolution, which South Indian States could demand in the future.

This is in spite of the wide disparity in the territory covered and the population between a State of India and Sri Lanka. For example Tamil Nadu (the State which is most concerned with power sharing in Sri Lanka) is 130,000 square km and has a population of 72 million. It is mind boggling to compare this with a one million population of the Northern Province in an area of 8900 square Km. Chennai Corporation headed by a Mayor has a population of 5.6 million people is only a municipality.

Devolution of power must be to the people and the unit of devolution must take into consideration the number of people in such a unit. Districts of Colombo, Gampaha, Kalutara, Kandy, Kurunegala and Ratnapura have populations of more than that of the Northern Province, which is only 1,072,001(Census 2012).

The legality of the 13th Amendment has been discussed in many forums and today there is a private members Bill proposing the repeal of this legislation mainly on legal grounds.

It must be pointed out that other than the strictly legal grounds it violates the Directive Principles of State Policy of the Constitution of Sri Lanka as given at Section 27 (4) which states that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- the State shall strengthen and broaden the democratic structure of government and the democratic rights of the People by decentralizing the administrationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ Decentralization and devolution are different concepts as explained in the World Bank website http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/decentralization/admin.htm

Whereas there are many legal, political and administrative rationales why the 13th Amendment must be repealed, for the present it is proposed to focus on the specific provisions in the 13th Amendment, which deviate drastically from the relevant provisions of the Indian Constitution or not provided for in the 13 th Amendment and demonstrate that India has no moral justification to call for the full implementation of the 13th Amendment.

It is clear that the effort of the ghost writers of the13th Amendment was to provide self government in the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-areas of historical habitation of Sri Lankan Tamil speaking peoplesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and not for the devolution of power to the people of the whole of Sri Lanka.

In his last Budge Speech the President expressed unequivocally that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Devolution should not be a political reform that will lead us to separation but instead it should be one that unifies all of us. It should not involve high spending and complex governance structures that will impose further burden on people.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

AsƒÆ’-¡  the Secretary of Defense rightly pointed out although the LTTE was defeated militarily the separatist ideology is not dead. It exists in a latent form locally but is most active internationally. Even the TNA refuses to accept a Unitary framework of government and is agitating for powers for the Provincial Councils beyond that of the13A. As Dr. Gunadase Amarasekera has pointed out recently, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”SampanthanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s speech made a few months ago in Batticaloa wherein he outlined their roadmap provides enough evidence as to their final goal ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” separate state and EelamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢.

The Central Government of India is subject to manipulation of a regime hostile to Sri Lanka in Tamil Nadu. Western interests through the local and international NGOs are conniving with the UNHRC to destabilize the country. In this background it would be very unwise if Sri Lanka compromises its security interests just to satisfy the wishes of the Indian Government. Sri Lanka should not ignore the lessons of Yugoslavia, Sudan and East Timor.

India has no moral right to insist on giving more powers to the puny Provincial Councils of Sri Lanka than what has been enjoyed by the Sates of India since independence. India has no right to coerce Sri Lanka even to continue with the Provincial Council scheme which is legally flawed, wasteful and ineffective and rejected by the vast majority of Sri Lankans.

The following table shows the extent to which 13A has been used to confer powers to the Provinces of Sri Lanka in excess of powers enjoyed by the States of India and where 13A has excluded some of the more positive provisions embedded in the Indian Constitution on devolved power.






1. In terms of Article 3 – the Parliament of India may

(a) Form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State;

(b) increase the area of any State;

(c) diminish the area of any State;

(d) alter the boundaries of any State;

(e) alter the name of any State:

This can be done with a simple majority of votes in the Parliament provided that the President seeks the views of the States on the proposal.


In the case of Article 154(A) it is obligatory on Sri Lanka to establish a Provincial Council for every Province. The Parliament of Sri Lanka can join one or more Provinces but cannot resort to other options as provided for in the IC. For example boundaries of a Province cannot be altered even with the concurrence of the Provinces affected.


It is obvious that this provision is merely to facilitate the joining of the Northern and Eastern Provinces and establish the Tamil Homeland


2) Article 239 A – provides for the creation of a Capital Territory which does not come under any State.


There is no parallel provision in 13A.
3) Reference Article 243 -, a number of institutions for the empowerment of the people at sub State level such as Panchayat shall be onstituted in every State. Under the IC it is a andatory requirement that the States establish the Village level Panchayats for peopleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s participation in governance. The IC devotes a whole chapter to the subject of Panchayats ƒÆ’-¡ In 13A it is relegated to a mere Subject in the Provincial Council List under Gramodaya Mandalayas and leaves itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬open to a Provincial Council to council to confer additional powers on Gramodaya Mandalayas.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

This diminishes the importance of the very concept of empowerment of the people.


4) Residual Powers

Reference Article 248 (1) -, Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to any matter not enumerated in the Concurrent List or State List and such power shall include the power of making any law imposing a tax not mentioned in either of those Lists.


13A has the following vague provision.

154 G (10)- Nothing in this Article shall be read or construed as derogating from the powers conferred on Parliament by the Constitution to make laws, in accordance with the Provisions of the Constitution (inclusive of this Chapter), with respect to any matter, for the whole of Sri Lanka or any part thereof.

Legal opinion consider that the words within brackets i.e. (inclusive of this Chapter) by itself are a derogation of the Powers of Parliament.

5). Under Article 249 (1) – if the Council of States has declared by resolution supported by not less than two thirds of the members present, that in the national interest it is necessary that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter in the State List it shall be lawful for Parliament to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to that matter, while the resolution remains in force and shall remain in force for such period not exceeding one year as may be specified therein In terms of Article 154 G (2) even if one Provincial Council does not (b) agree to an amendment or repeal of the provisions of the 13A or the Ninth Schedule (Provincial Council List) such a Bill has to be passed in Parliament by the special majority required by Article 82 of the Constitution.

This is a disproportionate and ridiculous restriction when the entire 13A can be repealed through the same process of a special majority of the Parliament.

It is clear that the intention of this restriction was to grant veto power to the then planned Northeastern mega province.

6) Article 250. (1 -) vests the power in the Parliament, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List. Such law would be valid for a period of six months after the Proclamation has ceased to operate and any law made by a State repugnant to the extent to the law made by Parliament shall be inoperative.


There is no provision in the 13A on vesting in the Parliament the power to make laws on matters in the State List when a Proclamation is made under the Public Security Ordinance. However, during the continuance in force of a Proclamation issued in the event of Failure of administrative machinery under paragraph (1) of Article 154L, laws can be made by Parliament or the President or other authority delegated by the President, but they can be amended or repealed by the Provincial Council without a time bar.


7) Article 254 – empowers the Parliament to enact at any time any law with respect to a law made by a State on the same matter including a law adding to, amending, varying or repealing the law so made by the Legislature of the State. In terms of 154G(5)(a), Parliament may make laws with respect to any matter set out in “the Concurrent List”) only after such consultation with all Provincial Councils as Parliament may consider appropriate in the circumstances of each case. In the case of India there is no requirement for consultation with the States.
8) Under Article 257 -, the executive power of the Union shall also extend to the giving of directions to a State as to the construction and maintenance of means of communication declared in the direction to be of national or military importance: There is no parallel provision in 13A.
9) Under Article 312 -, Parliament may create all India services [(including an all-India judicial service)] common to the Union and the States.

At present the All India Services are the Judicial Service, Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service and the Indian Forest Service. The officers of the All India Services are recruited and trained by the Union Government (“the Centre”).

a) ƒÆ’-¡  All India recruitment makes possible minimum and uniform standards of administration throughout the country. It enables the induction of the best available talent to these services.

b) ƒÆ’-¡  With personnel drawn form different States, each State cadre gets a leavening of senior officers from outside, whose vision and outlook transcend local horizons.

c) ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Systemic deputation from the State to the Union broadens the vision of the officers so deputed and brings to the Union an experience of closeness to actual realities.

There is no parallel provision in 13A.


1).ƒÆ’-¡  Article 44 – requires the (Indian) State to endeavor to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. 13A has no such requirement, the absence of which could lead to many legal tangles.


2). Article 76 (3) – gives the Attorney General of India, the right of audience in the performance of his duties in all courts of India. The 13A has no such provision. ƒÆ’-¡ 13A has no such provision.


3) Article 136 – enables the Supreme Court, in its discretion, to grant special leave to appeal from any judgment, decree, determination, sentence or order in any cause or matter passed or made by any court or tribunal in the territory of India. In (Article 154 P (6) the right of appeal is to the Court of Appeal.


4). Article 139 A – empowers the Supreme Court, in cases where questions of substantial and general importance are involved to withdraw cases pending before High Courts and dispose of the cases by itself.

The Supreme Court may, transfer any case, appeal or other proceedings pending before any High Court to any other High Court.


13A does not have any such provisions.



5) Article 141 of the Indian There is no parallel provision in the 13A.

Constitution stipulates that the law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts within the territory of India.


There is no parallel provision in 13A.




1) As per Article 156. (1) -, the Governor appointed to an Indian State shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.

(I) Has intentionally violated the provisions of the Constitution;

(ii) is guilty of misconduct or corruption involving the abuse of the powers of his office; or

(iii) is guilty of bribery of an offence involving moral turpitude.


Under Article 154B (4) (a) ƒÆ’-¡ a Provincial Council, with the approval of a two thirds majority of the members of the Council, may present an address to the President advising the removal of the Governor on the ground that the Governor;

(I) has intentionally violated the provisions of the Constitution;

(ii) is guilty of misconduct or corruption involving the abuse of the powers of his office; or

(iii) is guilty of bribery of an offence involving moral turpitude.

2) Under Article 222 – 222 it is the President who may, after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, transfer a Judge from one High Court to any other High Court. Reference Article 154P (2)ƒÆ’-¡  the transfer of Judges is vested in the Chief Justice.
3). Under Article 258 (1) – the President may, with the consent of the Government of a State, entrust either to that Government or to its officers, functions to which the executive power of the Union extends. Neither the President nor the Parliament of Sri Lanka has parallel powers under 13A.
4.) Reference Article 263 -, the President may establish a Council to inquire into and advise upon disputes between States and also recommend better co-ordination of policy and action in respect to that subject,

There is no parallel provision in the 13A to the Constitution of Sri Lanka.

There is no parallel provision in 13A.
5).ƒÆ’-¡  Under Emergency Provisions, Article 352 -, the President is empowered to make a Proclamation which remains valid for one month unless before the expiration of that period, it has been approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament:


Under Article 154 L (3) such a Proclamation under the Public Security Act will cease to operate at the expiration of fourteen days, unless before the expiration of that period it has been approved by a resolution of Parliament:


7). Under Article 356 -, in a situation where the Government of a State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, The President may (a) assume to himself all or any of the functions of the Government of the State and all or any of the powers vested in or exercisable by the Governor or any body or authority in the State other than the Legislature of the State; (b) declare that the powers of the Legislature of the State shall be exercisable by or under the authority of Parliament;

(c) make such incidental and consequential provisions as appear to the President to be necessary or desirable for giving effect to the objects of the Proclamation, including provisions for suspending in whole or in part, the operation of any provisions of this Constitution relating to any body or authority in the State:



Under 154(L) in 13A under a similar situation the President may by Proclamation –

(a) assume to himself all or any of the functions of the administration of the Province and all or any of the powers vested in, or exercisable by, the Governor or any body or authority in the Province other than the Provincial Council;

(b) declare that the powers of the Provincial Council shall be exercisable by, or under the authority of Parliament;


But 13A does not empower the President to suspend the operation of provisions of the Constitution relating to any body or authority in the State, which the President of India can do under Article 356 sub section (1c).


Moreover a Proclamation made by the President of Sri Lanka unless approved by the Parliament is valid only for 14 days whereas, such a Proclamation made by the President of India is valid for two months before it is submitted to Parliament.


While the President of Sri Lanka can dissolve the Parliament after one year, without adducing reasons he cannot dissolve a Provincial Council! It can be done by the Governor of the Province and only on the advice of the Chief Minister of the Province. This is a clear derogation of the powers of the Sri Lanka President vis a vis the powers enjoyed by the Indian President under IC.


Under Section 160 – The President may make such provision as he thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the Governor of a State in any contingency not provided for elsewhere.



There is no such provision in 13A.




Power of the Central Government under the Constitutions of both India and Sri Lanka are vested in the post of Governor and exercised by him where necessary in consultation with the President.  

1) As per Article 156. (1) -, the Governor appointed to an Indian State shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.


Sarkaria Commission on Centre State Relations, appointed by the Government of India, chaired by Justice R. S. Sarkaria, published in the year 1988, states that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-while discharging his role as a constitutional sentinel and a vital link between the Union and the State, the Governor may have incurred the displeasure of the political executive in the State. Therefore, the removal of a Governor through the process of impeachment by the State Legislature or in pursuance of a written request from the Chief Minister, following a resolution of the Legislative Assembly, may not ensure objectivity and impartialityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.



Under Article 154B (4) (a), a Provincial

Council, with the approval of a two thirds majority of the members of the Council, may present an address to the President advising the removal of the Governor on the ground that the Governor

(I) Has intentionally violated the provisions of the Constitution; (ii) is guilty of misconduct or corruption involving the abuse of the powers of his office; or

(iii) is guilty of bribery of an offence involving moral turpitude.

This power vested with a Provincial is not conducive to independent action by the Governor, particularly as an offence of misconduct and abuse of power are subject to wide interpretation. It is a sword of Damocles hanging over the head of the Governor.

2). Article 165. (1) – requires that the Governor of each State shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of a High Court to be Advocate-General for the State.

(2) It shall be the duty of the Advocate-General to give advice to the Government of the State upon legal matters. Article 177 empowers the Advocate-General for a State the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, the Legislative Assembly of the State.


There is no parallel provision in 13A.
3). By Article 192 (1) – the Governor is vested with the power of deciding on whether a member of a House of the Legislature of a State has become subject to any disqualifications mentioned in clause (1) of article 191 and his decision on the matter shall be final.

3). By Article 192 (1) – the Governor is vested with the power of deciding on whether a member of a House of the Legislature of a State has become subject to any disqualifications mentioned in clause (1) of article 191 and his decision on the matter shall be final.

There is no parallel provision in 13A.
4). Reference Article 213 – the Governor, under certain circumstances is empowered to promulgate ordinances.


There is no parallel provision in the 13A.
5). Under Article 258 A – the Governor of a State may, with the consent of the Government of India, entrust to that Government or to its officers functions to which the executive power of the State extends. The Governor of a Province in Sri Lanka has no parallel power.
6). Under Article 315 (4) -, the Governor of a State may request the Public Service Commission for the Union, with the approval of the President, agree to serve all or any of the needs of the State. There is no parallel provision in 13 A.

ƒÆ’-¡ Composition of Provincial Councils.


The election of members of a Provincial Council is based on the Provincial Councils Elections Act (No. 2 of 1988) – Sect 3 which is on the basis of one member for every 40,000 residents in an administrative district andƒÆ’-¡  a member for every 1000 square kilometers of area in that administrative district.

In India in terms of Section 171- one-third shall be elected by electorates consisting of members of local authorities, one-twelfth shall be elected by electorates consisting of persons residing in the State who are graduates of a university of India or with equivalent qualifications to that of a graduate of any such university; one-twelfth shall be elected by electorates consisting of persons who have been for at least three years engaged in teaching within the State and the the remainder shall be nominated by the Governor from among persons with special knowledge or practical experience in Literature, science, art, co-operative movement and social service. The nature of the composition and the bicameral structure of the Legislature of the Indian State provides a higher caliber of representation and an essential check on hasty legislation and promotes good governance.

The lack of a selective representation and the absence of a second chamber in Provincial Councils of Sri Lanka make them highly politicized unrestrained governing power in the Province.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 


Readers are invited to check out the above material in the following websites on the Constitution of India and that of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka.




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