DEW Gunasekara, Tissa Vitharana, Vasudeva Nanayakkara, Reginald Cooray and Rajitha Senaratne in support of 13Amendment.

June 25th, 2013

By Charles.S.Perera

ƒÆ’-¡ It is a shame to see these Senior Ministers of the Government of the ƒÆ’-¡ left and the old UNP defending the 13A.ƒÆ’-¡  LSSP always fought for loss causes without gaining any thing in return.ƒÆ’-¡  Dew Gunasekara spoke of their canvassing Jaffna for elections, which they said proudly that the JVP and the JHU were unable to do. But they did not say that though they stood for bothƒÆ’-¡  Communities neither the Tamils in Jaffna nor the Estate Tamils supported them at elections. Only in 1956 CP had one candidateƒÆ’-¡  P. Kandiah elected from a constituency in Point Pedro.ƒÆ’-¡  That was an exception, nothing to cry to high heavens about.ƒÆ’-¡  They were never supported by the Tamils in the North and later they were shunned in the South as well.

ƒÆ’-¡ TheƒÆ’-¡  leftist Ministers should realise that if they had beenƒÆ’-¡  more intelligent and supported other parties without being self seeking the situation of the LSSPƒÆ’-¡  political movement would have been different.ƒÆ’-¡  In an article tracing the History of the Left movementƒÆ’-¡  Leslie Gunawadhane wrote,

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦The question may well be asked as to what the position would have been if the LSSP had joined the MEP in 1956 in putting forward the demand for Sinhala Only. There is little doubt that the LSSP would have played a leading role in the movement for Sinhala Only. It is also very likely that the position of the Left in general and of the LSSP in particular would have been much stronger today among the Sinhalese masses. Also the position of the SLFP would have been significantly weaker. However, it is a moot question how much closer Sri Lanka would have been to socialism.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’-¡ In the same article Leslie Gunawardhana prophetically wrote, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦.., the movement for a separate state has grown with leaps and bounds among the Tamils of the North. The situation may develop to a point when it is only Sinhalese domination by military rule in the North that will be able to preserve the unity of the country. And even such a unity maintained by force may not be able to continue for long if an imperialist power decides in its own interest to back the movement for secession by a supply of military aid.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’-¡ Rajitha Senaratne is with one foot in the Government ƒÆ’-¡ and with the other foot still awaiting a chance to step out into his former fold with whom he will be more at home.ƒÆ’-¡  Vasudeva Nanayakkara, Tissa Vitharana, Dew Gunasekara and Reginald Cooray are waging a war against the JHU, JVP and Wimal Weerawansa to have a greater say within the cabinet of the President Mahinda Rajapakse..

ƒÆ’-¡ DEW Gunasekara seems to be in ƒÆ’-¡ a secret pact with the TNA going all out to retain the 13 A knowing veryƒÆ’-¡  well that it has no place in the Constitution of Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡  DEW Gunasekara says that there is a silent majority in the government who wants to retain the 13Amendment at all cost.

ƒÆ’-¡ It may be so as the PCs are jammed withƒÆ’-¡  relatives and political henchmenƒÆ’-¡  of the Ministers and SLFP supporters, some of them of doubtful character, and a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-gold mineƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ for others, making money by sale ofƒÆ’-¡  Timber, shifting of sand from river beds, offering contractsƒÆ’-¡  for transport, supply of material etc. to different road construction projects.ƒÆ’-¡  They may not like the PC System coming to an end with the removal of the 13 Amendment for their own personal reasons.

ƒÆ’-¡ DEW Gunasekara should be sure even if he finds a silent majorityƒÆ’-¡  in the Government in support of the 13Amendment, the mass of the people are against it, and the LSSP and CP will be despised by the people as the they were despised both by the Tamils and the Sinhala in the past.ƒÆ’-¡  In 1946 LSSP voted against the Bill for disenfranchisementƒÆ’-¡  of plantation workers and earned the wrath of the Sinhala, and the Plantation Workers who ƒÆ’-¡ in their turn preferred the Indian Tamil Congress of Thondaman to LSSP.

ƒÆ’-¡ It was reportedƒÆ’-¡  that DEW GunasekaraƒÆ’-¡  had givenƒÆ’-¡  a new respectability to the India enforced 13 Amendment.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-..Speaking on the argument relating to the Indian involvement in the making of the 13th Amendment, Minister D.E.W Gunasekara said the Indo Lanka accord was a culmination of debates that began in the 1920ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s and rejected the notion that it was forced upon the country by India.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ He must be dreaming. This man should not continue to be a Minister of the Government of the President Mahinda Rajapakse.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ It was reported recently in an Internet gmail forum that Rajiv Ghandhi when he came to sign the India Lanka pact with the President JR Jayawardhana , he had already selected a man to be the Governor of Sri Lanka in case JR Jayawardhana refused to sign theƒÆ’-¡  Pact and had arranged to have the Indian Army flown inƒÆ’-¡  to Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ TheseƒÆ’-¡  four are naƒÆ’†’¯ve politicians with no foresight of what anti Sri Lanka forces are capable of doing to Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡  They are only inviting intervention for foreign forcesƒÆ’-¡  to break away Sri Lanka perhaps to prove to Wimal Weerawansa, JHU, andƒÆ’-¡  JVP what would happen if the 13 Amendment is removed.

ƒÆ’-¡ Reginald Cooray too does not speak for the people as they do not care what the mass of the people of Sri Lanka think of the 13 Amendment.ƒÆ’-¡  They are taken up by their own selfish motives to even go against the people of the country ƒÆ’-¡ if they can teach a lesson to Wimal Weerawansa, JHU, and JVP.

ƒÆ’-¡ Reginald Cooray had said , ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-With the end of the war there was euphoria all around and everyone ignored the root of the problem moving away from the need to address the political problem. Racism, extremis, and the tribal mentality is the best tape to be playing and is the oldest tape that has been played. We have to learn from our past mistakes.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’-¡ Reginald Cooray speaks as a politician well versed in International Politics andƒÆ’-¡  had said ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- Citing international examples, Cooray said that every nation which had diverse populations and cultures had devolved power enabling them to become powerful nations.
ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-These heroes who scream against the international community within this country donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t know an atom about how political systems work. Every country in this world has devolved power to a certain extent and that is a must,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’-¡ But Reginald Cooray has failed to say whichƒÆ’-¡  are the countries in the world that have devolved power to the minorities.ƒÆ’-¡  Reginald Cooray thinks the people are gullible to swallow every thing he says.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ But he does not realise what is at stake is a worse situation, which is a possible setting up of a Eelam State if the 13 Amendment is allowed to remain in the Constitution of Sri Lanka.

ƒÆ’-¡ The four misled politicians of the left and the exUNP Rajitha Seanaratne say that they want the country to go forward , but little they realise that they are the oneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s that areƒÆ’-¡  beingƒÆ’-¡  barriers to the forward march of the country.

ƒÆ’-¡ The LSSP and the CP are in a process of slow death and perhaps their support of the 13Amendment willƒÆ’-¡  see their final demise.

Decolonize Cricket: Re-name UDRS as the Weeraratna Rule

June 25th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

The ICC Champions Trophy has concluded and a feature article in a Sunday newspaper titled Recognition of the Authorship of UDRSƒÆ’-¡  by a cricket observer, showcases some key facts that we need to take cognizance of in the realm of sports, particularly in the game of cricket.

The old club colonial mentality remains a key feature in big time sports such as cricket, soccer, rugby ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- football, tennis, and even in the management of the Olympics judging by the manner key posts of international sports bodies are filled. Colonial mindset seethes with prejudice. Imperialism never really allows heroes to emerge outside its narrow euro ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- centric circles.

Umpire Decision Review System (UDRS)

Focusing on Cricket, the UDRS has been hailed as the most revolutionary step taken to reform cricket rules since the inception of the game, as the new rule challenges a fundamental premise of traditional cricket i.e. Umpire’s decision is final. Almost all the Test Cricket playing countries bar India have accepted this new System.

We note that UDRS has achieved remarkable outcomes. Umpire decisions now register an accuracy of 97% up from 91% or less ever since the introduction of UDRS into the Test playing arena in October 2009. Acrimony between players on the ground in much less today. The tension that used to prevail in the past between cricket playing nations on ground of poor umpiring decisions is in rapid decline. Rudi Koertzen, the South African Test umpire, said in his valedictory speech that UDRS should be made mandatory across the world. Cricket has made technology its bride, and it has worked for the better for almost everyone.

Robert Steen

It is somewhat depressing to record that while accolades are flowing in for the innovation and beneficial results, there has been almost total silence in the international cricket circles on the question of origin or authorship of the new Rule, until Robert Steen senior lecturer in sports journalism at the University of Brighton, England and reputed cricket commentator, in an insightful article on the ‘Cricinfo’ website under the title ‘Will the UDRS be proved a good thing?’ referred to the Umpire Decision Review System (UDRS) as one of the most potentially far-reaching concepts the old game has ever known, and added as follows:

” LET’S REWIND to the hotly contested conception of the review system,for which Senaka Weeraratna, a lawyer, believes we must thank/berate him – and not, repeat not, the ICC.

Steen adds He (Senaka Weeraratna) has been arguing for some time, and with some vehemence, that it was his letter to Colombo’s Sunday Times, on April 6, 1997, the first of many such that sowed the seeds. In an ocean of common sense, that letter likened the players’ right to challenge to the appeal of a “dissatisfied litigant”. As Simon Barnes put it recently in the Times: “Referral is not dissent, it is a legitimate process of truth-seeking.

At Old Trafford three months after Senaka’s missive was published, Greg Blewett was given out to a horribly un-straightforward catch by Nasser Hussain – for which the available TV replays, foreshortening as they still do, proved inconclusive.

Robert Steen in another article based on a comprehensive survey done on all aspects of UDRS under the title Going upstairs: The decision review system ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- velvet revolution or thin edge of an ethical wedge? published in ƒÆ’-¹ƒ…-Sport in Society Journal (Vol. 14, Issue 10, 2011) re-iterated the above as follows:

ƒÆ’-¡ Senaka Weeraratna, a Sri Lankan-born lawyer .., maintains that it was his 1997 letter to The Australian, the first of many, which planted the seeds for what became the DRS. In writing it, illuminatingly, he likened the players’ right to challenge umpires to the appeal of a dissatisfied litigant. (Allow appeals to the Third Umpire, LettersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…‚¡ to the Editor, The Australian, 25 March 1997 (copy sent by author; referred to at http://sundaytimes.lk/060528/sports/6.html

And adds At Old Trafford three months after Weeraratna sent that first hearfelt letter

ICC adopts Weeraratna’s ideas

Weeraratna claims unequivocally that the basic elements of the UDRS have been adopted by the International Cricket Council (ICC) from his writings and he now seeks official recognition from the ICC for his innovative contribution. “I have publicized this concept by writing to newspapers, magazines and cricket journals both local and international, over a period of time beginning with my letter to the Editor of the ‘Australian’ newspaper published on the 25th of March, 1997. I have also made written representations to the national cricket controlling authorities of several leading cricket countries including the then Board of Cricket Control in Sri Lanka in 1997, and thereafter Sri Lanka Cricket, offering my proposals as a solution to the tricky problem of umpiring errors that invariably lead to a distortion in the outcome of a game.”

( See UDRS – the Sri Lankan ConnectionƒÆ’-¡  by Cricket ObserverƒÆ’-¡  Daily News Feb. 19, 2011ƒÆ’-¡  http://www.dailynews.lk/2011/02/19/spo25.asp)

Recognition

Frank Duckworth and Tony Lewis, two Englishmen, are constantly projected by the media as having devised the Duckworth Lewis Rule applicable in rain affected one-day matches. This DL Rule comes into play only in limited circumstances. Stuart Robertson, the former Marketing Manager, England and Wales Cricket Board, has been hailed as the founder of the Twenty 20 Cricket format.

However there is huge reticence on the part of ICC in attributing credit to Senaka Weeraratna. This is unfortunate. As cricket lovers we have every right to ask the ICC if Senaka Weeraratna is not the author, who is the author and identify him with tenable evidence to substantiate such assertion?

The Cricket Committee of the ICC has sanctioned the use of Player ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- referral in May 2006 and has claimed that it was borrowed from Tennis. But it must be stressed here that Instant Replay system to resolve tennis line disputes was first introduced at the US Open in 2006. In contrast Weeraratna had published his writings advocating an appellate role for the Third Umpire as far back as March 1997.

Lone battle against superior odds

Its been over 16 years now and Senaka Weeraratna is fighting a lone battle to gain recognition for something now being used internationally. How wrong is this of all parties concerned?

That the ICC is and has been and will continue to be influenced by western thinking and prejudices is what we now need to change. Countries are said to be independent but are they truly particularly in the cricket world?

Is the ICC free of South African Apartheid mindset influence?

David Richardson, current CEO of the ICC and David Becker, then head of Legal, ICC are both white South Africans born and bred during the Whites only Apartheid era. Haroon Lorgat, the former CEO, another South African born, is of Indian Muslim descent. He has shown repeatedly that he lacks a mind of his own, of weak disposition and more fits the description of an Uncle Tom of the South African variety.

Yet making matters difficult is the fact that former colonies such as India, Pakistan, West Indies, Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, Kenya and the like, are not united to work together and close ranks in the cricket firmament, unlike the white countries such as England, Australia, and New Zealand which work in unison, to demand due recognition for their nationals and individually countries themselves are jealous of their fellow citizens gaining the limelight. This is a shame. Thus the full stops to a man or woman recognizing their full potential has many obstacles which rightfully need to change. A person who is entitled to be recognized for his or her achievements should be recognized. Just as one would expect the same in the school system.

Cricket establishment in Sri Lanka

When Senaka Weeraratna has been publicizing his writings and claims in local and international newspapers for more than a decade why has Sri Lanka’s Cricket Board, Cricket Commentators, the Sports Ministry and even the Sri Lankan Government not thought of championing his cause to ensure that Sri Lanka in particular gets the merit for Weeraratna’s brain childƒÆ’-¡  Player ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- Referral which underlies the UDRS and now used the world over as a universally recognized system?

Isn’t that a prestige in itself to have a son of Sri Lanka invent a system that is now universally used in international cricket?

There is no other credible claimant to the authorship of the UDRS and Senaka has enough of material to prove that he is the father of ƒÆ’-¹ƒ…-Player ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- Referral of not only cricket but of any sport, because the philosophy that Senaka Weeraratna has propounded in advancing his Player ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- Referral concept is fundamentally different to the Coach Referral concept found in American Football.

Moreover Wikipedia has also acknowledged and published the claims of Senaka Weeraratna.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umpire_Decision_Review_System

Tony Greig

It is said that the late Tony Greig had advised Senaka Weeraratna that to get the ball rolling it is the Sri Lankan State and Sri Lanka Cricket Board that must take up the cause with the ICC with full legal backing. Their failure in this instance is tantamount to a dereliction of national duty.

The right thing to do even at this stage is to demand recognition by way of the UDRS being re- named as the Senaka Weeraratna Rule. It is time that inventions that have universal applicability be associated with non ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- European names as an example of true de-colonization. This will be a good ground breaking start in that direction and inspire the teeming millions in the decolonized world that their brainwork too can gain international recognition.

Letting down our own people ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- reprehensible Sri Lankan trait

As an example the fates that befell two individuals need to be highlighted in this context.

Mr. Shirley Amarasinghe was a dynamic individual and top class Civil Servant. In spite of his remarkable talents and pioneering contributions to the making of the rules concerning the law of the sea, he was not nominated even as a delegate of Sri Lanka to the Law of the Sea Conference by the Government of the then President Jayawardena ƒÆ’†’¢ƒÆ’‚¢”…¡¬ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- the reason – sheer jealousy. However, the UN not only recognized his value, he went on to be nominated by several other countries including the Arab nations and Ambassador Amarasinghe became elected as the permanent chairman by acclamation. It was a proud moment for Sri Lanka but behind the scene jealousy almost denied Ambassador Amarasinghe his due credit.

An article by K Godage highlights the type of individual Mr. Amarasinghe was.

http://www.island.lk/index.php?page_cat=article-details&page=article-details&code_title=22193

We next come to Justice C.G. Weeramantry, world renowned judge and jurist. His case was no different to Ambassador Amarasinghe. J R Jayewardene, President of Sri Lanka again refused to support his candidature for membership of the International Court of Justice ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- eventually President Premadasa did and he went on to becoming the Vice – President of the ICJ. Once again jealousy coming to the forefront without any consideration for the merit that an eligible nominee from Sri Lanka would gain for the country internationally.

It is because of rivalry and innate envy that a lot of citizens are forced to leave the country or are reluctant to place their ideas for fear of them getting copied or disapproved ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- all this is denying productivity and recognition for both the individual and the entire nation.

Re- name UDRS as the Weeraratna Rule

In Sri Lanka too it must be noted that recognition for innovation of this rule has been slow in coming. The saying that the prophet is never honoured in his home country is amply manifest in this context. In another society the likes of Senaka Weeraratna given the significance of his contribution towards improving the degree of accuracy in the adjudicatory process of a nation’s king sport would have had high celebratory status by now.

The Sports Minister and the Sri Lankan Government would well do to ensure that the UDRS is re- named after Senaka Weeraratna, and the ICC and other Cricket playing nations must be sent official letters, and the matter followed – up until this contribution of a son of Sri Lanka is recognized and granted due credit by the ICC and the cricket world.

 

 

C W W Kannangara remembered in Ottawa

June 25th, 2013

By Rajendra Alwis

Dr. C W W Kannangara

Under the auspices of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Hela HamuwaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, along with the blessings of the Sri Lankan scholars and the High Commission of Sri Lanka, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Father of free education in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, Dr. C W W Kannangara, was commemorated in Ottawa, on July 15, at the Heron Community Center.

The attendees of this meeting represented a wide range of academic fields such as medicine, engineering, pure sciences, agriculture, law and humanities those who have reaped the benefits of free education in Sri Lanka. The meeting was inaugurated with the playing of Kannangara commemorative song. On behalf of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Hela HamuwaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, Mr. Priyantha Wijeweera extended a warm welcome to those who were present.

C_-W_-W_-KANNANGRA-

Setting the tone for the day, Sri Lanka High Commissioner in Canada, Her Excellency Chitrangani Wagiswara addressed the gathering. She said that a new era in national advancement has dawned in Sri Lanka in 1940s, with the introduction of the Universal Free Education System, by Dr. C W W Kannangara.ƒÆ’-¡  Those who have received free-education have vastly contributed to the national advancements in their motherland and wherever they have domiciled subsequently. Further, she said that as a Foreign Service Officer she is well aware of the fact that Sri Lankan academics are on par with any other academics scattered throughout the developed world.

Addressing the gathering, Prof. Nimal De Silva gave an interesting biographical briefing about Dr. C W W Kannangara. He said this national hero hailed from a very ordinary lower middle class family, which struggled hard to make the ends meet. Yet, he was a brilliant student who demonstrated a great intelligence since his early childhood and was a keen sportsman as well, especially in the field of cricket. ƒÆ’-¡ Before becoming the Minister of Education, he practised as a lawyer; A lawyer, who represented the poor-people for free in many instances.ƒÆ’-¡  Coincidently the speaker Prof. Silva too was from Randombe village, where Dr. Kannangara was born.

Prof. Chandre Dharmawardhana also addressed the gathering and said that the free education is a great investment in the country. And yet some neo-con economists question free education to put a price on it. He also said that the demographic expansion is reduced in educated societies, quoting Sri Lanka as a concrete example. Also, he said health conditions prevailing in Sri Lanka are very much better compared to her south Asian neighbours, mainly due to the impact of education.ƒÆ’-¡  In concluding, Prof. Dharmawardhana said that those who received free education are greatly indebted to our motherland and must try to repay that debt.

Mr. Chaminda Weerakoon in his speech focussed the attention of the audience towards the segment of disabled students in Sri Lanka. He said that it is a long felt need to launch a special program, to help the needy disabled students in Sri Lanka.

With the partnership of Mr. Visita Leelaratna of Sirin Foundation, and donations from the audience, a small- scale scholarship in honour of Dr. CWW Kannangara was established. ƒÆ’-¡ Mr. Priyantha Wijeweera mentioned that the grant will be awarded to a needy disabled student in Sri Lanka.

Dr. Gamini Senarath and Ms. Lakmini Seneviratna performed a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-virindu-songƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ devoted to Dr. Kannangara.

Mr. Roshan Rajapaksa proposed the vote of thanks.

The film ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Hantane KathawaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ was screened for the enjoyment of everyone.ƒÆ’-¡  Mr. Keerthi Weerasooriya gave an introduction to the movie.ƒÆ’-¡  This 1969 black-and-white romantic movie was directed by the renowned-artist Mr. Sugathapala Senarath Yapa.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  The story-line addresses the struggle and survival of the very first batch of the fully free-educated generation, at university-level.

At the end, refreshments with ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-kiri-bathƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ were served in traditional Sri Lankan style.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·

June 25th, 2013

ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ 

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·,
ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º,
ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬
ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¹ 10
ƒÆ’-¡ 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½
ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·
ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.
ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯, ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶· ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚.
ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸, ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶® ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.
ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚.
  1. ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬(Histo compatibility and PCR Laboratory) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¥ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸.
  2. ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»,ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸.
  3. ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸. ƒÆ’-¡ 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚.
ƒÆ’-¡ 
ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘,
ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”,
ƒÆ’-¡ 
ƒÆ’-¡ 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±
ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ 
ƒÆ’-¡ 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ;
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Sri Lanka’s National Security Concerns

June 23rd, 2013

By Hon. Gotabhaya Rajapaksa, Defence Secretary, Sri Lanka Defence.lk,

June 13, 2013

I welcome you to this lecture under the National Interest Module of the inaugural MPhil/PhD Programme of the Kotelawala Defence University. The topic of this lecture is “Sri Lanka’s National Security Concerns”. As we all know, Sri Lanka is one of the most peaceful and stable countries in the world today. Our citizens are enjoying the benefits of peace and have complete freedom and countless opportunities to build better futures for themselves. At the same time, it must be understood that as with any other sovereign nation, Sri Lanka faces potential threats from various sources. Guarding against these threats and ensuring the safety of the nation is the first duty of the Government, because National Security is the foundation of our freedom and our prosperity. As such, the Government needs to be fully aware of all the issues that impact the country in areas such as Defence, Foreign Policy, Economic Affairs and internal Law & Order. It must formulate a comprehensive National Security strategy to deal with them.

A viable National Security strategy must constantly align ends with means, goals with resources, and objectives with the tools required to accomplish them. The strategy needs to be aligned with the aspirations of the people, and it must have public support. Ideally, if comprehensive security is to be ensured, it requires the achievement of national cohesion, political and economic stability, the elimination of terrorism, the countering of extremism, and the formulation of effective responses to external challenges. The Government must make every effort to keep aware of a continually changing situation and take appropriate action in response to new developments and challenges. It is only then that the safety of the nation can be assured.

In the course of this lecture on Sri Lanka’s National Security Concerns, I will examine the following areas:

  • Sri Lanka’s overall National Security context
  • The primary threats to our National Security at present; and,
  • The strategies that are being formulated in response to these threats.

The Context of National Security in Sri Lanka

In the first several years after the achievement of Independence, National Security did not need to be a primary concern of the Government of Ceylon. As an independent Dominion of Great Britain, and as a non-aligned nation with excellent relationships within and outside the region, there were few pressing threats that the Government had to deal with. As a result, the attention given to National Security was minimal, as was the emphasis placed on the country’s Defence apparatus. The military was largely ceremonial. It only had to assist the Government on occasions when there were issues such as public sector work stoppages or riots. The need to strengthen law enforcement and the Armed Forces to protect the nation against internal or external threats was not seen as a pressing concern. The attempted coup d’ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…‚¡tat in 1962 further reduced the attention given to the Defence apparatus by the Government. Due to fears that a strong military would be a threat to democracy, as had been the case in some neighbouring countries during this period, funding for the Armed Forces was drastically reduced and recruitments curtailed.

As a result of the weakening of the military, the country was not in the best position to deal with the first major threat to its National Security when it erupted in 1971. This was the first JVP Insurrection. Although investigations into JVP activities had been going on for some time, cutbacks to intelligence services, including the closure of the Special Branch of the Police in 1970, had left the Government largely unaware of the scale of the insurrection it was facing. The nation’s military was overstretched. In response to the Government’s appeals for help, India and Pakistan sent in troops to secure critical installations while essential equipment and ammunition was provided by Britain and the Soviet Union. Although the insurrection was successfully suppressed within a short time, it had many consequences. One of the most crucial from a historical perspective was that National Security became a much greater concern both for the Government and for the general public. As Ceylon became Sri Lanka in 1972, upholding National Security was one of its foremost priorities.

In the late 1970s, Sri Lanka saw the emergence of the greatest ever threat to its sovereignty in the form of the terrorism of the Tamil separatist groups in the North and East. As the conflict worsened in the early 1980s, particularly after the riots of 1983, the threat of terrorism loomed large not only in the North and East but effectively all over the country. The rise of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), and the likelihood of its attacks in public places fostered a deep insecurity amongst the people. There was significant loss of life, loss of property, and countless lost opportunities to achieve economic development. The law and order situation deteriorated as arms and ammunition started to flow to criminal elements in the underworld. By the late 1980s, the second JVP insurrection caused the further deterioration of the security situation throughout Sri Lanka. As a result of the increasing instability and violence, people began to lose some of their freedoms as more and more intensive measures had to be taken by the state in trying to uphold public security.

As the terrorism situation worsened, there was also an increasing involvement of foreign powers and the international community in Sri Lanka’s internal affairs. During the early stages of the terrorist conflict, India trained LTTE cadres in training bases established in Tamil Nadu. Many of the leaders of other separatist groups also frequented that state. It is also important to note that several international Non Governmental Organisations that were based in the North and East first started to cooperate with the terrorist groups active in those areas during this period. In 1985, India facilitated talks between the Government of Sri Lanka and the separatist groups in Thimpu, Bhutan. The talks collapsed due to the unrealistic demands made by the separatists. These demands would have gravely affected Sri Lanka’s sovereignty if granted, and the Government had no choice but to refuse them. Fighting soon resumed. By this time, the conflict transformed into one between the state and the LTTE, which had used the ceasefire granted for the Thimpu talks to destroy rival separatist groups.

As the fighting gained momentum, the emphasis given to National Security by the Government also increased. For the first time, the appointment of a Minister of National Security was seen as necessary. The strength of the military was also significantly enhanced, with larger recruitment drives, the acquisition of better assets, and improved training to counter the growing threats. With its improved capabilities, the military was able to make more and more progress in fighting the terrorism of the LTTE. For the first time, we also saw changes within the structure of the military. The need for a coordinated effort to combat terrorism led to the establishment of a Joint Operation Command to coordinate the three Armed Services, Police and Intelligence Services in counter terrorism operations. The military used battle formations for the first time, and the requirement for a National Intelligence Bureau to coordinate the intelligence services at a national level was also understood and subsequently brought into being.

In 1987, the very successful Vadamarachchi Operation enabled the Government to regain control of much of the North, leaving the LTTE on the brink of defeat. At this point, India intervened directly in the conflict by air dropping humanitarian relief supplies over Jaffna. This led to the abandonment of the Vadamarachchi operation, and the Indo-Lanka Accord was signed in July of that year. This led to the induction of the Indian Peacekeeping Force (IPKF) to the North of Sri Lanka, where it got embroiled in conflict with the LTTE. After more than two years of fighting, the IPKF withdrew from Sri Lanka in October 1990, and fighting resumed between the LTTE and Government Forces.

Although there were several periodic attempts at peace talks, the intensity of the war grew during the 1990s and in the early 2000s, with several major battles being fought and much hardship suffered throughout the country. The military was strengthened significantly to deal with this threat. Specialised units such as the Commando Regiment and the Special Forces Regiment of the Army, as well as the Special Boat Squadron of the Navy were developed to deal with the increasing military challenge posed by the LTTE in the North and East. However, in addition to its battles with the military, the LTTE also frequently carried out attacks against civilians in the rest of the country. Large bombings took place in public locations in Colombo, killing thousands. Hundreds more were massacred in vulnerable villages near LTTE dominated territory. Critical installations and economic targets such as the International Airport, Central Bank and the Kolonnawa Oil Refinery were also ruthlessly attacked. In order to contain this very serious threat to national security, precautionary measures had to be greatly increased throughout the country. This led to the visible presence of soldiers on the streets, the widespread use of checkpoints, frequent cordon and search operations, and the constant upholding of the Emergency Regulations, which gave wide-ranging powers to the military and law enforcement agencies. The entire country was effectively on a war footing.

In 2002, the next major development in the conflict was the signing of the Ceasefire Agreement with the LTTE under mediation of Norway. This event can also be viewed as the next major phase in the internationalisation of Sri Lankan affairs as a result of the conflict. The Peace Process that was entered into by the Government of the time was facilitated by Norway, with the support of the representatives of major donor countries, namely the European Union, the United States of America and Japan. Together with Norway, they comprised the four Co-Chairs of the Sri Lankan Peace Process. A Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission was also established, comprising members from Nordic countries, to supervise the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement. Despite their presence, the LTTE continued to create instability in the country; assassinating its key opponents including Hon. Lakshman Kadirgamar, the Sri Lankan Foreign Minister, and carrying out occasional attacks against civilians.

In 2006, increasing provocations by the LTTE culminated in its threatening of a humanitarian crisis by closing the vital Maavilaru Sluice Gate. This was a crisis that affected the right to water of thousands of households, and even affected national food security by preventing the flow of water to many thousands of acres of agricultural land. The Government intervened with a limited operation to reopen the sluice gate, but was met with large-scale attacks by the LTTE on several fronts. This led to the widening of the military campaign into the Humanitarian Operation that ultimately freed Sri Lanka from terrorism.

The Humanitarian Operation required significant strengthening of the military to enable its success. During the ceasefire period, the LTTE had managed to strengthen its offensive capabilities significantly. It had approximately 30,000 cadres in its ranks and a vast arsenal of weapons and equipment that included heavy artillery, mortar, missiles, rocket propelled grenades, and light aircraft. Combating such an enemy that employed guerrilla tactics required the Sri Lankan Armed Forces to grow significantly. Between the end of 2005 and the end of 2009, the number of Army personnel grew from 120,000 to over 200,000; its 9 Divisions were increased to 20; its 44 Brigades expanded to 71; and its 149 Battalions increased to 284. The Navy and the Air Force were also expanded significantly, and given tasks beyond their classic role. The upholding of security throughout the country also required the Police and Special Task Force to be strengthened, and the Civil Defence Force was revamped and significantly expanded.

Because of the internationalisation of the Sri Lankan situation during the previous decades, there was a great deal of foreign scrutiny on the progress of the Humanitarian Operation. By keeping the Indian leaders constantly informed about what was happening on ground, and by skilfully managing our relationships with other nations, it was possible for the war effort to continue unimpeded. Nevertheless, towards the end of the war in 2009, the Foreign Ministers of France and the United Kingdom arrived in Sri Lanka and attempted to intervene in the military campaign, although they did not succeed. Efforts by such parties to end the Humanitarian Operation reflect the tremendous influence that the LTTE’s international network had on foreign capitals. Many in the international community wilfully ignored the fact that the Government of Sri Lanka was duty-bound to protect its citizens from the aggression of the LTTE terrorists. Even after the war ended and peace dawned in 2009, this bias against the Government led to Sri Lanka being taken up at the United Nations Human Rights Council. Although the initial Resolution against Sri Lanka was defeated that year, two more were sponsored by the United States in 2012 and 2013, and successfully passed.

Today, Sri Lanka is a country enjoying the full benefits of peace, and it is engaged in a concerted push to accelerate its economic development and bring prosperity to its citizens. The country has much to catch up on. Three decades of conflict lost us countless opportunities for growth: foreign and local investment suffered due to fears about the war; tourists did not visit the country, and many of our best and brightest went overseas to build better futures for themselves. Countries such as Singapore, which were in a similar economic position to Sri Lanka when we reached Independence in 1948, developed at a tremendous rate during this period. This is because they did not have a major conflict to contend with. Sri Lanka’s prospects on the other hand were greatly curtailed as a result of the war. This is why the biggest responsibility of the Government of Sri Lanka even today, in the post war situation, is to ensure the continued security of the country. Without security and stability, there will be no economic development. The maintenance of National Security is therefore of the utmost importance.

The National Security of Sri Lanka needs to be addressed in context of the history of this country and the realities of its present situation, and most critically from the perspective of several responsibilities of the state. The state must ensure that the Sovereignty and Territorial Integrity of the nation is maintained, and that there are no threats to the safety of our population. Ensuring economic growth so that the people of the country can uplift their standard of living is also critical in order to prevent internal problems recurring in the future. Creating a favourable environment for Sri Lanka internationally is similarly of the utmost importance in keeping adverse external influence at bay. Securing the safety of our physical assets and safeguarding the nation’s democracy are also critical. Considering this overall context, it is clear that National Security must be understood within a unified, single framework that integrates the nation’s Defence, Law and Order, Foreign Policy and Economic Policy. These four areas need to come together in the creation of a comprehensive National Security Strategy. This is essential if Sri Lanka is to consolidate its present peace and stability and fulfil its potential.

Present National Security Concerns

There are several potential threats in today’s context that Sri Lanka needs to be concerned about. These include:

  • The possible re-emergence of terrorism
  • The emergence of other extremist groups
  • The creation of ethnic divisions and communal violence
  • The challenges of maritime security and border control
  • The growth of organised crime
  • Foreign interference in domestic affairs
  • Non-traditional threats through technology driven new media, including social media.

In discussing terrorism, it is first of all important to appreciate the sheer scale of the problem that the Government of Sri Lanka was confronted with as a result of the LTTE over the past three decades. Since the 1970s, the LTTE grew from a small organisation of armed individuals to a large, sophisticated terrorist outfit with very advanced combat capabilities. At its height, the LTTE had more than 30,000 battle-hardened cadres; access to large stockpiles of modern armaments, ammunition and equipment; a sophisticated naval wing and a fledgling air wing. For a considerable period of the conflict, the LTTE was able to maintain the illusion of a functional state apparatus in the territories it dominated. It also had significant influence in foreign capitals as a result of its extensive international network. Defeating the LTTE required a concerted effort on the part of the Sri Lankan Government. As a result of the unwavering leadership of His Excellency the President Mahinda Rajapaksa, this task was achieved in May of 2009.

In the immediate aftermath of the war, there were a number of issues that needed to be dealt with. First was the problem of nearly 300,000 internally displaced people who had been used as the LTTE’s human shield during the last phases of the war. Then there was the need to demine the North and East so that those areas would be safe for human habitation. This resulted in the recovery of hundreds of thousands of mines and improvised explosive devices laid by the LTTE during its retreat. Infrastructure development and reconstruction of those areas after years of neglect under the LTTE’s dominance was another significant issue that had to be dealt with, after which it was possible to resettle the IDPs in their places of origin. One of the most important issues was dealing with the nearly twelve thousand surrendered LTTE cadres and four thousand detained cadres. The Government took the bold step of rehabilitating nearly all of them so that they could become productive citizens in future. The vast majority of them have already been reintegrated with society.

Amongst other post war achievements has been the disarming of other armed groups that used to operate in the North and East, and the encouragement these groups have been given to contribute to society through democratic processes. The restrictions that used to be in force on movement, fishing, high security zones etc., have all been removed. Democracy has been completely restored, with free and fair elections taking place. Economic growth in the North and East has been truly remarkable in the recent past, and it is clear beyond doubt that normalcy has been restored to the people.

Despite all of these very positive developments, however, the threat of terrorism re-emerging still persists. One of the main reasons for the LTTE’s success during its heyday was its extensive international network, which has been in operation for many decades. Following the ambush and massacre of 13 soldiers in the North by the LTTE in 1983, there was a major communal backlash against the Tamils in the rest of the country. As a result of the July 1983 riots, a large number of Tamil people left Sri Lanka and travelled to countries such as Canada, the United Kingdom, Malaysia and parts of Europe. These countries granted asylum to these immigrants, and later granted them citizenship. As such, there is a large population of immigrant Sri Lankan Tamils in other countries. A small minority of this population supports the LTTE even to this day. Extremist elements within this community, together with LTTE agents and operatives, including trained terrorists who fled Sri Lanka at various times during the war, comprise the LTTE’s international network.

After the demise of Prabhakaran, the LTTE’s former procurement chief Kumaran Pathmanadan, better known as KP, took control over this network and indicated that it would continue to work for the separatist cause through peaceful means. However, a breakaway faction emerged almost immediately, led by Nediyawan, who wanted to continue Prabhakaran’s ideology of violence. Nediyawan’s group, was previously known as The Tamil Eelam People’s Assembly or the Tamil National Council and is now known as the Tamil Coordinating Committee, Based in Norway, this group has been working with other international groups to promote the LTTE’s separatist cause in many parts of the world. The Tamil Coordinating Committee has control over most of the assets of the LTTE’s international organisation, including its media networks such as Tamil Net.

Following the arrest of KP in August 2009, Rudrakumaran took over the leadership of the main network and began working towards establishing a “Government in Exile”. This group now fashions itself as The Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam. In the guise of fighting for Tamil rights, its primary objective is to lobby foreign Governments for the establishment of a separate state in the North and East of Sri Lanka. The so-called “Transnational Government” has about twenty “Ministers” and “Deputy Ministers”, and was formed with assistance of an advisory committee comprising prominent pro LTTE activists, including foreigners who have been helping the LTTE for many years. There has recently been a revolt within the TGTE, where one third of its members loyal to Nediyawan, went against the leadership of Rudrakumaran because they wished to engage in more radical action.

Another prominent LTTE-linked group emerged out of the British Tamils Association, which was active since 2001 in supporting the terrorism of the LTTE in Sri Lanka. In 2006, the leader of the BTA, Arunachalam Krishanthakumar, alias Shanthan, was investigated on suspicion of supporting terrorist activities. As a result of these suspicions about the BTA, the British Tamils Forum was formed in 2006 to carry on the same activities in a new guise. The BTF acted as an umbrella organisation that mustered support from the immigrant Tamil community and local British politicians for dividing Sri Lanka. With Shanthan’s arrest by British authorities in June 2007 for providing material support to terrorism and his conviction in April 2009, as well as the defeat of the LTTE in May 2009, the role played by the BTF needed to be changed to suit the post-war environment.

As a result of this, the Global Tamils Forum emerged in February 2010, with many of the same members as the BTF. The head of the GTF is the so-called Father Emmanuel, a Priest who was once hailed by Prabhakaran as “a freedom fighter who has given leadership to a movement committed to setting up the homeland to Tamil Eelam”. Father Emmanuel has been engaged in a propaganda campaign against Sri Lanka for many years, targeting Tamil expatriates, Foreign Governments and International Organisations. He is known to have visited LTTE strongholds in Sri Lanka in mid-2000 to conduct training for selected youth who were earmarked to take up overseas appointments for fundraising and propaganda for the LTTE.

Under Father Emmanuel’s guidance, the GTF has successfully influenced a number of politicians from various political parties in European countries as well as the United States, Australia, Canada, and India to support the separatist cause. In addition, the GTF has courted officials within international organisations such as the United Nations, the European Union and various international non-governmental organisations to obtain their support. Part of the success of the GTF in these activities can be attributed to the involvement of influential pro-LTTE foreigners in it. These include Mrs. Joan Ryan, a former British Parliamentarian who has become the Head of the GTF’s Secretariat.

Yet another group that is active internationally in supporting the separatist cause is the LTTE Headquarter Group, which is based in France and headed by Vinayagam, a senior intelligence cadre who managed to escape during the final stages of the war in Sri Lanka. This is a group that is known to engage in Human Smuggling, with some of its past operations including the sending of the “Sun Sea” and “Ocean Lady” vessels from South East Asia to Canada in 2009 and 2010. The members of this group generally maintain a low profile and their movements are kept to a minimum as most of them have been issued Red Notices by Interpol for their involvement in criminal activities. They also keep their distance from both Nediyawan’s and Rudrakumaran’s groups, but maintain links with the GTF.

All of the LTTE-linked groups are coordinated by the GTF and united by one overarching objective. Their unwavering intent is the division of Sri Lanka and the establishment of a separate state for Tamil Eelam. There are several strategies through which they will try to achieve their objective. These include:

The winning of international opinion for the separatist cause,

  • Increasing international pressure on Sri Lanka in various areas; including pushing for international investigations into war crimes and claims of genocide, and by encouraging international monitoring of the national reconciliation process,
  • Undermining all efforts of the democratically elected Government of Sri Lanka to create a better future for its citizens through reconciliation and economic development, and
  • Continuing to push for the resumption of conflict through reorganizing local pro-LTTE elements within Sri Lanka.

Some of the efforts of these LTTE-linked groups have been successful to a certain extent in that despite the war having ended four years ago, the internal affairs of Sri Lanka have been kept at the forefront of the UNHRC’s Sessions as well as at the top of the agenda of several prominent international NGOs even in the recent past. It has to be noted that many of those who create this pressure by claiming to be human rights activists and victims of state repression are actually trained LTTE cadres and operatives who are now fully engaged in propaganda activities. It is very important to understand that their attempts to put pressure on the Government through international bodies such as the UNHRC and non state actors such as international NGOs is designed to strengthen those who work against Sri Lanka’s interests.

In this context it is important to realise that there are groups even within the democratic mainstream in Sri Lanka that obtain funding from the LTTE’s international network and pro-LTTE elements overseas, which more or less openly talk about achieving the very same objectives that the LTTE had. Though they appear to have a democratic face, their actions and remarks clearly show that the extremist separatist ideology has not yet disappeared. Their ultimate objective is achieving the division of Sri Lanka. As a result of their actions and statements, it is very much a possibility that certain radical elements will feel empowered to once again attempt to take up arms in the name of separation. This is a major National Security threat that needs to be taken with the utmost seriousness.

In addition to the threat of terrorism, Sri Lanka also faces a potential threat from other extremist groups. These are the remnants of the radical groups that were involved in previous insurgencies. Some of these groups are trying to reorganise within Sri Lanka and mobilise people to once again take up their extreme left wing causes. There is information that some of these groups have started to link up with the LTTE-linked groups to create further problems in Sri Lanka. Some of their activities include radicalising students and encouraging them to take to the streets in various protests. Though such activities are still in their early stages, they pose another serious National Security concern that we need to be vigilant of.

Another growing concern in the post-war environment is the increasing communalism amongst ethnic groups, which if left unaddressed, could result in the rise of ethnic tensions in the future. During the period of the war, it was not only the Sinhalese and Tamil communities that were affected by the terrorist separatism of the LTTE, but also the Muslims. After the LTTE started engaging in ethnic cleansing in the North in the early 1980s, it expelled the Sinhalese community from Jaffna and soon after turned its attention to the Muslims. Several massacres were carried out at Mosques in the East, and in October 1990, the LTTE expelled more than 75,000 Muslim residents from the North. This was followed by further brutal attacks on Muslims in vulnerable villages near the territory dominated by the LTTE. In this environment, the Muslims also started to organise themselves for their own protection against the LTTE. After the LTTE’s defeat, some of these groups have begun to engage in activities that stem far beyond self-protection. There is some information that some of these groups have even tried to link up with the global Islamic terrorist movement. This is a situation that requires careful monitoring.

On a broader scale, it also has to be acknowledged that one of the consequences of the terrorist conflict Sri Lanka endured for thirty years has been the increased insularity of ethnic groups. Rather than identifying themselves on the basis of nationality, the communities of Sri Lanka have begun to identify themselves on the basis of their ethnicity or their religion. Instead of calling themselves Sri Lankan, they identify themselves as Sinhalese or Tamils or Muslims or Buddhists or Christians. This fragmentation of the Sri Lankan identity is most unfortunate, because activists within these communal groups seek minority rights or ethnic rights rather than working within the framework of a common national identity.

The cross-border links that can arise as a result of such insular ethnic or religious identification is also very troublesome. It is clear that there are some in the Tamil community who identify themselves more with the Tamil community of Tamil Nadu than with their fellow Sri Lankans. This has been encouraged by some parties overseas who wish to promote the idea of a greater Tamil Nation. Similarly, it has been observed that there are some foreign groups that wish to encourage Sri Lankan Muslims to identify themselves more with the global Muslim community, thereby reducing their integration within Sri Lanka. This trend has been particularly prevalent in the post September 11 world, in which there has been a tendency among certain groups to try and influence the global Muslim community towards religious extremism has become visible.

The increasing insularity and cohesion amongst minority ethnic groups has also led to the emergence of hard line groups from the majority community: the popularity of certain political groups and movements can be viewed as being largely a response to this trend. In turn, the emergence of hard line groups in the majority community causes further tensions amongst other communities, which leads to a vicious cycle of greater fragmentation of the Sri Lankan identity. Sri Lanka had enough divisions in the past that ultimately led to conflict; we must learn the lessons from our past and ensure that history is not repeated. This is therefore a very serious National Security concern at the present moment.

The maintenance of maritime security is another serious National Security Concern that the Government needs to be vigilant about. As an island, Sri Lanka does not have land borders to worry about, but maintaining maritime security is a serious challenge. In the past, the only maritime security issues that had to be dealt with was the illegal movement of Indians into Sri Lanka and the smuggling that took place between Sri Lanka and South India. Preventing these threats was one of the foremost duties of the military in the 1950s and the 1960s. However, with the development of the LTTE and other terrorist groups in the 1970s and beyond, maritime security became a major concern to Sri Lanka.

For example, it is a well-known fact that the LTTE acquired a vast arsenal of weapons and equipment including artillery, missiles, mortars, armoured vehicles and even light aircraft. None of these items were produced in Sri Lanka, but were brought into Sri Lanka through the sea. In addition to military supplies, the LTTE’s cadres were initially trained at bases in Tamil Nadu. Given the recent activities of LTTE-linked organisations outside Sri Lanka and particularly in Tamil Nadu, this is very much a current threat even today.

The organised trafficking of persons or human smuggling is another significant maritime security issue. Organised groups, some of which are connected to LTTE-linked organisations, have lured many people seeking better economic prospects into this lucrative illegal operation. During this year alone, more than 440 such people have attempted to leave Sri Lanka illegally. Having sold their properties and handed over all their wealth to the operators of these schemes, the victims of human trafficking find themselves trapped on board unsafe vessels along with hundreds of others, travelling to countries that will most often refuse them entry. In order to make a compelling case for their acceptance by border control authorities abroad, such economic refugees often concoct stories about being persecuted in Sri Lanka, thereby damaging the country’s reputation. Furthermore, the mechanisms of human trafficking have enabled trained terrorists to escape justice in Sri Lanka and flee abroad to safe havens, from which they may once again attempt to cause problems to the country through other means.

A further consideration with regard to maritime security is the protection of our maritime assets. One of the problems Sri Lanka has faced in the maritime domain after the defeat of the LTTE has been the increasing incidence of pirate fishing in Sri Lankan waters by South Indian fishermen. These fishermen use illegal practices such as bottom trawling to maximise their catch. This causes serious damage to the healthy fish stocks in Sri Lankan waters, and also adversely affects the livelihoods of our own fishermen. These fishing boats that enter Sri Lankan waters illegally have also been known to engage in other criminal activities including drug smuggling. Protecting our waters from these fishermen, as well as from others who might seek to exploit our other oceanic resources including oil and gas, will be one of the key maritime security challenges for Sri Lanka in the future.

Somewhat farther afield, the threat of international piracy is also a concern for Sri Lanka’s maritime security. Many of the world’s most important Sea Lanes of Communications are located in close proximity to Sri Lanka, and both the newly built Hambantota Port as well as the Colombo port are ideally situated to service the hundreds of vessels that cross these lanes on a daily basis. The reach and sophistication of the pirates originating mostly from East Africa has been increasing in recent years. This factor undermines the security of these Sea Lanes and could pose a serious problem to shipping in the region in the future. This will have an impact on the country’s economic security as well, and is therefore another challenge that needs to be monitored.

With regard to border security, one of the concerns Sri Lanka has is the possibility of the country being used as a transit point for transnational crime. The arrest of certain elements connected with extremist regional terrorist groups in India and Pakistan have shown that they have used Sri Lanka as a transit point from which to coordinate their activities. Some who are known to have been temporarily sheltered in Sri Lanka by an International Organisation after claiming refugee status in the west, are known criminals who engaged in illegal activities such as credit card fraud, drug smuggling and counterfeit currency printing abroad.

Organised crime in Sri Lanka is another issue that needs to be addressed. As a result of the rise of terrorism and the insurrections Sri Lanka experienced over the last forty years, and the response required from the state, a considerable amount of arms and ammunition inadvertently fell into the hands of criminals. This led to the rise of the underworld, which is now engaged in a number of organised criminal activities including drugs, armed robberies, kidnappings for ransom and financial frauds. There are also groups that engage in seizing land illegally. Tackling the challenges posed by organised criminal groups is another priority for the state.

In today’s environment, the possibility of foreign interference in our internal affairs remains a significant National Security concern. With the involvement of countries like India, Norway, and the United States of America in Sri Lanka as a result of the terrorist conflict, matters relating to this country’s internal affairs have gained increased visibility within the international community. India in particular is very sensitive to what is going on in Sri Lanka because of the large Tamil population in its influential southern state of Tamil Nadu. Especially during the elections cycle, Sri Lanka figures large in its power politics. In the recent past, we have seen even the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu attempting to pressurise the central government into opposing Sri Lanka internationally. This is a serious threat to Sri Lanka’s security, and perhaps even its sovereignty.

Furthermore, as a result of the rapid economic and military development of countries like India and China in recent decades, the entire Asian region has become increasingly important in global affairs. Because of Sri Lanka’s important geostrategic position within the Indian Ocean region, a great deal of attention is therefore placed upon it in the present era. There is a possibility that some western powers wish to have a Sri Lankan Government that is closely aligned with their interests, and will seek to influence Sri Lanka’s destiny so that it cannot pursue the independent course it is following at present.

A third factor that has led to Sri Lanka’s increasing importance in the international arena involves regional power politics. The issues between India and Pakistan, and the issues between India and China are particularly sensitive in this regard. With the rise of China as a world economic leader, there is a widespread belief that India feels insecure and is seeking to align itself with the other powers that seem similarly threatened by China’s ascendancy. The likelihood of the United States showing more interest in the region and aligning more with India is a factor that may affect Sri Lanka. Further, its establishment of a base in the Maldives is also changing the complexion of the region. These are developments that need to be monitored from the point of view of Sri Lanka’s national security.

The final threat to Sri Lanka’s National Security that I will highlight during this lecture is the emergence of technology driven new media including social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter and other websites on the Internet. We have seen the potential of this new media to destabilise nations and affect serious change in the case of countries like Tunisia, Libya, Egypt etc. Although the likelihood of events such as the Arab spring transpiring in Sri Lanka is minimal as a result of it being a democratic nation with an extremely popular political leadership that enjoys a very large electoral majority, this is yet another threat that needs to be monitored. Particularly due to increasing Internet penetration and computer literacy in Sri Lanka, many of our youth are familiar with social media and use it as a tool to gather information as well as propagate ideas. Those with vested interests can exploit social media to cause problems in Sri Lanka by propagating certain ideologies online and mobilising and organising people. This can be done with a minimal physical presence, and therefore forms a threat that is difficult to contain through the traditional tools of national defence.

National Security Response

Considering the foregoing threat assessment, it is clear that despite Sri Lanka being in a post-war situation in which most people are only concerned about economic development, National Security remains very much a core concern for the Government. In addressing the challenges discussed above and developing a comprehensive National Security Strategy, it is important for the Government to take a holistic view and incorporate many of its elements into a single policy framework.

In terms of internal security, the best response to most of the threats that we face is the development of the Intelligence Services. Sri Lanka has two primary intelligence arms: the State Intelligence Service and the Defence Intelligence, which comprises the Directorate of Military Intelligence, Directorate of Naval Intelligence, and Air Intelligence. In addition, the Police maintains the Special Branch, while the Special Task Force also has its own Intelligence Division. Furthermore, the Terrorist Investigation Department and Criminal Investigation Department of the Police also work closely with the other Intelligence agencies on matters relating to National Security.

In the past, the lack of strength and coordination amongst these various intelligence services used to be a serious issue. It is essential that they work together under a unified command structure in order to improve coordination and enhance capabilities. Towards this effect, one of the efforts undertaken by the present Government has been to bring these intelligence services under the Chief of National Intelligence, who reports directly to the Secretary to the Ministry of Defence. This has streamlined coordination and improved cooperation amongst the intelligence agencies.

Another important development in this regard has been the augmenting of resources allocated for the Intelligence function. After the war, the number of military intelligence units have been increased and each Security Force Head quarters now has its own Intelligence Unit. The Intelligence personnel are being afforded more and more training in order to enhance their capabilities and capacities, and as Sri Lanka moves forward, it is hoped that the Intelligence agencies will be able to keep track of and contain domestic National Security concerns.

Furthermore, although the requirement for offensive military operations no longer exists in Sri Lanka, it is of the utmost importance that our security measures are not relaxed. Although the military is not engaged in law enforcement activities, and although their visible presence has been greatly reduced, it is essential for the military to be placed in strategic locations throughout Sri Lanka. Particularly in the North and East, where we know that there are still potential threats to National Security, it is essential to have a significant though unobtrusive military presence. Some recent efforts of international elements to reorganise pro-LTTE elements in the North underscores the need for this. For example, the recent arrest of some youth in Jaffna and Chennai who had been recruited by a Chennai based LTTE-linked group funded by the LTTE’s Europe based network, shows the utmost need to remain vigilant in this regard.

It must also be underscored that as a Sovereign nation, Sri Lanka has every right to place its security elements in any part of the country it so chooses. While some in the international community talk about the so-called militarisation of the North and East, and some political parties in Sri Lanka decry the presence of the military in these areas, it must also be understood that the people of the North and East mostly have a very cordial relationship with the military. Since the end of the war, the military has been involved in a great deal of reconstruction work, and they have also supported the people of the area to resume their livelihoods. They have provided equipment and material for agriculture, fishing and various types of assistance for small business development. The increased attention given to Civic-Military affairs also helps National Security because it helps the Armed Forces to win the hearts and minds of the people in the former conflict areas.

With regard to the work of the Defence services in the post-war environment, it is also essential to expand the responsibilities of the Navy and the Coast Guard. The protection of Sri Lanka’s maritime borders is of the utmost importance, and there is a great deal of responsibility on these two institutions to safeguard our seas. The Exclusive Economic Zone Sri Lanka enjoys needs to be protected, as it is a vital economic asset. The Navy needs to get more naval assets so that it has the ability to patrol or dominate the blue seas. It is also important to improve the Navy’s surveillance capabilities through augmenting its Radars and adding a new air surveillance capability. The Air Force, too, needs to improve it capabilities with regard to surveillance operations.

Another aspect of internal security that needs to be mentioned is the rectification of weaknesses that we used to have with regard to the national identity system. Because it was a manual, paper-based system, criminal and terrorist elements could very easily obtain forged identity cards. This enabled the terrorists to operate throughout Sri Lanka under various names and aliases; this is why the threat of suicide bombings and other attacks in the rest of Sri Lanka was such a pressing problem during the period of the war. To address this critical weakness, the Registrar of Persons Department was brought under the Ministry of Defence & Urban Development, and a new identity card system that uses biometric information will be introduced shortly. Similarly, the problem of people coming into Sri Lanka and staying here illegally under false pretences will be addressed through the introduction of a proper border control system in which biometric information will be incorporated into the passport and international standards used for identity verification.

From the point of view of domestic security, perhaps the most critical aspect will be the achievement of national reconciliation and the forging of a common Sri Lankan identity. Economic development is an absolute necessity in this regard. The fact remains that unless people enjoy a reasonable standard of living, peace and reconciliation are very difficult to achieve. This is why the Government has spared no expense or effort to develop infrastructure and build up the North and East to a high standard. This will enable the benefits of peace to flow down to the people of those areas. When people know that they have the opportunity to achieve a better future for themselves, it is highly unlikely that they will waste their time on violent ideologies. The achievement of economic development and national reconciliation are therefore two of the key areas of focus of the Government in the present national context.

Finally, with regard to external threats, it is of the utmost importance that Sri Lanka maintains cordial relationships with its allies. Despite the present pressure from Tamil Nadu, it is essential to maintain a strong and healthy relationship with India. Relations with the many countries that helped us in the past, both in economic terms and through political support, should be strengthened further through skilful diplomacy and further development of mutual ties. It essential to further strengthen the existing cordial relationships with powerful nations such as China and Russia, which have permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council and can influence any international action on Sri Lanka more significantly than other nations. In this overall context, it is very important that the foreign policy of Sri Lanka needs to be realistic. It is essential for Sri Lanka to have close ties with certain powerful nations in the international community in order to safeguard its National Security interests.

During the course of this lecture I have outlined the overall context of Sri Lanka’s National Security concerns; identified our most pressing threats and discussed the broad outlines of the Government’s strategy to deal with all these issues. Ultimately, the best way to ensure that Sri Lanka remains safe and strong in the future is for all of us to put aside the differences of the past; unite as Sri Lankans, and work towards a better future for ourselves and for each other.

Thank you.

TNA wants Northern Province governor replaced: Does anyone need to pay heed to TNA demands?

June 23rd, 2013

Asada M Erpini

ƒÆ’-¡ The Tamil National Alliance(TNA) yesterday called for ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-the Northern Province Governor Major General (Rtd) G.A. Chandrasiri to be replaced with a civilianƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, according to reports in the media on 23 June. Is there any reason to take the demands, threats and the lamentations of the TNA seriously? ƒÆ’-¡ The simple answer is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-NoƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

ƒÆ’-¡ The TNA was born with the blessings of the LTTE, and as long as the military wing of the terrorist gang was playing havoc in Sri Lanka, the TNA served as its mouthpiece.

ƒÆ’-¡ The bombings and explosions in Sri Lanka have ceased. The only manner in which the LTTE rump based in the affluent countries can continue to receive their ill-gotten benefits, either with the help of the misguided stances of local politicians or by forcing the hundreds of thousands of illegal Tamil immigrants, who managed to settle in these countries through bogus refugee claims, to part with a portion of their earnings and welfare benefits is by repeating the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”sufferings of Tamils in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ad nauseum.

ƒÆ’-¡ The protests that were orchestrated by the LTTE when the Sri Lanka cricket team was in the UK clearly illustrate the modus operandi of the anti-Sri Lanka Tamils, who now enjoy citizenship in the UK and other EU countries. The people who really are the so-called victims ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the Tamils who stayed behind in Sri Lanka ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” never engage in protests unless and until they are instigated by self-seeking Tamil politicians or their financial and moral backers based abroad: they clearly are happy that there is no war, their children do not run the risk of being abducted by the LTTE and that they do not have to give one child to the LTTE to end up as cannon fodder in their fight for Eelam.

ƒÆ’-¡ It is the armed forces of Sri Lanka that vanquished the terrorist curse that plagued the once-peaceful island nation for nearly three decades. If the government decides to have a retired army general in the North as its governor, it is only the Eelamists and their separatist supporters that would complain. Most peace-loving Sri Lankans may want the government to go even further: they may say that the entire North should be under military rule: after all, it is in the North that the terrorist curse saw the light of the day, ultimately becoming a killing machine that knew no bounds to its ruthlessness and ferocity.

The UK Should Hang Its Head In Shame Over The Tolerance Of LTTE Activists!

June 23rd, 2013

Insight By Sunil Kumar

June 26th 2013The recent turn of events which saw some attrocious behaviousr by Tamil Tiger activists in the UK during Sri Lanka’s Champion’s Trophy cricket final at Cardiff, Wales brings to bear the apathy on the part of the British authorities who do not seem to have prioritised the importance ofƒÆ’-¡  hounding and incarcerating the vermin who call themselves theƒÆ’-¡ LTTEƒÆ’-¡  and their supportives in the manner other countries have done towards implementing their outlawed and banned status!

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Thankfully countries like Canada , the US and Australia amongst others have adopted a zero tolerance of these criminals and their supportives and perhaps its high time the Brits also knuckled down towards adopting the sameƒÆ’-¡  so that innocent people will not be harrassed or intimidated by these wretched aberrations of humanity who need to be stamped out in their entirety to make the world a safer and better place inasmuch as the Taliban, Al Quaeda and the rest of the pitiful psychotic lot who go about disrupting peoples lives with impunity or even if impounded get away lightly!
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It becomes quite an alarming revelationƒÆ’-¡  to learn that all theƒÆ’-¡  incidents which transpired in Wales just days ago amounting to criminal activity and the breach of public peaceƒÆ’-¡ took placeƒÆ’-¡  despite The British government and Scotland Yard having beenƒÆ’-¡ been alerted two daysƒÆ’-¡ prior toƒÆ’-¡ the Sri Lanka vs. India ICC Champions TrophyƒÆ’-¡ gameƒÆ’-¡  last Thursday in Cardiff it has been learnt through investigative reports.
They had been warnedƒÆ’-¡ that there was a likely threat to the Sri Lankan cricket team from LTTE supporters in England according to very reliable reports. This was proven correct by the pitch invasions which took place and perhaps affected the Sri Lankan team whose lacklustre performance seemed attributable to some reason which may not have been comprehendible to the ordinary observerƒÆ’-¡  as someƒÆ’-¡  sports analysts seem to think where the trauma going back to the horrendousƒÆ’-¡ attacks in Lahore,ƒÆ’-¡ Pakistan some years agoƒÆ’-¡ may have played on their minds here also.
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But it was not the team alone that was targetted but Sri Lankans including women and childrenƒÆ’-¡ sporting emblemed sweaters and carrying flags who were assaulted, chilly powder thrown in their faces andƒÆ’-¡ someƒÆ’-¡  needing hospitalisation and treatment which truly is an abject shame for the organisers, co-ordinators of security for sports in Britain as well as the Government and its law enforcement agencies such as the Metropolitan police as well as Scotland Yard bearing in mind that attrocities against Sinhalese by the cowardly Tamil LTTE activists in various parts of the country appear to be a regular occurrence which most times go unpunished.ƒÆ’-¡ 

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To all intents and purposesƒÆ’-¡  there appears to have beenƒÆ’-¡  a security lapse on the part of British authoritiesƒÆ’-¡ to prevent LTTE supporters from getting close to the Sri Lanka cricket team members and if this is proven true they need to re-think their stragies and make sporting events safer for both the players as well as the public before another fiasco of this nature or worseƒÆ’-¡ transpires.
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The followingƒÆ’-¡ report fom the grounds, shocking at the brazenness of it allƒÆ’-¡ endorsed by eyewitnesses and the Government of Sri Lanka, later briefed about itƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ portrays theƒÆ’-¡  viciousness and malice of the perpetrators as well as the responses from the authoritiesƒÆ’-¡  where “ƒÆ’-¡ LTTE supporters carrying anti-government placards and LTTE flags stormed the cricket grounds during the Sri Lankan innings and later the Indian innings and had to be restrained after they got close to the players.
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After the match the Sri Lankan cricket team bus was blocked by more LTTE supporters before they were cleared by the police.
Media reports said that at least 400 protesters stood barely 500 yards away from the team pavilion which was cordoned off by security men. No protests were shown to the Indian team and their bus left as scheduled.ƒÆ’-¡  The British police had arrested some of the protestors but the Sri Lankan Government wants to see if the team was given adequate security based on the security threat.

Britain’s NDTV reported that a security guard, who did not want to be quoted, said the protestors had slipped in as Indian supporters, draping themselves in the tri-colour. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-It was impossible to recognize them because 90 percent of the fans today were Indians,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ he said.
The International Cricket Council was caught off-guard. The matches in the tournament had been peaceful till last ThursdayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s incident with each team being provided with at least three body guards as per anti-corruption and security norms. Claire Gatcum of the England and Wales Cricket Board told NDTV the police was investigating the case and there were no comments to be made.The protestors who invaded the pitch were arrested and could face fines up to 1000ƒÆ’-¡ UK PoundsƒÆ’-¡ each, NDTV added.”
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While thereƒÆ’-¡  are no no excuses for such lapses (which indeed they are)ƒÆ’-¡ on the part of the authorities anywhere in the world, least of all in the UK where so much talk goes on about the safety measures taken during sporting events, it must also be remembered that hooliganism, vandalism and rivalry involving violence is nothing new to the country but more prevalent aroundƒÆ’-¡  the game of soccer which mercifully seems to be under control today dure to the strict measures enforced.
Cricket however whichƒÆ’-¡ is said to be the gentlemen’s game based on theƒÆ’-¡ tenets attributed to itƒÆ’-¡  now seems in peril of losingƒÆ’-¡ its good name through the actions of a puny bunch of thugs interlinked with terrorists where before long if tolerated could sully all sports and something for the Brits to watch out for especially if they carry flags of Tamil TigerƒÆ’-¡ Eelam which could easily spread into the rivalries surrounding other ethnicities and their sporting eventsƒÆ’-¡ where Britain being a multicultural society could become a hotbed of unmitigated violence if stringent measures aren’t taken quickly.
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It is also a reflection on what much of the world views in contentious perspective that the Tamil Tigers and their supportives areƒÆ’-¡ a criminaly motivated lot whose very existences need to be frowned upon towards extinction and cast out ofƒÆ’-¡  any realm of acceptibility wherever there are decent freedom loving human beings as they are fast becoming a vexation to humanity.ƒÆ’-¡ 
It is also an irony that the measures taken in Sri Lanka to stamp out these vermin are frowned upon by certain pompous big wigs of the West who continue to sing sympathy songs in their favour and need to open their eyes and minds a bit wider to comprehend the harm they are continuing to inflict on a world that watches aghast at the apathy of it all!ƒÆ’-¡ 

How would the University students manage to cook without any basic cooking experience?

June 23rd, 2013

Dr Hector PereraƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  London

When the children are growing up with the parents they insist their children on education more than anything else because they are the future. It is a duty of the parents to do everything to their children and too much to mention what they are. When some children grow up, they have the chance to attend for further studies in Universities either in that country or in foreign countries. When they attend the Universities for higher studies, certainly most of them have to live away from the home and the parents. Then they have to do everything on their own that means to organise their lives, including preparing their own meals. I can tell you this kind of things due to my own personal experience by living in Colombo then when I came to England. When I was doing my SSC to advanced level in Colombo, I travelled from Gampaha home to Colombo on daily basis but that was very difficult on the long run. Then came to live in a boarding house with a few more students, both boys and girls. There was no problem with meals, all done by the servants so I never worried at all.

DidnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t like takeaways still didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t know cooking

Then came to another boarding house on the room only basis then the problems started about the meals. I tried various ways, getting meals from near by houses or bringing in some takeaways. For some reason or the other, I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t like it very much. Then I started to cook something with the help of a final year medical student since we had some space in the back of the house as cooking facilities. We used a single burner kerosene cooker not a LPG cooker. None of us knew how to cook anything but some or how we found out the way to cook something. I am certain that I asked my mum then watched her cooking back at home. At home we had nothing but firewood stoves and often a servant also cooked but when time permits the mum also cooked. Those days I never knew any application of science to cooking or energy saving in cooking, just cooked. Like any other person, just added this and that and cooked then opened the boiling curries to stir then taste for salt or to add more ingredients. I am sure those curry smells or even chicken cologne must have got on to my clothes as well as to the face and hands. Those days, I never noticed them at all.

A room to study sleep and cook

Then I had live in a single room while attending a University in England. I was really worried about something to eat in our way that is some rice and curries. I knew how to cook rice and curries but still not for sure. May be I experimented because in chemistry as well we do some chemistry experiments. There were enough other things to eat such as fried fish and chips or chicken and chips, sausages, burgers, kebabs or other types of takeaways but from the start, I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t like them at all. I couldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t eat all the time bread, butter, jam, cheese, bananas and apples. The supermarkets were full of ready made meals but actually I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t like them to eat on regular basis.

Due to habit or second nature

ƒÆ’-¡ Money was very difficult, too little in hand but too many other things to spend including the University fees. Takeaways are expensive to eat all the time but sometimes I used to eat them because no choice. All the time, I used a small electric cooker to cook things such as rice and curries at the boarding house. Then I had to be watchful not to over flow the pot of rice otherwise it would fall on the hot plate so I always cooked at low fire. The chicken curries or even vegetable curries were opened and stirred or tasted for salt and other ingredients due to habit or second nature. I never realised that these volatile chemicals from different ingredients could come and deposit on any cold surface. When I said the cold surfaces that means when we get nearer a boiling chicken curry and stir, then the hands, face, the clothes and the head are colder than the vapours so by laws of science these chemical vapours tend to deposit on these exposed colder surfaces. Not only they deposit on me while cooking, they deposit on anywhere such as on the curtains in the room, the windows, the TV then on anything around. These are microscopic films of sticky oily dirt too difficult to detect at first place. Honestly I never knew these were problems and never knew how to tackle them either. Actually slowly these valuables gradually get ruined. I am not alone, even right now in anybody elseƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s homes as well these microscopic dirt gradually gather in and around your valuables in your kitchen, sitting room then in your bedrooms when they cook carelessly. It does not happen over night but on the long run.

Made them aware of wasting gas

After the recent cooking demonstration at the block of high rise flats in South of Colombo, some people came to me and thanked for making them aware of some simple problems in cooking. I am sure most of the ladies who came there were expert cooks with lots of experience for a number of years. My main aim was to make them aware of wasting gas in careless cooking. As everyone knows, wasting gas means wasting hard earned money then polluting the air we breathe. Who would like to burn Rs 5000 or Rs 1000 notes and pollute the air, absolutely no one but actually the people who cook carelessly buy gas for money then burn gas carelessly? In a way they are burning money indirectly, am I correct? My main aim was to show the crowd how to use gas more efficiently in cooking which can be done only by following some simple rules of science.

ƒÆ’-¡ This is not a spring chicken idea

ƒÆ’-¡ I learned them in a hard way by making so many mistakes in Sri Lanka as well in England for a number of years then came up with these scientific energy saving cooking ideas. Not only I practically use the technique at home then thought to let the general public be aware of the wastage of gas by explaining in simple language than using scientific terms. In case any scientists or energy saving experts come forward and requested the scientific explanations then I would come out with proper scientific explanations. I knew no point of a chat interview at a TV station without a proper cooking demonstration then it would have been a really boring session. The interviewer wouldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t have any ideas to question me on scientific findings on energy saving and time saving cooking. I am sure I attempted to make the explanations as simple as possible when I did both demonstrations, one to the ITN TV then to the crowd of people in South of Colombo.

What is thermodynamic equilibrium condition?

ƒÆ’-¡ Of course I mentioned some scientific terms during the demonstration but I stopped and explained with respect to the actual situations. When the rice and chicken curry came to show first signs of steam escaping steadily under the lid then I stopped and explained that condition, I called it attempting thermodynamic equilibrium condition. From that moment, I adjusted the flame not to exceed thermodynamic equilibrium condition. When it was properly adjusted to my kind of energy saving, the actual flame was about 30% from the initial flame. I showed the crowd clearly then they widely accepted it was cooking under thermodynamic equilibrium condition. At the start they never knew the meaning of those terms but when I showed with examples certainly they knew the meaning of those terms. Have I not educated them a little bit about the correct use of gas and energy efficiency? I wish if there was at least one official from the energy authority or any scientist to witness this energy saving cooking.

A dad and daughter

The Chairman, Mr Bandara then his teenage daughter as well cooked rice and curries as I explained while the whole crowd was watching. I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t have any tricks in this kind of work but pointed out what they have to do in order to use gas efficiently then to cook a simple meal in a given time by saving gas and time so that they can avoid eating any takeaways. In this way no CHICKEN COLOGNE OR CURRY COLOGNE to wear on them because that was a scientific way of cooking. Further if anyone expected, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”DANKUDAƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ they too were disappointed. I assume, this is a very useful demonstration for the future and present University students as well. I have pointed out this in my previous article as well and I am sure some energy saving experts as well as some scientists must have read those articles. In some of my previous articles, I made it very clear that if those energy saving experts or any scientists could prove me wrong then that increased challenged money would be awarded.

Expect an approval or a disproval

Would you like to waste your hard earned money on burning gas carelessly? If the answer is no then either they must find out my kind of simple scientific energy saving cooking or the scientists or the energy saving experts must take necessary steps to investigate my claim properly, if I am right or wrong. Suppose if I was wrong then I will pay Rs Six millions to the authorities for wasting their time but if I was right what would I get? I wonder do I get at least any official recognition! I have the DVDs as evidences then it is up to the respective authorities to approve or disprove my technique. I have done my part in scientific energy saving cooking demonstrations not just once but twice in May 2013. Who said, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”More SirƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢? Any comments please email to perera6@hotmail.co.uk

Travels of a journalist [2013 Series #6] Saga of Bandarawela Bappa: We ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”detectƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ his wife in Diyatalawa

June 23rd, 2013

By Shelton Gunaratne, author of Village Life in the Forties: Memories of a Lankan Expatriate (Bloomington, IN: iUni

I dramatized the exploits of Bandarawela Bappa or Punchi Thepal Mahattaya in Chapter 5 of my Village Life in the Forties. The memories that I have of him are still those of a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-young, handsome man with a somewhat square face sporting a razor-thin mustache.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Although he was known for his compassion, as well as his passion for Pathma Nenda, he was unable to restrain his unmitigated hatred of Myna, the new village headman, for floating spurious rumors damaging to our family.

The pugilistic episode at the top of Batawala Kanda, I suppose, enabled Bandarawela Bappa to release some of his pent up tension by severely punishing Myna for his incorrigible penchant for character assassination.

I had lost contact with Bandarawela Bappa after he left Pathegama. I did not know the veracity of the rumor that he had fallen in love with a very attractive Burgher woman he met in Colombo although that affair too did not last long.

shelton2306

Our route from Haputale (Uva Province) to Ramboda (Central Province)

Thus, even in 2013, I had failed to close the saga of Bandarawela Bappa that I opened up in 1965 when I first wrote the sketches for the Daily News Saturday magazine. Now that I had come to Haputale (pop. 54,989) in the hill country of Uva, just a few miles to the south of Bandarawela BappaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s hometown, should I not make an attempt to find out the truth of what happened and close his saga?

We spent Wednesday (April 3, 2013) night at the Sri Lak View Holiday Inn on Sherwood Road after eating a late dinner comprising chicken, fish, rice and tea that cost us a tidy Rs. 1,200 (about $10). At dinner, we had a long conversation with the hotel manager about the politics and economics of the country. He spoke impeccable English and had a thorough knowledge of the politics of Uva Province. He gave us a hint of his ethnicity when he told us that he went to India to get married.

I tried to tap his knowledge of the Uva to locate Bandarawela Bappa, legally named Nicholas Panditaratne, whose close relative, N. G. P. Panditaratne, was the one-time director general of the Mahaweli Development Authority and chairman of the United National Party in the last quarter of the previous century. The manager, however, was unable to help us.

Thursday morning, we ate breakfast at the hotel enjoying the splendid scenery from the location of the hotel 1,431 meters above the sea level. Surrounded by hills covered with cloud forests and tea plantations, the area offered stunning vistas of a wide variety of flora and fauna.

With the backing of our driver Amal, we decided to spend a couple hours in the morning doing detective work in Bandarawela, just 10 km to the north, trying to find the whereabouts of Bandarawela BappaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s widow even though we had no clue about her first name or area of residence. We walked to the post office and the police station in the city center, but officials denied any knowledge of a widow named Panditaratne.

Since we failed to access even a telephone directory, we decided to contact the Diyatalawa Post Office when a young woman at the Sri Lanka Telecom Building told us that her computer analysis of all the Panditaratnes in the vicinity, the most likely one who fitted our description had a Diyatalawa address. But she couldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t verify it because the phone line was busy for too long.

When the Diyatalawa PO confirmed that a widow by the name of Mallika Panditaratne did indeed live on Station Road very close to the Railway Station, Amal immediately took us off to reach the spot seven miles to the southwest. On the way, he used his cell phone to call the lady to get directions to her enclosed home.

Mallika photo
At the entrance to Aunt MallikaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Diyatalawa home: The writer (right) and his spouse (left) flank Bandarawela BappaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s widow.

When we arrived at her address about 11a.m., a young woman opened the gate for us and invited us in. The older lady, Mallika, was waiting for us in the veranda.

Because this was our first encounter, I wanted to be sure that she was the wife of the man who lived with us in Pathegama some six decades ago.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Yes, I know all about what you have written on him. Nicholas also enjoyed reading your story,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ she allayed my concerns as we got into conversation over tea prepared by her helpmate who had opened the gate for us. Her helpmate was on the phone most of the morning; and that was why we couldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t contact her earlier.

Aunt Mallika revealed that she once taught English Literature because she was addicted to reading English fiction but that her husband was addicted to smoking, which caused his early death in his mid-60s. She had lived both in the vicinity of Colombo and Diyatalawa. Now, she was permanently in Diyatalawa. She was constantly in touch with her four children. They were doing OK; with one of them working overseas.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Was it true that Bandarawela Bappa had a fling with a Burgher woman after the postal administration transferred him from Weligama to Colombo?ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ I asked. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-No, he didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Aunt Mallika asserted, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-unless people presumed me to be a Burgher lady.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Thus, she helped me to end the saga of Bandarawela Bappa.

About noon, we got ready to leave.ƒÆ’-¡  In appreciation, I gave Aunt Mallika a copy of my book Village Life in the Forties as a souvenir.

She suggested that we visit some of our other relatives in the area after she telephoned to inform them of our presence. But because we had to be in Kandy for the night, we decided to skip them.

Our lunch stop was Nuwara Eliya (pop. 27,500), located 1,868 meters above sea level in the Central Province. Nicknamed ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Little England,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ the city lies 45 km northwest of Diyatalawa. We drove along the northeastern boundary of the 3,160-hectare Horton Plains National Park renowned for its unique landmark, the WorldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s End with a sheer precipice of 1,050 meters. At the top of the national park is the botanical garden contiguous to the Hakgala Nature Reserve in Seetha Eliya.

At Nuwara Eliya, Yoke-Sim and I ate our lunch while walking on the paths of Victoria Park, which we also visited in 2000. Then, we paid the obligatory visit to the Grand Hotel for afternoon tea that cost us a very reasonable Rs. 440 ($3.50).

It occurred to me that we were enjoying our tea in the shadow of the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s highest peak, Mount Pidurutalagala (2,524 m), located just north-northeast of us in the Pidurutalagala Forest Reserve. The peak itself, declared a high security area, is not open to the public.

138

In the shadow of Mount Pidurutalagala:ƒÆ’-¡  The enchanting flora in the premises of the Grand Hotel, Nuwara Eliya, entices the writerƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s spouse.

We saw some of the finest tea plantations in Sri Lanka as we traversed the 22 km stretch of A5 northwest from Nuwara Eliya to Ramboda. The western boundary of the bone-shaped Pidurutalagala Forest Reserve to our right ended when we reached the Blue Field Tea Center in Ramboda. A sari-clad young woman took us on a tour of the factory to show all stages of tea productionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚withering, rolling, cutting, heating, drying and sorting.

She told us in simple English how to become a connoisseur of tea and differentiate among black, green, and white teas. Finally, she served us samples of a variety of teas, which we gobbled down to quench our thirst.ƒÆ’-¡  Yoke-Sim had no hesitation to purchase an assortment of tea priced at Rs. 2,000 ($ 16).

We planned to stay overnight in Kandy, another 54 km from Ramboda. Because it was still daylight, Amal thought it fit to drop us at a wayside plantation, close to Ramboda Falls, to get a closer look at the tea plant. We took advantage of this time to walk down on a sloping path and return.

By the time we reached Gampola, rain was pouring though it ceased by the time we reached Kandy about 8 p.m.

We wanted to pay a quick visit to the home of Priyani, Loku MaamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s younger daughter. Amal received route directions on his cell phone from Priyani to reach her posh home at the far end of a narrow, winding road. We apologized for getting there late, yet engaged in small talk over coffee.

At about 9 p.m., we came to the open food court in the Kandy city center to eat a late dinner before we checked in at Kandy Mount Villa on Rosmond Place to spend the night. We paid Rs. 5,000 ($ 40) for our double room.

International law is Eurocentric and Colonial ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Time to change

June 22nd, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

How many would agree that imperialism hasnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t ended and it is found in what we know today as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-international lawƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬? The stark reality is that decolonization took place ONLY AFTER the former empires established another means of retaining control ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” that mode was international law. International law propagated by the West is today applicable internationally and even locally and relevant to economic, political, social, private and public affairs. Imperialism that takes place even without our awareness.ƒÆ’-¡  For sovereign nations to be realistically free the strangle-hold that the West dictates through international law must be changed applying terms that is a win-win situation to all.

History of International Law

Modern international law traces its roots to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia Treaty that was supposed to grant sovereign equality by dividing Europe into sovereign and independent states. The 1648 Treaty of Westphalia was applicable to the civilized European sovereign nations not the non-European uncivilized world.

ƒÆ’-¡ International law consists of doctrines and principles developed in Europe, influenced by European history and experience. We would be naƒÆ’†’¯ve if we were to think that these international laws would be applied to the non-European world without bias because they were designed with bias. They were also designed subtly to promote their Christian faith. If colonies were invaded to spread Christianity and plunder nations ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” sovereignty was given to ensure this status quo remained unchanged. Let us not fool ourselves – Christian law has transformed itself as international law.

The manner in which these independent states were to be run led to standards and establishment of laws applicable to all the sovereign states under the banner ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Family of NationsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. What needs to be noted is that the Third World was excluded as they were ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-uncivilizedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-non-EuropeanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. The world was divided as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-the civilized and Christian people of EuropeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ against ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-the uncivilized non-EuropeansƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. Today it is known as Developed and Developing world. By this very definition, it reveals racism, bias and discrimination. When by 1914, all territories of Asia, Africa and Latin America fell under control of major European states ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” there is little that needs to be said of the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-uncivilizedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ manner these supposed ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-uncivilizedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Third World nations were treated! Little do people realize that these nations had civilizations far superior to those of the West ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” what they lacked was English and French. What right did the White Christian West have to define Indians as heathens and animals and claim they had no cognizable rights? Similarly, just because the aborigines look unfit because they have no international laws or magistrates can they be written off?

Following the 2 World Wars ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” a new international order emerged dictated by America and Europe.

There were no legal obstacles to taking over these nations because the mission was to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-civilize the nativesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. In the eyes of the West ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the colonies were too ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-primitive to understand the concept of sovereigntyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. So this is the excuse given to why the Third World did not belong to the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-family of nationsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and did not have any right to the concepts of international law that the West designed. It appears thereƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s little change and questions why a handful of Third World natives would still want to continue worshipping these imperialists.

If Charles Taylor, former President of Liberia and the like faces the full force of international law why has the impartial international legal system omitted actions on George Bush, Tony Blair, Dick Cheney for scores of misadventures under a new banner called R2P/military intervention? Why do crimes of aggression not get applied to the powerful Western nations?

When the IMF ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” International Monetary Fund is under the control of the US and former colonial rulers who control 85% of the vote – what more is there to say? Is the IMF not the vessel that dictates how financial markets run and does this US-led Western monetary body not force Asian, African and Latin American nations to liberalize their currencies to benefit western investors? Third World is victims of development with debt ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” debt that scores of future generations have to pay!

It is in this context that repressive governments are created with the blessings of the West under a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-you scratch my back ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” IƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ll scratch yoursƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ deal, these created governments are dislodged when they are of no use or when the real dictators have found new ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-friendsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ who are prepared to offer a better deal and these very nations lecture to us on morality, ethics and good governance!

Colonial crimes

If international law was not western biased ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” it would not have the British Foreign Office destroying evidence of its colonial crimes and keeping them secret from the public all these years? It would not take victims like the Mau Mau over 60 years to be given justice and it would certainly encourage nations that had been invaded and plundered to seek compensation instead of having them beg for justice. The former colonies need to now break away from their colonial servitude and demand reparations ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” India must lead the way by breaking away from the India sepoy attitude.

Neo-Colonial crimes

If crimes during colonial rule was not enough what about the crimes taking place presently? With what right do these Western nations have to invade nations, bomb civilians and infrastructure, carrying out renditions, make false charges and simply use every international law to their advantage?

We are no fools to realize that the West is using international law to the maximum to secure global power, oil and forge spheres of influence. The West created ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-humanitarian angelsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ are simply agents given that NGOs have grassroot access and are able to do their undercover work since funds can be channeled easily too. The camouflage of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-humanitarianismƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is nothing but a sham and equates to mean imperialism never ended and we are fools to think so. Everything still remains blacks and whites.

Was it not the desire for title ownership that led Europeans to stake claim using the Berlin Conference of 1884 and divided Africa between them? Despite decolonization and self-determination ensuring Third World nation secured more presence in the UN General Assembly the topic of nationalization of foreign entities did not go well with the European colonies who wished to maintain the older rules of international economic laws that favored them. Thus World Bank and IMF do a meticulous job on behalf of the West. Countries colonized and decolonized were again victims of neocolonialism and burdened by divisions created by the colonial rulers along ethnic ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” boundary ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” religious lines. All giving rise to issues defined as human rights violations.

ƒÆ’-¡ Can any of the developing nations obey international law when it sees merit and discard it when it does not like Europe and America does? Those that do will end up hounded like Saddam and Gaddafi and killed. But no one would ever claim these murders were foul or illegal. The deafening silence about the manner the US and NATO is attacking Syria is proof that when the West wants something it will turn any rock to secure it ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” even creating, arming and training terrorist groups. So much for a supposed war on terror!

So where are the justice seeking activists, the citizens organizations, the celebrities, the op-ed writers and moral Western politicians of the West in defense of the defenseless? ƒÆ’-¡ 

Discoveries of non-Western civilizations forgotten

Education systems and pro-Western media have ensured that not much gets promoted about ancient civilizations that existed before the West took over the world and the inventors or inventions of these times. How many in the world are even aware that Sri Lanka possesses the ONLY man-made irrigation systems with man-made tanks that remain an engineering marvel to this day and baffles engineers on how without engineering degrees such works of art could last for centuries when modern day buildings are seen to collapse on a daily basis. Why have non-Western inventors never got the limelight that the Western inventors are getting. Is it possibly because it is from them that the idea was borrowed and refined?

United Nations and Human Rights Movements

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 completely ignores the social differences of 191 UN member states and the 58 nations that existed when it was drafted. Though it is not a legally binding document its principles are incorporated into domestic legislation and is said to have inspired more than 60 human rights standards which include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. All drafts are dominated by the West looking at issues from their angle. It is their morals, ethics, standards that take precedence. Unfortunately, the fault lies in the newly decolonized nations not realizing they needed to speak up and demand equal status for their cultures too because too many of them were mesmerized by the fact that they were ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-acceptedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ into Western society and were ever ready to give up their cultural heritage save for a handful. Now people and nations are beginning to realize their mistake.

To sustain world balance imperialists need to uplift the majority of the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s nations that are impoverished and undeveloped. It is for these selfish reasons that handouts are given to the Third World. Former colonies are foolish to think they are no longer OBJECTS of international law despite being called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-sovereignƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. What international law ever favored or took the aside of the oppressed former colonies? The Third World is supposed to feel gratitude for being included to the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-family of nationsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ called the UN. For that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-inclusionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ what have these nations sacrificed post-independence?

Real status of Human Rights Laws

Human rights law was created to be used to legitimize the intrusion of international laws in the internal affairs of a sovereign state and justify intervention if there was a need. Human rights organizations were the Wests means of deploying their agents on sovereign soil. Interventions in the Middle East is no different to the Spanish conquest of the Indians!

International law has also helped legitimize and sustain unequal structures and processes that divide people further. Everything eventually becomes tied to international financial trade and leaders irrespective of their ideology end up compelled to pursue the same economic and social policies. When national leaders like Lumumba, Che Guevara, Allende emerge to challenge the status quo ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” their fate was sealed and to stop similar nationalists from arising plenty of funds go to create rebel movements that ensure nations are trapped in a conundrum. The UN Secretary General Dag Hammerskjold also saw the same fate in wanting to provide equality to the newly decolonized nations alongside the former colonial rulers. Such equality was taboo then and it cannot be any different today. Equality is never part of any deal though a lot of propaganda goes to showing otherwise.

Today

What is evident is that all non-Europeans/Americans are only an OBJECT of international law. The quasi-sovereign status given to some under ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-unequal treatiesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ was only a sham created to force them to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-honorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ the imperial agenda. International laws were adapted to suit Europeans and thereƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s little that can be done unless the Third World realize the status quo and wish to change it. We are in a world where industrial and well-organized West dictates its terms to the rest of the world through international laws.

If the sovereignty doctrine expelled the non-European world from its realm should the Third World not be demanding immediate reforms afterall the First World cannot run on its own and without the Third World. The Third World now needs to make their demands. This is what Third World diplomats are expected to achieve and not to worship the laws that benefit the West. This is why Third World nations need to recruit officials who have a love for their nation and wish to use the systems in place and make representations for the advantage of the Third World not meekly appease and follow international laws that are dictatorial. Future recruitment policy of Third World must address this to change the equilibrium otherwise East-West, civilized-uncivilized, Developed-Undeveloped, Black-White, international laws that are Christian-Non Christian biased will continue unabated.

ƒÆ’-¡ 

 

Dayan Jayatillake: A Rebel without a Worthy Cause

June 22nd, 2013

Dilrook Kannangara

Dayan has had a very eventful political life. One common theme running through his life is that he has been jumping from one camp to another, leaving his allies in misery. They are the depictions of various stages of Indian involvement in the island nation. His historical allegiances made what he is today.
His adventures started with his formation of the Sinhala Leftist Students’ Social Study Circle in mid 1970s. These misled Lefties supported the cause of Tamil Elam, Tamil nationhood and Tamil right of self-determination ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the three principles LTTE harped on during all ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”peaceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ talks. They merged with the Tamil terrorist outfit EPRLF (ElamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s PeopleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Revolutionary Liberation Front). It is an Indian sponsored Tamil terrorist organization with its own political party which is now aligned with TNA. Ultra racist TNA MP Suresh Premachandran was a very close associate of Dayan from this time.
Dayan dumped the Study Circle for Vikalpa Kandayama in 1982. It was aligned to Indian Naxalite movement or rather a movement that spied on the Indian Naxals on behalf of the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW). During his activity a number of Naxals who were part of his circle were hunted down in both India and Sri Lanka. In 1986 his Vikalpa Kandayama was outlawed for being a front organization of the Indian RAW. In early 1987 Dayan escaped to Tamil Nadu. By then he has joined Vijaya KumaratungaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Sri Lanka Mahajana Party. During his stay in Tamil Nadu for over half a year he developed close relations with Tamil Elamist groups. ƒÆ’-¡ 
After the Indo-Lanka Peace Accord, the Jayawardena regime was forced to welcome and pardon RAW activists. Dayan was pardoned and he returned to the island. He returned the favour by joining with the ambitious then Prime Minister Premadasa. He left Sri Lanka Mahajana Party but not without betraying Vijaya Kumaratunga which led to his killing in February 1988. SLMC stalwarts blamed Dayan for playing a part in the assassination. Dayan moved on with the blessings of the then government particularly the prime minister. ƒÆ’-¡ 
In 1988 EPRLF leader Varatharaja Perumal was appointed the Chief Minister of the merged North-Eastern Provincial Council by recommendation of JN Dixit. Dayan was appointed a minister of the North-Eastern Provincial Council under Varatharaja Perumal.
In 1989 he left the Council and was appointed a special advisor to President Premadasa. His vicious anti-Sinhala tendencies became once again apparent in his role in war crimes committed by the Premadasa regime against unarmed civilians. However, he soon turned on President Premadasa too as the rift between Sri Lanka and India expanded.
Once again Dayan moved on to be part of any and all governments that came to power.
In 2009 although Sri Lanka defeated separatism in the form of the LTTE, Dayan trapped Sri Lanka into the divisive 13A at the UNHRC. His malicious act was immediately realized by the government which sacked him from the top post and gave him a punishment transfer to Vietnam which he refused. But just a few months later he accepted a lucrative posting to Paris.
Now his single minded mission is to keep 13A alive and achieve the Indian mission of disintegration of Sri Lanka. He has a loyal group of supporters mostly from his father Mervyn de SilvaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Lanka Guardian associates. Everyone who associated with him perished untimely either politically or physically. But he has moved on from one prey to another. His priced prey will be Sri Lanka as we know it.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Choose your words better Mr. Harper.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Says a Canadian (probably)

June 22nd, 2013

Asada M Erpini

It is reported that the severe flooding in Western Calgary in Canada has led to around 75,000 people being evacuated from their homes, according to media reports on 22 June. And, what does CanadaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Prime Minister ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” yes, the same Stephen Harper who has so much to pontificate to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”bad boyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ Sri Lanka ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” say about the catastrophe:ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-stunningƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

A reader, probably in Canada, has given the apt response to the blabber mouth: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The Prime Minister visits and describes it as “stunning and extraordinary”. If you want that, go to see Niagara Falls. This is peoples lives and livelihoods that have been destroyed here. I would say its more “tragic and catastrophic”. Choose your words better Mr. Harper.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Many in Sri Lanka would wholeheartedly agree with the sentiment expressed by the reader. The LTTE destroyed the lives of hundreds of thousands Sri Lankans in their macabre pursuit of Eelam, and all that the Prime Minister of Canada can talk about, day in and day out, is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-human rights violationsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ by the armed forces. The man certainly needs a lesson on choice of words as well as of topics!

 

Recognition of Authorship of UDRS ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Conspiracy of Silence detrimental to Sri Lanka

June 22nd, 2013

by Cricket Observer

   

When the odds were mounting against Sri Lanka in the second semi ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” final match of the ICC Champions Trophy played between India v Sri Lanka at Cardiff on June 20, 2013, both Mahela Jayawardene and Angelo Mathews successfully reviewed two close lbw calls each, and survived for a little extra time though that did not affect the final outcome except in the margin of defeat. Their innings were effectively saved by the UDRS.

The Umpire Decision Review System (UDRS) or Decision Review System (DRS) as it is now called by some, has been a great boon to the world of cricket ever since its official introduction by the ICC in October, 2009. Many a batsmanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s innings and sometimes even a cricket career has been salvaged by bringing into play of the UDRS, which prevents patently wrong umpire decisions to stand. It has helped umpires to be more at ease; enabled them to be more confident, contributed towards making the playing environment better. Today the players behave more responsibly and regular on – field outbursts have been greatly reduced. Most importantly it has led to a 7% increase in the accuracy of umpire decision making i.e. from 91% to 98% according to ICC sources. It has served the best interests of cricket given the plaudits coming from all sectors for the UDRS.

Player ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Referral

The key component is the player ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” referral mechanism which underpins the Umpire Decision Referral System (UDRS). Under the player ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” referral concept a player of either side is empowered to appeal directly to the third umpire against the decision of an on field umpire. It removes the finality of a decision made by an on field umpire in upholding or dismissing an appeal. This is a revolutionary change. It goes against a cardinal tenet of cricket tradition namely that the umpire’s word is final. Nevertheless it has brought integrity and justice to the game in place of an over exaggerated, flawed and abused method of adjudication. ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

The UDRSƒÆ’-¡ has been embroiled in controversies, right from the time of its inception, particularly in respect to its authorship. Though the ICC maintains that it was a decision taken by the ICC Cricket Committee in 2006 to allow decisions made by an on-field umpire to be subject to a process of reviewing, that led to the launching of the UDRS in October 2009, the ICC has not been able to identify a single individual by name within the ranks of the ICC as the author of the idea. ƒÆ’-¡ The silence of the ICC on the authorship of the concept given that ideas originate in the minds of human beings and its failure to meet the strong claims for recognition of the authorship of the player ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” referral concept put forward by Senaka Weeraratna, a lawyer from Sri Lanka, has diminished the standing of the ICC in the world of cricket. In cricketƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s own parlance ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” this is not cricket.

When various Commissions of Inquiry are named after the person heading the Commission, when the Duckworth-Lewis rule used in rain affected one day international cricket matches is also named after the authors, why is Senaka Weeraratna denied due recognition?

ICC argument

The argument put forward by a lawyer of the ICC, David Becker, the then Head of Legal of the ICC, dated May 09, 2010, is that since the idea of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Player ReferralƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ was floated across the press by WeeraratnaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s publications throughout the cricket world beginning with his letter to the Editor of the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”AustralianƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ newspaper on March 25, 1997, he has no real claims as it was now in the public domain from which the ICC grabbed the idea.

In other words according to Becker (and the ICC) the concept of player ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” referral is not rightfully owned by Senaka Weeraratna since it was aired incautiously and indiscreetly in interacting with the media and the public. The latter are not proper outlets for the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”airingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ of well-formed and innovative proposals. Weeraratna should have (according to the argument of Becker) ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”registered a relevant patentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ or brought it to the attention of the ICC before circulating it in the media. WeeraratnaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s position is that his papers were submitted to the Board of Cricket Control of Sri Lanka (an affiliate of the ICC) as early as May 1997, and posted to various other national cricket bodies in cricket playing nations including the ICC but they never responded or acknowledged his correspondence.

The absurdity of the position adopted by Becker (and the ICC) is evident by examining the principles relating to scientific discovery. Nowhere is it laid down that new discoveries must be hidden from public view until the proper authorities are informed. Multi ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” national companies and other barons of crass capitalism engage in these rip-offs ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” but they are basically exploitative by nature, avaricious for wealth, and least interested in fair dealing and honesty. Their game is far more disreputable and dodgy, than the cricket currently administered by ICC. It is a high moral and ethical principle for one to share with others when public benefit is the goal.

As Sri Lankans we can be proud that Senaka Weeraratna had lived up to this high ideal and in turn contributed to changing the face of international cricket in the modern era.

No other claimant

What does not get said is that no one else i.e. no natural person, has challenged Senaka Weeraratna to the authorship of the UDRS and all we can see is that CricketƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s custodians are flaunting unacceptable excuses. What would have been the outcome if Senaka Weeraratna had in fact sent the draft of the UDRS proposal first to these authorities rather than to the media and assumed the risk of someone else stealing his idea and claiming the total credit. ƒÆ’-¡ Despite Senaka WeeraratnaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s long list of publications since 1997 on the player ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” referral, being the lynch pin of the UDRS, isnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t that exactly what is happening today?

senaka

The ICC has grabbed Senaka WeeraratnaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s brain child and is using it as its own while flexing its corporate muscle to drown the claims of a relatively weak individual, who is neither backed by his countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s cricket Board nor his countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s State that prefers to be subservient to international institutions that have a high profile colonial past. Are we in the 21st century or enjoying colonial cricket like in the 19th century?

Wikipedia

As Wikipedia has acknowledged and published the claim of Senaka Weeraratna, to be recognized as the author of the key elements of the UDRS based on a comprehensive survey done on all aspects of UDRS by Rob Steen, sportswriter and senior lecturer in sports journalism at the University of Brighton, England ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the world of Cricket now needs to apologize to Senaka Weeraratna. It is an injustice to him not to be given due international recognition.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umpire_Decision_Review_System

The State of Sri Lanka too cannot simply sit silent on the sidelines and not champion the claims for due recognition of a Sri Lankan national for innovating a product that has world ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” wide use. ƒÆ’-¡ It is something to be proud. ƒÆ’-¡ Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Sports Ministry and Sri Lanka Cricket in particular as well as cricket journalists and cricket lovers must not hesitate to raise the cry in support of Senaka WeeraratnaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s rightful claims to ensure that honour and credit in respect of the conception of UDRS accrue to Sri Lanka.

Gang rape in India: Indian Prime Minister has his work cut out

June 22nd, 2013

Asada M Erpini

ƒÆ’-¡ Just two days ago you were reported to be dismayed that Sri Lanka was planning to tone down the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka. Please forget about Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka has enough capable people to manage its affairs.

ƒÆ’-¡ There is this piece of news that I came across a while ago: no doubt it will make any Indian proud, and as the leader of the country, should ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”warm the cockles of your heartƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. A UK paper carries the pathetic story of a 22 year medical student from Kerala being abducted from a well known university in Karnataka and gang raped (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2346196/Medical-student-kidnapped-gang-raped-Manipal.html). Sadly, this is not the first such incident.

ƒÆ’-¡ With over 1.2 billion people in India, the ordeal of this woman may be insignificant in percentage terms. Yet, it is the life of a human being and the poor woman is likely to live with the burden for ever, and may even be ostracised by others for a crime committed on her.

ƒÆ’-¡ Mr. Indian Prime Minister, stop worrying about Sri Lanka. Cease pandering to the whims and fancies of the Tamil National Alliance and giving an ear to the brazen lies they convey about the sufferings of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Tamils. You have more than enough problems in your own country, the solution of which would need you to be involved one hundred per cent as long as you remain at the helm.

 

Friends of Syria?

June 22nd, 2013

Michelle Alexander

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Friends of SyriaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is a collective of nations and bodies that meet periodically to discuss the issue of Syria outside the UN Security Council.

The last meeting has put pressure on what action the US Government should take, particularly the specifics of aid to the Syrian rebels. The rebels are pressing for heavy weaponry such as anti-aircraft missiles and the imposition of a no-fly zone.

  • This war has proved, yet again, that the United Nations is incapable of resolving matters of this nature.
  • US Intelligence officers believe Sarin was used against Syrian rebels. However, until proof is presented, this claim should be taken with a pinch of salt, considering the previous claim of Iraq possessing Weapons of Mass Destruction. Further, Putin countered with a claim that Russia possesses proof of Sarin being used by rebels.
  • The Friends of Syria should actually help Syria, instead of waiting for the USA to take the lead.
  • When Moscow and Beijing vetoed a UN resolution condemning the violence in February 2012, the degree of bitterness by the US was surprising.ƒÆ’-¡  US Ambassador to the UN denounced the vetoes and stated that the Russian and Chinese actions were ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-shamefulƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-unforgiveableƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡  Later that month, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton used equally harsh language.ƒÆ’-¡  Stating that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-It is distressing to see two permanent members of the Security Council using their veto while people are being murdered ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚ women, children, brave young men,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and the Russian and Chinese actions were ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-just despicable, and I have to ask whose side are they on? They are clearly not on the side of the Syrian people.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Tens of thousands have died and will continue to die in both Iraq and Afghanistan as a consequence of ill-planned outside interference. IsnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t that just as despicable and unforgiveable? Further, some of the brave young men in the Syrian rebel forces have been accused of committing abuses, much like the Syrian regime.
  • Russian and Chinese officials harbour suspicions for the true nature of aiding Syrian rebels. Vitaly Churkin, RussiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ambassador to the UN, expressed outright suspicions about US/NATO motives in the debate leading to the February veto. Although he condemned the bloodshed in Syria, Churkin cited Russian concerns about ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-regime changeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ intentions by ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-influential members of the international community.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

It is being alleged that extremist factions are taking advantage of the situation to further their own ends. Aiding Syrian rebels will only prolong this war, and more innocent lives will be lost.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘)

June 22nd, 2013

ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘

ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ · (1963ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ · (2013ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”) ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ 11ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- (Thich Quang Duc) ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

Indarathana himi Quang Duc himi (2)

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ 1963 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ 11ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ 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ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶» (Nguyen Dinh Chieu & Cach Mang Thang Tam Street) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ 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ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯, ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

Quang Duc Thera 1

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”, ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­, ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶±, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚, ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

Quang Duc Thera 2

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶® ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

Quang Duc Thera 3

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¹ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±, ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·.!

ƒÆ’-¡ 

Need to hold a National Referendum on the 13th Amendment

June 22nd, 2013

Mahinda Gunasekera Ontario CanadaƒÆ’-¡ 

Urgent need to determine the will of the people on the question of retention or

abrogation of the controversial Thirteenth Amendment to Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Constitution ƒÆ’-¡ 

The shameless act of our giant neighbor India to train and arm Tamil militant groups seeking to break up Sri Lanka in pursuit of their mono-ethnic separate state for Tamils in the early 1980ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s, in contravention of her obligations in terms of the Pancha Sila Pact of Bandung and all other international conventions relating to the non-interference in the internal affairs of other states is well documented. ƒÆ’-¡ Subsequent aggressive acts of India led by Rajiv Gandhi such as violating Sri Lankan air space and having naval attack craft in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s waters outside the capital city along with a threat of military intervention in support of Tamil separatists to please the Tamilnadu vote bank, further compounded the Indo-Sri Lanka issues. These non-neighborly measures culminated in the imposition of the Indo-Lanka Accord of 1987 bringing with it a Provincial Council system based on the controversial Thirteenth Amendment modeled on IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s federal system which was implemented by President J.R. Jayawardene employing unethical means to coerce his ruling UNP caucus from whom he had previously obtained undated letters of resignation to pass the enabling legislation against tremendous opposition from within his own party and outside.

The Thirteenth Amendment was referred to a panel of nine Judges of the Supreme Court of whom four objected to its adoption, four other judges acceding whilst the ninth judge had maintained partial objections to certain clauses. Despite a majority of objections, President Jayawardene who feared Indian military intervention used his partyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s steamroller majority to pass the Bill without reference of this important legislation to the people for their decision at a national referendum.

India failed to satisfy her undertaking to disarm the Tamil militant groups within 72 hours in terms of the Accord and later went on to do battle against some of their trained protƒÆ’†’©gƒÆ’†’©s losing nearly 1100 soldiers and the architect of the Accord Rajiv Gandhi being blown up by a Tamil Tiger suicide bomber on Indian soil.ƒÆ’-¡  Furthermore, an international agreement between two states will cover areas of mutual concern, such as, free trade, maritime/land boundaries, technical training, exchange of goodwill ambassadors, etc., but would never impinge on the constitution of any of the parties as seen in the Indo-Lanka Accord, which is an area exclusively reserved for the citizens of the respective country.

Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s experience with the Provincial Council system since its adoption in 1987 has been a dismal one, beginning with the combined North-East Provincial Council to which Indian Government nominees were appointed under Chief Minister Vardaraja Perumal, only to find the newly formed council passing a resolution to unilaterally declare independence (UDI) from the rest of Sri Lanka, which was negated promptly by the executive bringing the administration under a governor. ƒÆ’-¡ On the financial side, it has been a thorough failure with most observers describing it as a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”white elephantƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ devouring funds that mainly benefited the elected representatives and their cohorts taking up almost 85 percent leaving a measly 15 percent to cover services to the resident population. The system tends to establish regional barriers leading to secessionist tendencies, a multiplicity of litigation between the Centre and the Provinces due to the overlap of responsibilities, and the added risk of certain provinces where the separatist sentiments continue to breed using Police, Land and other powers to once again attempt to break up the sovereign unitary state of Sri Lanka with outside help. ƒÆ’-¡ Canada which counts 146 years since confederation still faces the break up of the country as both the Parti Quebecois and the Bloc Quebecois at the provincial and federal levels still seek an independent Quebec as they claim the French Canadians are a distinct society, whilst ignoring the rights of the indigenous First Nations people who languish in third world conditions.

Sri Lanka has to without delay ascertain the views of the people who have so far been denied a voice in respect of the laws promulgated in terms of the Thirteenth Amendment which seriously affected the structure and form of government to which they have been subjected to for the past 26 years.ƒÆ’-¡  It has been a highly undemocratic step to bypass the people in adding such laws to the Statute Book.ƒÆ’-¡  His Excellency the President has no other choice but to refer the question of retaining or abrogating the Thirteenth Amendment to the people to decide at a National Referendum.ƒÆ’-¡  If the decision were to abrogate the Thirteenth Amendment, Sri Lanka could consider the grant of adequate decentralized powers to District Councils which could be easily ƒÆ’-¡ serviced through District Secretariats, along with enhanced powers at the grass roots where the majority of the people live similar to the Panchayat model. ƒÆ’-¡ In addition, share some powers at the Centre by co-opting the elected members and qualified experts within the minority communities to Advisory Bodies to be set up for key Ministries where they would have input in the development of policy, plan implementation and monitoring process giving them an opportunity to have a say in the day to day governance of the nation.ƒÆ’-¡  Special ministries to safeguard and nurture the minority languages, culture and religions similar to those available to the majority community could be retained as at present.ƒÆ’-¡  Let us act now to safeguard our ancient land inhabited by all the great religions and philosophies where we could guarantee equal rights, peaceful co-existence and many opportunities for growth for all.

Yours sincerely,

Mahinda Gunasekera OntarioCanada

Why this delay taking action on 13 Amendment ?

June 21st, 2013

ƒÆ’-¡ By Charles.S.Perera

ƒÆ’-¡ WeƒÆ’-¡  learnt that the JHU presented a Bill on the removal of the 13 Amendement.ƒÆ’-¡  We also learnt that a cabinet decision had been taken with regard to removal of certain clauses in the Amendment without really removing it, and that a PSC is to decide what further changes should be made to the controversial and down right undemocratic 13 Amendment.ƒÆ’-¡  Undemocratic because it wasƒÆ’-¡  forced on the people of Sri Lanka , making the 13Amendment not of the people, not by the people and not for the people.

ƒÆ’-¡ The 13 Amendment was forced into the Constitution of Sri Lanka at the behest of an unfriendly thug of a neighbour to benefit a section of the population ignoring the rest. The Provincial Council System that came into beingƒÆ’-¡  with theƒÆ’-¡  13 Amendment based on a foreign model and written byƒÆ’-¡  people of aƒÆ’-¡  foreignƒÆ’-¡  culture, does not fit into Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Constitution.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ The Members of the PCsƒÆ’-¡  established under the 13 Amendment have lost their simplicity andƒÆ’-¡  Buddhist and Sri Lankan characteristics , becoming a political creed strange to the culture and the environment.ƒÆ’-¡  The earlier we scrap the 13 Amendment better it would be for Sri Lanka and its people as a whole. The President , however, seems to think that the PC System is not bad and changing it cannot be done in a hurry.ƒÆ’-¡  There is more than enough evidence that the PC system has not served the purpose of regional administration.

ƒÆ’-¡ India is definitely taking ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ordersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ from the State Department of USA, andƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Hillary Clinton had personally met Jayalalitha.ƒÆ’-¡  Hillary Clinton did not visitƒÆ’-¡  Sri Lanka, which she should have done if she was a goodƒÆ’-¡  Secretary ofƒÆ’-¡  State withƒÆ’-¡  political acumen., and not pompous and pretentious.ƒÆ’-¡  Hence we cannot depend on India to help us solve our political problems though our political leadership act in the interest of Central government of India in its effort to keep TamilNadu within its fold.

ƒÆ’-¡ India so concerned about Tamils in Sri Lanka does not seem to be bothered about the most inhuman condition of living of the 16.2 per cent of the ƒÆ’-¡ Dalit population in India. What is IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s solutionƒÆ’-¡  to Dalits who have no ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- human ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ existence, having minimum of modern facilities, living in fear of rape of women andƒÆ’-¡  most mean treatment met out to the males by the upper caste goons ?ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ TheƒÆ’-¡  government of Sri Lanka on the other hand makes no difference of the lower or higher caste Tamils inƒÆ’-¡  Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡  They are provided with the same rights and priviledges of the rest of the population.

ƒÆ’-¡ But yet it is the TNA MPs who are said to beƒÆ’-¡  of the priviledgedƒÆ’-¡  higher caste who do not extend to the Tamils of Lower caste the same respect and consideration that they show to the high caste Tamils, but force the lower caste Tamils to vote forƒÆ’-¡  them lording their caste priviledge before them- the low caste Tamils.

ƒÆ’-¡ India has to look after its own affairs and let Sri Lanka look after its own. Therefore,ƒÆ’-¡  Sri Lanka isƒÆ’-¡  not answerableƒÆ’-¡  to India for what it has to do with the 13 Amendment.ƒÆ’-¡  Sri Lanka is no more in the same position it wasƒÆ’-¡  in 1987.ƒÆ’-¡  Sri Lanka is a developing country which is marching forward and every thing that would be an impediment to that march forward to progress and ƒÆ’-¡ developmentƒÆ’-¡  of Sri Lanka and its people has to be set aside forthwith as Sri Lanka had been overlooking that necessity far too long.

ƒÆ’-¡ The sittingsƒÆ’-¡  of the PSC are not still scheduled.ƒÆ’-¡  The President speaking at a press conference has said , ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦the PSC, which will soon be appointed, would be the forum for all parties to air their views on the 13A.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ but not specifiedƒÆ’-¡  when the appointments would be made and when the sittings will commence.ƒÆ’-¡  However, it has been announced that the Speaker of the Parliament has appointed 19 members to the PSC but the nominations by the opposition have not been received as yet. ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ If the urgent Bill the government is proposing to present to the Parliament is to remove the right of the President to merge two provinces , it is not that Urgent. In September the government is proposing to have ƒÆ’-¡ only the ƒÆ’-¡ PC elections and not Presidential election, thereforeƒÆ’-¡  if the proposal is only a modification to the 13Amendment then what is urgent is the removal of ƒÆ’-¡ police and land powers.

What is the code of ethics that HRW practices?

June 21st, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

Human Rights Watch says the proposed Code of Ethics for Media in Sri Lanka gags freedom of speech. Well thereƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s much that we can ask about HRWƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s own code of ethics and none of which gives HRW any credibility. Our questions are many.

HRWƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s was (formerly known as Helsinki Watch brainchild of Robert L. Bernstein, the president of Random House.) a private American NGO in 1978 to monitor former Soviet UnionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s compliance with the Helsinki Accords. The Watch Committees which covered America, Asia, Africa and Middle East became united under Human Rights Watch in 1989.

HRWƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s mission statement says ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world. We stand with victims and activists to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom, to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime, and to bring offenders to justice. We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable. We challenge governments and those who hold power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law. We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.”

ƒÆ’-¡§ƒÆ’-¡  Did HRW not justify the Gulf War taking the side of the oil giants and corrupt US politicians?

ƒÆ’-¡§ƒÆ’-¡  Did HRW not help justify the invasion by providing fake reports and deliberately spreading wrong information?

ƒÆ’-¡§ƒÆ’-¡  Did HRW under President Clinton not promote pro-intervention ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” The 1990s were supposed to be the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-good warsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ when Clinton took over Bosnia and Kosovo. Then came Iraq in 2003

ƒÆ’-¡§ƒÆ’-¡  without UN sanction but a supposed ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-WMDƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ was sufficient to invade Iraq.

ƒÆ’-¡§ƒÆ’-¡  Did HRW not also play a role to justify western intervention in Syria?

ƒÆ’-¡§ƒÆ’-¡  On what ethics did HRW come with its ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Arbitrary arrests and abuse of detaineesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ when it watched NATO missiles pound Libya for 7 months using depleted uranium killing thousands of Libyan civilians?

ƒÆ’-¡§ƒÆ’-¡  Where is HRWƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s report on residential areas of Libya being bombed by NATO?

ƒÆ’-¡§ƒÆ’-¡  Where is HRWƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s report on the use of depleted uranium

ƒÆ’-¡§ƒÆ’-¡  What justification can HRW give when US bombed Iraq into submission and thereafter invaded the country?

The defense of HRW is that it ONCE said George Bush should be prosecuted over torture. They said that in 2011 that was after 10 years of destroying Iraq and Afghanistan. By 2011, Bush was already out of office and the damage already done.

The HRW chargesheet was limited to BushƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s approval for waterboarding of detainees, airborne torture, Cheney for illegal detention and unsanitary interrogation techniques, former defense secretary Rumsfeld for hands-on involvement in specific interrogations, ex-CIA director George Tenet for authorizing the whole torture and interrogation program. These were no startling revelations and the tortures were publicized well before HRW thought of finally adding them to a report years after it was already publicly known. What is highlighted is what took HRW so long to wake up and what was the reason behind the report unless it was to whitewash its obvious bias by bringing out an outdated report.

HRW only speaks about ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-tortureƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ what about ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-crimes against humanityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬?

ƒÆ’-¡§ƒÆ’-¡  Has HRW ever given a thought to the effects of depleted uranium on millions of civilians in Afghanistan and Iran and their effects on new-born children?

ƒÆ’-¡§ƒÆ’-¡  Why is HRW mum on the use of cluster bombs and white phosphorus, the destruction of civil infrastructure (roads, schools, hospitals, electricity, water etc)

Therefore we really are at a loss to understand why HRW is selective about its ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-victimsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and why in the face of evidence HRW simply is a mouthpiece of the culprits attempting to whitewash their crimes producing false documentation and false scenarios to justify why their donors have invaded nations.

HRW and similar organizations thrive because of a similarly linked media who also exist on handouts by the very sources that lead these false interventions.

The ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-both sides to blameƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ story

This has become a signature line in virtually all international communications be they NGO or statements coming from foreign governments.

If what the Nazis and the Japs did was wrong equally wrong was what the British did during colonial rule, Boer Wars, in Dresden and well the American list is a bit too long but then for any acceptable ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-accountabilityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to exist ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-both sidesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ cannot mean only one side gets all the lawsuits. The most hysterical thing is that the other party to the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-both sideƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ story is the one bringing the allegations and no one stops to say ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-wait a minute ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” your crimes are no better and you must go on trial first for initiating the chaosƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

Who is behind Human Rights Watch?ƒÆ’-¡ 

  • Does HRW not have close links to US foreign policy elite ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” thus nullifying their claim of being ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-concerned private citizensƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬?

This allegation is proved by the HRW board member being past and present US govt employees who have direct links to foreign policy lobbies in the US. Not a single non-American has served on its director board (only those who are non-American US citizens). This itself shows classism and elitist mentality while preaching to others on equality of employment.

In short can HRW deny that it came into being as a result of George Soros and the US State Dept and now Soros has gifted $100million to HRW ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” we can but wonder for what!

If HRW is an almost US-American organization is it not following the Anglo-American version of human rights? The proof is really in the pudding.

Soros appointed his tax lawyer to the HRW Board in 2004 as well as his legal advisor William D. Zabel exposing what we knew all along. Others in that 2004 Board included SoroƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s publisher who was the CEO of Public Affairs, the Vice Chair Alice Henkin is a member of Council of Foreign Relations. Other names that can checked out are Henri Barkey, Jonathan Fanton, Stephen Del Rosso, Alan R. and Barbara D. Finberg, Felice Gaer a NGO member of the US delegation to UNHRC in Geneva where according to Voice of America she denounced Sudan saying US ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-cannot accept those who invoke Islam or other religions as justification for atrocious human rights abusesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. She had also suggested UN should not investigate prison rapes in US! Michael Erwin Gellert, Bill Green, Stanley Hoffman, Jeri Laber (a founder of HRW), Kati Marton President of Committee to Protect Journalists and wife of Richard Holbrooke and lobbied for the Soros-funded (through the NED) B92 radio in Belgrade which played a key role against Milosevic. B92 was also funded by BBC, British Foreign Office, USAID, EU and the Soros Open Society Foundation. Others on HRW Board include Prema Mathai-Davis, an Indian immigrant and CEO Jack Matlock of YWCA, former US Ambassador to Soviet Union, Patricia M. Wald, US Judge, appointed to the Yugoslavia Tribunal (ICTY) in The Hague (Soros had paid for the equipment for the Tribunal questioning judicial impartiality), Joel Motley, member of Council of Foreign Relations, Herbert Okun, Barnett Rubin ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Soros-institutes advisor, member of US State Dept Advisory Committee on Religious Freedom Abroad. What more is there to say when George Soros is the chief financier of HRW!

Prominent HRW members include Morton Abramowitz, a former undersecretary of state, Warren Zimmerman and Paul Goble, director of Radio Free Europe.

Effective October 2013 the Co-Chairmans of HRW will be Joel Motley and Hassan Elmasry. Elmasry went to Saudi in 2009 and spoke nothing of the Saudi kingdoms human rights violations but requested Saudi businessmen and the Arab world to support HRW.

Why we say HRW is biased ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” its reports are biased.

HRW Donors ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the HRW is not legally bound to disclose who donates money but its $20million or more donations come from foundations and individual donors 75% . HRWƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s annual reports claim it does not accept government funds ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-indirectly or directlyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. HRW may like to then explain how Dutch Novib (part of Oxfam-which is funded by UK Govt, USAID and EU). Oxfam and Novib funded the HRW report on Rwanda Genocide ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” what can HRW say about not taking funds from Governments?

HRW is a member of the International Helsinki Federation. In the case of Chechnya, these Helsinki Group ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-localsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ functioning on behalf of HRW were in the thick of the conflict collecting data which were used only to project a scenario of genocide demanding military intervention.

Can HRW and other celebrity NGOs and Human Rights Organizations deny that their sensational reports are merely to attract donors and serve nothing but self promotion?

Its bias on Venezuelan former President Chavez was clear when its reports highlighted disregard for basic human rights when under Chavez all citizens received adequate food and housing, free healthcare and education (UNESCO says Venezuela is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-illiteracy-freeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ while the FAO says there is no one hungry in Venezuela is hungry either. HRW does not refer to any of these achievements in its report.ƒÆ’-¡ 

When HRW has been voicing concerns about media freedom in Venezuela after ChavezƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Government refused to renew RCTVƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s broadcast license, HRW conveniently omitted to say that RCTV was directly involved in a military coup in 2002. In the case of RCTV ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” HRW took into consideration the individual ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-civilƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ rights of the elite Venezuelans over the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-socialƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ rights of the majority.

HRW also criticizes VeneuzelaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Supreme Court which restricted foreign funding to NGOs avoiding to say that the reason was because US has been funding civil societyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s who are opposed to a particular government. USAID, National Endowment for Democracy have all been involved in programs to depose or destabilize nations. Russia has declared foreign NGOs as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-foreign agentsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. It is upto the HRW to prove that these NGOs are not agents.

In 2009 the Congo Government accused HRW of issuing sensation reports on the situation in the DRC going on to say that if HRW ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-has a score to settle with Joseph Kabila, they shouldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t try to use the situation in eastern Congo to do it. They are simply trying to weaken and demoralize us in our existential right of resistance against terrorist movementsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

Ethiopia has also accused HRW of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-hidden agendasƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in 2011 when HRW criticized press freedom. Ethiopia says that there are enough of private newspapers criticizing the government even through cartoons.

Incidentally, being one of the 6 international NGOs that formed the Coalition to Stop the use of Child Soldiers in 1998 has seen little merit in pursuing the LTTEƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s the worlds worst abuser of children for no other terrorist organization hands over cyanide to children and asks them to commit suicide.

HRW omits social and economic rights of people

Human Rights Watch claims it is an advocate of international human rights law. Firstly, there is a big question mark about why we disagree with HRWƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-claimƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ primarily because ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-internationalƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-human rightsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-lawsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ are all Eurocentric and designed to suit the West ignoring legal systems that existed long before the West took over the world using their ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-lawsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

HRWƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s focus is on political and civil rights ignoring social and economic rights (because that would mean it would have to undermine the capitalist faults)

From a socialist view, in a capitalist system financial gains of the wealthy are gained by exploiting the poor violating their economic and social rights. HRW cannot speak on civil and political rights when the majority are suffering economic and social rights. HRW never highlights the influence of powerful foreign imperialist forces who often contribute towards destabilizing operations to ensure their elitism is unchallenged.

No human rights champion can look at issues thinking that everything in the world is equal. Therefore unless any group considers the unequal power dynamics with wealthy imperialists controlling the world no issue will find proper roots.

  • Who says that US or its organizations can impose US values on other countries?
  • Who says Europe can do the same too? What did the Belgian ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-civilizing missionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to Congo end up doing ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” it killed half the Congo population!
  • Who has the right to restructure society simply because some ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-human rights violationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is supposed to have been committed?

Suzanne Nossel

The bias of HRW and Amnesty is revealed when both recruited as its head Suzanne Nossel who was a former US State Dept official whose task was to discredit the Goldstone Report which charged Israel with war crimes against Palestinians. She was also Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Affairs under Hillary Clinton. Her mission is to turn US HR organizations into propagandists for pre-emptive wa and to support imperialism. She joins a list of other power women ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-humanitarian interventionistsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ who include Samantha Power and Susan Rice. Suzanne also represented US at the UN Human Rights Council declaring that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-top of our list is our defense of Israel, and IsraelƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s right to fair treatment at the Human Rights CouncilƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. While with Amnesty she ran billboards on bus stops ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Human Rights for Women and Girls in Afghanistan-NATO: Keep the Progress GoingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ urging Democrats to stay in Iraq and she openly supports armed intervention in Libya and Syria and has called for a military strike against Iran.

Why would Amnesty International and HRW include as their head a person advocating War as a Smart Power ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” an organization that claims to be unbiased?

So, HRW with such a decorative ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ethicsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ record is now claiming Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s decision to have a Code of Ethics for media tantamount to gagging the press. HRW says little or nothing of how gagged the US press now is and ignores commentary on the inquiry (Judicial public inquiry into the culture, practices and ethics of the British Press following the Murdock phone hacking scandal) into UK media ethics by Lord Leveson which has exposed excruciating details how tabloid reporters and their sidekicks bullied, stole and cheated with impunity, while their bosses hobnobbed with police officers and politicians ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” yes, this is not Sri Lanka or a Third World nation but the mighty UK.

If William Hague can tell the British public there is nothing for them to worry about following the US NSA scandal why is HRW so upbeat about the Code of Ethics for Media in Sri Lanka given that such exists in other nations too?

ƒÆ’-¡ 

 

What is sacrosanct in the 13th Amendment?

June 21st, 2013

ƒÆ’-¡ Asada M Erpini

Every Tom, Dick and Harry talks of the 13th Amendment as if it were the panacea for all ills in Sri Lanka, including the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”the ethnic issueƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”deprivation faced by the TamilsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and anything else that seems to be appealing to the Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International and CanadaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s human rights crusaders in the political parties of the country.

If Sri Lanka desires to amend its constitution, it is the responsibility of Sri Lankan citizens to do it. A big bully that happens to be living next door does not have the God-given right to decide what is best for Sri Lankans. Sri Lanka needs to exercise its authority as a sovereign nation: get rid of the entire 13th Amendment ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” no amendments, no changes, no patchwork.

Let the Tamil National Alliance (TNA) run to New Delhi every so often to tell the Indian leaders that the Singhalam big boys keep on stealing their marbles and do not allow them to play. The Indian pundit in the Prime Minister seat and the lady from Italy will always be ready to give a patient hearing to the LTTE proxies as otherwise they would never have the prominence, the luxuries and the perceived importance that they enjoy at present.

The sad irony in the whole episode of IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s professed interest in problems of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Tamils ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Sri Lanka also has Sinhalese people who clearly have connections to Orissa and West Bengal of India ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” is that many of the infrastructure development projects that the present-day government has carried out in northern Sri Lanka never get into the radar of the Indian leaders.

 

13th AMENDMENT: DO NOT LET HISTORY REPEAT ITSELF

June 21st, 2013

By Don Wijewardana

ƒÆ’-¡ A striking feature of the recent history of Sri Lanka is that our political leaders had been queuing up to hand over the north and east of Sri Lanka to the LTTE. ƒÆ’-¡ Their greed for power had surpassed the cost of surrendering national sovereignty. Sometimes the offer had come from outsiders too. First it was Rajiv Gandhi prior to the signing of the Indo-Lanka Accord in 1987. He was trying to persuade a reluctant Prabhakaran to accept the Provincial Council offer.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  According to Anton Balasingham, who was at the meeting, Gandhi told the LTTE supremo,ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Even though there were deficiencies in the provincial council scheme don’t you think that we can hold further talks in the future and enhance autonomous powers for the Tamils? Also it is not possible to implement this provincial council scheme immediately. We need some time. Prior to that, we can set up an interim administration for the north and east, and your organisation can be given the major role in that. I am prepared to enter into a secret agreement with you regarding that interim governmentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. But all that pleading fell on deaf ears.

ƒÆ’-¡ Then it was JR JayawardeneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s turn when he wanted to implement the Accord.ƒÆ’-¡  Jayawardene offered to make Prabhakaran the chief administrator of the north-eastern provinces. But once again the terrorist leader refused. Even after that, Jayawardene was happy to proceed with a LTTE nominee. To spite JR, Prabhakaran offered the name of an assistant government agent from Batticaloa, Padhmanathan for the position. But Padhmanathan had a notorious record helping a large number of Tamil militants escape from jail. Jayawardene refused to appoint a person who had violated his own oath of loyalty to the government. His nomination was most likely a deliberate move by Prabhakaran to scuttle the deal.

ƒÆ’-¡ The next President also offered a similar arrangement. Ranasinghe PremadasaƒÆ’-¡ presented Prabhakaran with power sharing opportunities with loads of arms and money. He was followed in 1994 by the next head of state Chandrika KumaratungaƒÆ’-¡ who offered the entire Northern Province to him without elections for a period of ten years. Prabhakaran spurned that suggestion too. Then in 2000, even after the LTTE tried to assassinate her, Kumaratunga offered Prabhakaran Regional Councils, which went beyond the Provincial Councils in terms of devolution. Prabhakaran once again, rejected it entirely.

ƒÆ’-¡ Perhaps the best opportunity to gain the territory and the power on which he could have built an alternative future to the one he aspired was given to Prabhakaran by Ranil Wickramasinghe, with international guarantees, through the 2002 Ceasefire Agreement. But once again, Prabhakaran shot it to pieces and used the lull to build up his armed forces.

ƒÆ’-¡ If Prabhakaran had accepted any of these offers, by now he would be reigning over a de facto Eelam in North and East of Sri Lanka. With the promised secret agreement of Gandhi he could have even made major inroads to the south. But he, quite foolishly, would not settle for anything less than Eelam. So the nation was saved for another day: not by the foresight and astuteness of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s leaders but by the stupidity of Prabhakaran. Ultimately it was left to a bold and far-sighted leader, with sacrifices by 6,150 armed personnel who lost their lives, and another 18,782 living with constant reminders of the horrors of war in their daily lives, to put a permanent end to the horse-trading.

ƒÆ’-¡ But for India, Gandhi did not die in vain. He had set the trap in the 13th amendment that emerged from the Indo-Lanka Accord to snare Sri Lanka once more. Western nations along with our closest neighbour, INGOs and NGOs, and some of our own politicians, within and outside the government, are all urging Sri Lanka relentlessly towards the noose. It is all on the basis of a mistaken (more a contrived) notion that Northern PC elections will lead to reconciliation. Will the leadership that rescued the nation once, fall for the ambush, or exercise foresight to save the country once again to cement the gains made in 2009?

ƒÆ’-¡ Devolution of power in Sri Lanka has to be made in such a way as to address the problems particular to the country and not by adopting a system that has been thrust upon us by India.ƒÆ’-¡  As Archbishop Desmond Tutu who headed South AfricaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Truth and Reconciliation Commission noted, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Reconciliation cannot be imposed from outside, nor can someone elseƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s map get us to our destination. Each society must discover its own route to reconciliation; it must be our own solutionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ We do not need to look far to find our own solution. Sri Lanka already has its own truth and reconciliation commission in the LLRC. Both the international and the domestic communities have accepted the CommissionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s recommendations as a sound basis for reconciliation. Not only that, they are urging the government to implement them speedily. In fact the UN Human Rights Council has found fault with the administration for the delay in actioning them. LLRC has enunciated a number of key principles in relation to devolution that could guide us to a win: win solution.

ƒÆ’-¡ LLRC proposals

ƒÆ’-¡ The gist of LLRC proposals in relation to devolution includes the following.

a.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Devolution should essentially promote greater harmony and unity and not disharmony and disunity among the people of the country. The promotion of this ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”onenessƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and a common identity should be the principal aim of any form of devolution while protecting and appreciating rich diversity.

b.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Devolution of power should not privilege or disadvantage any ethnic community, and should not be discriminatory or seen to be discriminatory by the people belonging to any ethnic community within the country.

c.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Empowering the Local Government institutions to ensure greater peoplesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ participation at the grass roots level.

d.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Provide for safeguarding the territorial integrity and unity of Sri Lanka whilst fostering its rich diversity.

e.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Any power sharing arrangement needs to have inbuilt mechanisms that would effectively address and discourage secessionist tendencies and safeguard the sovereignty and integrity of the State.

Conclusion

Holding Northern PC elections under existing rules conflicts with the principles enunciated by LLRC especially in relation to the areas highlighted above. Devolving police and land powers will exacerbate the problems considerably. They have been discussed in detail in these columns in the past. In addition there are a few critical points that need to be noted:

i)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Maximising economic growth to achieve the objectives of Mahinda Chintana will need free flow of labour, capital and technology within the country. For instance as the 1012 census of population shows currently Mullative , Mannar, Moneragla, Vavuniya and Kilinochchi districtsƒÆ’-¡  are the least populated in that order. And their growth is hampered by the labour shortage. If land powers are allocated to PCs it is unlikely that a free flow of people to these districts will be allowed to take place thus thwarting the aims of the government to achieve national objectives.

ii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Holding PC elections will not address reconciliation of the Tamil community, for according to the 2012 census only 43 per cent ofƒÆ’-¡  Sri Lankan Tamils are living in the north. Majority live among the Sinhalese and other communities in the south. Issues related to them would be quite different.

iii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  The area covered by the northern PC is the same entity Prabhakaran claimed as the home of Eelam. Electing a group that could officially represent it amounts to setting up a formidable adversary who is empowered to pursue the LTTE agenda. Such a group would be a gift to opponents of Sri Lanka including the Diaspora and will be the focal point for their agitation. ƒÆ’-¡ Rajiv GandhiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s comment to Prabhakaran, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Even though there were deficiencies in the provincial council scheme don’t you think that we can hold further talks in the future and enhance autonomous powers for the Tamils?ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is an ominous note of the possibilities in the future. ƒÆ’-¡ As the Defence Secretary rightly noted, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Having paid a heavy price in the battlefield to eradicate the LTTE, it would be foolish on our part to create conditions for a new warƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

iv)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  There is a way to devolve power on the basis of LLRC recommendations both to empower people at the grassroots level and in a way acceptable to critics while at the same time avoid the pitfalls of creating a powerful opponent. That is to make the District as the basis for devolution.

There are two options before the government. One is to hold the PC elections and satisfy the critics (for the time being) and hope the CHOGM will pass smoothly into history. The other option is to take a considered decision to adopt a solution that will benefit the nation in the long term. The impact of the first option will be to negate the gains made in 2009 and create the potential for a future generation to relive its horrors. At the end of the day it is the voting public that determines whether the government has taken the right decision.

ƒÆ’-¡ Courtsey: Ceylon Daily News

ƒÆ’-¡ Don Wijewardana is an economist and freelance writer. He can be contacted at donwijewardana@gmail.com.

IPL Money Made Lankan Cricketers Indebted to Team India

June 21st, 2013

Dilrook Kannangara

DonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t expect Team Sri Lanka to ever beat Team India in crucial matches. The disaster at ICC Champions Trophy semifinal against India was a display of shameless deliberate underperformance by most players. Pitch was not the perfect for batting but it was far less dangerous than what Lankan players pretended it to be. Their pretending was worth an Oscar. When the Indians took the pitch there wasnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t a hint of danger as they scored at will.

Lahiru Thirimanne costed over 5 overs to score just 7 runs and Kumar Sangakkara took more than 7 overs to score 17 runs. Approach to batting was disheartening from almost all the batsmen. Many threw away their wickets away so as not to offend their cricket crazy IPL owners.

This pattern of deliberate underperformance in crucial matches against India has become the hallmark of Lankan cricket.

IPL provides players with vital exposure to the shorter forms of the game. It also made them multimillionaires, at least in rupee terms. However, the players are underprepared to manage conflict of interest. It is not that IPL team owners personally threaten players to rescind their contract if they beat India but Lankan players feel indebted to India, Indian players and their IPL team owners. Sri Lankan players are the least financially secure of all IPL players which makes them most vulnerable to conflict of interest.

Indebtedness to IPL owners is not limited to IPL contracted players. Other hopefuls also harbor inferior feelings towards the Indian team hoping they will get a chance to play in IPL soon.

To make matters even worse just a few months ago Lankan players refused to sign contracts blaming a cut in perks offered to them previously.

The gentlemanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s game has indeed gone to race hounds. If this is not enough a tragedy, these players set a very bad example for youngsters who look up to these sellouts.

Hypocrisy of Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper

June 21st, 2013

- JMack

I read your story Canada’s Harper gives up on Russia, calls summit ‘G-7 plus 1′ on Washington Times on June 17, 2013 and had a good laugh. You really believe that Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, whose nation hosts the largest Tamil population that supports, funds and worship suicide terrorism, gives a damn about mass murder in Syria?

You said: Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper blasted Russian President Vladimir Putin for supporting the “thugs of the Assad regime” – no kidding? After Canada backed and backed and backed Tamil Tiger terror operations in Sri Lanka for the past 30 years and continue to attack that democracy on the behest of extremists Tamils in Canada, while shielding their Tamil citizens from war crimes and international terrorism charges?

Terrorism and Transnational Crime: The Case of the LTTE
http://www.mackenzieinstitute.com/2003/CM0336%20Terrorism%20and%20Transnational%20Crime%20-%20The%20Case%20of%20the%20LTTE.html
Or Google ‘CM0336 Terrorism and Transnational Crime The Case of the LTTE’

Russian President Vladimir Putin deserves the Nobel Peace prize for backing a developing democracy Sri Lanka in her fight against the world’s most ruthless, sophisticated and internationally backed terrorists, the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers. There are no more suicide bombings, child recruitment, terror war or mass murder by Tamil terrorists in Sri Lanka thanks to the assistance by nations such as Russia, China and Pakistan. Stephen Harper can never make such a claim while his government and the ones before his, has Sri Lankan blood on their hands.

Sri Lankan Blood on Liberal Hands
http://bailaman.blogspot.com/2009/07/sri-lankan-blood-on-liberal-hands.html

The article used to be here at National Post of Canada, but since has been removed! http://www.nationalpost.com/opinion/story.html?id=1814520

Since you seem to be a bit oblivious to what’s going on, we attached some reference material, including the newly published article ‘Canada’s Support for Suicide Terrorism’. You may Google that title for the article.

Hope you can see the Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s crocodile tears.

Never forget: many of the wealthy western nations are guilty of war crimes committed by the Tamils living there. But no worries, they’ll never have to face charges – No west-based human rights group will ever go after these nations. Only the small, less powerful and less wealthy nations will have to face charges of war crimes and human rights violations. The dirty busine$$ of human right$ continue!

The Dirty Busine$$ of Human Right$
http://kvisit.com/SzPqjAQ

Oh, by the way we have not even touched on the subject of war crimes committed by the west in Iraq, Afghanistan and Libya!!! Guess Syria is next on that list.

Syria: History being repeated?
Google ‘Island EDITORIAL Syria: History being repeated?’

Google ‘NY Times with Optimistic Propaganda Bias Exposed’ or visit
http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items/2013/05/23/ny-times-with-optimistic-propaganda-bias-exposed/
Do scroll to the bottom of that page to read some interesting comments.

Google ‘Grand Terror Alliance Senators, American lawyers, former US Ambassador to SL’
http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items11/LTTE_US_proxies_ver02.pdf

Mr. Bruce Fein, attorney and former associate US deputy attorney general did a fund raising campaign for the Tamil terrorists in Canada. What does Prime Minister Harper have to say about that?

Google ‘Obama Cameron supporting terrorists’

Wake up! See what’s really happening!
Never let scammers like Harper, Obama, Kerry, Cameron and Clinton take you for a ride.

 

 

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Yes We ScanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” US and UK in shameless spying on guests of State

June 21st, 2013

Courtesy The Daily News

It was a good take off from ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Yes We CanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ from Barack ObamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s presidential campaign in 2008, by the headline in a German publication to mark Barack ObamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s visit to Germany this week. The complete text was ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Yes We ScanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” with an image of Obama with earphones on listening into the sub-text that read: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-United we can progress towards a perfectly monitored societyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. The lampooning and lambasting of the Barack Obama and David Cameron duo caught in the coils of spying on citizens and foreign guests could not be missed anywhere on the Internet, although the mainstream Western media was playing down the scandals.


Edward Snowden

In is interesting to know why rights organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, Transparency International et al that are so loud when it comes to issues of transparency and accountability, as well as privacy and human rights in this part of the world, have played a very low key in all of this.

Is it possible that they are all busy trying to hunt for unsubstantiated material on inhospitable diplomacy of the UK, for a Channel 4 on the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Fire that IsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in Western disrespect for hospitality and the courtesies of diplomacy?

There is no end to the countries of the West, especially the UK and USA, preaching to the world about human rights, transparency and accountability. They give the impression of being paragons of virtue on matters of international relations, projecting their systems of governance as what should be emulated by all others who can claim to be democratic or share the values of the West.

We see today an outrageous display of the lack of basic hospitality to oneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s own invitees to these countries, lacking in the courtesy and decorum of good diplomatic relations. After the shocking exposure of the extent of cyber snooping done by the United States revealed in the past two weeks, we now have the even worse exposure of the UK ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” just as David Cameron began receiving the leaders of the G8 nations for their summit, hosted by the UK in Northern Ireland.

It is now revealed without any contradiction, or even an attempt at explanation (which would be futile), that the UK Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) intercepted and spied on communications of foreign participants at the G20 Summits held in the UK in 2009.

This shameless violation of the privacy of Heads of State, ministers and foreign delegates to an international conference of the highest ranking held in the UK, is a shocking revelation of the contemptible attitude of politicians and administrators in the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Mother of ParliamentsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, the ready torch bearers for human rights, transparency, accountability, privacy and good diplomacy.

All such values and principles have been wholly negated by this shameless act of spying on oneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s own guests, passing on some of the information obtained to the US ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the ally with the closest relationship with the UK, causing much more than ripples of concern in the world.

The whole exercise in the horrific invasion of privacy has upended the civilized values that the West claims to stand for, and calls for a serious look at the value systems that drive the West today, in the holier than though attitudes towards Islamic and other political forms found in the world. It is as bad as the shock of drones that kill civilians in the hunt for terrorists, and certainly worse than how the US has been eavesdropping and collecting information from the telephone, radio and Internet communications of all of its citizens, and those of other countries too, in a so-called operation to protect the US from terrorist attacks.

Not surprisingly, Russia, Turkey and South Africa have openly expressed outrage over revelations that both Britain and the United States spied on foreign delegates at the G20 meetings in London in 2009.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ScandalousƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ – Turkey

The foreign ministry in Ankara said it was unacceptable that the British government had intercepted phone calls and monitored the computers of Turkey’s finance minister as well as up to 15 others from his visiting delegation. If confirmed, the eavesdropping operation on a NATO ally was “scandalous”, it said.

The ministry summoned the UK’s ambassador to Ankara to hear Turkey’s furious reaction in person.

A spokesman at the foreign ministry read out an official statement saying: “The allegations in the Guardian are very worrying ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ If these allegations are true, this is going to be scandalous for the UK. At a time when international co-operation depends on mutual trust, respect and transparency, such behaviour by an allied country is unacceptable.”


Barack Obama

Dmitry Medvedev

David Cameron

Gordon Brown

The Guardian revealed that the UKƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s GCHQ targeted Mehmet Simsek, the Turkish finance minister and a former Merrill banker, during a G20 economics meeting hosted in London in September 2009. It also considered monitoring the communications of 15 named members of his staff and of Turkey’s central bank. The goal was to collect information about the Turkish position on the reform of the global financial infrastructure in the wake of the world banking crisis.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Deepened mistrustƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ – Moscow

In Moscow Russian officials said the Guardian report that US spies had intercepted top-secret communications of (President) Dmitry Medvedev at a G20 summit in London in April 2009 would further harm the struggling US-Russia relationship and cast a shadow over the G8 summit in Northern Ireland, earlier this week.

Details of the spying, set out in a briefing prepared by the National Security Agency (NSA), revealed by the Guardian late on Sunday, show that US spies based in Britain spied on Medvedev, then the Russian president and now prime minister.

Senior Russian officials said the revelations had deepened mistrust between the US and Russia, whose relations have already sunk to a post-cold-war low following a brief and largely unsuccessful “reset” during Medvedev’s four-year reign in the Kremlin.

Igor Morozov, a senator in Russia’s Federation Council, the upper house of Parliament, suggested that the Obama administration’s attempts to improve relations were clearly insincere: “2009 was the year the Russian-American ‘reset’ was announced. At the same time US special services were listening to Dmitry Medvedev’s phone calls.”

He added: “In this situation, how can we trust today’s announcements by Barack Obama that he wants a new ‘reset’? Won’t the US special services now start spying on Vladimir Putin, rather than correcting their actions?” he told RIA-Novosti, a state-owned news agency. “This isn’t just an act of inhospitality, but a fact that can seriously complicate international relations,” he said. “Big doubts about Obama’s sincerity appear.”

The Guardian reports that South African computers were also singled out for special attention, in this ugly swoop in visiting delegates, prompted Pretoria to warn against the abuse of privacy and “basic human rights”. “We have solid, strong and cordial relations with the United Kingdom and would call on their government to investigate this matter fully with a view to take strong and visible action against any perpetrators,” the South African foreign ministry said.

Trickery

The steps the GCHQ took to spy on the guests of the UK, including its fellow members in the European Union and NATO, were bizarre. They go far beyond the stuff of whimsical espionage writers. It is now revealed that delegates to the G20s were allegedly tricked into using specially prepared Internet cafes which allowed British spies to intercept and monitor email messages and phone calls through BlackBerry devices. GCHQ was also able to track when delegates were contacting each other and targeted certain officials of their choice, and visiting ministers.

The fact that this dismal exercise in spying ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-diplomacyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ took place during the previous Labour government, under Prime Minister Gordon Brown, does not reduce the opprobrium this has brought to the UK.

Prime Minister David Cameron has little choice but to state, as he does, that he would not comment on intelligence matters, but the revelations are undoubtedly most embarrassing as he hosts the G8 Summit, with this adding to the difficulties in winning over President Vladimir Putin to the Obama-led Western line of arming the Syrian rebels ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” that admittedly include those who are closely linked to al-Qaeda ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the focus in the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-War on TerrorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ by President Obama and most other Western states.

Media mockery

The Western media were also caught up in these exposures, with little choice but to report what was being revealed, mainly by the Guardian, or be left out of the picture.

The Guardian gave more to readers with an Internet interview with whistleblower Snowden, while the South China Morning Post also gave him an opportunity to make his case for the scathing revelations for which he has been named a traitor by Dick Cheney. Snowden claims it an honour to be so named by such a manipulator of the truth to US citizens.

Yet, it did not take long for the key names in Western media such as BBC, CNN, Fox and MSNBC to try and subdue the impact of all this by using commentators and analysts to say what a normal and necessary practice surveillance of communications is, and trying to play down the aspect of damaged good relations and the very scandalous nature of the absence of standards of civilized hospitality that all of this revealed.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Red LineƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Both Obama and David Cameron were trying hard to maintain the best face amidst the huge embarrassments caused by these revelations of contemptible spying, which was not made any easy by the sudden discovery by Obama that President Assad of Syria had crossed the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-red lineƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ of the WestƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s own making, through alleged proof of the use of chemical weapons. Once again the Western media made themselves readily available to spread the message of Assad crossing the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-red lineƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and to justify arming the Syrian rebels, including admitted an avowed al-Qaeda groups.

It did not need much effort to recall how close this call of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-poison gasƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ was to the open lying to the entire world by then US President George W Bush and UK Premier Tony Blair about Saddam Hussein having weapons of mass destruction, based on wholly flawed intelligence reports, to justify the invasion and regime change in Iraq, a decade ago. The Syrian issue is not one that has an easy solution, but it is clear that the West has no solution to offer to the Syrian people, trapped in a bloody power struggle to define the new realities of the Middle East.

Although there may be disagreements with the continued Russian support for Damascus, (not forgetting that Syria is on its border), President Putin thought it necessary to call ObamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s new intelligence about poison gas as not convincing. He made a stronger statement in a the media conference with David Cameron, who was pressing for arms to the Syrian rebels, in asking whether the West wanted to arm those who pulled out and ate with relish the innards of those killed in battle. It was a reference to the viral image of Syrian rebels tearing out the heart of a dead Syrian soldier and biting into it.

Learn from us

All of this calls for a good evaluation of Western policy vis-a-vis terrorism and the much touted claims to be defenders of human rights, transparency, accountability and diplomacy. This reminds us of how the same countries, especially the UK, although having banned the LTTE as a terrorist organization, was trying hard to pressure Sri Lanka for an end to the operations to defeat in 2008/09, knowing very well the nature of the LTTE and its total commitment to terror. It was Gordon BrownƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Foreign Secretary, David Miliband who as among the strongest and loudest in making these demands, that are still echoed by those who draw a thick veil over LTTE terror.

The past two weeks have shown the difficulty in having good relations with honesty and a unity of civilized purpose with governments that have no regard for the decencies of civilized life. Those who lack the courtesies of diplomacy cannot be expected to do much to genuinely defend the cause of transparency and accountability. In fact they have now been exposed for their total lack of transparency and accountability – the loudest charges against Sri Lanka – in both national interstate matters. It seems time for them to learn the practice of good hospitality from the East. Sri Lanka certainly has much to teach both Barack Obama and David Cameron about friendship and hospitality.

POLICE AND LAND POWERS IN 13th AMENDMENT – POLITICAL DYNAMITE FOR INDIA AND SRI LANKA

June 21st, 2013

Jayantha de Z Gunasekera Courtesy The Daily News

No Provincial Council including the Northern Provincial Council has enjoyed Police and Land powers for quarter century (26 years). Why is the TNA hell bent on securing police and land powers at the behest of the LTTE Diaspora, other than to fragment this country with the assistance of Jayalalithaa, Karunanidhi and Hillary Clinton?

Why are we paying salaries and giving enormous perks to TNA to brazenly act in a manner inimical to our country? The TNA rather than dousing the fires are fanning the flames.

Tamil Nadu PoliticiansƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ who were advocating separation from the central government of India in the 1960s, shut their big mouths when the central government of India introduced the 16th Amendment to the Constitution of India. Now, they are attempting by devious means to approach the same issue by first creating a separate state in Sri Lanka which will then be used as a launching pad to create a separate state in Tamil Nadu in India. This is the reason why Tamil Nadu and TNA want weapons and they are hell bent on getting police and land powers to create a separate state in Sri Lanka.

The 13th Amendment was foisted on our government by India. It is a wolf in sheepƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s clothing. This was no legislation that was designed for the benefit of our country. In fact it is detrimental to us. It was drafted by the Rajiv Gandhi government, and forced on President Jayewardene by using intimidatory tactics. Indian Air Force planes blatantly violating our Air Space, dropped food parcels over the North and East of Sri Lanka, when our Government Forces had cornered the terrorists. Several of our Cabinet ministers including the Prime Minister were against this Amendment, and did not attend the signing ceremony of the accord, which was hurriedly assembled by JRJ and his cohorts, under curfew.

LTTE coffers


M Karunanidi

J Jayalalithaa

Tamils in the North, East and South of Sri Lanka are having a better quality of life not having to contribute to fatten the LTTE coffers. They are leading a life free of fear. Their young are not forcibly conscripted to be cannon fodder, but can enjoy free education and a chance to lead a qualitative and a pleasant life. India has a population of 1.1 billion.

Only a few thousands (incited by a few Tamil Nadu politicians) want to interfere with Sri Lanka. The vast majority of Indians are not the slightest bit interested in the 13th Amendment.

The threat of carving out a separate state exists even more than when Prabhakaran was using his military might. The diaspora and Tamil Nadu still have Hillary Clinton in their clutches, so much so that when Hillary Clinton visited India she brazenly visited Tamil Nadu only and met the politicians there. She did not visit any other state in India.

What is this unholy alliance with the Tamil politicians? Was she pressurized by the LTTE diaspora whom she is under obligation to? The latest gimmick the LTTE diaspora have devised in the US is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Tamils for ObamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

This is another way of thanking the Obama administration and Hillary Clinton in particular for penalizing Sri Lanka at the Human Rights Council in Geneva in March 2012 and 2013. And much more is expected from Hillary Clinton. So Human Rights is a bogus excuse.

How can the Sri Lankan government give Police and Land powers to the representatives of the LTTE diaspora. This diaspora have vowed to carve out a separate state sooner or later, using police and land powers.

The US Country report 2010/11 unambiguously states that the diaspora are collecting funds and that they are in the process of purchasing weapons in order to restart violence. How the Sri Lankan government can overcome these arm twisting tactics of Hillary Clinton, the LTTE diaspora, Karunanidi and Jayalalithaa is by holding a referendum in the whole country, as every citizen in Sri Lanka will be affected by the granting of Police and Land Powers, to traitors who are hell bent on dividing the country.

IPKF

The crafty Indian High Commissioner J.N. Dixit was like the Military Governor in Sri Lanka. It must be remembered that thereafter the Indians became a hated lot. We seem to have forgotten within 26 years, the hatred that India brought upon herself from nearly 20 million Sri Lankans.

India interfered in our internal affairs merely to satisfy Prabhakaran and some politicians of the Tamil Nadu government.

The beauty of it is that Prabhakaran himself rejected both the 13th Amendment and the IPKF, and was engaged in a long drawn out battle with the IPKF. The 13th Amendment and the presence of the IPKF gave an excuse for the JVP to raise its head. Sri Lanka doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t want a recurrence of this scenario. The mighty IPKF withdrew in ignominy.

In the battles between the LTTE and the IPKF, hundreds of innocent Tamils died. Several women were raped by the IPKF soldiers. Two sons of the first Speaker of the State Council Sir Vythilingam Duraisamy, happened to be in Jaffna on the day the IPKF walked in there. The scenario was worse than in the wild west in America. Several people including both sons of Sir Vythilingam, were shot for being spectators.

The hatred towards India for pressurizing us was so intense, that Rajiv Gandhi who came here himself to sign the accord, was clobbered by a naval rating, with the butt of his gun. Rajiv escaped death by a whisker.

Now, Indian interests in Sri Lanka are enormous. Do they want to jeopardize all this by pressurizing us to implement the 13th Amendment? DonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t they realize what dangers it can bring about to India and to the Indian interest here? India is having enough internal problems. Does the Indian government want to escalate those problems? Have they forgotten that all things imported from India were not permitted to be brought in? President JRJƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s sister-in-law Dr Gladys Jayawardene , Chairman of the State Pharmaceutical Corp was murdered for importing Indian medicines. Several pharmacy owners were killed for stocking Indian medicines. For quite sometime the Indians were a hated race here.

Tamil Nadu politicians

Does Manmohan Singh want a recurrence of this? Right now the Indians are highly accepted in Sri Lanka. They should not drive Sri Lanka further into the arms of China, by their short sighted policies. In the 1980s Sri Lanka was not militarily powerful and did not have close friends like China, Russia and many countries of the Middle East.

India must tackle the miniscule LTTE Diaspora and the handful of Tamil Nadu politicians in a different manner without bending over backwards to appease them, thus jeopardizing India as a whole. If Manmohan Singh continues to give into Tamil Nadu they will keep black mailing him. You give them an inch, they will demand a yard.


Hillary Clinton

Manmohan Singh

India must view the 13th Amendment with caution and intelligence and realize that it will be the start of an Eelam War 5. Eelam War 4 was concluded at the cost of many thousands of lives of military personnel and Tamil combatants and Tamil civilians.

By giving politically enhanced power to Tamil politicians, it will be used for the achievement of a separate state here, which will eventually be detrimental to India herself. This will be the start of the fragmentation of India. The 13th Amendment is political dynamite for both India and Sri Lanka. This Diaspora made/makes money out of illegal and unethical means. They are known to bribe international politicians with their ill-gotten collection.

This Diaspora is said to be tempting the TNA with handsome allowances and free holidays abroad. They are being dictated to create an atmosphere which will assist the LTTE diaspora to instigate bedlam once again in Sri Lanka.

The avenues of making money from innocent Tamils is running dry. They do not want to loose their opulent life styles. It is only a handful of this Diaspora members that are up to mischief.

LTTE Diaspora Agents

As a result of Rajiv GandhiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s short sighted policies he paid the supreme penalty by being murdered in cold blood in a village in Tamil Nadu by the LTTE itself; the very LTTE whom his mother Indira and he were trying to appease.

The whole world knows now, and is indeed admitted by the intelligentia of India, that the Indira Gandhi government created the LTTE and nurtured, financed and trained and gave every conceivable assistance for them to create problems in Sri Lanka. Eventually, Indira GandhiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s beloved son Rajiv was done to death by the very group she created.

She herself was killed in consequence of Sikh terrorism.
How true is the saying, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-those who live by the sword die by the swordƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

If the Sri Lankan government convinces the Manmohan Singh government about the dangers of the 13th Amendment boomeranging on India, they will not be serious about pushing it down our throats. As long as the 13th Amendment remains in our statute books, India and TNA will keep pressurizing us to implement it. India should thank her lucky stars that the LTTE which was hell bent on creating a separate state here, was annihilated. Had Prabhkaran succeeded in his endeavour, his guns would have been pointed at Manmohan Singh and Sonia Gandhi, as much as their wrath was directed at Rajiv Gandhi who helped them in no small measure.

With Karunanidhi and Jayalalithaa vowing to create a separate state in Sri Lanka, it would be insane to grant Police and Land Powers to their acolytes, the TNA who take orders from them and the LTTE diaspora.

The Sri Lanka Tamils in the North, East and South are a happy and contented lot. Only their language problem should be sorted out. All Tamil businessmen are making money hand over fist, all professional are earning a very handsome living un-interfered. Development in the North and East is going on at an accelerated pace. The refugees are now being systematically settled. The Tamils who were living amidst the Sinhala people and the Muslims for safety during the war, are now selling their properties in Wellawatte, Kotahena and other parts of Colombo and going back to their villages in the North and East which have become absolutely safe, devoid of the fear and threat of the LTTE. They are not interested in giving additional powers to the LTTE Diaspora Agents ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the TNA who will in turn make their lives a misery.

They do not want to upset the equilibrium. Those who want to upset it are the TNA and their acolytes. The TNA, in addition to their tax-free salaries, free car permits and a host of other perks from the Sri Lankan government, are also rumoured to be getting huge allowances and free trips abroad from the LTTE Diaspora. If that be so, the TNA are having a very comfortable existence. All they have to do is to prostrate themselves before the active LTTE Diaspora and do their bidding, just as they knelt before Prabhakaran and the LTTE. They must give the impression that they are people with a modicum of self respect.

International community

There is no give and take in TNA negotiations. In any event, they will not participate in the PSC until they get instructions from the LTTE diaspora. They make out false claims to fool the international community. In negotiations they only take and not give. That is in their blood. Does the TNA represent the Tamils of Sri Lanka or the LTTE diaspora who are attempting to reintroduce violence in Sri Lanka as is borne out by the Country Report of the US 2011/2012. It is upto the government, to educate the Sri Lankan Tamils that the TNA are attempting to take away the freedom that they are now enjoying after 30 years of suppression by the LTTE.

The TNA are clearly violating the 6th Amendment to our Constitution.

We have had four unbroken years of peace. If any violence breaks out, whether it be in the North, East or anywhere else in the country, the TNA will have to hold itself responsible, for it is because they are stretching every sinew to cater to the LTTE diaspora and Tamil Nadu Programme that such a situation will come about.

The TNA have conveniently forgotten that if not for the protection they were given by the SL Govt, they also would have suffered the same fate as Amirthalingam, Sivasithamparan, Yogeswaran et al, at the hands of the LTTE. They are alive today because of the protection given by the forces. They are a very ungrateful lot.

Quoting the Ceylon Daily News of April 27, 2013, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-several disruptive elements including local NGOs, lobbyists and TNA MPs along with other activists campaigned furiously in the last few weeks to get CMAG to challenge Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s CHOGM host statusƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

Brazenly doing such inimical things to the country that gave them protection for the last 30 years from the LTTE, is high treason, not only punishable with loss of civic rights, confiscation of property but also punishable with Death.

It is an offence in all Western countries to tender ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-MATERIAL SUPPORT TO A TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. This is exactly what the TNA are doing.

Small wonder that the TNA members are still at large doing every conceivable inimical thing to our country in the guise of representing the Tamil people, without being incarcerated or at least questioned on charges of HIGH TREASON.

They are skating on thin ice.
(The writer is a PresidentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Counsel )

Khalifa of Islam address at U.K. Parliament

June 21st, 2013

By A. Abdul Aziz Press Secretary, Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Sri Lanka.

(Given below is the full text of the address delivered by His Holiness, Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Fifth Khalifa and Head of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community on 11th June 2013 at an event to celebrate the centenary of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in the United Kingdom, held at the Houses of Parliament in London. The centenary celebrations were attended by 68 dignitaries, including 30 MPs and 12 Members of the House of Lords, including 6 Cabinet Ministers and 2 Ministers. Various media organisations including the BBC, Sky TV and ITV were also present to cover the event. In attendance, amongst others, was the Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change The Rt Hon. Ed Davey MP, the Deputy Prime Minister The Rt Hon. Nick Clegg MP, the Home Secretary The Rt Hon. Theresa May MP, the Shadow Foreign Secretary The Rt Hon. Douglas Alexander MP, the Chairman of the Home Affairs Select Committee Rt Hon. Keith Vaz MP and Member of Parliament for Mitcham and Morden Siobhain McDonaugh MP.)

Ahmadiyya Supreme Head His Holiness said:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Raheem (in the Name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful) All distinguished guests, Assalamo Alaikum WaRahmatullahe Wa Barakatohu ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” peace and blessings of Allah be upon you all.

First of all I would like to thank those friends of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community who, upon the centenary of our Community in the UK, have kindly organised this event within the Houses of Parliament as a means to express their friendship and close relationship with us. I would also like to thank all of those guests, who by attending today, are ensuring that this event proves to be a success and worthwhile. ƒÆ’-¡ I am pleased that quite a number of you are seated here and are not engaged in any other commitments or meetings.

In response to this gesture, apart from professing my thanks and appreciation, I would also like to say that it is my sincere hope and prayer that all of the departments and people who work within this beautiful and grand building are able to fulfil the rights of serving this country and its people. I also hope and pray that they are able to work in the best possible manner towards fostering good relations with other nations, to act with justice and so make decisions that are of benefit to all parties. If this spirit is adopted then it will reap the very best fruits, which are of love, affection and brotherhood and will lead the world towards becoming a true haven of peace and prosperity.

This desire and prayer of mine is shared by all Ahmadi Muslims, because we believe that it is necessary to have a deep love for oneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s country and for humanity at large. Indeed, Ahmadi Muslims believe that love for oneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s country is an essential part of faith, because the Founder of Islam, the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)has emphatically ordered and taught this. Thus, let me make it very clear that every Ahmadi Muslim who is a British citizen, whether born here in the UK or whether an immigrant from abroad, is completely loyal to this country and has sincere love for it. ƒÆ’-¡ They desire only the progress and prosperity of this great nation.

The number of people from other nations who now live in the UK is very significant and is estimated to be at around 14-15% of the total population of this country. ƒÆ’-¡ And so, I cannot continue without mentioning and praising the great qualities of open-heartedness and tolerance exhibited by the local British people, for the way in which they have accepted immigrants as members of the country and allowed them to become a part of the fabric of British society. In this sense it becomes an incumbent moral duty upon those people who have come to settle here to prove themselves to be loyal citizens of this country and so they must support the government in its efforts to tackle all forms of disorder and strife. As far as the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is concerned, its members act upon this principle in whichever country they reside.

As you are aware, we are currently celebrating the Centenary of the Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at in the United Kingdom. These past 100 years prove and serve witness to the fact that the members of the Ahmadiyya Community have always fulfilled the requirement of being loyal to their country and have always steered absolutely clear of all forms of extremism, rebellion and disorder. In reality, the fundamental reason for this loyal and loving approach is due entirely to the fact that the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is a true Islamic religious community. Our Community stands apart, as we have continually introduced the true and peaceful teachings of Islam to the people of the world and we have always strived for those true teachings to become accepted as the real Islam.

With these few words of introduction, I would now like to turn towards the main theme of my address. Our sect is the standard bearer for peace, reconciliation and harmony, which is why our motto is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Love for All, Hatred for None.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ Despite the fact that some non-Muslims know us or indeed have close links to us, they are very surprised that the Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at attributes its message of peace and brotherhood directly to Islam. The cause of their surprise and shock is because they see that many other so-called Islamic scholars and organisations act and speak in a completely different way and promote a very different message. To explain this difference let me make it clear that we Ahmadi Muslims believe that, in this era, the concept of a violent ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Jihad by the swordƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ is completely wrong and is to be rejected, whilst some other Muslim scholars promote or even practice it. Their beliefs have led to many extremist and terrorist organisations emerging amongst the Muslims in various parts of the world.

It is not just groups that are emerging but we also find that certain individuals are taking advantage of and acting upon these false beliefs. The most recent example of this was, of course, the brutal killing of an innocent British soldier on the streets of London. It was an attack which had absolutely nothing to do with the real teachings of Islam; rather, Islamic teachings vehemently condemn such acts. Such evil plots demonstrate the clear difference between the true teachings of Islam and the misconstrued teachings, which some so-called Muslims are practicing due to their ulterior motives. I would also like to say that the reaction of some of the local groups is not correct and can destroy the peace of the society.

What evidence is there to support our contention that what we believe with regards to Islamic teachings is correct? The underlying point to consider is that the use of the sword or force is only permissible when a religious war is waged against Islam. In todayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s world no one, be it a country or a religion, is physically waging war and attacking Islam on the basis of religion. Thus, it is not justifiable in any way for Muslims to attack any other party, in the name of religion, because this clearly violates the teachings of the QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an.

The QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an only permitted force to be used against those who waged war and raised their sword against Islam. Another crucial point is that if a citizen seeks to inflict any form of harm on his country or on his fellow countrymen then clearly he would be acting against the teachings of Islam. The Holy Prophet Muhammad(sa)ƒÆ’-¡ said that whoso sheds the blood of an innocent person is not a Muslim. The Holy Prophet(sa) has deemed such people as weak in faith and to be sinners.

I shall now turn to some other aspects of Islam that prove just how enlightened and pure its teachings really are. I shall explain that the way some so-called Muslim groups present Islam does not represent the real teachings of the religion in any shape or form. It will become clear that their activities are conducted with the sole desire to fulfil their vested interests by falsely using the name of Islam to justify their hate-filled acts.

Islam puts so much emphasis on the importance of religious tolerance that it will be impossible to find such high standards anywhere else. Other people tend to believe that until other religions are proven to be false, they are unable to prove the truth of their religion. IslamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s approach is very different because it teaches that whilst Islam is a true religion sent for all of mankind, the truth is that all prophets of God were sent to all people and nations of the world. This is clearly mentioned in the Holy QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an. Allah has said that all prophets were sent by Him with teachings of love and affection, and so all true Muslims must accept them. No other religion so willingly and openly praises every faith and every nation as Islam does. Because Muslims believe that prophets were sent to all people and all nations they cannot ever consider them to be false. Thus, Muslims cannot disrespect, mock or insult any of the prophets of God, nor can they injure the sentiments of the followers of any religion.

Yet, sadly the attitude of some non-Muslims is the exact opposite. They do not spare any opportunity to grievously mock andƒÆ’-¡ slander the Founder of ƒÆ’-¡ Islam(sa)ƒÆ’-¡ and so gravely wound the feelings of Muslims. We truly desire religious tolerance and mutual understanding, because of the beliefs we hold. Unfortunately however, when certain elements toy with the feelings of Muslims, it leads to some so-called Muslims reacting to the ƒÆ’-¡ provocation in an entirely wrong and irresponsible way. Their reaction and response has no link to the true teachings of Islam and you will certainly find that no Ahmadi Muslim, however much they are provoked, will ever react in such a negative manner.

Another grave allegation raised against the Founder of Islam(PBUH) and the QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an is that they gave teachings of extremism and promoted the use of force to spread the message of Islam. To assess this allegation and to seek the reality let us look to the QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an itself. Allah the Almighty says:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”And if thy Lord had enforced His Will, surely, all who are in the earth would have believed together. Wilt thou, then, force men to become believers?ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ (Ch.10:V.100).

This verse clearly states that God, as the Possessor of all Powers, could easily force all people to adopt the same religion; however, He has instead given the people of the world the freedom to choose ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” to believe or to not believe.

And so if God has given mankind this freedom of choice, then how could the Holy Prophet Muhammad(sa) or any of his followers compel or force anyone to become a Muslim? Allah the Almighty also states in the QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”It is the truth from your Lord; wherefore let him who will believe, and let him, who will disbelieve.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ (Ch.18:V.30)

This is the reality of Islam. This is its true teaching. If a personƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s heart desires then they are free to accept Islam, but if their heart does not, then they are free to reject it. Therefore, Islam is completely against compulsion and extremism; rather, it advocates peace and harmony at all levels of society. It is quite impossible for Islam to teach violence or compulsion because the very meaning of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”IslamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ is to live in peace and to provide peace to all others. Nevertheless, when our religious sentiments are taunted it causes us great pain and anguish. Anything disrespectful said about the Holy Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) pierces and wounds our hearts.

It was the Founder of Islam(PBUH) who developed the love of God and the love of His creation in our hearts. It was he who ingrained and established love and respect for all of mankind and for all religions within us. What bigger proof of IslamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s peaceful teachings can there be than the response given by the opponents of the Holy Prophet(PBUH) when he preached and conveyed the message of Islam to them. They did not say that by inviting them to join Islam, the Holy Prophet(sa)ƒÆ’-¡ was asking them to perpetrate any cruelties or wrongdoing. Rather, their reply was that if they were to accept the ProphetƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s teachings, their wealth and status would be threatened or seized by ruthless people, because the Holy Prophet(PBUH) emphasised only peace and harmony. They admitted to a fear that if they accepted Islam then by adopting peace the surrounding people, tribes or even nations would take advantage and destroy them. In short, if Islam advocated violence, and if it called on Muslims to raise their swords and wage war, then clearly the disbelievers would not have given this justification. They would not have said that their failure to accept Islam was out of a fear that its teachings of peace could lead to their ruin at the hands of worldly people.

The Holy QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an states that one of the Attributes of God Almighty is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”SalamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ which means He is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”The Source of Peace.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ It follows that if God truly is the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Source of PeaceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ then His peace should encompass all of His Creation and all of mankind, rather than be limited to a specific group of people. If GodƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s peace was only designed to protect some people then it cannot be said that He is a God for the entire world. Allah the Almighty has answered this point in the QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an. Allah says:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”I swear by his repeated cry ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-O my Lord!ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ that these are a people who will not believe. Therefore, turn aside from them, and say, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Peace;ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and soon shall they know.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ (Ch.43 Vs 89-90)

These words illustrate that the Holy Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) brought a teaching that was a source of mercy and compassion for all people and thus was a means of peace for all of mankind. The verse also states that in response to the Holy ProphetƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s(sa) message of peace, his opponents did not only reject his teachings; they even ridiculed and insulted him. Indeed, they went even further and opposed him with enmity and created disorder and strife. Upon all of this the Holy Prophet(sa) pleaded to God that:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”I desire to give them peace, but they do not give me peace. Leaving that aside they even strive to inflict pain and agony upon me.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

In response, Allah consoled him by saying:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Ignore whatever they do and turn away from them. Your only task is to spread and establish peace in the world. You should respond to their hatred and transgressions by simply saying ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-peace be with youƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and tell them that you have brought peace for them.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Thus, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) spent his entire life spreading peace in the world. That was his noble mission. Certainly, there will come a day when the people of the world will realise and understand that he did not bring any teachings of extremism. They will realise that all he brought was a message of peace, love and kindness. Furthermore, if the followers of this noble messenger also respond to cruelties and injustices in the same loving manner, then no doubt those who raise objections against IslamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s magnificent teachings will one day become convinced of its truth and beauty.

The AhmadiyyaƒÆ’-¡ MuslimƒÆ’-¡ JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at follows and lives by these teachings. It is these teachings of understanding, tolerance and compassion that we promote and spread to the corners of the world. We follow the historic and unparalleled example of kindness and benevolence that was demonstrated by the Holy Prophet Muhammad(sa) when after years of facing the most bitter and horrific cruelty and persecution, he was able to return victoriously to the streets of Makkah. For years, he and his followers, were prevented access to even the most basic necessities such as food and water and so they spent many days at a time suffering in a state of starvation. Many of his followers were attacked and some were killed in the most barbaric and merciless manner, which one cannot even image. Even the elderly Muslims, the Muslim women and the Muslim children were not spared; rather, they too were treated in a ruthless and brutal way. Yet, when the Holy Prophet (PBUH) returned to Makkah in victory, he did not seek revenge. Instead, he proclaimed that:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-There shall be no punishment upon any of you for I have forgiven you all. ƒÆ’-¡ I am a messenger of love and peace. I have the greatest knowledge of AllahƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s attribute of being a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Source of PeaceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” He is the One Who gives peace. Thus, I forgive you of all of your past transgressions and I give you a guarantee of peace and security. You are free to remain in Makkah and to freely practise your religion. No one will be compelled or forced in any way.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Some of the most staunch disbelievers had fled Makkah in a state of fear of punishment because they knew they had exceeded all limits in their cruelties against the Muslims. However, upon witnessing this unrivalled act of compassion and kindness and this unique display of peace and harmony, the relatives of those disbelievers sent a message to them to return. They were informed that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) ƒÆ’-¡ extended nothing but peace and security and so they did return to Makkah. When they, who were previously IslamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s most resolute opponents, saw for themselves the benevolence and mercy of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), they accepted Islam of their own free will.

What I have said is part of recorded history and the majority of non-Muslim historians and Orientalists have also certified to its truth. These are the real teachings of Islam and this was the noble example of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(PBUH). And so to label Islam and its Founder as violent and to raise such allegations against them is a cruel injustice. There is no doubt that wherever such false allegations are made we are deeply aggrieved.

I shall say again that today it is our community, the Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at, which is following and living according to the original and peaceful teachings of Islam.

And I shall say again that the hate-filled evil acts perpetrated by extremist organisations or individuals have no link whatsoever to the true teachings of Islam.

True justice requires that the vested interests of individuals or groups should not be attributed to the teachings of a religion. Such acts should not be used as an excuse to unfairly level criticism at any religion or its founder. It is an urgent need of the time that, in an effort to establish global peace and harmony, all people should display mutual respect for one another and for all religions. The alternatives are horrific.

The world has become a global village and so a lack of mutual respect and a failure to join together to promote peace will not only harm the local area, city or country but in fact will ultimately lead to the destruction of the entire world. We are all well-aware of the horrific devastation caused by the last two world wars. Due to the acts of certain countries the signs are that another world war is on the horizon.

If a world war breaks out then the Western world will also be deeply affected by its far-reaching and devastating consequences. Let us save ourselves from such destruction. Let us save our future generations from the miserable and devastating consequences of war. Obviously the most horrific type of war would be an atomic war and certainly the way the world is heading there is a real risk of a nuclear war breaking out. To prevent such a horrific outcome, we should adopt justice, integrity and honesty and join together to suppress and stop those groups who wish to spread hatred and who wish to destroy the peace of the world.

It is my hope and prayer that God Almighty enables the major powers to discharge their responsibilities and duties in this effort in the most fair and just way ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Ameen. Before concluding I would like to once again thank all of you for taking the time and effort to attend today. May Allah bless you all. Thank you very much.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

What is that device again?

June 21st, 2013

Dr. Mareena Thaha Reffai,

The newspapers have mentioned in a small article,ƒÆ’-¡  on the page before last, (Daily Mirror June 10th, page A13) thatƒÆ’-¡  a student named Miss. Lasika Sevvandi Silva has invented a decide to eradicate the dengue mosquito breeding on roof gutters. Now, with what the dengue menace rising and everyone coming out withƒÆ’-¡  all sorts of stupid solutions like ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” no more gutters, letƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢sƒÆ’-¡  fumigate the whole island etc. shouldn’t this inventionƒÆ’-¡ had ƒÆ’-¡ taken the island by storm? Not so. What the device does even is not published, not even in the internet. Not a hum about it afterwards.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ If it was in another country they would have gone to town with the invention, if it works. By now it should have been produced in millions and distributed in to every household with gutters,even free. But our country does not even give it a second look.

ƒÆ’-¡ Just like our country. And our leaders. We have simple solutions just under our noses, but will look for difficult, impractical, foreign solutions wasting a lot of money, probably that way the politicians can collect huge commissions.

ƒÆ’-¡ Sometime back another ƒÆ’-¡ student came out with an excellent solution of tapping all the larvae of the mosquitoes by using plastic bottles cut into two and inserting one part into another, upside down. Simple, effective, inexpensive means. But the success depends on all the people in one surrounding must follow the practice, and avoid providing any other breeding areas, so that ALL mosquitoes lay eggs only within these bottles. Spoken about for a little while and forgotten. Why, Oh, why?ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ The PHI and the armyƒÆ’-¡  people were inspecting the houses for sometime but are not seen for months ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” anyway all what they did was to demand a bribe not to report the housesƒÆ’-¡ stagnated water. While they were threatening the houses where there have been hardly any stagnated water, the large drains outside on the lanes were blocked and overflowing day after day with no one bothering about them. Who is responsible for them and whom to complain and whom to be punished is anyone’s guess.

ƒÆ’-¡ The one and only method of eradicating dengue in our country is to educate the housewives, ƒÆ’-¡ even if by rewarding them to make sure the environment is free of mosquito breeding. Whatever else we doƒÆ’-¡  it will only be a temporary measure.ƒÆ’-¡ 

WHAT BENEFIT IS THERE IN DAYANƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢S DEAL IN GENEVA?- The following is H. L. D. Mahindapala’s reply to Dr. Dayan Jayatilleka’s response to the criticism of his controversial role in Geneva. Scroll down to read Dr. Jayatilleka’s defence of his role

June 20th, 2013

H.L.D. Mahindapala

ƒÆ’-¡ I welcome my friend Dayan’s response to my lengthy review of his book, Long War, Cold PeaceƒÆ’-¡  published in yesterday’s Daily News.ƒÆ’-¡ May I also add that it was long overdue. I also note his metaphor in which he compares his responseƒÆ’-¡ as “the intellectual equivalent of entering a Taliban held area of remote Afghanistan.” I hope he realises the meaning ofƒÆ’-¡ what he says:ƒÆ’-¡ the so-calledƒÆ’-¡ superior Americans (i.e, the likes of Dayan) have failedƒÆ’-¡ to combat the challenges of Talibans (i.e. the likes of me and myself) ƒÆ’-¡ in remote Afghanistan and are retreating with their tails between their legs!ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Leaving aside the bullet that had ricocheted on him,ƒÆ’-¡ let me deal with the main thrust of his response which isƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ mainly to defend his roleƒÆ’-¡ in Geneva. I must confess that I, like most others, was impressed initially by his role inƒÆ’-¡ turning the tables on the West in Geneva. He also lambasted the WestƒÆ’-¡  which riled ourƒÆ’-¡ compatriot Radhika Coomaraswamy at the UN who dismissed it as an “obnoxious tirade” mainly because her political objective of scoring a victory for her side was defeated for the umpteenth time at the UN. She and her friends like Hilary Clinton were doing their damndest at the UN to bring the Sri Lankan issue before theƒÆ’-¡ Security Council. Our quietƒÆ’-¡ and seasoned diplomats like H.M.G.S. Palihakkara outfoxedƒÆ’-¡ the WestƒÆ’-¡ every step of the way andƒÆ’-¡ kept the Sri Lankan issue confined to the basement of the UNƒÆ’-¡ — an ineffective area which hadƒÆ’-¡ no force in the wider international arena. Realising that they can’t win inside the glass box inƒÆ’-¡ New York, the defeated WestƒÆ’-¡ shifted their battle groundƒÆ’-¡ to the easier arenaƒÆ’-¡ at UNHRC in Geneva.

ƒÆ’-¡ In New York allƒÆ’-¡  players bat against a tough leather ball. In Geneval they play with a soft tennis ball. It was in Geneva that Dayan scored his pyrrhic victory. In fact,ƒÆ’-¡ the bulkƒÆ’-¡ of ƒÆ’-¡ his reply confirms what I said earlier: his “victory” was not due to any diplomatic skills as such but due to a surrender to Indian demands. He says he cut a deal to offer devolution (read 13th Amendment) in place ofƒÆ’-¡ accountability. To quote him he won becauseƒÆ’-¡ of “aƒÆ’-¡ trade-off in Geneva in 2009: devolution for accountability.” In other words, he caved in to India’s demand for 13th Amendment in exchange for theirƒÆ’-¡ support. Surrendering to demands of bigƒÆ’-¡  powers doesn’t require much diplomatic skill, does it?ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ His victory would have had all the glory if Sri Lanka won onƒÆ’-¡ our own terms. As he concedes, it was “a just war” and our task was to win on “the moral legitimacy of our victory”ƒÆ’-¡ withoutƒÆ’-¡ surrendering to rapacious demands of imperialist India. We didn’t have to apologise for anything, especially for “accountability” in the last stages of the war when we had “the moral legitimacy of our victory” on our side. But what did we do? Having won all the way from Mavil AruƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ (2006) to NandikdalƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ (2009) ƒÆ’-¡ — the impossible victory –ƒÆ’-¡ we go toƒÆ’-¡ Geneva (first class with diplomatic privileges) andƒÆ’-¡ agree to surrender all that was won in the battlefield.ƒÆ’-¡ That is what the trade-off means in real terms.ƒÆ’-¡ So what’sƒÆ’-¡ the big deal about that!ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Extracting the maximum fromƒÆ’-¡  the negotiating table is the ultimate success in diplomacy. Victors — especially if they have “the moral legitimacy ofƒÆ’-¡ … a just war” on their side — don’t concede everything won in the battle field to the defeated at the negotating table. Conceding in totoƒÆ’-¡ the 13th AmendmentƒÆ’-¡ — the fundamental issueƒÆ’-¡ on which we fought the just war –ƒÆ’-¡ is no great sign of a Metternich. Great diplomats are known for winning not for losing.ƒÆ’-¡ Besides, as he states, it helped us only to buy timeƒÆ’-¡ to stave off (temporarily) the bogus issues of discrimination, dignityƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ and equality of Tamils etc., cranked upƒÆ’-¡ endlessly by the Tamil diaspora.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ The Jaffna Tamils never had it better ƒÆ’-¡ — neither under centuries of the dominant Vellahla oppressorsƒÆ’-¡ norƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ under the 33-years of Pol Potist Tiger regime ƒÆ’-¡ — than when they worked jointly with the Sinhalese.

ƒÆ’-¡ To get back to the issue at hand,ƒÆ’-¡ where has buying timeƒÆ’-¡ in Geneva taken us? It has only postponed the demands forƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ the perennialƒÆ’-¡ pound of fleshƒÆ’-¡ in the peninsular poilitical agenda.ƒÆ’-¡ Where is the victory in this surrender? Even The EconomistƒÆ’-¡  concedes that it “warded off the threats of war crimes”– but only for another day. It did not eliminate the threat. The real victory would have been in eliminating threats not in postponing it. In any case,ƒÆ’-¡ The Economist is wrong because his deal has not “warded off the threats of war crimes,” as admittedƒÆ’-¡ by Dayan. He saysƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ candidly: “The main threat was and still is one of an independent international inquiry on accountability for actions allegedly committed during the last stages of the war.” So if “the main threatƒÆ’-¡ still is”ƒÆ’-¡ there what has Sri Lanka gained by the victory of my friend Dayan?

ƒÆ’-¡ Dayan seems to be utterly confused in hisƒÆ’-¡ self-contradictory response to my review.ƒÆ’-¡ He begins by saying that his victory is in the trade-off: exchanging devolution for accountability. Then he concludes by saying: “The Tamil Eelamist Diaspora networks do not care about devolution; they scorn the 13th amendment. They are focused on accountability. So are Susan Rice, the incoming National Security Advisor to President Obama, and Samantha Power, the Ambassador/Permanent Representative designate of the USA to the UN Security Council.”ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ This plainly means thatƒÆ’-¡ on his own admission his trade-off was not worth the paper on which it was written. It wouldn’t have worked because the Tamil diaspora and the West are out to get the GOSL if both can’t get their pound of flesh. As I said earlier, his “trade-off” didn’t last long. It seems to be a mere private deal between him and the Indian wheeler-dealers who have let him down after squeezing the best they could get out of him like a lemon.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Besides,ƒÆ’-¡ the deal he cut opens up serious issues. If he did cut a deal then he owes it to the Sri Lankans to let them knowƒÆ’-¡ withƒÆ’-¡ whomƒÆ’-¡ he cut the deal? Is it India? America? orƒÆ’-¡ EU? If so what are the contents of his deal? Was the deal done on hisƒÆ’-¡ own initiative or with the consent of the Foreign Ministry? If he didn’t have the approval of the Foreign Ministry what authority did he have to bind the nation to his private deal? Would it have been binding on both sides when he admits now that neither the Tamil diaspora nor the West is interested in devolution but only in accountability?ƒÆ’-¡ What then is the point in cutting a dealƒÆ’-¡ on devolution when the Tamil diaspora and the WestƒÆ’-¡ were not giving up on accountability?ƒÆ’-¡ Wasn’t his deal doomed to fail with noƒÆ’-¡ lasting benefitƒÆ’-¡  to Sri Lanka?ƒÆ’-¡ Judging from his statementƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ and the unfolding events itƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ is clearƒÆ’-¡ that he has cutƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ a deal with India — i.e, conceding 13th Amendment to acountability as seen in black and white in 2009 Resolution — without any reciprocal benefits.

ƒÆ’-¡ His other blunder is inƒÆ’-¡ assuming that accountability can come only from the so-called independent judges imported from abroad.ƒÆ’-¡ When Sri Lanka won the war it was meant to be liberation not only from the tyranny of Tamil Tiger Pol Potism but also from meddlesome external forces.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ This also means thatƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka still has the option of showing a willingness and capability of dealing with accountability on the alleged charges in the last stages of the war. It does not needƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ inquiries from abroad. Sri Lanka also has the option of going beyond the politically motivated accusations confined to the last five months of a 33-year-old war. Where is the justice in an independent inquiry confined only to the last five months excluding the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the Tamil Tigers and their agents abroad (violating UN Security Council Resolutions on terrorism) and, more importantly, that of Indian IPKF forces which raped, tortured, incarcerated, killed and ran amok in Jaffna and the north?ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ For instance, will Britain allow Adele Balasingham and India allow its generals and other involved forces to be extradited to face trial in a court established in Sri Lanka? Accountability is raised only as a one-way issueƒÆ’-¡  confined only to GOSL. But it goes beyond the borders of Sri Lanka involvingƒÆ’-¡ the Western and Indian havens provided to raise funds and promote terrorism in Sri Lanka. India stands accused of violatingƒÆ’-¡  international law in breeding and exporting terrorism to a friendly neighbour. India should be made to pay reparations for the destruction, destabilisation and the displacement of civilians due to its deliberate foreign policy launched against all civilizedƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ and international norms. India posing as a holy sadhu in Geneva is not going to cut any iceƒÆ’-¡ in any independent court of justice. If push comes to shove Sri Lanka should set up its own independent inquiry, invitingƒÆ’-¡ judges drawn from the international community,ƒÆ’-¡ to judgeƒÆ’-¡ the entire period of the 33-year-old war, starting from the Vadukoddai ResolutionƒÆ’-¡  in 1976. India and other agents of Tamil Tiger Pol Potism, including Fr. S. J. Emmanuel, Adele Balasingham, Catholic priests who handed over children to the Tiger terrorists, TNA collaborators with the Tiger criminals, NGO supporters who legitimized the violence of the Tamil Tigers in the name of promotingƒÆ’-¡  peace, shouldƒÆ’-¡ be hauled up before any court of accountability.

ƒÆ’-¡ Finally, Dayan should have in the first place avoided the special session in which the March 2009 Resolution was launched by the West. Being in charge as the Ambassador to UNHRC he shoud have seen it coming instead of waiting till the last moment to fight back.The move to holdƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ theƒÆ’-¡ specialƒÆ’-¡ session was passed by only a majority of one. If he had been up and awake he could have forestalled it avoding all the consequencesƒÆ’-¡  that flowed in its wake.ƒÆ’-¡ That is howƒÆ’-¡ seasonedƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Sri LankanƒÆ’-¡ diplomats at the UN and UNHRC won on previous ooccasions.

ƒÆ’-¡ Having said all this I must concede that Dayan had to carry a lot of baggage left over from the failure of the Foreign Ministry –ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ perhapsƒÆ’-¡ the bestƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ home forƒÆ’-¡ senile retirees inƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ theƒÆ’-¡ public service. Leaving aside a handful of committed and knowledgeable diplomats, who had rescued Sri Lanka on numerous occasions, the whole place is overloaded with 9 – 5 bureaucrats who neither has the heart nor the capability of meeting the international challenges. But then Dayan accepted his responsibilites knowing the crises within the Foreign Ministry. HeƒÆ’-¡ walked in with his eyes open.ƒÆ’-¡ Like in Cabinet responsibility, if you are in it you cannot escape by shedding responsbility. Besides, if Dayan can claim credit for victory then he must be equally responsible forƒÆ’-¡ his failures as well.


ƒÆ’-¡ DR DAYAN JAYATILLEKAƒÆ’-¡ ‘S REPLY TOƒÆ’-¡ H.L.D. MAHINDAPALA’S ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN THE DAILY NEWSƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ SRI LANKA IN GENEVA: ƒÆ’-¡ THE DEVOLUTION/ ACCOUNTABILITY TRADE-OFF

ƒÆ’-¡ My friend HLD Mahindapala is writing a book length diatribe on my latest book, Long War, Cold Peace (Vijitha Yapa, 2013). I have chosen not to respond as entering his discourse as contained and represented in his extended review, would be the intellectual equivalent of entering a Taliban held area of remote Afghanistan. However, in the public interest as well as in fairness to myself I have to set the record straight on his latest effusion which is a grotesque distortion of Sri Lanka at the UN HRC in Geneva in 2009, and my own role there.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ What HLD Mahindapala fails to grasp is that Sri Lanka made a trade-off in Geneva in 2009: devolution for accountability. In so doing we bought ourselves three years of time and space. How the Sri Lankan authorities used that time and space is another question. The main threat was and still is one of an independent international inquiry on accountability for actions allegedly committed during the last stages of the war. The target was and is not only our countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s present leadership but its armed forces. We in Geneva at the time, set out to protect our armed forces and the moral legitimacy of our victory. I am proud of having played my part.

ƒÆ’-¡ As for the strategy, tactics and dynamics of May 2009 and my own role in Geneva, it is best not to be detained either by my protestations or Mr MahindapalaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s strange indictment and look instead to more authoritative and independent sources. The Economist (London) described by Karl Marx as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-the most intelligent defender of capitalismƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ referred to in its August 6-8 , 2009 issue to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-…Dayan Jayatilleka, Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Ambassador to Geneva, who warded off the threatened UN war-crimes probe in May [2009]…ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Thanks to Wikileaks what is now known is that US Secretary of State instructed its Mission in Geneva to throw its weight behind the move on Sri Lanka at the UN HRC Special Sessions in 2009.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Mission Geneva is requested to convey to the Czech Republic and other like-minded members of the HRC that the USG supports a special session on the human rights situation in Sri Lanka and related aspects of the humanitarian situation. Mission is further requested to provide assistance, as needed, to the Czech Republic in obtaining others, signatures to support holding this sessionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦Mission is also instructed to engage with HRC members to negotiate a resolution as an outcome of this special session, if held. Department believes a special session that does not result in a resolution would be hailed as a victory by the Government of Sri Lanka. Instructions for line edits to the resolution will be provided by Department upon review of a draft.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ [Cable dated 4th May 2009 from Secretary of State (United States)]

ƒÆ’-¡ Wikileaks shows that as early as September 2007, just two months after I had taken over as Ambassador/PRUN, the Western Group, led by the UK, was revising and reactivating a resolution that had been hanging over Sri Lanka in the previous year, 2006 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” a danger and challenge which I had inherited.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦.a UK Mission contact told us that work is only at an early stage on the text of a possible resolution, which would update one that the EU put forward in last yearƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Council session.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ [Cable dated 10th September 2007]

ƒÆ’-¡ A US Mission cable described the effect of our strategy as follows:

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ There was general agreement that Sri Lanka, and in particular its outspoken ambassador here, were effectively playing off the West against less developed countries.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬[Cable date 10 March 2008]

ƒÆ’-¡ A considerably important cable conveys the assessment made to Susan Rice, until a few days ago the Cabinet-ranked US Ambassador/Permanent Representative in the Security Council, by Human Rights High Commissioner Navi Pillay, on the results of the Special Session on Sri Lanka. The assessment was that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Sri Lanka and its allies, meanwhile, had a draft resolution ready to go and simply outmanoeuvred the EU.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ [Cable date 25 June 2009]

ƒÆ’-¡ This is not a one-off assessment. The Wikileaks cables report a conversation in Paris, significantly between the US Ambassador-at-large for War Crimes Issues, Clint Williamson, and senior officials of the French Foreign Ministry (widely respected as the fount of modern European diplomatic tradition and practice). A cable from the US Embassy in Paris to Washington DC quotes FranceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Official Representative for International Penal Tribunals, Christian Bernier, as saying that Sri Lanka was ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-very effective in its diplomatic approach in GenevaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬:

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Bernier opined that the Sri Lankan government is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-very effectiveƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in its diplomatic approach in Geneva and said France is in an information-collection phase to obtain a more effective result in the HRCƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. [Cable dated 16 July 2009]

ƒÆ’-¡ Outside of purely partisan ethnic propaganda, the most serious negative account of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s war and the conduct of the Sri Lankan state is the solidly researched, well written, intelligent and readable book, The Cage by Gordon Weiss. It contains an entire chapter, 30 pages long, on the international and diplomatic dimension of the conflictƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s closing stages (Ch 9: The Watching World).

ƒÆ’-¡ The UN Geneva is brought to life in WeissƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ volume: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-On 27 MayƒÆ’-¡  at the Palais des nations in Geneva, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navanetham Pillay, addressed the Human Rights Council and called for an international inquiry into the conduct of both parties to the war. While the EU and a brace of other countries formulated and then moved a resolution in support of PillayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s call, a majority of countries on the council rejected it out of hand. Instead they adopted an alternative motion framed by Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s representatives praising the Sri Lankan government for its victory over the Tigers…ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (p229)

ƒÆ’-¡ In his concluding chapter Weiss describes my role: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Dayan Jayatilleka, one of the most capable diplomats appointed by the Rajapaksa regime, had outmanoeuvred Western diplomats to help Sri Lanka escape censure from the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva. He had also been one of the most trenchant advocates within the government for meaningful constitutional reform, including the devolution of power to the provinces (p256-7)ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. In his Notes he makes this evaluation: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Jayatilleka was the most lucid of the vocal Government of Sri Lanka representatives…ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (p 330)

ƒÆ’-¡ Research scholar David Lewis presented a paper at the University of Edinburgh, entitled ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”The failure of a liberal peace: Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s counterinsurgency in global perspectiveƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, and published in Conflict, Security & Development, 2010, Vol 10:5, pp 647-671. Lewis is Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for International Co-operation and Security in the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, and headed the International Crisis GroupƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Sri Lanka programme in 2006-7. In the study, he writes:

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Many of the battles over conflict-related norms between Sri Lanka and Europe took place in UN institutions, primarily the Human Rights Council (HRC)ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦it was Sri Lanka which generally had the best of these diplomatic battles…ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Although this process of contestation reflects shifting power relations, and the increasing influence of China, Russia and other ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Rising PowersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, it does not mean that small states are simply the passive recipients of norms created and contested by others. In fact, Sri Lankan diplomats have been active norm entrepreneurs in their own right, making significant efforts to develop alternative norms of conflict management, linking for example Chechnya and Sri Lanka in a discourse of state-centric peace enforcement. They have played a leading role in UN forums such as the UN HRC, where Sri Lankan delegates have helped ensure that the HRC has become an arena, not so much for the promotion of the liberal norms around which it was designed, but as a space in which such norms are contested, rejected or adapted in unexpected ways…ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-As a member of the UN HRC Sri Lanka has played an important role in asserting new, adapted norms opposing both secession and autonomy as possible elements in peace-buildingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚trends that are convergent with views expressed by China, Russia and IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

(Lewis: 2010, pp. 658-661)

ƒÆ’-¡ So there we have it; thatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s the story as seen by critical observer-analysts. It is entirely at variance with HLD MahindapalaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s grotesque version. We were defeated in Geneva in 2012 and 2013 and are on the defensive internationally because we did not fulfil our part of the devolution for accountability strategic trade-off. The more we retreat or delay on devolution, the more our critics advance on the all-important and dangerous front of accountability. ƒÆ’-¡ The Tamil Eelamist Diaspora networks do not care about devolution; they scorn the 13th amendment. They are focused on accountability. So are Susan Rice, the incoming National Security Advisor to President Obama, and Samantha Power, the Ambassador/Permanent Representative designate of the USA to the UN Security Council. India however, still focuses more on the 13th amendment. Can we fight on both fronts? Should we try? Which is the lesser danger and what is the more prudent compromise?

WILL TNA URGE DR MANMOHAN SINGH TO BOYCOTT CHOGM IN SRI LANKA? TNAƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s trip to Indian Laundry!

June 20th, 2013

By M D P DISSANAYAKE

The TNA leadership has once again gone to IndiaƒÆ’-¡  to meet the Big Brother to bring pressure on the President of Sri Lanka in regard to pending amendments to 13A of the Constitution.ƒÆ’-¡  TNA has consistently maintained a mind-set that their godfathers are in India.ƒÆ’-¡  They consistently believed in that they are duty bound to the Indian Government.ƒÆ’-¡  For TNA and their henchmen Tamils, Sri Lanka is only a playground but the game umpires are residing in India.ƒÆ’-¡ 

Following a meeting with the Sri Lankan separatist TamilƒÆ’-¡  leadership, the Hon. Prime Minister of India Dr Manmohan Singh had saidƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-the proposed changes raised doubts about the commitments made by the Sri Lankan government to India and the international community, including the United Nations, on a political settlement in Sri Lanka that would go beyond the 13th Amendment”.

The Indian Government is fully aware that they cannot dictate terms to Sri Lanka as Mr Ranil Wickremasinghe (RW) is no longer the Prime Minister ( or the Executive President) of Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  At the time the 13 amendment was tabled in Parliament by the then UNP government, there were several UNP members who were opposed to it.ƒÆ’-¡  The UNP had to confine those MPs to hotels to prevent them from attending the Parliament and voting against the amendment. Forcing the 13A was only the first step by the Indian Government on Sri Lanka to divide the geographically and strategically centre piece island on ethnic grounds.

It is a well known fact the 13 amendment was forced upon the Sri Lanka government by the Indian Government without providing an opportunity for a public debate or a referendum.ƒÆ’-¡  The spineless Sri Lankan government succumbed to the Indian pressure.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  The cunning Indian Leaders used the so called non-existing ethnic problem in Sri Lanka to their advantage.ƒÆ’-¡ 

As part of the second phase of the long term plan to strengthen theƒÆ’-¡  LTTE and divide Sri Lanka,ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ the Indian Leadership and Velupillai Prabhakaran drafted the Ceasefire Agreement. ƒÆ’-¡ MrƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ Ranil Wickremasinghe (RW) ƒÆ’-¡ blindly signed it ƒÆ’-¡ (even though he is a qualified lawyer) without providingƒÆ’-¡  an opportunity for a public debate or a referendum.ƒÆ’-¡  So, on two occasions Indian Leaders were able to twist the arms of our leaders and forced corrugated Indian political high-handed acts on Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡  After signing the Ceasefire Agreement, RW gave a free hand to the LTTE to import or locally procure basic raw materials and earth moving heavy equipment/machinery etc. to the LTTE to build bunkers, air strips etc.ƒÆ’-¡  For committing this cardinal sin, RW has not yet been politically fully punished by the Sri Lankans.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 

The situation in Sri Lanka today is vastly different .ƒÆ’-¡  Having developed the North and East with most of the infrastructure facilities, should these two areas be now handed over to the TNA in a Golden Platter with full powers vested in the 13A?ƒÆ’-¡  If land powers are given to these goons, will there be any future possibility for Sinhalese to buy land and establish homes and ƒÆ’-¡ businesses in those provinces, a privilege otherwise freely granted and enjoyedƒÆ’-¡  by ƒÆ’-¡ Tamils ƒÆ’-¡ residing and ƒÆ’-¡ operating in all other Provinces in Sri Lanka. At present Sinhalese are an inferior group of citizens in Sri Lanka whereas minority Tamils are in a superior class,ƒÆ’-¡  at a much higher elevated rank than their counter partsƒÆ’-¡  in Tamil Nadu or other Provinces in India.

ƒÆ’-¡ Messrs Vasudewa Nanayakkara, DEW Gunasekera, Athawuda Seneviratne Group represent anti Sinhalese and their ƒÆ’-¡ voices have been rejected by the voters many times.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  If they leave the government, this group will become an instant politically bankrupt pedestrians with the JVP.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  By contrast with the political will of progressive forces in the SLFPƒÆ’-¡  and the UNP, Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ability to maintain the central controlƒÆ’-¡  within a Unitary State is enhanced with the collective active participation, devotion and commitment by the JHU, MEP andƒÆ’-¡  JNP.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 

Tamil Tigers and Diaspora will continue with their struggle, whether at the CHOGM meeting in Perth, Australia or at Oval Grounds in London in a Cricket Match.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Dr Manmohan Singh may decide to refrain from attending the CHOGM meeting in Sri Lanka to avoid internal political dangers in India for the Congress Party, with the impending elections in 2014.

If you do attend the CHOGM meeting, you will be treated by the Sri Lankans exactly the same traditional manner in which we will welcome all other leaders and visitors.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  We urge you to attend the meeting and also make a ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ visit ƒÆ’-¡ to North and East to form your own opinions as to how we have looked after the Tamils who were denied of their basic human rights by Velupillai Prabhakaran and contemporary Indian Leaders for 30 years.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ABOLSIHMENT OF THE 13TH AMENDMENT ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ARTICLES 154G(2) AND 82 (5) OF THE CONSTITUTION ARE NOT IMPEDIMENTS TO HOLD THE REFERENDUM UNDER ARTICLES 80(2) AND 85 (1) OR ARTICLE 86

June 20th, 2013

Chanaka Bandarage, Lawyer

The procedure that needs to be followed for the amendment/repeal of any provisions of the 13th Amendment is articulated in the following two Articles of the Constitution:

  1. Article ƒÆ’-¡ 154G (2) – this provision requires a Bill to amend or repeal any provisions of the 13th Amendment to be referred by the President ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-to every Provincial Council for the expression of its views thereonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. If ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-every Provincial Council agrees to the amendment or repealƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ such a Bill could be passed with a simple majority. On the other hand, if ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-one or more Councils do not agree to the amendment or repealƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ such a Bill needs to be passed by a 2/3 majority. (Article 154 G(3) is similar to 154G (2), it deals with the Provincial Government List.
  2. Article 82 (5) – a Bill for the amendment of any provision of the Constitution or for the repeal and replacement of the Constitution , shall become law if the number of votes cast in favour thereof amounts to no less than two-third of the whole number of Members (including those not present) and upon a certificate by the Presidient or the Speaker, as the case may be, being endorsed thereon in accordance with the provisions of Articles 80 or 79.

It is clear that the 1st ƒÆ’-¡ part ofƒÆ’-¡  Article ƒÆ’-¡ 154G (2)ƒÆ’-¡  (if ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-every Provincial Council agrees to the amendment or repealƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ such a Bill could be passed with a simple majority of the members of the Parliament), contradicts with Article 82(5), which demands a 2/3 majority of the members of the ƒÆ’-¡ parliament. This is a serious drafting error of the Constitution (there are several such errors). No doubt if referred to the Supreme Court, it will say that the Article 82(5) prevails over Article 154G(2). This is because the Article 82 (5) clearly covers Amendments to the Constitution (Chapter 12).ƒÆ’-¡  Repeal of ƒÆ’-¡ the 13th Amendment, amounts to an amendment of the Constitution.

In our previous media Releases, the 1st time being on 21 April 2013, ƒÆ’-¡ we showed two Referendum Pathways to repeal 13A:

Note Articles 3 andƒÆ’-¡  4 (a) of the Constitution:

(i)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Article 3 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” in the Republic of Sri Lanka sovereignty is in the People and is inalienable.

ƒÆ’-¡ 

(ii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Article 4 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”the Sovereignty of the People shall be exercised and enjoyed by the People at a referendum.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Referendum Pathway 1 (this is better than the 2nd)

1. Articles 80 (2) and 85(1) process

This is a 3 stage process as follows:

(i)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Stage 1 – ƒÆ’-¡  Per Article 80 (2): A Bill to abolish the 13th amendment should be put for the approval of the Cabinet of Ministers (a simple majority in the Cabinet is sufficient). The current JHU Bill, with amendments, is sufficient. The Cabinet of Ministers should issue a Certificate stating that they intend to submit the Bill for approval by the People at a Referendum.

ƒÆ’-¡ 

(ii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Stage ƒÆ’-¡ 2 – ƒÆ’-¡  Per Article 85 (1): The President is required to submit the Bill to the people by Referendum (note,ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”shallƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ which imposes an obligation upon the President)

ƒÆ’-¡ If the People have votedƒÆ’-¡  in favour of abolishing the 13th Amendment, ƒÆ’-¡ then,

(iii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Per Article 80 (2), The President is required to issue a certificateƒÆ’-¡  in the following form: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-This Bill/provision has been duly approved by the People at a Referendum.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ 

We previously stated that the above i), ii) and iii) stage process is sufficient to abolish the 13th amendment, and we standby this.

True, it is possible to argue that pathway 1 does not comply with Article 82(5), due to the following reason:

Article 80 (2) refers to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-any BillƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, whereas Article 82 (5) is specific, and refers to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-A Bill for the amendment of any provision of the Constituion or for their repeal and replacement of the Constitution ..ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬; and ƒÆ’-¡ the Article 82 (5) expressly requires a 2/3 majority vote from the parliament, which has not been complied with on this occasion.

We say this argument has no merit and it does not apply to pathway 1 (ie, ArticleƒÆ’-¡  85(2) will not apply to same). This is due to the following two reasons:

(i)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Although not expressly stated, Article 85 (1) covers amendments to the Constitution. We say this because the words ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-not being a Bill for the repeal or amendment of any provision of the Constitution;ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ found inƒÆ’-¡  Article 85 (2) are not found in Article 85 (1).

ƒÆ’-¡ 

(ii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Article 80 (2) clearly states ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-such provision shall become law upon being approved by the People at a ReferendumƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡  Article 80 (2) also states that the certificate issued by the President ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-shall be final and conclusive and shall not be called in question in any courtƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

Therefore, issue of the certificate by HE the President will lead to the abolishment of the 13th Amendment; that will also abolish all of the 9 provincial councils

ƒÆ’-¡ 

  1. 2.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Pathway 2 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Article 86

Article 86 is clear and unambiguous ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The President may, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ submit to the People by Referendum any matter which in the opinion of the President is of national importance.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Therefore, it seems Article 86 is another pathway available to HE the president to hold a ƒÆ’-¡ Referendum, (without the involvement of the Cabinet).

Although it is not set out in the Constitution, JR Jayewardene after he won the 1982 referendum to postpone the General Election, held under the Article 86, ƒÆ’-¡ referred the matter to the Supreme Court for sanction, and he obtained same. Thereafter, he passed a Bill in the Parliament with 2/3 majority.ƒÆ’-¡  If ƒÆ’-¡ JRJ method is ƒÆ’-¡ followed, His Excellency ƒÆ’-¡ the President may be able to ƒÆ’-¡ refer the matter to the Supreme Court for approval and pass an ƒÆ’-¡ Act in the Parliament with 2/3 majority. Given that the people have voted in favour of theƒÆ’-¡  referendum, the members of the parliament will have to provide the 2/3 majority to pass the legislation.ƒÆ’-¡  Otherwise, those who fail to vote in favour of the Bill should be regarded ƒÆ’-¡ as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”traitorsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ by the people.

 


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