Response to Dr Dayan JayatillekaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s articles (2) about the 13th Amendment

June 3rd, 2013

Chanaka Bandarage, Sri Lanka Support Group

1.Reference to Dr Dayan JayathillakeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s article on ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Provincial Devolution Through 13th Amendment is a Political Solution Grudgingly Acceptable to both Sinhala and Tamil CommunitiesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ that appeared in ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”dbsjeyaraj.comƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ on 24 May 2013;ƒÆ’-¡  Dr Jayathillake makes a desperate attempt to justify the preservation of the 13th amendment.ƒÆ’-¡  Therein, he makes a number of arguments.

One argument by Dr Jayathillake is that we should keep the 13th amendment because IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s External Affairs Ministry had indicated to Sri Lanka that if we abolish 13, the Government of Sri Lanka would be ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-at its own riskƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and would force the New Delhi Government to react with ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-firm measures.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ They have also cautioned that Sri Lanka would be isolating itself in the international community.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Mr Jayathillake seems to agree with IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s position.

India has to be more specific as to what these ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”firm measuresƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ would be.ƒÆ’-¡  Whether or not Sri Lanka would be isolated from the international community, it is an internal matter for Sri Lanka, unless India says it as a threat. By twice voting against Sri Lanka in Geneva, India has already tried to internationally isolate Sri Lanka.

It is the role of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s External Affairs Ministry to articulate to India the dangers of the 13th amendment, and how it can lead to formation of the Tamil Eelam (see our Media Releases/Petition to His Excellency the President); in any case the issue whether the 13th amendmentƒÆ’-¡  should be abolished or not is an entirely internal matter that should be decided by the people ofƒÆ’-¡  Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka did not put India under undue pressure when its citizens mostly Sri Lankan senior citizens including elderly women on pilgrimage and the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s venerated Buddhist monks were publicly humiliated and severely assaulted on the streets of Thamilnadu, for the sole reason of being Sri Lankan. The countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s top sportsmen and women are still denied entry into Thamilnadu (India as a Great Country should be ashamed of having such a discriminatory policy on Sri Lanka). India may argue it is a condition in the Indo-Lanka Agreement of 1987 that Sri Lanka creates 9 provincial governments ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” this does not ƒÆ’-¡ mean Sri Lanka should stick with them forever. International treaties between countries are not necessarily permanent. Countries can vary/revoke them by agreement or of their own. ƒÆ’-¡ India will agree under the Accord, it did not fulfill its side of the bargain; the IPKF failed to disarm the LTTE (IPKF committed many atrocities on Tamil civilians also); LTTE was defeated by the Sri Lankan forces, more than 20 years after the IPKF left the country. These are valid reasons for Sri Lanka to get out of the Agreement if it is still valid (doubtful). I hope Dr Jayatilleka would agree India has not shown proper leadership in relation to Sri Lanka. Her foreign policy on Sri Lanka had been largely dictated by anti-Sri Lanka events in Thamilnadu (an ex-Indian Foreign Affairs chief, Mr Kanwal Sibal, criticised India for this). India is the only Asian country with South Korea that voted against Sri Lanka in Geneva in 2013 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” even the pro-western Japan abstained from voting (India ƒÆ’-¡ did the same in 2012); in 2013 India first advocated a softer Resolution being implemented against Sri Lanka, within weeks her position dramatically changed (due to Thamilnadu factor), India wanted stringent Resolutions made against Sri Lanka (US objected to this). In a situation like this, it is prudent for Sri Lanka to adopt its own measures of safeguarding its sovereignty and territorial integrity, the number 1 priority for any country.

Dr Jayatilleka tries to compare Sri Lanka with former Yugoslavia. Like India (prior to British colonisation, India was not One Country ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Thamilnadu itself was an independent entity), prior to World War 2, the former Yugoslavian states were independent entities (eg. Yugoslavia, Croatia, Bosnia etc). But, Sri Lanka has always been One Country. There has never been an Eelam in Sri Lanka. Pandya, Chola, Elara were South Indian invaders who were chased away by brave Sinhalese armies. Where an independent nation is consisted of a number of former sovereign states, it is possible for that nation to disintegrate at some point of time (like the former USSR); this theory will not apply to Sri Lanka.

Dr Jayathiallke talks about R2P (ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Responsibility to Protect). He is wrong to say this doctrine existed in 1987. R2P is a recent development of customoary international law; ƒÆ’-¡ the main proponent being Gareth Evans, former Australian Foreign Minister. He emphasised that the world should have intervened in Rwanda to save hundreds and thousands of people (R2P has only been somewhat successfully applied in Libya, to overthrow Gadhafi. The 2nd invasion of Iraq was not UN sanctioned).ƒÆ’-¡  In Sri Lanka the Tamils do not face a Rwanda/Libya situation. The UN has failed to apply R2P to Syria (Russia has repeatedly blocked the move in the Security Council).

2. Dr Jayathiallke states the following in his interview with ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Sunday LakbimaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ (2 June 2013):

ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯?

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ . ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.
ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬.
ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ , 2001 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ . ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

Dr Jayatilleka, the Great Proponent of the 13th Amendment, ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ himself admits that there is a danger in holdingƒÆ’-¡  the Northern Provincial Council election! HisƒÆ’-¡  argument is twofold: (i) there is a higher danger to the country if the provincial council election is not held, (ii)ƒÆ’-¡  to safeguard democracy the election must be held. In our Media Releases and Petition to His Excellency the President, we have shown that holding of the election is more dangerous than not holding of it. Let us briefly analyse this again:

Advantages of holding of the September election

  1. ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  I.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Prima facie, it is a good act. People in the South who are non-racist have articulated they do not mind having a Northern Provincial Council (of course governed by Tamils), provided that it will not discriminate against them, and it will operate in consistent with the Constitution. Like the other 8 provincial councils, the Southerners want the Northern Provincial Council not to do anything that is detrimental to the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s sovereignty and territorial integrity.
  2. ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  II.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  It is good for ethnic harmony.
  3. The Government may get credit from the international community for holding the election as promised.
  4. CHOGM can be successfully conducted in Sri Lanka without a major distraction.

Disadvantage of holding of the election in September

  1. ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  I.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  TNA being the former LTTE proxy in the Parliament will win the election. They have not given up the demand for a separate state. In Geneva in February 2013 they lobbied for the TamilsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ right for self-determination (ie, a separate state). Last April in London, they lobbied against CHOGM being held in Sri Lanka. It was only 2 days ago (2 June 2013) where the TNA General Secretary, Mavai Senathirajah MP stated in Jaffna (presumably in Tamil) that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-the TNA does not believe in a power sharing arrangement under a unitary state.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (3 June 2013: Daily Mirror). There are other TNA MPs who have made similar remarks. In such an environment how can the Nation agree to give the administration of the Northern Provincial Council to a group that is actively advocating secession?
  2. ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  II.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  The chances of another Eelam war being erupted in the North are much higher if the administration in the North is in the hands of the TNA or a similar separatist group.ƒÆ’-¡  Especially if the TNA led provincial government holds Police powers (Varthrajah Permual used it as the provincial ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ArmyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢), the consequences could be devastating. Inevitably, there will be clashes between the weapons bearing TNA Police and the Sri Lanka Army. No decent Sri Lankan wants to go back to war.
  3. A TNA led provincial government with Land Power, will never allow the displaced Sinhalese (abut 25,000) to return to the North. According to an eye witness, the TNA MP Mr Suresh Premachandran had recently threatened the Sinhalese who are resettled in Navatkuli Village near Jaffna that they must return to ƒÆ’-¡ the South. These Sinhalese families who speak fluent Tamil have lived in the North for several generations. They now live in utmost fear not knowing what will happen to them after the Northern Provincial Council election. There are similar Sinhalese colonies in the North ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Mamaduwa, Welioya, Janakapura, Sinahapura to name a few. ƒÆ’-¡ Like what the LTE did to them, would the TNA with Land Power, force them out of North after the election? Would India or the US speak on behalf of them? Any reasonable person would provide the answers ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”YesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”NoƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ to them respectively.

Once formed, the TNA Northern Provincial Government will cunningly team up with the west and India (they will hoodwink them also) and will achieve their ultimate objective – the Tamil Eelam. It is foolish to think just because the Government conducted the Northern election or did other good deeds for Northern/Eastern Tamils (the Government has done many good deeds), the west and India will take the side of the Government or praise the Government.ƒÆ’-¡  Like in the past, the good deeds will soon be forgotten (the country has not been given due credit for the prompt resettlement of the IDPS (300,000), release of 10,000 LTTE cadres back into society, allowing/facilitating more than 200,000 Northern Tamils to migrate to the South in the past decade and the massive development work undertaken in the North and East). Like how the US will always protect Israel, the west and India will always take the side of the Tamils. In their eyes (mainly due to Tamil Diaspora lies and for India ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” pressureƒÆ’-¡  from Thamilnadu), it will be protection of the underdog for them ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”the most discriminated people on earthƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. ƒÆ’-¡ Dr Jayatilleka had been a vehement critique of the LTTE in the past, his current stand of vigorously promoting the Northern Provincial Council Election, which will lead to the end of One Lanka, is unfortunate.

So far no country or international body has threatened Sri Lanka with invasion or sanctions if the Northern provincial council election is not held. No doubt, a strong reaction will come from India and the west, the full extent of it is unknown. ƒÆ’-¡ Our External Affairs Ministry has a major task ahead of it – it should be in a position to explain our adversaries why we had to take steps to abolish the 13th amendment and our diplomats must be capable of calming down the tension that will arise ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” otherwise they are not good diplomats (Senathirajah and PremachandranƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s above statements alone are sufficient to convince the entire world what sort of people the TNA are, and we shouldƒÆ’-¡  educate the world thatƒÆ’-¡  handing the Northern Province to such a group of separatists is akin to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”leaving the blood bank in charge of DraculaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢). We can learn from the US, UK, Australia, Israel in this regard (how cleverly they manipulate situations in unison to their advantage). We have strong international friends too, letƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s use them to our maximum advantage. The writer does not believe India will ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”invadeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ Sri Lanka over this issue. The west will not be able to send UN forces (like in East Timor) because China and/or Russia will block the proposal in the UN Security Council (hopefully, we have by now obtained these assurances from them).ƒÆ’-¡  If the 13th amendment is abolished by way of a Referendum, Sri Lanka, from a strong position, will be able to argue that both India and the west (like rest of the international world) have to respect the franchise exercised by the Sri Lankan people. I do not know why Dr Jayatilleka states we should knowingly promote something we know of that is ƒÆ’-¡ dangerous (nobody behaves like that in real life).ƒÆ’-¡  Why cannot he see that the Referendum provides us somewhat a safe passage (the 3rd path)? Would Dr Jayatilleka send his child to school if he knows that something dangerous will happen to the school that day?ƒÆ’-¡  No. Then, why does he knowingly advocate such a dangerous proposition to the Nation?ƒÆ’-¡  The standard of care expected from Dr Jayatilleka (a former senior diplomat) is higher than that of an ordinary political commentator.ƒÆ’-¡ 

Dr JayatillekaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s second argument thatƒÆ’-¡  the Northern Provincial Council must be held for the sake of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”democracyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ is not an argument even worth of debating ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s sovereignty which is at stake is more important than anything else. Holding of the Referendum is also a part of the democratic process.

Dr JayatillekaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s comparison of the 2001 general election that brought Mr Ranil Wickarmasinghe into power with the proposed 2013 Northern Provincial Council election (that is going to bring TNA into power) is not a good example; basically he mixes apples with oranges.

ƒÆ’-¡ 

The writer is an Australian Lawyer

Sri Lanka’s Ambassador Dr.Nonis In Outstanding Response To Critics On BBC’s “Impact On Asia.”

June 3rd, 2013

Insight By Sunil Kumar

JuneƒÆ’-¡ 4th 2013

Sri Lanka’s Ambassador ƒÆ’-¡ to the UKƒÆ’-¡ Dr. Nonis in a recent interview on BBC’s Impact on Asia hosted by Mishal HusainƒÆ’-¡  has given an assertive and outstanding response to three panellistsƒÆ’-¡  on the program which in all probabilities is a rapier thrust to the hearts ofƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka’s adversaries over the issue of falsely presented Human Rights Violations albeitƒÆ’-¡ seriously flawed and distorted simply to attempt justification.ƒÆ’-¡ 
In the ongoing barrage of accusations againstƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka re- human rights violations during the successful decades long Government campaign against the Tamil Tiger terrorists one distinct feature seems to stand out which all point toƒÆ’-¡ a pro Tamil sympathyƒÆ’-¡ based on the insistence of LTTE Rump supportive Tamil Diaspora who have gained acces to certain important areas of overseas administrative facilities and are infiltrating many similar enclaves around the world like a growing pestillenceƒÆ’-¡  simply to aggraveate the present Administration.ƒÆ’-¡ 
The panel comprisingƒÆ’-¡ Canada’s Commonwealth Rep. Hugh Segal,ƒÆ’-¡ free lanceƒÆ’-¡ writer Rosemary Harrison who has complied a documentary ~Still Counting The Dead”ƒÆ’-¡  laced in obvious bias based onƒÆ’-¡ hearsay andƒÆ’-¡  perhapsƒÆ’-¡ where one needs no rocket science to ascertain where she ‘s coming from and where her sympathies lie.Could this also be a consort of Adele Balasingham one wonders?
ƒÆ’-¡ The third panellist wasƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka’s own Sunday Leader editor Lal WickrematungaƒÆ’-¡ whose contribution to the clarion calls disfavouring Sri LankaƒÆ’-¡ during the best of times seemed apathetic and of a somewhatƒÆ’-¡ homage payingƒÆ’-¡ nature given his status as well as nationality and a total affront to the good work being done presently by the Rajapaksa Administration whilst also casting a slur on his sense of patriotism and damning his loyalty to the Sinhala Nation regardless of what differences the paper he represents might have with the present Administration.
While both Segal and Harrison bemoaned so called “attrocities perpetrated on Tamils”ƒÆ’-¡  by the GOSL with hardly a murmur about the other ethnicities who suffered and what seemed to be a pseudo-prophetic observation in their own mindset that no reconciliation was taking place as though they had observed this first hand, it was alsoƒÆ’-¡ somewhatƒÆ’-¡ disconcerting ƒÆ’-¡ to hear the response of the Sunday Leader Editor who blatantly commented that there was no evidence on the ground repeatedly to indicate thisƒÆ’-¡ and perhaps indicative of the same attitude that has given an air of contentiousness in the eyes of many astute observers relative to the Newspaper he edits short of being blatantly bourgeoisie and arrogant.
While the intent of the panel seemed hell bent on damaging Sri Lanka’s reputation ahead of the forthcoming CHOGM in November where Canada has taken a defiant stand unilaterally to boycott the proceedingsƒÆ’-¡ based onƒÆ’-¡ its venue, their objectives were met in response with a dazzling display of eloquence, statistics and assertive explaining of the realities which surround the reconciliation processƒÆ’-¡ in Sri lanka today by High Commisioner Dr. Nonis and perhaps ended on a sour not for the panellists although none of them were available for comment after the show!ƒÆ’-¡ 
Dr Nonis also explained briefly ƒÆ’-¡ the circumstances surrounding the internecine disturbances involving some radical Sinhalese and Muslims cited by the panelƒÆ’-¡ and that the issue is being resolved favourably by the Government where hopefully calm will return to the problem areas although history has proved that resolving ethnic issues in Sri Lanka were never easy.
The moderator of the interviewƒÆ’-¡ one of the BBC’s mosr accomplishedƒÆ’-¡ Newscaster / JournalistsƒÆ’-¡ Mishal Husain was unbiased in her questioning and at times seemed somewhat perplexed over some of the arguments presented by the panellists and seemed to silence some of them through her dialogue as they appeared to carry no water towards the issue of rights violations in a tangible perspectiveƒÆ’-¡ where for example when the Canadian cited South Africa as being by-passed onceƒÆ’-¡ for a similar event based on the situation the country was in during the pre- Mandela era she had no hesitation toƒÆ’-¡ ask if he was implying that Sri Lanka fell into the same category where his answer was evasive and negativeƒÆ’-¡ conveying an incapacity to justify what he and the rest of the panel were aiming at.
The High Commissioner’s responseƒÆ’-¡ veritably summed up in deference to what the panel was implying that he, through first hand vision from many visits to the regionƒÆ’-¡ could vouch for the progress the Government was making towards re-settling hundreds of thousands of displaced TamilƒÆ’-¡ people in the North, rehabilitating former terroristsƒÆ’-¡ and providing the freedom and equal opportunities for Tamils in that regionƒÆ’-¡  where it is indeed a reality that The Tamil community in that region was greatly appreciative of what the Government had done and is continuing to do.
This perhaps also bearsƒÆ’-¡ testimony to the reality that it was the murderous terrorist leader PrabhakaranƒÆ’-¡ who caused much distress, aggravation and loss of life regardless of what ethnicity it affectedƒÆ’-¡ and that it was the Government and its Armed Forces that came to their rescue contrary to what some of the innuendo, lies and cooked up evidence for very obvious reasonsƒÆ’-¡ are attempting to portray!

Saudi Arabia funding fuels jihadist terror Big chunks of the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s huge oil earnings have been spent on spreading a violent and intolerant variety of Islam

June 3rd, 2013

By Jonathan Manthorpe, Vancouver Sun columnist May 28, 2013 Courtesy Vancouver Sun

ƒÆ’-¡ Where Wahhabi teachings venture, violence soon follows. This anonymous group in the Caucasus area of southern Russia vowed on YouTube to fight back against armed Wahhabi-inspired Caucasus militants. The Black Hawks emerged in mountainous Kabardino-Balkariawith a dramatic promise to destroy ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-bearded IslamistsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ on an eye-for-an-eye principle. AFP/Getty Images files

The ultimate responsibility for recent atrocities like the Boston Marathon bombing and the butchering last week of an off-duty British soldier is very clear. It belongs to Saudi Arabia.

Over more than two decades, Saudi Arabia has lavished around $100 billion or more on the worldwide promotion of the violent, intolerant and crudely puritanical Wahhabist sect of Islam that the ruling royal family espouses. The links of the Boston bombers and the London butchers to organizations following the Saudi royal familyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s religious line are clear.

One of the two London butchers, Nigerian-born Michael Adebolajo, was radicalized by the cleric Abu Hamza al-Masri, who headed the outlawed terrorist group Al-Muhajiroun. The group follows Wahhabist teachings and advocates unifying all Muslims, forcibly if necessary, under a single fundamentalist theocratic government.

Similarly, the Boston bombers, Tamerlan and Dzokhar Tsarnaev, hailed from RussiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s southern predominantly Muslim province of Chechnya. Starting in the late 1980s, Saudi Arabia began dispatching Wahhabist clerics and radical preachers to Chechnya.

The spread of Wahhabism sparked not only a separatist war against the Russians, but also a good deal of violence among Muslims. Wahhabism is now institutionalized in Chechnya and is particularly attractive to young men.

There are similar strands leading back to Wahhabist indoctrination in the histories of very many of the known Muslim terrorists of the last 20 years. The founder of the sect, Muhammad ibn abd al-Wahhab, was an eighteenth century Muslim zealot allied to the Al-Saud clan who promoted an extreme version of Salafism.

Salaf is the Arab word meaning pious ancestor and refers to those who attempt to emulate the pure Islamic life of the Prophet Muhammad and his generation of followers.

But Wahhab and his modern disciples take this notion to extremes. The list of people whom Wahhabists should consider their enemies includes not only Christians, Jews, Hindus and atheists, but also Shiite, Sufi and Sunni Muslims.

And yet no western politicians seem prepared to accept the obvious.

The chances of disaffected young men being drawn into the evil web of Wahhabist murderous extremism would be significantly decreased if the Saudi funding was blocked.

The Saudis began exporting Wahhabism in the early 1970s when the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s oil wealth began growing at an ever-increasing rate.

The amount the Saudi royal family, both by government donations and the generosity of individual princes, now lavishes on Wahhabist schools, colleges, mosques, Islamic centres and the missionary work of fundamentalist imams around the world is extraordinary.

In 2003, a United States Senate committee on terrorism heard testimony that in the previous 20 years Saudi Arabia had spent $87 billion on promoting Wahhabism worldwide. This included financing 210 Islamic centres, 1,500 mosques, 202 colleges and 2,000 madrassas (religious schools).

Various estimates put the amount the Saudi government spends on these missionary institutions as up to $3 billion a year. This money smothers the voices of moderate Muslims and the poison flows into every Muslim community worldwide.

Key figures in the September 2001 attacks on the United States were radicalized at mosques in Germany. Britain is now reckoned by some to be the worst breeding ground anywhere for violent Muslim fundamentalists

Indian newspapers recently reported Saudi Arabia has a massive $35 billion program to build mosques and religious schools across South Asia, where there are major Muslim communities in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and the divided territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

Indian police and Central Intelligence officers were quoted as saying their information came from American intelligence agencies. There are unconfirmed reports that Saudi Arabia and members of the royal family have donated millions of dollars to fund mosques and Islamic centres in Toronto, Ottawa, Calgary and Quebec.

The money, and the emphasis on Wahhabist teaching that comes with it, has caused sharp divisions among Canadian Muslims. Over the years, there have been repeated complaints to Saudi Arabia about its funding of radical indoctrination. But while there has been some toning down of the most inflammatory language in the Wahhabist texts the SaudiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s disperse, the overall message of the propaganda program has changed little.

Where the Saudi government has retreated under pressure from Washington is in the direct funding of terrorist organizations. It is widely believed by western intelligence agencies that in the 1980s and 90s, the Saudi government had a deal with Wahhabist terrorist groups like al-Qaida that their fundraising would not be hindered so long as they only operated in foreign countries.

However, after the terrorist attack on a residential compound for foreigners in Riyadh in May, 2003, the Saudi government began a crackdown on terrorism. But even though the Saudi government ended official support for groups like al-Qaida, the Taliban and the Pakistani militant group Lashkar-e-Taiba, private donations from Saudi Arabia still find their way to these and similar groups.

But when all is said and done, curbing direct payments to terrorist groups is a small matter when so many billions of dollars continue to be directed at creating terrorists.

Power of the people chased out Eastern Province Governor Mohan Wijewickrama

June 3rd, 2013

A tense situation prevailed at the Lahugala Viharamahadevi Primary School in Ampara yesterday when Eastern Province Governor Mohan Wijewickrama visited the school to look into shortcomings there.

The Governor was warmly welcome by the parents and students but when he announced that the students must go to the Lahugala Old Govipala School for grade two from next year, the parents ran amok and objected to it.

The Governor and Lahugala Pradeshiya Sabha opposition leader Raween Niroshan who was also present were rescued to safety by the police amidst protests by parents

Watch

http://www.dailymirror.lk/news/30258-tense-situation-at-lahugala-primary-school.html

Global Tamil Forum says death of Dr. JJ a great loss

June 3rd, 2013

Courtesy The Island

June 2, 2013, 10:12 pm

article_image

The UK based Global Tamil Forum (GTF) has said that sudden passing away of UNP MP Dr. Jayalath Jayawardana is a great loss to Tamil speaking people, whose plight received the attention of the Gampaha District politician. The GTF said that Jayawardana was a genuine Christian politician who served people of all faith unreservedly.

ƒÆ’-¡ The following is the full text of a statement issued by Rev. Father S. J. Emmanuel, GTF leader based in Germany: “With the passing away of Dr. Jaylath, so early in life, Sri Lanka loses a genuine courageous politician who combined his humanitarian and religious values in serving the people ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” especially those affected by discriminations and violence. As a Tamil catholic priest, who had known him for many years for his interest and services to people of Wanni as well as for his keen interest in restoring the human rights of all, I bear witness to his good Christian life and service. Even recently, in the company of Bishop R. Joseph of Mannar, he was visiting victims of war in the prisons.

ƒÆ’-¡ Here was a man who besides suffering false accusations, threats and even man-handling from his own politicians, went out of his way to travel to war-torn areas to serve the people. He was so altruistic that he was more interested in serving others than his own self or family. He did not possess great wealth to get the necessary medical services in the western world. In his agonising hours of suffering false accusations, he had called on me to get the help of human rights organisations in Geneva.

ƒÆ’-¡ He had a deep devotion to Our Lady of Madhu and contributed much in improving conditions at Madhu. His religious practice as a catholic layman extended beyond pilgrimages and feasts. He crossed religious and ethnic boundaries to bend down to give solace and comfort, aid and medicine to the needy.

ƒÆ’-¡ Tamils in Sri Lanka, especially in Wanni, as well as those in Diaspora, do appreciate the human and religious qualities of this rare politician. At a time when we need more politicians from the South, from among the majority Sinhala community, to stand up for genuine democratic and humanitarian values, which can build up a multi-ethnic, multi-religious and peaceful country, his passing away is a big loss for the future of Sri Lanka.

ƒÆ’-¡ I express my prayerful condolence to the members of his family, to the members of the United National Party and pray God to reward him with Eternal Life.”

Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Traitors and Destabilizing initiatives distancing President from populace

June 2nd, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

With 43 yearsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ experience in politics, President Rajapakse does not need to be told what politics is all about ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” heƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s been there, seen it and gone through all the ups and downs. It is probably using that cunning that he envelops under his purview all the men and women who in our eyes are unworthy of public office. While this may be a good way to keep a watchful eye it is a dangerous scenario in so far as the safety of state secrets and the manner that they can legally influence and implement policy. It is this that keeps most of us on our toes and watchful of the likely deceits that can take place to undermine the victory over terrorism for which the armed forces sacrificed their lives. We do not want to see a handful of traitors undo and damage a country where terrorism no longer exists.

When a country such as Sri Lanka has an enviable historical record that goes back thousands of years, it is a civilization held together by an ethnic group who continue to remain the majority and whose religion also continues to maintain that majority, the cultural ethos that existed should not be undermined. JapanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s political leaders would not undermine its cultural ethos or indigenous identity; neither would even countries as modern as Australia. The cultural identity of the country that existed for millennia is not for experiment. The crux of the present dissatisfaction amongst that majority comes from the feeling that certain quarters within the Government are undertaking subtle and overt initiatives to not only distance the President from the majority contributing to his unpopularity but also to legislatively bring changes to dilute the cultural ethos and identity and confine the majority to that of a ceremonial status and make the country vulnerable to foreign intervention.

This works perfectly for the foreign destabilizers who have been dumbfounded as to why its regime change templates are not working out in Sri Lanka. Getting its own people to dig Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s grave seems to be working out quite fine.

There are plenty of reasons to question the maneuveringƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s to sideline the majority. Top on the list comes the English media. A good example is how the English media underplayed and blocked the visit of the Thai Prime Minister to Sri Lanka. Was it because she represented a Buddhist nation that her visit did not get a SINGLE front page headline or even a write up on the reason for her visit in either the Daily Mirror or the Island Newspaper and even in the Sunday newspapers ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” whereas enough of space was available for rape and murder and even on the funeral of an opposition MP who was well known for his links with the LTTE and efforts to divide the nation as well as Western officials get front page headlines even before their arrival? Content analysis of the main dailies in Sri Lanka will reveal the exact nature of the bias and the unbalanced coverage given purposely to tilt opinion against the majority calling for editor evaluation and a national media commission.

Credibility is always a factor. The integrity of people is measured by the manner in which they work towards safeguarding the Sri Lankan nation. Any and all who functions to the contrary will naturally be questioned.

Therefore when the people question the present external affairs minister not many should be surprised – ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Power sharingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-devolutionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-union of regionsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ are just a handful of terminology he has used to make him a member of the NGO darling circle and cheered by Western politicians for the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-gentlemanlyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ initiatives taken to bring peace to Sri Lanka and ƒÆ’-¡ comparable to another similar persona who claimed ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-victoryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in Geneva when realistically that victory came after this Sri Lankan representative secretly inserted a clause stating Sri Lanka would implement the 13th amendment ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” why else wouldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t the quorum at Geneva not vote, in their eyes Sri Lanka had consented which calls for a public apology from this officer to the nation.

A series of other proposals have also paved the way for Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s territorial integrity and sovereignty to be questioned. These hiccups have arisen directly as a result of the authorship of the present external affairs minister.

His infamous GL-Neelan Package of constitutional reforms released in August 1995 were hailed as a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-progressive breakthroughƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” but it advocated devolution of power and it contained provisions for separate land, police and even external aid and taxes which were used as a basis for the LTTEƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Interim Self-Governing Authority (ISGA). Jayantha Dhanapala was a key player on behalf of President Chandrika at this time while the peace doves represented by Jehan Perera said “With its proposals for an Interim Self Governing Authority, the LTTE has given concrete form to its expectations in a manner that is essentially compatible with peaceful coexistence in a united Sri Lanka.” Are these people surprised when we question their credibility?

GLPƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s 1995 package includes provisions for a separate police force in the Northeast region Para 3.1 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-There will be a regional police service headed by a Regional Police Commissioner appointed by the Chief Minister, in consultation with the Governor of the Region. The Regional Police Commissioner will be responsible to, and function under the control of, the Relevant Chief Minister. The Regional police service will investigate all offenses against persons and property.”

GLPƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s 1995 Devolution package also contains Land devolution – Para 4.1 Land will be a devolved subject and State land within a region will be vested in the Regional Councils. Para 4.2 Priority in future land settlement schemes will be given to persons first of the district and then of the Region.

GLP;s 1995 also included imposition of taxes and levies by a regional council Para 2.2 stipulates that “Regional Councils will have the powers of taxation in certain specified areas, and the Constitution will require other revenue-sharing arrangements” While Para 2.3 states that “Regional Councils will have the power to borrow as well as to set up their own financial institutions. International borrowing above a prescribed limit will require the concurrence of the center.” Para 2.4, “Regional Councils may regulate and promote foreign direct investment, international grants, and development assistance, subject to such conditions as may be specified by the center.”

It is blatantly clear that the ISGA (Interim-Self-Governing Authority) proposals by the LTTE were prepared on the lines of the proposals made by GL Pieris for the regional councils devolution.

His next target was Buddhism by carefully introducing something called the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Equal Opportunities ActƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in 1999 which thanks to Ratnasiri Wickramanayake never materialized. The heading of Bills drafted and the contents therein demands close scrutiny ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” clauses are treacherous!

Sri Lankans have every right to question GLP because following his stint with Chandrika he forsaked her to join the Ranil W Government and came up with another agreement that equally betrayed the nation in the form of the 2002 Cease Fire Agreement which more or less officially gave a defacto State to the LTTE and humiliated the armed forces beyond description. This same devolution architect next went on to join the present Government and it is only a matter of time having made a popular President unpopular he is likely to do to President Rajapakse what he did to Chandrika and Ranil. His past record has shown that he has always abandoned ship for better opportunity and a serial pathological trait carried forward over decades is nothing that will stop repetition.

Thus, given the past record the President cannot be surprised that the country questions the bonafide of the person tasked to steer the foreign policy of the country given that within a handful of years the country has faced diplomatic blunders and catastrophes leading the taxpayer having to pay millions to foreign PR firms as damage control. There are enough of Professors who are proficient in English and who will not be uttering the same gibberish that has now become a nuisance to all listeners. Not only is he taking down the country, the status of the ministry under his tutelage is declining rapidly too.

But, how many in the Government are aware of how many snakes are within its own ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-homeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and in what ways can they be ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-monitoredƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ before they can do irreparable damage to the country and how much of this damage can the people write off on the premise that the country is minus terrorism is something the Government cannot evade effectively responding to.

The bottomline is that even a single word on an official document can totally change the framework of a country. Therefore, given the quality of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-learnedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ members in Government giving the mantle to the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-learnedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ but treacherous handful is not only detrimental to the country but will eventually add to the woes of a popular leader who will find himself becoming unpopular because of the decisions he is being steered to take unknowingly or knowingly using all sorts of diplomatic and multicultural jargon in vogue ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” all of which will only add to the PresidentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s woes. What has upset the majority populace is the fact of being taken for granted without securing and safeguarding the historical cultural ethos in existence, the basis of which the country came to the level it is and for which lives had been sacrificed to protect the nation.

A more holistic approach to governance is now needed one that does not the cultural identity of a historic civilization or its cultural ethos. Elsewhere round the world the calamities that have arisen are all due to the failures of these experiments.

ƒÆ’-¡ 

 

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The SANGHA AND SINHALA BUDDHIST HEGEMONYƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ A POINT OF VIEW

June 2nd, 2013

UPALI COORAY

The criticism leveled at Sangha, in recent times by those who consider them a stumbling block to national reconciliation is that the Sangha have been instrumental over the years in creating a Sinhala Buddhist hegemonic identity in Sri Lanka over the other minority communities. It is claimed that separatism, hitherto the gravest challenge to Sri Lanka, was caused by this Sinhala Buddhist nationalist identity.ƒÆ’-¡  It is also alleged that the Sangha never looked at Buddhism in its proper perspective where no person is born a vassal or a Brahmin but one becomes either of the two by his deeds (na jatta wasalo hothi, na jattaa hothi Brhmano, Kammana Vasalo hothi, Kammana hothi Brahmano) It is also claimed that Sangha never attempted to encompass the minorities in this country to their mission as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Buddha PuthrasƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ preaching equanimity and, compassion to all human beings. ƒÆ’-¡ On the contrary it is alleged that they were instrumental in inculcating ethnic detestation stemming off from perceptional and mythical exclusivity of Sinhala Buddhist nation.

It is true the Sangha in Sri Lanka as a religious institution has never been devoid of its own segregations to different orthodoxies such as the Jetawana and Mahavihara espousing Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism in ancient times.ƒÆ’-¡  Nikayas or monastic sects are based on the caste system. Land Lordism among the Sangha which is practiced even today, was in existence from ancient times.ƒÆ’-¡  Actvities inappropriate, such as engaging in businesses, Luxurious living, and occult practices were done and are being done by a segment of the Sangha. However the positive influence the Sangha had in the Socio-political improvements and restoration far outweigh the negativity of one segment of the Buddhist clergy.

ƒÆ’-¡ A close look at the history of Sri Lanka will enlighten us that the Sangha irrespective of internal differentiations of its own has come to be identified with the Sinhala majority from the earliest times of our history. This identification is not a mechanical happening or a choice, but a historical compulsion making them to be identified so.

The local chronicles portray devastating invasions by south Indian marauders plundering Sri Lanka. The first such attack came from Sena and Guttika in 177BC. Then onwards, up to the 15 th century till the Europeans took over; the South Indian invasions occurred periodically out of which Kalinga MaghaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s was the most devastating.ƒÆ’-¡  The reign of Magha (1215 -36) was so brutal, The Buddhist religion, its clergy, image houses and chetiyas were completely decimated, many books were torn and burnt. The majestic chetiyas such as Ruwanweli were destroyed and the relics which were the very souls of Buddhist of Sri Lanka were made to disappear. In short the culture of the Sinhalese was trampled and crushed from which it could never recover. The chroniclers of these events were mostly Bikkhus and the notion that they overrated the events will not always hold water because there are archeological corroborations for most of the events.ƒÆ’-¡  The crux of the chronicles such as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-MahavamsaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Chula WansaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ cannot be jettisoned as expected by some who call for national reconciliation and harmony among communities in this country. The mindset of successive generations of the Sangha evolved around these traumatic events. Buddhism is a religion that did not advocate conquests as a means of spreading the Dhamma. Even king Dharmasoka converted himself to Buddhism subsequent only to his enthroning as the emperor of India and sent his son Arahath Mahinda to Sri Lanka carrying the message of the enlightened one. King Asoka was known as Chandasoka(Asoka the vile) prior to his conversion to Buddhism. On the contrary Hindu rulers who conquered Sri Lanka were bent on decimating Buddhism and subjugating its laity and clergy.ƒÆ’-¡  The ruins that exist to date at Polonnaruwa are a manifestation of forced Hindu culture on Sri Lanka. On the contrary there were no Islamic invasions similar to in India that took place in Sri Lanka. The followers of Islam came here mainly for trading purposes.ƒÆ’-¡  Their invasions of the Indian subcontinent did not have a big impact on Sri Lanka compared to Hindu invasions. ƒÆ’-¡ Therefore we do not see any conflicts between the Sinhalese and the Muslim communities till recent times. Muslims were a part of Sri Lankan society not in conflict with the majority Buddhists.

It need not be mentioned that the Europeans who conquered this country since the 15th century believed that they have a divine mandate to propagate their own religions in the lands they conquered and to bring the native ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-heathensƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to subjugation. Therefore the role of the Sangha continued as protectors of Sinhala Buddhist identity from European Missionaries during these times. The brutal devastation of religious and cultural assets including mass annihilation of indigenous people was part of their rule. Speaking in modern parlance itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s a vast catalogue of human rights violations. The irony of this whole saga is that while Jews are being compensated for the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Holocaust ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-not a penny has been paid as compensation to massacres of masses of similar human beings in former colonies.

In the foregoing scenario, the Sangha in Sri Lanka had no other preference than identifying with the Sinhala race and to preserve the Dhamma at immense odds whereas in India, Buddhism gave into Hinduism and Islam after King DharmasokaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s reign. Hypothetically, had Buddhism thrived in India continuously since Buddha; neither a specific Sinhala Buddhist identity nor conquests of Sri Lanka by Hindu rulers may have happened and a question of separatism also might not have arisen because Buddhism would have been one of the key religions of the Tamil peoples in India and Sri Lanka.

Our history shows that external threats have been part and parcel of the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s existence. It is so even to date. the methodology adopted only is different from the ancient times. Devious conversions of Buddhist to other religions and spreading of such religions by covert methods in the name of freedom of religion and freedom of expression continues unhindered in spite of attempts by Sangha in thwarting them. Democracy and human rights are the other catch phrases used thereby devaluing the very meanings of the phrases. Destabilizing this country has always been a hidden agenda of powerful external forces and their internal partners which will be so in the future too. The Sri Lankan separatist lobby now domiciled in the west is the driving force of external pressure. The Sangha senses this more than the laity. No Tamil leadership has so far been able to give the confidence required by the Sangha to allay their suspicions and fears of separatism. Calling the Sangha fundamentalist or Chauvinists would only harden the stand taken by them. Some scholars have attempted to emphasize that the roots of Buddhist fundamentalism is the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Mytho HistoryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in the chronicles. This distorted and erroneous view is suggesting that Buddhist fundamentalism is an illusory perception. While accepting that Chronicles are manifestly awash with myth, one has to realize that the myth is mixed with authenticity that does not fall into so called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬Mytho historyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ The leadership of Sangha cannot be unaware of these facts and are not blind followers of historical myths of the chronicles as suggested by theses scholars.

While it is true that the Buddhist monk should have commitment to ascetic ideals, the monk cannot just overlook the compelling socio-political incursions that overrides his ascetic life. This does not mean that there are no ascetic monks among the Buddhist clergy but it applies to most monks who have committed themselves to respond to vital social and political needs. This trend was strengthened by Angarika Dharmapala who held a strong Sinhala Buddhist ideology. He expected Sangha to be the custodian and guardian of the flock and a social worker and had two objectives, the first being theƒÆ’-¡  improvement of the quality of life of the people and the second being the revival of Sinhala Buddhist ideology and culture as in the ancient times. ƒÆ’-¡ It became necessary for Dharmapala to advocate social service by the Sangha in addition to ascetic life as he foresaw that sweeping social reformation was required for the Buddhist laity to be unshackled from long years of subjugation and associated economic and cultural enslavement to the foreign rulers whose only objective was to exploit the human and material resources of the colonies. ƒÆ’-¡ 

In 1945, The Vidayalankara Pirivena (Monastary) which was one of the main two monasteries (Vidyodaya was the other) issued a publication titled ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The Bikkhu and Politics ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-espousing that Sangha should take up politics with a view to reforming society and establishing its due place for Buddhism and the culture of the Sinhalese which has got battered through centuries of foreign domination. It should be noteworthy that while Sir Nicholas Attygala was strongly supportive of the initiative D.S Senanayake and J.R Jayawardene were vehemently opposing the move.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Ven.Kotahene Pagnakitti and Ven.Yakkaduwe pagnarama were two pioneering Bikkhus for the movement. ƒÆ’-¡ Subsequently, Ven Henpitagedara Gnanasiha and the Buddhist commission took the movement forward through Eksath Bikkhu Permuna(United front of Bhikkus) ƒÆ’-¡ Then U.N.P government headed by Prime Minister D.S Senanyake was reluctant to appoint a Buddhist Commission on the pretext of non conformity with the Soulbury constitution. However it was known that D.S was under pressure from other religious groups supportive of his government. Therefore the Buddhist Commission had to go it alone without state patronage and it did probe in to the system of education and other areas where Buddhists did not have their rightful place. While intellectuals such as Professor Gunapala Malalasekara, P de S Kularatne,L.H Mettananda Dr. Tennekone Wimalananda, D.C Wijewardane consisted of the lay members Ven Ambanwela Siddhartha, Haliela Sumanatissa, Balangoda Ananda Maithriya and Henpitagedara Gnanasiha were the members from the clergy. ƒÆ’-¡ 

The U.N.P government of which then prime minister was Sir John Kotalawala was very casual on the report, The Mahajana Eksath Peramuna led by S.W.R.D Bandaranaike endorsed the recommendations and that led to a resounding victory for them in 1956; a defining moment of the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s history. Bandaranaike who was a senior minister from 1947 to 1952 in the U.N.P government; which was more or less subservient to the colonial masters, was disgruntled for not being appointed as the prime minister after D.S Senanyake. The government of the time was indifferent to the calls by the Sinhala Buddhists of this country to restore their proper place in the country as the majority community. Badaranaika who was a smart strategist saw the opportunity in the Sinhala Buddhist reawakening program headed by the Sangha and rode the wave to become the Prime Minister of the M.E.P Mahajana Eksath Peramuna( PeoplesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ United Front) Factually it was the Buddhist Commission report, the Sangha led by Henpitagedara Gnanasiha who were the architects of this victory. Bandaranaike was very comfortable with pro-colonial policies of the Senanyake government till he missed the opportunity to become the Prime Minister under that government. He was a weak and wavering leader and soon the country was in disarray. It has to be noted that scholars such as Mettananda, Malalasekara and Kularatna never espoused Sinhala only policy but were of the view that all three languages viz. Sinhala, English and Tamil should be taught in all schools. ƒÆ’-¡ ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s a tragedy that SWRD was the victim of a bullet fired by a member of the Sangha; one strong force who brought him to power and later revelations showed the Bikkhu who fired the shot was only a pawn of a group of people very close to Bandaranaike in which a leading monk of the time was also a member. The reason for the killing had nothing to do with Sinhala Buddhist inclination of the government but was solely a private business affair which is a reflection that some of the clergy were in proscribed pursuits.

The failed coup dƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’†’©tat of 1962 against the government of Mrs. Sirimawo Bandaranaike illustrates that non Buddhist elements were at work to bring back the status quo of pro – colonial policy. Prior to 1956 the officer corps the army consisted of three fifths Christian, one fifth Tamil and one fifth Burger. Bandaranaike changed this balance by bringing in more Sinhala Buddhist officers. A non carrier Buddhist Inspector General of Police was appointed by SWRD over three more Christian officers. The British bases at Katunayka and Trincomalee were removed. The resentment among Christians were building who felt that they were systematically being eliminated. A coup by the military was thus planned by the military. 26 top brass who were prosecuted were Christians. P.de S Kularatna who was a member of the Buddhist Commission and a highly respected educationist; by then who was an MP, gave out the information to the government. He received this information from the then IGP Stanly Senanyake, his son ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” in ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”law.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ The defeat of Terrorism, sponsored fed and grown with the support of external forces for geo- political motives, would notƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  have been possible if not for the backing of the Sangha and the Sinhala Buddhist laity. Not only did they give moral support for the war effort, there were monks who canvassed for recruitment of youth for the forces. This is one of the main reasons for the single minded effort by President Mahinda Rajapaksa to succeed in eradication of terrorism from our soil.

What we are seeing today is history of our country repeating itself. To the Sangha, Well being of the nation state and the survival of Buddhism has taken priority over the inspirational teaching of Gautama the Buddha who was a pacifist. One cannot miss the similarities in Kalinga Magha and Prabhakaran. The threat from the Indian subcontinent towards the unitary state of Sri Lanka has reached to its highest level in the recent history a recurring historical fact. The motives of the present day rulers of southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu are quite terrifying and cannot be shunned away as rhetoric. The Sangha in this scenario is playing its historical role and nothing else. Calling them fundamentalists or chauvanists is a misnomer to paint a picture similar to extremist religious movements such as Taleban or Lashker- e-Taiba that enforces inhuman draconian laws. Buddhist fundamentalism; if there is one, seems to be an internal difference of opinions on Buddhism and the mission of the Sangha. Other religions, mainly Christian and Muslim have no such restrictions. To these fundamentalist anyone who does not believe as they do is inferior and needs to be converted to their thinking, by force if necessary. The Christian fundamentalist proclaims that anyone of any religion that does not believe in their ways is condemned to hell. There is also a belief and an effort to turn the United States into a Christian theocracy. They believe that it is their Christian duty to impose their views on others. Radical Muslims in many countries try to force Sharia law on those that donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t believe as they do. It is this difference that the Sangha and the Sinhala Buddhists are wary of. The term fundamentalist if it applies to Buddhism cries out for far less radical terms.

Travels of a journalist [2013 Series #3] Weligama Podda tours his native South in the guise of a global citizen

June 2nd, 2013

By Shelton Gunaratne, author of From Village Boy to Global Citizen, Vol. 1: The Journey of a Journalist; and Vol. 2: The Travels of a Journalist (Bloomington, IN: Xlibris).

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ThereƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s no place like homeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is the last line of the 1822 song ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Home Sweet HomeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ written by John Howard Payne. From music, the phrase passed onto drama and books as well.

The phrase inspired me to create my 2012 book Village Life in the Forties (Bloomington, IN: iUniverse), a collection of autobiographical sketches highlighting my experiences in the village of Pathegama, which I still consider to be my ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-homeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ even though I left Sri Lanka at the age of 26 to live overseas.

Thus, I gave top priority to re-visiting Pathegama during my 2013 island wide excursion. I wanted to re-connect with the entire Southern Province comprising 2.3 million people living in an area of 5,559 square kilometers. We decided to spend one day exploring the coastal area of the Galle District, and another day imposing ourselves on our relatives in the Matara District. Then, we would hurry through the Hambantota District all the way to Tissamaharama to spend the third night.

Our driver, Amal Chandrakumara, picked us up in Negombo Sunday morning for a lecture in Colombo. Early afternoon, we proceeded on our journey along the 128 km Southern Expressway, the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s first freeway, which has slashed travel time between Colombo and Matara to a mere 1.5 hours. I was disappointed that the expressway rest stops were commercial ventures that required money even to use the ground-floor toilet facilities unlike the Minnesota rest areas on Interstate 94, which provide travelers with picnic tables, walking paths, free toilets, etc.

Galleroute

We left the expressway at Exit 7 (the Baddegama Interchange), 103 km from Colombo, because our driver was keen to show us the moonstone mining operation in Meetiyagoda, near Hikkaduwa. Moonshine is a feldspar that has a special shine that resembles the moonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s. The mineƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s sales folk couldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t persuade us to buy any moonstones but they succeeded in selling us a packet of peeled cinnamon for Rs. 200. The mine was only 2.5 km away from the site of the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s worst railway disaster that killed 2,000 people when the Boxing Day tsunami of 2004 overturned a crowded train.

Then, we drove southeast on the coastal road to Galle witnessing the damage the 2004 undersea megathrust earthquake had inflicted on the tourist town of Hikkaduwa renowned for its surfing and snorkeling facilities. We saw the new housing schemes that various philanthropic organizations had built to settle down the survivors of the fisher folk devoured by the 30-meter high waves of the Indian Ocean energized by a powerful undersea earthquake epicentered in the Indonesian waters more than a thousand kilometers away.

Although Galle (pop. ƒÆ’-¡ 112,252) was our destination for the day, we drove an extra 10 km further east on the Imaduwa Road to the village of Happawana, where my older sister Rani ƒÆ’-¡ used to live.ƒÆ’-¡  On my excursions to Sri Lanka in the 1990s, I used her home named ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Somagiri,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ located on a hillock, as my operational headquarters.

Rani and her husband left ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-SomagiriƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to live in a new house they built in Kurunegala, the city that we planned to visit at the end of our island wide tour.

Because both Yoke-Sim and I had stayed in ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-SomagiriƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ a few times, we had nostalgic reasons to re-visit it to see its current condition. But we had difficulty locating the property because, as our inquiries revealed, the neighbor in a land dispute had closed the path to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Somagiri,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ the once majestic hilltop bungalow. Sudu Mahattaya had to hire a tuk-tuk to transport us to the hilltop through a makeshift footpath.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-SomagiriƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ was now in shambles.ƒÆ’-¡  The occupants had turned the colonial style verandah into a storehouse for paddy. Signs of gloom and doom depressed us, but we joined the couple for evening tea. Knowing full well that the couple was financially down and out, we gave them a financial gift before we returned to Galle to check in at Frangipani Motel on Pedlar Street in the fort.

I have already recounted my Happawana exploits in Chapter 18 of the first volume of my autobiography subtitled The Journey of a Journalist (Xlibris, 2012). I recalled the role of Mahadenamutta I played in evening discussions with the cream of the Happawana intellectualsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚Gunapala, the village political analyst; and Siripala (aka Sathya Dayaratne), the novelist. Only Wickremasinghe, the schoolmaster, made it to see me on this short stopover.

Inasmuch as I was a literature buff in my early years, it occurred to me that the Southern Province was the birthplace of three of my favorite writersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚Jinadasa Vijayatunga (1903-1989), the author of Grass for My Feet; Gunadasa Amarasekera (born in 1929), the author of Karumakkarayo; and Martin Wickremasinghe (1890-1976), the author of Gamperaliya. Amarasekera was born in Yatalamatta, just five km north of Urala, where Vijayatunga was born. These two villages lay along the Wanduramba Road northwest of the Pinnaduwa Interchange of the Southern Expressway.

Malalgama, the birthplace of Wickremasinghe, lay close to the coastal highway in Koggala, about 15 km east of Galle. I found immeasurable satisfaction in reading most of his masterpieces. I was proud to imitate the Wickremasinghe style when I submitted assignments to the Sinhala Literature class that D. B. Kuruppu taught at Ananda College. ƒÆ’-¡ My birth village of Pathegama was only 12 km northeast of Malalgama.

We decided to focus on Koggala and Pathegama most of Monday. Although we had been to Galle many times before, we did not know much about the Galle Fort (also called the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Ramparts of GalleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬), which the Portuguese built in 1588 and the Dutch extensively fortified from 1649 onwards. Therefore, we took up AmalƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s suggestion to admire and explore this exceptionally well-maintained World Heritage site, which withstood the force of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami. The posh Amangalla resort hotel, originally built in 1684 to house the Dutch governor and his retinue, is an outstanding part of the fort complex.

Galle, the islandƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s third largest municipality, has developed around the Galle Fort area, which covers 52 hectares (about 130ƒÆ’-¡ acres) of the city area of 1,650 hectares. In 1663, the Dutch added some 14 bastions built of coral and granite to strengthen the fort, which now looked like a small laid out walled city with a rectangular grid pattern of streets full of the Dutch colonial style low houses with gables and verandahs. Our walk on the walls of the fort brought memories of my visits to the walled cities of Chester and York (in England), and Xian (in China). The well laid out road network and the many historical buildings of the fort impressed us. The cultural diversity of the fort residentsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚Sinhalese, Moors, Tamils, Europeans, and othersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚was another feature of the fort.

RampartofgalleA seasscape from the top of a granite wall in the “Ramparts of Galle.” The writer and his spouse are in the foreground. [Photo by Amal Chandrakumara.]

After eating our breakfast at a popular pastry shop in Galle, we drove east on the coastal highway, past the suburb of UnawatunaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚well known for its Jungle Beach, Peace Pagoda, and the Rumassala MountainƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚to Koggala, the site of the Martin Wickremasinghe Museum of Folk Culture complex.
I had already visited this complex in the early 1990s when I was vacationing in Happawana. Because the man in the ticket booth agreed that a native of a neighboring village should not be treated as a foreigner, he charged me only Rs. 20 whereas Yoke-Sim had to pay an admission fee of Rs. 200.

The museum complex has an ecosystem implanted to reflect a multitude of the indigenous trees and shrubs, as well as the bird life it attracts, that Wickremasinghe mentions in his writings. It is a remarkable attempt to recreate the novelistƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s homestead in Malalgama. His ashes lie in the mound on the right flank of the house. The Hall of Life exhibits many of his memorabilia and tells his life story through a plethora of photographs, awards and souvenirs.

Since the museumƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s opening in 1981, it has expanded itself to accommodate many artifacts of Sri Lankan folk culture from ancient to modern times, including those related to rural technology and religious ceremonies. I was privileged to donate a complimentary copy of my book Village Life in the Forties to the museumƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s exhibition of the works of southern writers.

[Courtesy: Sunday Times]

ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”2013 ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

June 2nd, 2013

Media Unit Ministry of Power & Enrgy

ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”2013 ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¥ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (Mr. Alexander Novak) ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  35ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¨ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º: ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ 2014 -2018 ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ 27 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ 30 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¨ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ 30 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” 2014 – 2018 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  (Mr. Alexander Novak) ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · (Mr. Majid Namjoo) ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

 

 

 

Doctors, Nurses and Attendants at Hospital Accident Ward Watch TV Instead of Treating Emergency Patient in Urgent Need

June 1st, 2013

Selyna. D. Peiris LLB (Hull) LLM (London) MAIS (Vienna)

Last night (28.05.2013), a young trainee nurse from Nawalapitiya was tossed out of a moving bus unto the bustling street in Kirulapone and fell right in front of my moving car.

While a Police Officer from the Wellawatte Station was questioning the bus driver, a friend and I rushed her to the General Hospital of Colombo ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the biggest government hospital in this entire country.

Upon reaching the emergency entrance of the hospital, we were ordered by the nurse at the entrance to wheel out a stretcher and to place the patient on this stretcher. It was not a busy night. Having so done, we were then ordered to push her into to the accident ward which, after disturbing many, we actually found. Here we had a patient who was vomiting out blood and as far as the attendants, nurses and doctors were concerned, the soap opera on TV was far more important to attend to at this hour.

I attach a picture as evidence of this. After painfully having managed to get her an x-ray, we had to run around the ward to convince the doctor that this patient was actually worth having a look at.

Accident ward

Finally, after about 2 hours of mayhem, she was admitted to the ward and we were praying that she has no major injuries.

The anger and disgust that I felt at this period of time affected me to the very core of my being. I was appalled at the treatment which ordinary citizens face in times of greatest need and ashamed that I was too ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-privilegedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ never to have experienced this before.

This is the sad reality of this ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Island in ParadiseƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. I am ashamed today to live in a country with such blatant disregard for human life. The compassion and loving kindness so inherent to our culture is now merely folklore.

There are great many young people who are willing to take a stand for reforms in a manner that is the least counter productive for the growth of this country ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” please help us to do so by sharing this message with people who can make a change, however small.

ƒÆ’-¡ Selyna. D. Peiris

ƒÆ’-¡ LLB (Hull) LLM (London) MAIS (Vienna)

 

UNITY & SOVEREIGNTY OF SRILANKA

June 1st, 2013

Kanthar P Balanathan, Melbourne, Australia

General

SriLanka is subjected to (a) negative impactƒÆ’-¡ of foreign forces impeding the achievementƒÆ’-¡ of peace, economic and political stability (b) theƒÆ’-¡ propagandaƒÆ’-¡ fabricated by the Tamil diaspora which lacksƒÆ’-¡ veracity (c) a few unpatriotic politicians in the opposition and otherwise calling for support on secession and/or equal rights, and (d) Tamil Nadu politicians and students uprise against SL.

We, SriLankan are able to view the multidimensional diplomatic and economic forces on SL and the disproportionate level of stress, and how the non-patriotic political parties, and politicians are dancing to the programmed foreign rhythm of music. Few points are discussed here to revoke the 13th amendment, and implement section 157A of the Constitution to strip politicians and people who advocate separatism, from civic rights.

Demography

Demography as defined in the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-business directoryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is the study of both quantitative and qualitative aspects of human population. Quantitative aspects includeƒÆ’-¡ composition, density,ƒÆ’-¡ distribution, growth, movement, size, andƒÆ’-¡ structureƒÆ’-¡ of the population. Qualitative aspects are the sociologicalƒÆ’-¡ factorsƒÆ’-¡ such asƒÆ’-¡ education quality,ƒÆ’-¡ crime,ƒÆ’-¡ development, diet and nutrition, race,ƒÆ’-¡ social class,ƒÆ’-¡ wealth and wellbeing.

Ref: http://www.statistics.gov.lk/PopHouSat/CPH2011/index.php?fileName=pop42&gp=Activities&tpl=3

Department of Census & Statistics, SriLanka-Year 2012

Total population:ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  20,263,723

Sinhalese:ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  15,173,820

SriLanka Tamils:ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  2,270,924

Indian Tamils:ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  842,323

ƒÆ’-¡ 

Persons

Percentage %

Total population:

20,263,723

100.00%

Sinhalese:

15,173,820

74.88%

SriLanka Tamils:

2,270,924

11.21%

Indian Tamils:

842,323

4.16%

ƒÆ’-¡ 

Statistics of SL Tamils in the North ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Statistics of SL Tamils in the East

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

Statistics of SL Tamils outside N&E

ƒÆ’-¡ 

Percentage of SL Tamils inhabiting SriLanka on an ethnic concentration.

From the statistics it is evident that 29.66% of the SriLankan Tamils; i.e. 3.32% of the total population dwell outside N&E, and only 43.49% of the SriLankan Tamils i.e. 4.87% of the total population, populate the North.

On a demographic array of the N&E, i.e. qualitative facets of human populace, for almost 30 years, the N&E was infested with crime, terrorism,ƒÆ’-¡ racial conflicts,ƒÆ’-¡ and social class division among Tamils, which inflicted the minds of the Tamils with terrorism, separatism, and racial xenophobic outlook.

Equal Rights

Tamils are calling and demanding for ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Equal RightsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ & ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Power SharingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. Let us dig into the term ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Equal RightsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

Ref: Wikipedia a few examples for analysis as below:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Equality before the law, also known asƒÆ’-¡ equality under the law,ƒÆ’-¡ equality in the eyes of the law, orƒÆ’-¡ legal equality, is the principle under which all people are subject to the same laws of justiceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Human rightsƒÆ’-¡ are “commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rightsƒÆ’-¡ to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Civil and political rightsƒÆ’-¡ are a class of rightsƒÆ’-¡ that protect individualsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ freedomƒÆ’-¡ from unwarranted infringement by governmentsƒÆ’-¡ and private organizations, and ensure one’s ability to participate in the civil and political life of the stateƒÆ’-¡ without discriminationƒÆ’-¡ or repression.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Women’s rightsƒÆ’-¡ are the rightsƒÆ’-¡ and entitlementsƒÆ’-¡ claimed for women and girls of many societies worldwide.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Social equalityƒÆ’-¡ is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respectsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡ 

Can any politician specifically pin point on the area of equal rights where SL has gone wrong? Does SL have different Law for the Sinhalese, Tamils & Muslims? Tamils can move, purchase land, work settle anywhere in SL. They can participate in the political activities, contest elections and even become the Prime Minister within the Law and the framework of the constitution. DidnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t Sivajilingham contest in the Presidential elections? Was he not the Leader of the, one-time, terrorist, Tamil Elam Liberation Organisation?

In fact the above census analysis shows that 29.66% of the SriLankan Tamils reside outside the N&E. Are they subjected to any form of equal & human rights violation? In fact those people should be millionaires.

However, it is those ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-TamilsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ who do not provide equal rights to their brothers and sisters on the basis of caste, creed and region where they come from. Tamils have their own ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Thesavalamai Law, and Mukkuvars Law. They do not allow practice of Budhdhism in the N&E and settlement of Sinhalese who are citizens of SL.

The ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Rule of LawƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ will not allow GOSL, for politicians, people and journalists to practice those, which pose ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-National SecurityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to SL. If allowed, then it is a serious violation of the Constitution.

Tamils are living in Italy, Norway, Denmark, France, some small European countries & South Americas and can speak the local language. If they can do that what prevents them to be in SL, learn Sinhala, and lead a good life?

It is also of a general thinking that Human Rights Violation prevails in a Communist/Socialist environment, but not in a market driven economy.

Provincial Council

What added value has the PCƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s delivered to the people and the country over the last few years?ƒÆ’-¡ 

We were able to hear and read PCƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s complain only.

  1. PCs have been only complaining on lack of funds.
  2. Proliferation of bribery & corruption?
  3. The PCs want more power, but does not want to improve their provinces.
  4. Personal enrichment of status and wealth.

What our PC politicians want is political power for their own self-esteem and personalƒÆ’-¡ economic well-being, while millions of people struggle to push through their day to day living.

On an intellectual level of rational assessment and judgment, is it justifiable to devolve power to only 4.87% of the population at the expense of the 95.13%, where most foreign exchange earning yields from the South?

Well, it shows a criminal activity when India walked into SriLanka and ordered JRJ; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Hey, this is 13th amendment, pass it on and implementƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. It is of view that Indians never think on a comprehensive profoundness, perspicacity and complexity. Here, it is considered a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-criminal activity, because a nation has ordered to note heavy liability to another nation without proper analysis and judgment.

Devolution of Power

Devolution of power and the need to decentralise power to Provinces or states is not to be construed as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-LUXURYƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. A country with inflow of large foreign capital or revenue may require power to be devolved to regions for effective and efficient financial management. In addition, a large population may require devolution of power on a Human Geographical and Demographical perspective as a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Political CommunityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

An example: SriLanka foreign exchange earnings are accrued is from Tea, Rubber and gems, all of which are resources in the South. The North was a liability to the South and the South is considered an asset. South subsidised the N&E for its survival over the years and is continuing to do so.

Qualitative aspects are the sociologicalƒÆ’-¡ factorsƒÆ’-¡ such asƒÆ’-¡ education quality,ƒÆ’-¡ crime,ƒÆ’-¡ development, diet and nutrition, race,ƒÆ’-¡ social class,ƒÆ’-¡ wealth and wellbeing. Being a Tamil, I can confidently state that most Tamils lack in, Listening skills, conflict resolution and never contended with what they have, but to accrue more and more wealth.

We have a distressing and demoralizing caste system, whereby Tamil Elite thoughts are: A barberƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s son should do barber job. Tamil Diaspora, who is in business, names their shops: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Tamil Spice ShopsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, Thamizhar MandapamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, etc. In time to come they may construct toilets and name them; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Thamizhar KatkusuƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, meaning ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-TamilƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ToiletƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. This is an indication of their racist superiority and mind set, particularly in overseas countries.

The negating viewpoints of Provincial Council are as follows:

  1. The population concentration of 4.87% (987,692 people) against 95.13% in a country does not demand a separate political structure and governance. This will only blow up expenditure driving the country towards paucity.
  2. The natural resources in the North are quite negligible compared to the rest of the country. Economic sustainability in the North can be construed as quite weak. Resource such as water is quite low and can affect agrarian development.
  3. Qualitative aspects such as the sociologicalƒÆ’-¡ factors;ƒÆ’-¡ race,ƒÆ’-¡ social class,ƒÆ’-¡ wealth and wellbeing, magnanimity, openness and readiness to develop the region is deficient in the minds of the Tamils in the North. Tamils want easy job, such as trading (spice shop, Dosai kades), temple management for monetary accrual, and most of students want white collar jobs. Their commitment to entrepreneurship is absent. Tamils have, over the past 65 years, proved that they are unpatriotic to SriLanka.
  4. The recurrent expenditure for the provincial councils was dramatic; increasing from 28,856 million in 2000 to 111.336 billion in 2009. This expenditure over the 9 years has not proved innovation, creative development, enhancement in the intellectual abilities of locals and patriotism, however, only sucked the coffer of the SL treasury. Cost analysis would reveal that the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-opportunity costƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ would have developed the provinces. We, SriLankan are able to see the current command of governance has proven significant level of development in all spheres.
  5. The Tax Department should be able to give details of tax collected from the North. Would the volume of tax collected from the (half of 4.87%-males) North adequate to run the PC? Are all Tamils paying tax in the North? Comparison with the rest of the province should give clear indication of non-payment of tax. Are the Local Government(s) collecting land tax?
  6. 3.32% of the SL Tamils reside outside N&E. University graduates, Para-professionals and others may have an eager to drift out of the N&E to Colombo or the South in time to come. This may have an effect on the supply and demand. The comfort of these drifters (Tamils) from the N&E will be at the expense of the local natives who have lived there for donkey years. The question is; will the hoboes add value to the economy of the province? Eventually the imbalance in the supply and demand may weaken the inflation and impact GDP. GOSL should study the drift pattern of the Tamils from the N&E over the last 30 years.
  7. Could Sampanthar & Co explain to the parliament and the cabinet ministers their strategic vision to create jobs for the graduates, if such a Provincial Council is elected? How do they propose to create jobs for the students coming out of the, trade schools, Technical Colleges and Polytechnics? Do they depend on the center for subsidies? In a democratic environment, political partyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s financial strategy should be transparent. Could Sampanthar & Co vouch GOSL that they can bond graduates and trades peoples for ten yearsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ or more service within the N&E province?
  8. If the system will not change, but continue to have an inflow to the South, then what is the added value of having PCs?
  9. Mr Gajendrakumar Ponnambalam is crying and moaning for Tamil Elam. Will GGP sell and relocate his multi-million Rs. Serendib Land plc business to the N&E to improve the Provincial outlook? (Ref: http://www.cse.lk/cmt/upload_report_file/630_1346326156.pdf). If GGP disagrees then GGP should give clear reasons for not being able to do so?
  10. India nudged the 13th amendment onto SL to satisfy the Tamil Nadu people. India has war fronts in the North, East and West (not eliminated). India has lived on with that fear of Tamil Nadu people rise against separation. This fear forces them to dance to the tunes of the Tamilians in TN. Further LTTE was domiciled in TN and was becoming popular among the TN separatists. A strategic move by Delhi drove LTTE out of TN and forced JRJ to accept the 13th amendment. This was a blunder late JRJ made. Well, late JRJ sold SL to the Indians.
  11. 11.ƒÆ’-¡  India does not understand the socio-politico-economic situation of SL. They have always been dominant on SL affairs right from Nehru to RG and now Sonia Ghandi. India is the worst country that practices Human Rights Violation.
  12. Excerpts from an article written by Neville Ladduwahetty, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-LLRC Recommendations Not Met by 13AƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.
  • ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The Government of Sri Lanka proceeding further into consolidating the Provincial Council system under the 13th Amendment amounts to ignoring key recommendations of the LLRC; a prospect that is bound to bring serious condemnations in future sessions at Geneva possibly followed by measures to punish Sri Lanka for ignoring international dictates. Therefore, the Government of Sri Lanka is duty bound to bring to the attention of the International Community, the US and India that accommodating the key recommendations of the LLRC would entail revisions to existing provisions of the 13th Amendment since no provisions currently exist in it to accommodate the key recommendations in the LLRC Report : discouraging secessionist tendencies, devolution to grass roots levels, and power sharing at the CenterƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.
  1. Provincial Council to the N&E is like feeding lamb(s) to the Hyenas. The threat of separatism cannot be extinguished from the minds of the Jaffna Tamils. It will be a gradual, infinite move by the Tamils, and with the help of the TN, separatism may explode in time to come.

Violation of the SriLanka Constitution

Reference: SL constitution, section 157A:

Article 157A of the 6th Amendment to the Constitution under the Heading ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Prohibition against violation of territorial integrity of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ clearly states the following:

157A. (1) No person shall, directly or indirectly, in or outside Sri Lanka, support, espouse, promote, finance, encourage or advocate the establishment of a separate State within the territory of Sri Lanka.

(2) No political party or other association or organisation shall have as one of its aims or objects the establishment of a separate State within the territory of Sri Lanka.

(3) Any person who acts in contravention of the provisions of paragraph (1) shall, on conviction by the Court of Appeal, after trial on indictment and according to such procedure as may be prescribed by law,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚

The punishment for a Member of Parliament / Political Party or other association or Organization is also clearly given.

(d) if he is a Member of Parliament or a person in such service or holding such office as is referred to in paragraph (1) of Article 165, cease to be such Member or to be in such service or to hold such office

(4) Where any political party or other association or organisation has as one of its aims or objects the establishment of a separate State within the territory of Sri Lanka, any person may make an application to the Supreme Court for a declaration that such political party or other association or organisation has as one of its aims or objects the establishment of a separate State within the territory of Sri Lanka. The Secretary or other officer of such political party or other association or organisation shall be made a respondent to such application.

The preservation of this section of the constitution does make SL citizens understand that all politicians, no matter what race, religion they belong to, shall not violate the constitution.

SriLanka constitution is an instrument to govern SriLanka. No foreign country should interfere with the Rule of Law in SL.

In spite this section 157A still in the Constitution, Tamil politicians are all out crying, and moaning for separation. Tamil politicians run to Geneva, Canada and UK and cry for separation. Does this mean that our Constitution is weak and not to be taken with seriousness. Does it mean that the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Rule of LawƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is absent in SL. Gajendrakumar Ponnambalam has a recorded version of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Separate Tamil ElamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, and wherever he goes plays this record.

Legal action should be taken against whoever preaches separatism as per section 157A of the constitution.

Conclusion

Previous governments have been playing on the intelligence of the SriLankan masses to be in power. Such action has driven the country to the current situation.

The best solution is: (a) All Tamil political parties should rid their minds from naming their political parties ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Tamil Elam ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, (b) Remove separation, and Elam from their minds, (c) think and accept they are SriLankan, (d) accept their governance is in Kotte and NOT Jaffna or Chennai, (e) understand the negative effects of having PCs, (f) for conflict resolution, run to Kotte and not Chennai or Delhi, (g) Share power with the Kotte government and develop the whole country, (h) eliminate xenophobic attitude, (i) develop an eager to study Sinhala language, (j) accept the President of SriLanka as their leader, (k) learn to co-exist, and (l) become integral and NOT differential.

An appeal to all politicians (opposition and back-benchers):

It is construed that PCs are a burden to the economy and will drain the economy and make SL to depend on foreign aids. ƒÆ’-¡ PLEASE SUPPORT REVOKING THE 13TH AMENDMENT IN PARLIAMENT.

WE LOVE SRILANKA,

JAYA WEVA

Venerable late Bowatte Indarathana thero- and the lessons to be learnt from the tragedy.

June 1st, 2013

By Charles.S.Perera

ƒÆ’-¡ Some call it a suicide, others a sacrifice against slaughter of ƒÆ’-¡ cattle.ƒÆ’-¡  If the Communities in Sri Lanka, including the Muslims who kill animals inside their homes to celebrate their religious festivitiesƒÆ’-¡  Eid al-Adha, and Hindus sacrificing ƒÆ’-¡ animals in thousand for a religious ceremony in Munneswaram ƒÆ’-¡ show compassionƒÆ’-¡  and give up these savage religious customs and let the cattle live in freedom without fear of being food for the people, ƒÆ’-¡ it would beƒÆ’-¡  a great achievement, which would also glorify the act of self immolation of an innocent, kind, and compassionate beingƒÆ’-¡  who was a Buddhist Priest.

ƒÆ’-¡ Nevertheless, the suicide is against the basic tenants of Buddhism and should be condemned as in the prevailing ignorance of Buddhist vinaya among the young Buddhist monks, we may have an avalanche of suicides even to promote changes in the University system, changes in the dress of monks, for the issue of free motor vehicle licences, more employment for monks in the government sector etcetera.

ƒÆ’-¡ But this act of a Buddhist Priest also highlights the unfortunate state of the prevailingƒÆ’-¡  condition of rapid degenerationƒÆ’-¡  of the Buddha Sasana in Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡  This ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-malaiseƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ began with the removal of the Pirivena system of education for the Buddhist monks, making them equal to lay students whose discipline hasƒÆ’-¡  deteriorated and the University System of Sri Lanka itself is becoming institutions of indiscipline, and their contributions as institutions of higher education ƒÆ’-¡ are being questioned.

ƒÆ’-¡ Buddha wanted a monastic environment for those house holders who left their homes to followƒÆ’-¡  his teachings.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  It is only in such an environment a Buddhist monk will be able to keep the 227 vinaya rules and conduct himself as a monk.ƒÆ’-¡  Otherwise there would not be any difference between the laity and the priest, except in the dress.

ƒÆ’-¡ UnfortunatelyƒÆ’-¡  today the temples are far from being Monasteries, they have become comfortable homes. In the ancient Monasteries the Monks spent their time studying ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-dhammaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, discussing the teachings in groups and meditating under the guidance of senior monks.

ƒÆ’-¡ Therefore in a monastic atmosphereƒÆ’-¡  the minds of theƒÆ’-¡  Buddhist monks were constantly kept within the boundaries of the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-dhammaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡  The monksƒÆ’-¡  could under such conditions maintain mindfulness, andƒÆ’-¡  keep the minds free from defilements (kilesa). ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ In the present day Universities the student monks imitate the lay students rather than allowing the lay students to follow the disciplined, soft speaking, calm and collected serenity of a Buddhist monk.( ?)ƒÆ’-¡  The Buddhist monks should avoid temptation, lust, desire, ƒÆ’-¡ ill will and maintain a carefulƒÆ’-¡  control of theƒÆ’-¡  mind,ƒÆ’-¡  speech and physical action.ƒÆ’-¡  This is possible in a priestlyƒÆ’-¡  mindful existence , with a training in meditation. Does such an atmosphere exist any where in any Temple in Sri Lanka ?

Today the Temple is not a rallying point of spirituality with enlightened wisdom influenced by the teaching of the Buddha, but they have become centres of political discussion, gathering places of non-descript persons drawing the young monks to vice such as taking , liquor , drug and even participate in theft of sacred treasures within temples.ƒÆ’-¡  This happened in a village temple I know.

ƒÆ’-¡ Indiscipline begins in small ways and if no corrective measures are taken they becomes widespread.ƒÆ’-¡  In the former days, we saw monks in villages with well shaven heads, and properly dressedƒÆ’-¡  in their yellow robes as they should be worn by a Buddhist monk. They walked one after the other according to their seniority.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Today such a sightƒÆ’-¡  would be a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-luxuryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’-¡ for the Buddhist laity . I have noticed Buddhist monks wearing the robe like a sari using one end of it to cover the shoulders !!!

It is time that the Buddhist Monks ,the Buddhist laity and Buddhist Associations wake up atleast now after this unfortunateƒÆ’-¡  case of a self immolation of the Buddhist Monk Bowatte Indrathana to reform the Buddha Sasana and take it back to what it had been before.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  The Prime Minister of Sri Lanka who is in charge of the Ministry of Buddha Sasana is too old and weak ƒÆ’-¡ and has no vision to make valuable reforms for the welfare of the BuddhaSasana.

ƒÆ’-¡ It is time the Prime Minister of Sri LankaƒÆ’-¡  retires to give the place to a younger and more active person.ƒÆ’-¡  It is a weakness of the President not to make essential changes in the Cabinet and important political changesƒÆ’-¡  withoutƒÆ’-¡  allowingƒÆ’-¡  the problems get more serious as the time passes.ƒÆ’-¡  This is the case with regard to the 13 Amendment and the bunch ofƒÆ’-¡  the TNA terrorists hanging on as Parliamentarians of Sri Lanka openly calling for the division of the country.

ƒÆ’-¡ It is not the presentation of Sannas Patra appointing monks to special position that is necessary,ƒÆ’-¡  but it is to get them to clean the Sasana of ills, removingƒÆ’-¡  elements that would be a danger to the Buddha Sasana and undertake ƒÆ’-¡ a complete overhaul of the Sasana from Education of the monks to re organise the Temples as Monasteries, with Meditation Kuties and halls for residents monks for their studies ofƒÆ’-¡  Sacred Texts, and memorising them in groups.

ƒÆ’-¡ Monks are being murdered, accused for rape, charged for driving under influence of liquor.ƒÆ’-¡  These were unheard of and when things come down to such a deplorable level some one has to intervene to say ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-stopƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and be fearless to call forƒÆ’-¡  immediate changes before the situation goes out of hand.

I have been to many Countries and visited Catholic Monasteries, where they maintain strict religious discipline.ƒÆ’-¡  There are no young priests hanging around ƒÆ’-¡ outside the Monasteries ƒÆ’-¡ doing nothing. They all have their Bible in hand and spend their time usefully learning and recitingƒÆ’-¡  prayers , while others do cultivation of plots of land to provide necessities for the Monastery.ƒÆ’-¡ 

Our temples are the contrast.ƒÆ’-¡  Once IƒÆ’-¡  walked around the Asgiriya templeƒÆ’-¡  and was surprised to see young monksƒÆ’-¡  behind the temple with cigarettes in their mouths, apparently hanging about in groups having nothing to do. I also met a group of young monks in the Kandy Market standing together laughing talking loud and making gesticulations.ƒÆ’-¡ 

Of course all these things could be treated lightly as these monks are not Arahants, but can we forget the fact that they are aspiring to be Arahants, having given up a comfortable home life to be mendicants.ƒÆ’-¡  But is that their ambition or is it to learn Geography, EconomicsƒÆ’-¡  and Commerce in a University , ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ disrobe and do a job later.ƒÆ’-¡  Unfortunately that is what it has come to.ƒÆ’-¡  If the trend continues we will soonƒÆ’-¡  find men with a yellow thread round their wrists as a sign of his belonging to Buddhist Priesthood.

ƒÆ’-¡ The Ministry of Buddha Sasana is inactive it should be handed over to a Minister who would have the courage to bring about changes necessary to uplift theƒÆ’-¡  Buddha Sasana , by re-establishing the Pirivena system.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ He should immediately organise a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-mini -Buddhist CouncilƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to reorganise the Buddha Sasana in Sri Lanka by getting the three Nikayas together and make the Mahanayaka theros, a functional institution able to control the Order of the Sangha, strict on keeping Uposatha, and taking strict disciplinary action against ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-miscreantsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ The Mahanayaka Theros should be assisted by a committee of senior monks of all three Nikayas as administrators who should meet regularly every month to examine the situation with regard to the Community of Sangha in Sri Lanka, and see that the monks keep their Vinaya, andƒÆ’-¡  make recommendations of necessary actions to be taken by the Mahanayake Theros.

TNA Says, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-No Solution under Unitary StateƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

June 1st, 2013

Asada M Erpini

ƒÆ’-¡ The statement of the Tamil National Alliance (TNA) MP Mavai Senathirajah, reported in the Sri Lankan media on 31 May, that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-a power sharing arrangement under a unitary state would not solve the national questionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is the clearest indication so far that TNA has not moved an inch away from the separatist ideology of the LTTE. Then again, TNA is what it is today because it got ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”electedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ with the blessings of the LTTE and served as the mouthpiece of the LTTE. SenathirajahƒÆ’-¡ implying that only a separate state would solve the national question – whatever that may be ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” is therefore hardly surprising.

ƒÆ’-¡ As far as the peace-loving Sri Lankans are concerned, the national question is that a group of Tamils who became MPƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s with the blessings of the LTTE leader are still hung up with the separatist mentality of Pirabhaharan. The valiant armed forces of Sri Lanka sacrificed a great deal to get rid of this very ideology of a mono-ethnic Tamil North. In this connection, it is not clear to what extent the average Sri Lankan Tamil, even the one living in the North, prefers to live under the jackboot of Pirabhaharan as opposed to being ruled by the leader of the much-maligned ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Sinhalese governmentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢.

ƒÆ’-¡ All Sri Lankans who love their country ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the country that gives them free education, free healthcare, and for its MPƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s including TNAƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ƒÆ’-¡ SenathirajahƒÆ’-¡ many enviable facilities and access to luxuries that the average citizen can only dream of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” want Sri Lanka to be a unitary state. And, that unitary state extends, from Devundara in the South to Point Pedro in the North, and Madakalapuwa or Gokanna (currently referred to as Trincomalee) in the East to Mannarama or Puttalama in the West.

ƒÆ’-¡ It is to preserve Sri Lanka as a unitary state that tens of thousands of men and women in uniform, especially from the rural areas of the country, gave life and limb. After the LTTE was vanquished by the armed forces, people including Senathirajah can now move about freely in the country, with no fear of being blasted to smithereens by an LTTE bomb.

ƒÆ’-¡ The best that could be done with the people of the calibre of Senathirajah is to direct them to a statement made by the Russian President Vladimir Putin to the Duma (parliament) that has been quoted by Nalliah ThayabharanƒÆ’-¡  in Lankaweb on 31 May:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-In Russia live Russians. Any minority, from anywhere, if it wants to live in Russia, to work and eat in Russia, should speak Russian, and should respect the Russian laws. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ Russia does not need minorities. Minorities need Russia, and we will not grant them special privileges, or try to change our laws to fit their desires, no matter how loud they yell ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”discriminationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ When this honourable legislative body thinks of creating new laws, it should have in mind the national interest first, observing that the minorities are not Russians.

 

 

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»

June 1st, 2013

ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ,

1. ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.
2. ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.
3. ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.
4. ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.
5. ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± “ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±,ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º”ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¹ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. “ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±, ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ” ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§;ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯? ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§; ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯? ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘

Dispatch Buddhist delegation on fact finding mission from Sri Lanka to Myanmar

June 1st, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

ƒÆ’-¡ There is a crisis evolving in Myanmar and the Buddhist nations of the world can no longer remain idle and indifferent but must now stand in solidarity with a nation facing the wrath of foreign elements out to destabilize it. We cannot trust the biased and distorted versions that come from mainstream international news agencies which are funded to write according to what suits Western agendas. On the one hand Myanmar is being targeted as a gateway to eventually attack China while Wahhabi incursions using Rohingyas are arming jihadists to create further chaos. In the past Myanmar came to the aid of Sri Lanka on many an occasion at times of need and it is the duty and moral obligation of Sri Lanka to reciprocate and now send a fact finding mission comprising both lay and Buddhist monks to Myanmar.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ With gratitude to Dr. Hema Goonetilake whose comprehensive compilation of the Sri Lanka-Burma ties enables us to know more of the bond that the two nations share. It was in 1069 that help was sought by King Vijayabahu 1 and King Anawrahta ( Anuruddha) sent ships of supplies in aid of Buddhist Ceylon from Myanmar to defeat the Chola invaders and thereafter King VijayabahuƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s request for scriptures and monks in 1071 resulted in 20 Burmese monks re-ordaining the entire clergy of Sri Lanka. King VijayabahuƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s gift was a replica of the Buddha Tooth which remains enshrined in the Lawkananda Pagoda in Pagan. This is recorded in the Chulavamsa. It is also to be noted that the BurmeseƒÆ’-¡ chronicles such asƒÆ’-¡ Mahasammatavamsa,ƒÆ’-¡ RajavamsaƒÆ’-¡ andƒÆ’-¡ SasanavamsaƒÆ’-¡ were directly modelled after theƒÆ’-¡ Mahavamsa.

Many may not be aware too that the King of Burma (contemporary with Parakramabahu 1 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” 1153-1186) married a daughter of a Sinhalese King and even appointed an ambassador to Sri Lanka.

ƒÆ’-¡ Even when relationships between the two nations had strained due to trade the Sinhala Bhikkhus had come forward to restore the relations which depicts the bond that exists on a religious dimension that supersedes that of politics. ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ The controversial Arakan (Rakhine) area was described in 1433 as the Golden Age of Arakan Theravada Buddhism with the Tripitaka brought from Sri Lanka placed near the image of Mahamuni. Even Portuguese historian Queroz mentions a major Buddhist temple destroyed in 1620 in Trincomalee which had been headed by a Buddhist monk from Arakan indicating that Burmese monks were in Sri Lanka managing temples and the ties that existed.

ƒÆ’-¡ It was following the arrival of the colonials and their brutal conversions to Christianity that affected Buddhism leaving King Vimaladharmasuriya 1 (1592-1604) to again seek the assistance of Myanmar to send a mission from Arakan to confer upasampada on Sinhala Samaneras. ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ The ties between Sri Lanka Myanmar are solid. Both nations practice Theravada Buddhism as does Thailand whose Prime Minister presently in Sri Lanka declared to the Sri Lankan Parliament the need to tie Buddhism further. From Thailand we have received the upasampada to establish the Siam Nikaya in 1753 with the Asgiriya and Malwatte Chapters while from Myanmar we have the Amarapura and Ramanna Nikayas ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” all denoting a very powerful bloc. Together with ChinaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s 1,070,893,447 Buddhist population it is now desirable to create the League of Buddhist Nations under the leadership and patronage of China.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ It is evident that the ties that bind Sri Lanka and Myanmar go beyond a 1000 years. With the rise of Asia, the intrusions by forces seeking to destabilize and balkanize Asian nations warrants the Buddhist world to unite and build a force to respond to the threats that arise in both covert and overt forms.

ƒÆ’-¡ As Myanmar faces a plethora of obstacles it is up to the Buddhists of Sri Lanka to remember the assistance given to Sri Lanka in the past when we were in dire strait following Chola invasions and on several occasions thereafter and we need to now show our gratitude and render assistance to our good friends in Myanmar.

ƒÆ’-¡ As an initial step the best possible way is to first send a fact finding mission to Myanmar comprising Buddhist laymen and monks so that their findingsƒÆ’-¡  can quell the lies and fabrications that are being spread by the international news agencies and their local agents that are paid to do so.

ƒÆ’-¡ Above all else, the Buddhist nations in Asia need to come together to create a formidable force with international cloutƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ i.e. League of Buddhist Nations, similar to OIC (Organisation of Islamic Co-operation ) and EU (European Union) and usher in a new phase in international relations by spreading the BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s message of peace and harmonyƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ and compassion to all living beings (Ahimsa and Non ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Violence) that had enormous influence in this part of the worldƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ for over two millennia before it got diluted and suppressed by the destructive tendencies of the colonial west that invaded Asia, Africa and several other parts of the world

 

 

Vasudeva is wrong to say that the President can dissolve the Provincial Councils anytime

May 31st, 2013

Media Release ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Chanaka Bandarage, Sri Lanka Support Group

On 30 May 2013, in Sirasa TV program ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”SatanaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, Hon Minister Vasudeva Nanayakkara, participating in a debate with Hon Minister Champika Ranawaka stated thatƒÆ’-¡  people should not be scared of provincial governments because the President can dissolve them anytime. To stressƒÆ’-¡  this point, he mentioned Articles 154A1, 154 J, 154K, 154L, 154M and 154N of the Constitution (these are the English version Articles, he referred to the corresponding Sinhala ones).

These provisions do not provide power to the ƒÆ’-¡ PresidentƒÆ’-¡  to dissolve the provincial councils willy nilly:

Article 154A1 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” this Article is about the President establishing the Provincial Councils ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” it doesƒÆ’-¡  not talk aboutƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  dissolution

Article 154J ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” On the ground that maintenance of essential supplies and services are threatened or that security of the country isƒÆ’-¡  threatened by war or external aggression or armed rebellion, the President may be able to dissolveƒÆ’-¡  aƒÆ’-¡  provincial government after issuing a Proclamation under the ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Public Security OrdinanceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ (note: not under the 13th amendment).ƒÆ’-¡  Even herein, the words ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”dissolve or dissolutionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ are not used. What it states is that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-the President to hold that a situation has arisen in which the administration of theƒÆ’-¡  Province cannotƒÆ’-¡  be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ The then President Premadasa used this provision to dissolve Vardharaja PerumalƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢sƒÆ’-¡  provincial government (Perumal tried to mobilse the provinceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s 15,000 strong police force like an ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ArmyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and unilaterally declared a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Tamil EelamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ in northern Sri LankaƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” this will happen again under a TNA run Northern Provincial Council).ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 

Article 154K ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” This is not a power available for the President to dissolve a Provincial Council. It allows him to give a direction to the Governor and Provincial Council that directions to the Provincial Council be carried out. This has nothing to with dissolution.

Article 154L ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” If the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the administration of the province cannot be carried out per the Constitution (failure of the administrative machinery), the President may assume the functions of the administration of the Provincial Council. What Mr Nanayakkara failed to say is that the President can do this only by Proclamation (to be approved by a resolution of the Parliament) and such Proclamation is valid only for 2 months.

Article 154N – If the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of Sri Lanka is threatened, he may make a Proclamation to that effect (to be approved by a resolution of the Parliament) and such Proclamation is only valid for 2 months. During the period of Proclamation, the President isƒÆ’-¡  only allowed to give directions to the Governor in relation to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”observe such canons of financial proprietyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢.ƒÆ’-¡  Again, this does not give power to the President to dissolve the Provincial Council.

Therefore, theƒÆ’-¡  representations made by Mr Nanayakkara seem wrong and he may have misled millions of viewers who watched the Program.

Hon Ranawaka very correctly showed that the Chief Minister is the head of the Provincial Government andƒÆ’-¡  the Governor ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” appointed by the President,ƒÆ’-¡  acts in accordance with the advice of the Board of Ministers (Article 154F1 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Sinhala 154ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚ (1)). Mr Nanayakkara tried to emphasis that discretion available to the Governor is absolute, but this Article clearly articulates that it is subject to the Constitution, thus is very limited.

Mr Nanayakkara failed to mention to the liveƒÆ’-¡  and TV audience that unlike in Sri Lanka, per the Indian Constitution, its President can easily dissolve a Provincial Government. He also failed to say that in India (and alsoƒÆ’-¡  in Australia) where a Provincial Government/(State) law isƒÆ’-¡  inconsistent with a Central Government law (made under the concurrent heads of powers), the latter prevails over the former, to the extent of inconsistency, this is not the case in Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡  Even though JR Jayewardene did not say it, what he effectively created in Sri Lanka in 1987 wasƒÆ’-¡  a federal structure, giving far reaching powers to the Provinces – more than in India (and Australia) (this is why we say that giving the NorthernƒÆ’-¡  Province to the separatist, TNA, is akin to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”entrusting the surveillance of a chicken coop to a foxƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. ƒÆ’-¡ 

Mr Nanayakkara also stated that a Referendum to ask people whether orƒÆ’-¡  not they wish to keep the Provincial Government system (9 such Provincial Governments) may be inappropriate because ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-more than 70% of the population is Sinhalese.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ This is an indication he may lack respect to representative democracy. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”One Vote, One VoiceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, is the cardinal rule of democracy; Mr Obama came to power not just on the back of Black and Hispanic votes, he campaigned hard and secured white votes too. Those who campaign to keep the Provincial Council system (like Mr Nanayakkara), if they want to win the Referendum (if held), should try to secure the Sinhala vote also, rather than trying to denigrate it.

Chanaka Bandarage, President of Sri Lanka Support Group, is an Australian Lawyer

srilankasupportgroup@bigpond.com

Higher Quality of Life and Lower Unemployment of Tamils are the Root Causes of the ‘Ethnic Problem’

May 31st, 2013

Dilrook Kannangara

Telling the truth in a world full of deception is revolutionary. Decades of Tamil propaganda has turned lies into truths. Widely acclaimed Nazi principles of propaganda are practiced by Tamils more than anyone else. Thanks to their highly successful Nazi style propaganda, most Sri Lankans belonging to the majority Sinhalese community needlessly feel guilty of wrongdoing by commission and omission. Often quoted Tamil grievances are not the root causes of the so-called ethnic conflict.

In fact higher PQLI (Physical Quality of Life Index) and lower unemployment among Sri Lankan Tamils are the real root causes of the conflict and what they call the ethnic problem.

One need not be a beggar to use the tactic of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”beggarƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s woundƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ to extort undue favours

PQLI is a development index. It measures various indices including literacy rate, mortality rate, mortality rate at birth and other relevant matters. Although better indices have been developed today, PQLI is still considered indicative of quality of life. In 1970s to 1990s, PQLI was the key development index along with per capita income. The following table contains PQLI data for the districts with a comparison from 1971 to 1981. Only one district has recorded a PQLI higher than 90% and that is Jaffna with 98% of its population being Tamil.

The entire Jaffna district with a population of 831,112 of which 812,247 were Tamils in 1971, and in every year thereafter enjoyed this feat thanks to disproportionately larger government investments in education and healthcare. It was not achieved overnight. Like all other districts, it also shows a remarkable improvement from 1971 to 1981. However, from 1971 to 1981 Tamils in the Jaffna District became increasingly hardline racist leading to the war that engulfed the nation for nearly 30 years. Essentially the higher PQLI in Jaffna district was a root cause of the ethnic problem and the conflict.

DISTRICT

1971

1979/81
Colombo ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  85.3 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  86.0
Gampaha ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  85.3 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  86.0
Kalutara ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  87.3 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  88.4
Kandy ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  75.1 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  78.2
Nuwara Eliya ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  64.0 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  71.6
Matale ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  78.0 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  83.0
Galle ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  86.6 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  86.8
Matara ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  85.6 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  85.6
Hambantota ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  84.6 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  87.4
Jaffna ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  88.1 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  91.2
Mannar ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  79.8 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  86.7
Vavuniya ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  84.2 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  86.3
Mulaitivu ƒÆ’-¡ n.aƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  89.3
Batticaloa ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  68.1 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  72.5
Ampara ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  79.1 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  78.5
Trincomalee ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  79.0 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  85.1
Kurunegala ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  85.4 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  86.8
Puttalam ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  85.6 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  88.4
Anuradhapura ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  80.2 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  86.4
Polonnaruwa ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  86.2 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  89.6
Badulla ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  72.4 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  75.4
Monaragala ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  80.4 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  86.2
Ratnapura ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  76.6 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  79.5
Kegalle ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  81.6 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  87.3
Sri Lanka ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  78.9 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  84.2

Quoted from: Economic development and social change in Sri Lanka: a spatial and policy analysis edited by Paul A Groves

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=F_3OCQ3jDgsC&pg=PA228&lpg=PA228&dq=%22Literacy,+infant+mortality+data+1971%22&source=bl&ots=ldi9YWZsf4&sig=QjItqNTBP2UoYYK0Lj6A7iQ7DHY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=B56mUfuOL-K3iQfzsYDIDg&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22Literacy%2C%20infant%20mortality%20data%201971%22&f=false

ƒÆ’-¡ 

Source: Literacy, infant mortality data 1971, 1981 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Census of population 1971, 1981 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Department of census and population, 1973, 1984.

Life expectancy data 1971 Bulletin of vital statistics 1979, Registrar GeneralƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s office, department of census and statistics 1981.

Life expectancy data 1979 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” unpublished data. Department of census and statistics, 1985.

Source: Ethnic Conflict and Economic Development in Sri Lanka, SWR de A Samarasinghe, International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka

Source: Economic Development and Social Change in Sri Lanka: A Spatial and Policy Analysis Edited By Paul A. GrovesƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

Similarly, Sri Lankan Tamil majority areas had the lowest unemployment rate by 1971 and 1981 which were only 2.6% and 1.7% respectively. Sinhalese had an unemployment rate many times higher. But it was the Tamils who took up arms against the state during this time alleging marginalisation, discrimination and grievances. Lower rate of unemployment or in other words, higher rates of employment of Sri Lankan Tamils was a root cause of the ethnic problem and conflict.

Unemployment details

ƒÆ’-¡  1978/79 1981/82
Zone 1 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  6.8 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  5.6
(Western and southern coastal districts mainly Sinhalese) ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 
ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 
Zone 2 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  3.3 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  2.4
(Dry zone colonization districts mainly Sinhalese) ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 
ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 
Zone 3 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  2.6 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  1.7
(Northern and Eastern districts mainly Sri Lankan Tamils) ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 
ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 
Zone 4 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  5.8 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  4.0
(Central highland plantations Sinhalese and Indian Tamils) ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 
ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 
Zone 5 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  7.2 ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  4.0
(Colombo Metropolitan) ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 

Quoted from: Economic development and social change in Sri Lanka: a spatial and policy analysis edited by Paul A Groves

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=F_3OCQ3jDgsC&pg=PA228&lpg=PA228&dq=%22Literacy,+infant+mortality+data+1971%22&source=bl&ots=ldi9YWZsf4&sig=QjItqNTBP2UoYYK0Lj6A7iQ7DHY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=B56mUfuOL-K3iQfzsYDIDg&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22Literacy%2C%20infant%20mortality%20data%201971%22&f=false

Source: Computed from report on consumer finance and socio-economic survey, 1981/82. Central Bank of Ceylon 1984

Source: Ethnic Conflict and Economic Development in Sri Lanka, SWR de A Samarasinghe, International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka

Source: Economic Development and Social Change in Sri Lanka: A Spatial and Policy Analysis Edited By Paul A. GrovesƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

These are indisputable facts Tamil extortionists wish no one to look. Unfortunately for them these are well documented.

How to Explain this Apparent Parody?

Explaining the conflict using the Tamil grievances and discrimination theory is easily understood. However, as can be seen, Tamil grievances and discrimination were not the root causes of the problem. In fact the root cause is the better quality of life Tamils had by the late 1970s compared to others! How can this be explained?

Abraham Maslow was a prominent social scientist who used the highly influential MaslowƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s hierarchy of needs theory to explain human behaviour. What drives humans? What are the things humans crave to have? The answer depends on the circumstances the individual is in. It also applies to communities.

MaslowƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s hierarchy of needs theory lists down various types of needs ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” physiological needs, security needs, love and belongingness needs and self actualisation needs. Physiological needs are basic human needs like food, clothing, housing, other physical needs, etc. A human or a community that has satisfied physiological needs moves up a notch to achieve security needs. Security needs include food security, job security, security in family relationship, security from harm, security in beliefs, etc. Once these needs are also substantially satisfied, the individual or the community in concern craves for love and belongingness needs. Love and belongingness needs include communal feeling, recognition, being part of the society, etc. Once they are also satisfied a human or a community would crave to satisfy self actualisation needs. They are about reaching their full individual or communal potential as a distinct entity. It ranges from seeking truth to feeling exclusive.

Generally a nation would march forward taking all itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s people with it. Uneven development is not tolerated. Most people enjoy higher development benefits while only a small percentage would be left behind. However, what happened in Sri Lanka from 1971 to 1981 and from 1815 to 1971 was the opposite. Sri Lankan Tamils were positively discriminated giving them various favours at the expense of others. Due to this, there emerged two separate hierarchies of needs- one for Sri Lankan Tamils (12.5% of the population) and the other for the rest of the people (87.5% of the population). Having satisfied themselves (comparatively more than others) in physiological, security and belongingness needs Sri Lankan Tamils made a move towards self actualisation as an exclusive community. This was when the Vadukodai Resolution (1976) was passed by Tamil leaders with the full blessing of Sri Lankan Tamils who overwhelmingly voted it a year later.

The Vadukodai Resolution (1976) was aimed at reaching self actualisation for Tamils in creating exclusivity around them. They claimed the north and the east as Tamil exclusive areas and Tamil homelands. They expelled all the Sinhalese numbered over 24,000 in 1971 out of the north in 1977 and 1983. A decade later they expelled all the Muslims and other small ethnic groups as well. They demanded the creation of Tamil Elam, an independent Tamil-only nation ruled by Tamils for Tamils.

Had the Jaffna Tamils a lower PQLI than the rest of the country and higher unemployment, this move towards exclusivity would never have happened.

In that case, physiological needs, security needs and belongingness needs would have become dominant. Ironically, it was successive Sinhala majority governments that elevated Sri Lankan Tamils above the rest of the population which caused the ethnic conflict!

In order to sustain their exclusivity they claimed 37% of the island and 65% of its coastline as Tamil areas whereas the total Tamil population in the entire island (including Indian Tamils) was just 18%. This is very similar to Nazi and Apartheid thinking of exclusivity.

When looked from this correct perspective, it is easier to understand the conduct of various Tamil groups in the country. Sri Lankan Tamils centred in Jaffna were the most prosperous of the lot by then. As a result they were the ones to agitate for Tamil exclusivity (their preferred form of self actualisation). Major political parties were unable to give them these apartheid demands and hence they picked hardcore racist political parties that were exclusively Tamil. Upcountry Tamils were the poorest people in the country but never agitated for exclusivity or self determination. They were more interested in meeting their physiological, security and belongingness needs. Major political parties were providing them these needs and they continued to stick with them.

If the Tamil grievances theory had an iota of truth, the agitation for Tamil exclusivity would have started not from Vadukoddai in Jaffna but from Maskeliya in the Nuwara Eliya district.

Implications for the Future

These truths have huge implications for the future. Before the enactment of a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”political solutionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ to address Tamil only apartheid demands, the government must consider the dangers in doing so. Massive development activities in the north that benefit only Tamils have once again created a similar situation. Now popular Tamil political parties are not asking for food, jobs, rehabilitation, alleviation of poverty, better security, etc. These are givens for them today. In fact they are willing to sacrifice excesses in these for self actualisation needs. Once again Tamil apartheid politics raises its ugly head in the north, east and also in Colombo.

This problem cannot be resolved by giving into their demands or giving them more and more economic clout. That will further aggravate the situation. Sinhalese and Muslims should be made to share in the massive economic prosperity in Jaffna. At the moment the entire Jaffna and Vanni economies are benefitting only Tamils. However, Tamils have a stake in economic activities in every district of the island nation.

Tamils should not be allowed to assert exclusivity. They must be integrated into the general Sri Lankan society. Certain apartheid-like laws elevate Tamils to exclusivity. These include Thesawalamei Law and 13A to the Constitution. Thesawalamei Law gives exclusive land rights to Tamils. These exclusive benefits are not available to others. 13A which was imposed by India with the backing of 70 million Tamils in South India, has made Tamil an official language in Sri Lanka with merely 3 million Tamils. Tamil is not an official language even in India where there are over 70 million of them! 13A has also created governance entities for the northern province that occupy a very large part of the island devoid of non-Tamils following their elimination by Tamils from 1977 to 1990. Thesawalamei law and the 13A must be repealed without any delay.

Tamils must be made to feel like citizens with no more than equal individual rights. The Indian-Soviet-Yugoslav model of ethnicity based governance units should not be created in this island nation.

Dangers of Getting it Wrong

There are grave dangers in getting this wrong. If the false Tamil grievances theory is to be believed, Tamils will be showered with various exclusive benefits like Tamil-only districts, Tamil-only schools, Tamil-only universities, Tamil-only hospitals and other apartheid era situations. This will further push Tamils towards self actualisation via Tamil self determination. It is foolhardy to wonder what went wrong despite all these exclusive benefits. They are the problem!

Unlike in late 1970s, Tamils have spread far and wide the world over. They exert more influence today than 40 years ago. Their media clout is what Nazi theoreticians hoped they had. Therefore, all possibilities of Tamil exclusivity must be contained and neutralised. Externally inspired Tamil agitations threaten both Sri Lanka and India. If a political solution is given that satisfies Tamil political parties, it leads to more bargaining for the rights of IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Tamils. When India faces with the threat of disintegration, it ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”passes the buckƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ to Sri Lanka. If Tamil nationalism reaches an uncontainable level, India will have no choice but to use Sri Lanka as bait once again to manage Tamils. India used this strategy from 1962 to 1990 which started with a piece of law but ended with open military confrontation with Tamils. By the end of it, India feared more reprisals from South India and gave up but not without transferring IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s problem to its neighbour.

Economic clout of the nation and all its provinces must be centred in the control of nationalists. Tamil exclusive industries in Jaffna, Batticaloa, Colombo, Kandy, etc. feed into Tamil separatism. These must be replaced by state and other investments. One argument against these equitable moves is that they create new Tamil grievances. But the problem is Tamil exclusivity not Tamil grievances.

USA has an African American population percentage of 12.5% the same as the Sri Lankan Tamil population in 1981. The two are identical minorities. However, USA never offered any devolution, language rights or special privileges to its African American minority. This is the right solution for the island nation. It can integrate Tamils into the mainstream Sri Lankan culture without creating exclusivity. African Americans with totally different cultural, language and religious affiliations to that of majority Americans have been very successfully integrated into the majority American society and culture. Tamils should be similarly integrated into the majority Sri Lankan culture.

What should I call him.. A Traitor ??

May 31st, 2013

Malith Karunanayake

ƒÆ’-¡ Indian experts challenge Jayalath Jayawardana’s pro-LTTE press release

Chennai, 14 November, (Asiantribune.com): Indian National Congress activists and anti-terrorism groups expressed shock at recent utterances of the Sri Lankan politician Dr Jayalath Jayawardana who urged Indian intervention to save the beleaguered Tamil Tigers in Kilinochchi. They said that Dr JayawardanaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Press Release issued in New Delhi stating that the Tamils in the north are starving and India should intervene to save them is contrary to the reports issued by UN bodies and various INGOs on the humanitarian situation.

“Is the UNP, of which Dr Jayawardana is a member, endorses his call?” Satish Kumar of Delhi Free ThinkersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ questioned. “Dr Jayawardana is trying to save the LTTE, which is facing defeat in the battle front. We in India feel that the UNP should support the governmentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s efforts to liberate the Tamil masses from the LTTE grip and to restore their democratic rights. In India we all join when there is a national issue,” he pointed out. Full Text

ƒÆ’-¡ http://defencecolumn.blogspot.com/2008/11/indian-experts-challenge-jayalath.html

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ƒÆ’-¡ Select committee to probe pro-LTTE allegations against Jayalath

By Chandani Kirinde

The government will hand over a resolution to Speaker Chamal Rajapaksa on Monday to appoint a Select Committee of Parliament to probe allegations that United National Party (UNP) Member of Parliament Dr. Jayalath Jayawardena colluded with separatist pro-LTTE forces while in London.

The resolution has been prepared, and once signatures are collected, it will be handed over to the Speaker by Monday, Chief Government Whip Dinesh Gunawardena told the Sunday Times.

The charges in the resolution against the UNP MP are centred on his alleged violation of the oath he took under the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution. Those who take the oath, including all MPs, pledge not to directly or indirectly work against the territorial integrity of the country.

On Friday, UNP Leader Ranil Wickremesinghe said his party would support an inquiry on the allegation against the UNP MP, and has asked for the terms of reference in such an inquiry. The Chief Whip said the Speaker will provide the terms of reference.

Dr. Jayawardena told the Sunday Times that he had no problem with the appointment of a select committee. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Let my party decide what action is to be taken in this connection,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ he said. Dr. Jayawardena denies any involvement in organising protest campaigns in London against President Mahinda Rajapaksa during the leaderƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s four-day visit to the UK.

http://www.sundaytimes.lk/101205/News/nws_11.html

——————————————————————-“””—————————————-

ƒÆ’-¡ Mannar Bishop deprived of meeting LTTE suspects

31 July 2012

UNP MP Dr. Jayalath Jayawardena yesterday alleged that the dictatorial Rajapaksa regime was denying even the basic right of people to visit those held over terrorism charges.

UNP MP Dr. Jayalath Jayawardena yesterday alleged that the dictatorial Rajapaksa regime was denying even the basic right of people to visit those held over terrorism charges.

An irate UNPer said that Bishop of Mannar Rt. Rev Rayappu Joseph was refused permission last Friday (July 27) to meet 17 LTTE suspects transferred from the Vavuniya prison to Mahara recently following the STF quelling a riot there.

Asked whether he would take up the issue with the government, the Gampaha District MP said that he would raise the disgraceful conduct of the government both in and outside parliament.

The Vice President of the UNP told The Island that as the Bishop of Mannar wanted to pay a visit to those detained at Mahara, he accompanied the clergyman. “Although I was allowed to go in and speak with the suspects, the Bishop was asked to wait at the office of the senior official in charge of the prison. Officials insisted the Bishop cannot be allowed to meet inmates. They claimed to have received instructions from higher authorities not to give access to the Mannar Bishop.”

Dr. Jayawardena said that he wrote to Prisons Department Chief as well as Human Rights Minister Mahinda Samarasinghe and Minister of Prisons Reform Chandrasiri Gajadeera highlighting the Mannar BishopƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s plight. Post-war talk of a national reconciliation process was a joke when the government went to the extent of harassing the Bishop of Mannar. The UNP MP stressed that the government should release those held without charges and move court against men and women against whom charges could be framed.

ƒÆ’-¡ http://www.globaltamilnews.net/GTMNEditorial/tabid/71/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/80918/language/en-US/Mannar-Bishop-deprived-of-meeting-LTTE-suspects.aspx

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GNANAKONE RUBS SHOULDERS WITH JAYALATH JAYAWARDENA AT THE UNP INAUGARAL MEETING IN LOS ANGELES

By Rangajeeva Rajakaruna reporting from Los Angeles

Jayantha (Donald) Gnanakone, the controversial Tamil activist, with alleged connections with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) rubbing shoulders with Dr. Jayalath Jayewardena, the UNP stalwart at the inaugural Los Angeles meeting of of the United National Party became the cynosure of the gathering when Pro-Ranil Wickremesinghe leaders converged on the metropolis for the historical event .

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-I may be supporting Mano Ganeshan in Colombo ( a pro-LTTE politician) or anybody else and itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s none of the fƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦.. business of anybody or RAW or any one of its agents,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ he said when asked whether he has joined the UNP.

RAW is the Indian intelligence service and currently dreaded by the LTTE since the assassination of the former Indian Prime Minister by a LTTE suicide killer. Formerly RAW funded , armed and trained the LTTE in South Indian military camps when Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India. Jayantha Gnanakone is the brother of the now acquitted alleged participant of the assassination of the former Sri Lankan foreign minister Lakshman Kadirgamar.

At the inauguration of new branch of the UNP in LA delirium reind supreme when two UNP stalwarts mingled with a bother of a well-known LTTE financier cloistered inside the Hyatt Summerfield Hotel in El Segundo on Sunday and sang the praises of Ranil Wickremesinghe to their hearts content. Gnanakoons and Tissa Attanayake and their supporters Dr. Jayalath Jayawardhana, Chandrani Bandara, MP and many lesser known Ranil Wickremesinghe fans waxed eloquence about the brilliant leadership of their hero. Delirium was unbearably gruesome said one fan. Dr Jayalath was singing to the choir until it became painfully boring, he added. Party Secretary Tissa Attanayake minced no words in calling Ranil the brilliant leader of the country. Sommie Ratnayaka, a former Television actor speaking said the late UNP leader Junius Richard Jayewardene was the greatest leader who ever lived in Sri Lanka. He attempted best to establish ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- Dharmishta SocietyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ a righteous community in Sri Lanka and that itself was enough for his greatness. There were 45 members present, the lowest ever for a party inaugural gathering in LA.. RanilƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s low approval rating had reached Los Angeles .

The highlight of the evening was how Gnanakoon interjected freely whenever the discussion seemed to go astray. Talking of getting the Diaspora to vote, Dr. Jayalath was saying it might be a good idea. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Not so fast, you might not get what you desire when they voteƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ said Gnanakoon. Oh, they are always with us, someone else interjected.

The tipping moment came when at the end when one of the conveners said that we had collected fifty thousand to be given to Ranil Wickremesinghe when he was here last. But someone ran away with the money bag. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-He is now in a South American location with a diplomatic passport, interjected someone from the audience. Reportedly the man invested in hedge funds and doubled his earning prior to taking off from Los Angeles .

The piece de resistance came from none other than Rupa Kumaratunga, sister-in-law of Chandrika Kumaratunga when she said, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- he work hard and get people to our election meetings but never win elections. Something is very wrong with the UNP.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ May be Sri Lankan people vote for the biggest liars, she added.

Dr Jayalath gave in very graphic description how Ranil Wickremesinghe who assembled the Sinhalese and the Tiger leaders into a room at Vavuniya in 2002 and delivered the no war pact. I was a witness to that meeting and saw his great vision for our country, he added. Secretary Tissa Attanayake described how the UNP leader offered to keep the Rajapaksa government going for two years in order to solve the ethnic crisis under an MOU, instead, the President had UNP members cross over and then took a military approach. Attanayake predicted that an economic crisis was looming which will hit Sri Lanka by the Sinhala New year in 2008. Newly elected President of the Branch Keerthi Werapitiya also expressed faith in the UNP to solve the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s problems. That is why we are gathered here he said.

ƒÆ’-¡ http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items07/251207-3.html

What should I call him.. A Traitor ??

Friday, November 14, 2008

Indian experts challenge Jayalath Jayawardana’s pro-LTTE press release

Chennai, 14 November, (Asiantribune.com): Indian National Congress activists and anti-terrorism groups expressed shock at recent utterances of the Sri Lankan politician Dr Jayalath Jayawardana who urged Indian intervention to save the beleaguered Tamil Tigers in Kilinochchi. They said that Dr JayawardanaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Press Release issued in New Delhi stating that the Tamils in the north are starving and India should intervene to save them is contrary to the reports issued by UN bodies and various INGOs on the humanitarian situation.

“Is the UNP, of which Dr Jayawardana is a member, endorses his call?” Satish Kumar of Delhi Free ThinkersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ questioned. “Dr Jayawardana is trying to save the LTTE, which is facing defeat in the battle front. We in India feel that the UNP should support the governmentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s efforts to liberate the Tamil masses from the LTTE grip and to restore their democratic rights. In India we all join when there is a national issue,” he pointed out. Full Text

http://defencecolumn.blogspot.com/2008/11/indian-experts-challenge-jayalath.html

————————————————-“”——————————————————–

Select committee to probe pro-LTTE allegations against Jayalath

By Chandani Kirinde

The government will hand over a resolution to Speaker Chamal Rajapaksa on Monday to appoint a Select Committee of Parliament to probe allegations that United National Party (UNP) Member of Parliament Dr. Jayalath Jayawardena colluded with separatist pro-LTTE forces while in London.

The resolution has been prepared, and once signatures are collected, it will be handed over to the Speaker by Monday, Chief Government Whip Dinesh Gunawardena told the Sunday Times.

The charges in the resolution against the UNP MP are centred on his alleged violation of the oath he took under the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution. Those who take the oath, including all MPs, pledge not to directly or indirectly work against the territorial integrity of the country.

On Friday, UNP Leader Ranil Wickremesinghe said his party would support an inquiry on the allegation against the UNP MP, and has asked for the terms of reference in such an inquiry. The Chief Whip said the Speaker will provide the terms of reference.

Dr. Jayawardena told the Sunday Times that he had no problem with the appointment of a select committee. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Let my party decide what action is to be taken in this connection,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ he said. Dr. Jayawardena denies any involvement in organising protest campaigns in London against President Mahinda Rajapaksa during the leaderƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s four-day visit to the UK.

http://www.sundaytimes.lk/101205/News/nws_11.html

——————————————————————-“””—————————————-

Mannar Bishop deprived of meeting LTTE suspects

31 July 2012

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UNP MP Dr. Jayalath Jayawardena yesterday alleged that the dictatorial Rajapaksa regime was denying even the basic right of people to visit those held over terrorism charges.

Mannar Bishop deprived of meeting LTTE suspects

UNP MP Dr. Jayalath Jayawardena yesterday alleged that the dictatorial Rajapaksa regime was denying even the basic right of people to visit those held over terrorism charges.

An irate UNPer said that Bishop of Mannar Rt. Rev Rayappu Joseph was refused permission last Friday (July 27) to meet 17 LTTE suspects transferred from the Vavuniya prison to Mahara recently following the STF quelling a riot there.

Asked whether he would take up the issue with the government, the Gampaha District MP said that he would raise the disgraceful conduct of the government both in and outside parliament.

The Vice President of the UNP told The Island that as the Bishop of Mannar wanted to pay a visit to those detained at Mahara, he accompanied the clergyman. “Although I was allowed to go in and speak with the suspects, the Bishop was asked to wait at the office of the senior official in charge of the prison. Officials insisted the Bishop cannot be allowed to meet inmates. They claimed to have received instructions from higher authorities not to give access to the Mannar Bishop.”

Dr. Jayawardena said that he wrote to Prisons Department Chief as well as Human Rights Minister Mahinda Samarasinghe and Minister of Prisons Reform Chandrasiri Gajadeera highlighting the Mannar BishopƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s plight. Post-war talk of a national reconciliation process was a joke when the government went to the extent of harassing the Bishop of Mannar. The UNP MP stressed that the government should release those held without charges and move court against men and women against whom charges could be framed.

http://www.globaltamilnews.net/GTMNEditorial/tabid/71/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/80918/language/en-US/Mannar-Bishop-deprived-of-meeting-LTTE-suspects.aspx

—————————————————“””———————————————-

GNANAKONE RUBS SHOULDERS WITH JAYALATH JAYAWARDENA AT THE UNP INAUGARAL MEETING IN LOS ANGELES

By Rangajeeva Rajakaruna reporting from Los Angeles

Jayantha (Donald) Gnanakone, the controversial Tamil activist, with alleged connections with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) rubbing shoulders with Dr. Jayalath Jayewardena, the UNP stalwart at the inaugural Los Angeles meeting of of the United National Party became the cynosure of the gathering when Pro-Ranil Wickremesinghe leaders converged on the metropolis for the historical event .

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-I may be supporting Mano Ganeshan in Colombo ( a pro-LTTE politician) or anybody else and itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s none of the fƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦.. business of anybody or RAW or any one of its agents,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ he said when asked whether he has joined the UNP.

RAW is the Indian intelligence service and currently dreaded by the LTTE since the assassination of the former Indian Prime Minister by a LTTE suicide killer. Formerly RAW funded , armed and trained the LTTE in South Indian military camps when Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India. Jayantha Gnanakone is the brother of the now acquitted alleged participant of the assassination of the former Sri Lankan foreign minister Lakshman Kadirgamar.

At the inauguration of new branch of the UNP in LA delirium reind supreme when two UNP stalwarts mingled with a bother of a well-known LTTE financier cloistered inside the Hyatt Summerfield Hotel in El Segundo on Sunday and sang the praises of Ranil Wickremesinghe to their hearts content. Gnanakoons and Tissa Attanayake and their supporters Dr. Jayalath Jayawardhana, Chandrani Bandara, MP and many lesser known Ranil Wickremesinghe fans waxed eloquence about the brilliant leadership of their hero. Delirium was unbearably gruesome said one fan. Dr Jayalath was singing to the choir until it became painfully boring, he added. Party Secretary Tissa Attanayake minced no words in calling Ranil the brilliant leader of the country. Sommie Ratnayaka, a former Television actor speaking said the late UNP leader Junius Richard Jayewardene was the greatest leader who ever lived in Sri Lanka. He attempted best to establish ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- Dharmishta SocietyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ a righteous community in Sri Lanka and that itself was enough for his greatness. There were 45 members present, the lowest ever for a party inaugural gathering in LA.. RanilƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s low approval rating had reached Los Angeles .

The highlight of the evening was how Gnanakoon interjected freely whenever the discussion seemed to go astray. Talking of getting the Diaspora to vote, Dr. Jayalath was saying it might be a good idea. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Not so fast, you might not get what you desire when they voteƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ said Gnanakoon. Oh, they are always with us, someone else interjected.

The tipping moment came when at the end when one of the conveners said that we had collected fifty thousand to be given to Ranil Wickremesinghe when he was here last. But someone ran away with the money bag. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-He is now in a South American location with a diplomatic passport, interjected someone from the audience. Reportedly the man invested in hedge funds and doubled his earning prior to taking off from Los Angeles .

The piece de resistance came from none other than Rupa Kumaratunga, sister-in-law of Chandrika Kumaratunga when she said, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- he work hard and get people to our election meetings but never win elections. Something is very wrong with the UNP.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ May be Sri Lankan people vote for the biggest liars, she added.

Dr Jayalath gave in very graphic description how Ranil Wickremesinghe who assembled the Sinhalese and the Tiger leaders into a room at Vavuniya in 2002 and delivered the no war pact. I was a witness to that meeting and saw his great vision for our country, he added. Secretary Tissa Attanayake described how the UNP leader offered to keep the Rajapaksa government going for two years in order to solve the ethnic crisis under an MOU, instead, the President had UNP members cross over and then took a military approach. Attanayake predicted that an economic crisis was looming which will hit Sri Lanka by the Sinhala New year in 2008. Newly elected President of the Branch Keerthi Werapitiya also expressed faith in the UNP to solve the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s problems. That is why we are gathered here he said.

http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items07/251207-3.html

Who should decide on the 13th Amendment ?

May 31st, 2013

by Chandre Dharmawardana, Ottawa, Canada.

A seemingly democratic-looking statement, popular with the liberal-minded types like the candle-vigil people of Colombo is the proposition, “It is up to them, and not toƒÆ’-¡  us, to decide what the scope of the 13th amendment should be.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Who are we to impose our will on them?

If the TNA is representative of the Tamils, then we know that they have always officially rejected the 13th amendment in any form. They have merely found it useful as a bone of contention. Last year at the party session in Batticaloa (Madakalapuwa) Mr. Sampathan rejected it. Here is Mr. Mavai Senathiraja again rejecting it again, as reported in news media (e.g., the Daily Mirror, 31st May 2013). Mr. Sumanthiran has rejected it in several well-known statements. The LTTE fought against the Indian Peace keeping forces sent to enforce the 13th amendment. It was the Indians, and not ‘us‘ or ‘them‘ who formulated and decided in favour of the 13th. No referendum on the question was ever held to ask Sri Lankans for their vote.

Who gets to decide?

So, the criterion “it is they, and not we who should decide” leads to no support for the 13-th amendment in any form. However, the left-over leftist activists (Tissa Vitharana, Dew Gunasekera, Vasudeva nanayakkara, Dayn Jayatillke et al)ƒÆ’-¡  have themselves unilaterally decided for the Tamils and are strongly pushing for the 13-th amendment together with police and land powers. The learned lawyers of the LLRC, drawn heavily from the candle people of Colombo also hold similar views, although their mandate forbade them to deal with constitutional matters. If the North decides to also have army, navy and air powers, then by the same logic ‘liberal-minded people’ should be supportive of it too. In effect, the explicit logic goes that any group should have the capacity for `self-determination’. Following this, writers like Wickremabahu Karunaratne and Kumar David had no difficulty in supporting the LTTE even at its most gory days of carnage.

Further more, when it is asserted that “It is they and NOT we who should decide”, how do we decide who is grouped with “we“, and who is grouped with “them“?
ƒÆ’-¡ 
Take some one like Mr.ƒÆ’-¡  Sumanthiran.ƒÆ’-¡  He went to schoolƒÆ’-¡  in Colombo from his young days, and was in the same class as one of my young relatives. SumanthiranƒÆ’-¡  ended up in the law school and practices law in Colombo. He lives in Colombo, just like my relative. How does Sumanthiran become a member of the ‘they‘ while my relative becomes excluded from the `they‘ and get included in the `we‘? This seems to be a racist decision.

ƒÆ’-¡ In fact, there is no “they” and “we“. All of us are in the same boat.

Furthermore, according to Jaffna custom, you cannot even sell your own property without the concurrence of your neighbours. That is the essence of the Thesavalam law. So, the North cannot do anything without the consent of the Mannar (Mannnarama), Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Trincomallee (Gokanna) regional administrations. They too have a stake in the final outcome, and they too get to decide. The NorthƒÆ’-¡  is populated by about 5% of the country’s demographic, producing no revenue for at least a generation, but costing the south immensly in money, life and limb. And yet, all the development money comes from the south. Furthermore, electric power and other resources come from, e.g.,ƒÆ’-¡  the hydro-stations and in the hill country. Hence all parts of the country are stake holders andƒÆ’-¡  they too need to have a say.

This is why the simplistic “they, and not we should decide” becomes faulty.
We live in an interconnected world where we need to co-exist. It may seem as if Tissa, Dew, Vasu and other leftover-leftists have attempted to simplify matters to a ‘yes or no formula’ involving two sides, and politics is just too complex for that. This was also the problem with the ‘workers versus capitalists’ interpretation of history — radically too simplistic.

Samasamajist policy of Parity for Sinhala and Tamil

The current politics of the left-over left has to be understood as a historical evolution from the 1960s-LSSP policy of parity for Sinhala and Tamil (although some theoreticians like V. Karalasingham argued for more Sinhala for the Tamils as well as greater sensitivity to the nationalist-awakening of the South). Many young idealists at the time viewed the parity proposal as a remarkably generous ‘principled gesture‘ . The Sinhala nationalists pointed out that it was utterly unfair for a mere 10-12% to impose itself on the remaining 90-88% of the population, requiring costly parallel administrations in two languages.

However, the appearance of bending-over-backwards to be fair to a minority disappeared when the real-politik of the decision was understood in detail. The Government Clerical Service Union (GCSU) was the basis of the leftist struggle, while the left also hoped to capture the Tamil-speaking plantation-workers sector. The power of the Jaffna English-school system was such that the GCSU had a much higher Tamil demographic than the 10-12% national voter base. It was essential for the LSSP to adopt the Sinhala-Tamil parity policy if they were to hold the GCSU and woo the plantations. Although the policy of linguistic parity was electorally suicidal, elections were deemed to be secondary in a revolutionary agenda. The left leaders believed that theƒÆ’-¡  populist SLFP was just the `Menshevik stage’, to be followed by the Marxists capturing power as a historical necessity, a la Marx and Giorgi Plekhanov.

The realization that the much-hyped ‘principled stand on parity‘ taken by the left leaders was a political pretence similar to the ITAK’s claim to be a ‘federal party’ was utterly disillusioning to many young soft-socialists. Nevertheless, the rhetoric that the sinhala-only policy will pave the way to two-nations had been ingrained in the thinking of most people – especially the candle people of Colombo. Thus we see that even the learned body of lawyers who comprised the LLRC naively concluded that the fundamental reason for ethnic strife is the `denial of language and other rights of the minorities‘.

The more fundamental reasons for communal strife, starting from the time of the Donoughmore constitution have been ably documented by the British historian Jane Russell. K. M. de Silva, Michael Roberts, Gerald Peiris and other learned writers have provided enough material to avoid the simple pit falls. The control of land ownership by a small upper class of Tamils living in Colombo, preferential politics of colonial administrations, continued enjoyment of caste privileges without interference from a central administration etc., demand for an equal role carved out on a racial basis (even though the Tamils formed only 10-15% of the population) were central to the origins of the strife going back to the 1930s.

The Tamil dissident writer Sebastian Rasalingam has beenƒÆ’-¡  a vocal critic of the simplistic view where Tamil Terrorism is regarded as resulting from language legislation and majoritarian hegemony. He argues that ethnic polarization was deliberately promoted by the ITAK with its sovereignty agenda, right from the 1949 Maradana declaration. Vaddukkodai (called Batakotte even in 1900) was the venu of a declaration affirming the ITAK-Arasu policy by even the Colombo Tamils who were previously closer to the old UNP. The caste-based hierarchical structure of Tamil society that demanded obedience from the lower strata was central to the success of the Tigers. Many of Rasalingam’s writings have been collected together and may be found at http://dh-web.org/place.names/rasalingam/.

In 1964 the LSSP leadership changed its tactics, abandoned the revolutionary path and joined the SLFP, now alienating the hard-socialists who broke away. The English-educated Colombo leftists could find no dialogue with the naive Sinhala revolutionaries of the JVP. They continued to believe in the earlier LSSP claim thatƒÆ’-¡  the `denial of language rights of the Tamils‘ to be the main cause of civil strife in Sri Lanka. Thus historically, the candle people of Colombo and the left-over leftists ended up in supporting devolution via the 13th amendment, while even the TNA does not support the ill-numbered amendment. Some leftist ministers like Vasudeva Nanayakkara have taken upon themselves to push for a tri-lingual Sri Lanka, forgetting the failure of the bilingual policy of the old LSSP, withƒÆ’-¡  `parity for Sinhala and Tamil’.

As we have argued elsewhere, there are simple technological or organizational solutions for cutting these political Gordian knots regarding language. The internet now enables anyone to have instant translations of normal conversation (but not poetry !) carried out in one language to be rendered in another language. Thus a Tamil seller of onions living in Jaffna can speak in Tamil to a Sinhalese buyerƒÆ’-¡  in Colombo who hears a good translated version in Sinhala, while storing the original message in the memory of the cell phone for reference. The technology is easy, inexpensive and practical. No one is forced to learn any new language. No devolution is necessary in Lanka which is a tiny patch of the global village which now extends into outer space, with space stations and a slew of earth satellites that we constantly link with, via our cell phones, GPS, facebook, twitter and other social media. Given a bullet train like in Japan, and a fast highway complementing A9,ƒÆ’-¡  Jaffna would become the Aluth- Wellawatta (Puthu-Vellavattai), a new suburb of Colombo!

The 13th amendment belongs to the stone age before communications moved to the 21st century.

ƒÆ’-¡ 

Editorial shows Wijeywardena clan staging fiery devotions to capture power again

May 31st, 2013

By Wendell W SolomonsƒÆ’-¡ 

In Sri Lanka mature people – outside the city elite – prefer legumes including several grams, for protein. However, in certain spots in the world travellers cannot find vegetables. We also know this was the case of the West also upto the time when fridges became available.

A unity for compassion ‘for animals’ must include humans. This mammal has been manipulated into devasting wars by ‘higher castes.’

Arriving from the USA in the 19th Century, Col Henry Steele Olcott fought against casteism by establishing schools to break the hold of Buddhist priests monopoly on education in the island, then given solely to monks. The radical newspaper editor Victor Ivan asked for caste to be banned from newspaper Matrimonials. If such a ban has not been seen or upheld by Wijeya media then compassion ‘for animals’ must be seen as a regular diversion of the Wijeywardena clan’s media away from compassion for the poor.

In 2012 the ‘Daily Mirror’ cut its nose to spite its face. To divert us, ƒÆ’-¡ it reveals caste discrimination in the Tamil minority, ignoring the depressed majority —

“Anyone keen to know and understand the dynamics of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s conflict will need to also realize that the cries of discrimination [against] the Sinhalese [were] an orchestrated plan to keep hidden from the world the fact that Tamils were and wanted to continue to remain divided by caste and class so that only a handful of Tamils would between themselves enjoy education, social and political development.”

http://www.dailymirror.lk/opinion/172-opinion/20667-tamils-must-live-without-caste-and-class.html

However, in 2006 when the civil war gave the Wijewardenas other concerns —

Generally, the Sinhalese caste system, which was softened by Buddhism, is losing its grip faster in part because the Buddha preached against castes. The Sinhalese system tends to identify caste members by their family name.

http://archives.dailymirror.lk/2006/01/25/feat.asp

Private media displayed the suicide by burning, the act of a sick monk. Buddhist tenants do not permit taking life, including one’s own so the monk made a strange display. This display has now been reported by the BBC to audiences worldwide.

The editorial in the Mirror tells us in black and white that the Wijeywardenas have events afoot to capture power again, “Madya Nadagam.” Ranil W of the 1983 house burnings, civil war and 17-year long Parliament, tries to promote himself as national leader during the time of high consumer prices. His nature allowed him the burnings of 1983 and the burnings today. The editor and his choice of writers, have let the cat out of the bag.

The disastrous inside story has now come out for us to see.

LetƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s all sacrifice and stop cattle slaughter

May 31st, 2013

Editorial-Daily Mirror

The self immolation of the Ven. Bowatte Indarathana Thera in front of the hallowed Dalada Maligawa on Vasak Day in support of the growing campaign for a ban on cattle slaughter needs to be addressed urgently and effectively so that this sacrifice could be turned into a positive dimension for religious and ethnic unity in diversity.
Unfortunately after the monkƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚a former member of the Jathika Hela UrumayaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚died last Saturday night some extremist elements try to create trouble which could have escalated into religious strife. There were heated and angry disputes among some groups and the police outside a funeral parlour in Colombo last Sunday when the police apparently acting on the orders from the top carried away the monkƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s body from the backdoor of the parlour and took it to his temple in Kahawatte. The furious demonstrators including some Buddhist monks said they wanted the body kept in Colombo for at least two hours to enable people to pay their respects. But the authorities probably feared this could stir up religious tension and rejected the request. The furious demonstrators then marched down Bauddhaloka Mawatha and wanted to go to Temple Trees to meet President Mahinda Rajapaksa. They were stopped at Thunmulla junction and only a small delegation was allowed to go to Temple Trees for a meeting with an official of the Presidential Secretariat while the other demonstrators sat on Galle Road and disrupted traffic.

On Tuesday when the monkƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s funeral was held at Kahawatte, trouble erupted again and people jeered at a senior minister who was scheduled to deliver the funeral oration.

The tragedy has now led to an intensified campaign for a ban on cattle slaughter as a first step to a possible ban on the killing of all animals. One of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s most qualified nutritionists Dr. Damayanthi Perera says there are solid and scientifically proved health reasons, moral and ethical factors for a ban on cattle slaughter. She believes school children and others should be made aware of the brutal way in which cattle are killed in most slaughter houses so that they will willingly and voluntarily support a ban on cattle slaughter as a first step towards the wonderful concept of vegetarianism. Most nutritionists believe Sri Lankans could get all the protein and nutrition they need through vegetarianism while animal protein is restricted to the milk of cows or goats. Most Buddhist and Hindu people who are sincere in their commitment to their spiritual principles do not eat beef or any form of meat and live a healthy life. While most Hindu or Saiva hotels maintain strict vegetarian meals, it is sad that many hotels owned by Buddhists sell all sorts of meat products. They also must be made aware of the need to practise what is preached in the Dhamma and put spirituality before profit.

The Catholic and Christian community in Sri Lanka also needs to seriously consider the need to avoid cattle slaughter as a first step to move towards vegetarianism as an act of unity with the Buddhist and Hindu people.

During the Vesak season this year Cardinal Malcolm Ranjith, the Archbishop of Colombo, appealed to Christians to avoid meat eating. We urge the Catholic Bishops Conference of Sri Lanka to consider possibility of supporting a ban on cattle slaughter as the first step towards stopping the killing of any animal for human consumption. This could be an important step towards strengthening the dialogue with all religions.

Some members of the Muslim community are also supporting such moves. As a compromise it is suggested that small quantities of beef and other meat could be imported for those who still want it.

http://www.dailymirror.lk/opinion/172-opinion/30142-lets-all-sacrifice-and-stop-cattle-slaughter-editorial.html

CHINA: A NATION WITH A DISTINCT BUDDHIST CHARACTER

May 30th, 2013

Dr. Daya Hewapathirane

China is the largest Buddhist country on earth in terms of its size and associated 1,070,893,447 Buddhist population. China accounts for 67% of the 1.6 billion total Buddhist population in the world. About 80% of ChinaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s total population is Buddhists (http: //thedhamma.com/buddhists_in_the_world.htm.). The magnitude of the Chinese Buddhist population is evident when compared to Japan which has the second highest Buddhist population of 122,022,837 which is 7.6% of the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s total Buddhist population and about 11% of the Chinese Buddhist population. For purposes of comparison, the estimated Buddhist population of Sri Lanka is 14.9 million (70% of her population) which is a mere 1.4% of the Chinese Buddhist population and less than 1% of the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s total Buddhist population. There are more than 200,000 Buddhist monks and nuns in China and about 16,000 Buddhist temples.

China is a nation entrenched with a distinct Buddhist character and identity and represents all schools and shades of Buddhism. It is the depository of the largest collection of historic Buddhist scriptures and documents in the world. Buddhism was the primary source of inspiration for the exceptional cultural achievements, the exceptional intuitive, innovative and imaginative powers, spiritual disposition and the outstanding creativity of the Chinese people. This is reflected vividly in the exceedingly rich tangible and intangible aspects of Chinese culture, social norms and values. The largest collection Buddhist sites, temples and structures in the world, are to be found in China. The direct impact of Buddhism is reflected in its unique visual arts and culture evident in its architecture, sculpture, engineering, performing arts, music, dance, drama, poetry and literature.

ƒÆ’-¡ IMPACT OF THE SILK ROAD

ƒÆ’-¡ From very early times, there had been some trade in exotic articles such as Chinese silk products, between China and India through the historic Silk Road. The Silk Road stretched from Japan to the Mediterranean, crisscrossing Eurasia from the first millennium BCE through the middle of the second millennium CE. The intersections among people from diverse cultures along the way promoted an unprecedented sharing of knowledge, skills, ideas, innovations and commodities. The Silk Road made a great contribution to the political, economic and cultural exchange between China and Central Asia, West Asia, India, Roman and Europe.

The total length of the trade route was about 10,000 kilometers (6,214 miles), of which approximately 3,000 kilometers or about 30% ran within the China’s territory. The Silk Road originated from the historic capital ChangƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an (present Xian), and developed during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE to 220 CE).ƒÆ’-¡  Dunhuang being famous for its Mogao CavesƒÆ’-¡ and other cultural relics was a key point of the route, where the trade road divided into three main routes: the Southern, Central and Northern.

The Southern Route wandered west along the northern foot of the Kunlun Mountains crossing the snow-covered Pamir mountainsƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  reaching present day India, Kashmir and Pakistan and extended to reach Europe through Islamabad, Kabul, Mashhad, Baghdad and Damascus. The Central Route ran west along the southern foot of Tianshan Mountains, and finally joining the Southern Route. The Northern Route went west along the northern foot of Tianshan Mountains to reach areas near the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

ƒÆ’-¡ ARRIVAL OF BUDDHISTS IN CHINA

ƒÆ’-¡ Rapid movement of people and ideas between China and the Indian region started with the introduction and spread of Buddhism to China. Indisputably, Buddhism was responsible for the phenomenal growth of civilizational ties between India and China for a period of nearly 1500 years. The earliest Indian Buddhist scholars who made contact with China through the Silk Road was in 217 BCE, during the Qin dynasty which was the first ruling dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BCE. It was followed by the Han Dynasty in 206 BCE. (The Great Wall of China was built during the Qin dynasty).

ƒÆ’-¡ THE HAN DYNASTYƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ There was a significant presence of Indian Buddhist community in China during its period under the Han dynasty which was the second imperial dynasty of China. Spanning over four centuries – 206 BCE to 220 CE, this period is considered as the Golden Age in Chinese history. It was marked byƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  economic prosperity. A vast Silk Road trade network was opened up during this time reaching places as far as the Mediterranean world.

ƒÆ’-¡ The beginning of effective introduction and expansion of Buddhism to China from India took place in the first century CE. It soon became a strong source of influence with far reaching impacts. In 67 CE, on the invitation of Emperor Ming Di of the Han dynasty, two Indian Buddhist monks Dharma Raksha and Kashyapa Matanga visited China bringing Buddhist scriptures and relics of the Buddha. China played host to Indian Buddhist monks without any hesitation and the latter played a key role in paving the way for the establishment of Buddhism in China, a country already nurturing indigenous philosophies of Confucianism and Taoism.ƒÆ’-¡ In 68 CE, a monastery was built for the Indian Buddhist monks at Luoyang in the Western Henan province. Thereafter, until about the eleventh century, many Indian monks visited China including hundreds of scholars and translators who produced Chinese versions of thousands of Sanskrit documents pertaining to Buddhism. During the period 982 to 1011 CE, over two hundred Sanskrit volumes were translated into Chinese.

ƒÆ’-¡ TRANSLATION OF BUDDHIST SCRIPTURESƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Foreign monks and their Chinese disciples formed the earliest Buddhist communities at Dunhuang in the late 3rd and early 4th centuries. Many Buddhist sutras were translated at Dunhuang and then distributed into central China. Monk Zhu Fahu, a famous translator of Buddhist texts, organized his translation team at Dunhuang and became known as “The Bodhisattva of Dunhuang.” The over 50,000 sutras, ancient documents, embroideries and portraits discovered here in 1900. The manuscripts are dated to belong to the period 406 to 1002 CE.

ƒÆ’-¡ The first Dunhuang cave was built by Indian Buddhist monks in 366 CE, to store Buddhist scriptures. The Dunhuang Caves consists of over 1000 caves were cut out of cliffs between the 4th and 14th centuries. Today 492 caves remains in the 1600-meter-long cliff face. As the westernmost Chinese station on the Silk route, Dunhuang became the ideal place for foreign monks to learn the Chinese language and culture before entering central China. Also, there was large scale development of Buddhist places of worship in China during this time, including thousands of cave temples associated with Dunhuang.

ARRIVAL OF KUMARAJIVA

ƒÆ’-¡ The famous monk KumƒÆ’-¾rajƒÆ’-¾«va (344 CE- 413 CE) revolutionized Chinese Buddhism with his high quality translations of Buddhist texts. KumƒÆ’-¾rajƒÆ’-¾«va was a Kuchean Buddhist monk, scholar, and translator. Kucha or Kuche was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin and south of the Muzat River. KumƒÆ’-¾rajƒÆ’-¾«va’s father was Indian Brahamin and mother was a Buddhist Chinese princess. Due to his efforts Buddhism in China became not only recognized for its practice methods, but also as high philosophy and religion.ƒÆ’-¡  He is remembered for the prolific translation of Buddhist texts written in Sanskrit to Chinese he carried out during his later life.

ƒÆ’-¡ He first studied teachings of the Sarvastivada also called Vaibhashika a school of early Buddhism in India which isƒÆ’-¡  one of the several schools of Theravada Buddhism that developed during the first four or five centuries after the Buddha’s death. The Sarvastivada school was particularly influential in northwestern India and parts of Southeast Asia. He later studied under BuddhasvƒÆ’-¾min who was a KucheanƒÆ’-¡  Sarvastivadan Buddhist monk and great scholar who presided over all of Kucha‘s Buddhist temples and nunneries during part of the fourth century.

He finally became a MahƒÆ’-¾yƒÆ’-¾na adherent, studying the Madhyamaka doctrine of Nagarjuna. NƒÆ’-¾gƒÆ’-¾rjuna (150ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”250 CE) was an Indian philosopher who founded the Madhyamaka school of MahƒÆ’-¾yƒÆ’-¾na Buddhism. His writings are the basis for the formation of the Madhyamaka school, which was transmitted to China under the name of the Three Treatise (Sanlun) School. He is credited with developing the philosophy of the Prajnaparamita sutras, and was closely associated with the Buddhist university of Nalanda. In the Jodo Shinshu branch of Buddhism, he is considered the First Patriarch.ƒÆ’-¡  According to the MƒÆ’-¾dhyamikas, all phenomena are empty of “substance” or “essence” (Sanskrit: svabhƒÆ’-¾va), meaning that they have no intrinsic, independent reality apart from the causes and conditions from which they arose.

In 379 CE, KumƒÆ’-¾rajƒÆ’-¾«va’s fame reached China. Upon his arrival in the capital of Chang’an he was introduced to the emperor Yao Xing, the court, and the Buddhist leaders. He was hailed as a great master from the Western regions, and immediately took up a very high position in Chinese Buddhist circles of the time, being given the title of National Teacher. KumƒÆ’-¾rajƒÆ’-¾«va translated many sutras into Chinese. Among the most important texts translated by KumƒÆ’-¾rajƒÆ’-¾«va are the Diamond Sutra, Amitabha Sutra, Lotus Sutra, the Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra, MƒÆ’-¦«lamadhyamakakƒÆ’-¾rikƒÆ’-¾, AƒÆ’‚¡¹£ƒÆ’‚¡¹­asƒÆ’-¾hasrikƒÆ’-¾ PrajƒÆ’†’±ƒÆ’-¾pƒÆ’-¾ramitƒÆ’-¾ SƒÆ’-¦«tra, MahƒÆ’-¾prajƒÆ’†’±ƒÆ’-¾pƒÆ’-¾ramitƒÆ’-¾ UpadeƒÆ’-¦”‚ºa which was a commentary (attributed to Nagarjuna) on the PaƒÆ’†’±caviƒÆ’‚¡¹ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’-¦”‚ºatisƒÆ’-¾hasrikƒÆ’-¾ PrajƒÆ’†’±ƒÆ’-¾pƒÆ’-¾ramitƒÆ’-¾ SƒÆ’-¦«tra.

BUDDHIST ART, MUSIC,ƒÆ’-¡  ARCHITECTURE ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

The influence of the artistic styles and techniques of India, Greece and other Middle East countries can also be traced. The numerous murals are priceless both academically and artistically. The Mogao caves are one of the best preserved and most extensive collections of Buddhist paintings and sculptures in the world. Foreign merchants and monks from the West as well as officials and soldiers from central China brought their own cultures to Dunhuang and made the trading center a cultural “melting pot.”

ƒÆ’-¡ Buddhism had a determining influence on classical Chinese works of art. As a treasure house of the ancient artistic carving, the Dunghuang, Yungang and Longmen Grottos were created and developed with Chinese characteristics after absorbing something from the ancient Indian art, especially the art of Gandara. The Mogaoku of Dunhuang Grottos, an artistic palace erected in the desert reflects the organic synthesis of arts between India, Central Asia and China. The Buddhist Jataka stories were common themes forƒÆ’-¡  ancient Chinese artists. The freehand brushwork in traditional Chinese painting is said to have been influenced by Zen Buddhism.

In addition, a large volume of Tang Dynasty Buddhist musical compositions was uncovered in the Dunhuang caves. These show the emergence of a style of symbols employed by the monasticƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s of hundreds of years ago to describe and teach the chanting of Buddhist doctrines. Chinese literature was deeply influenced by Buddhism.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  The process of translation of the Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Chinese had given impetus to a new development of the Chinese poem, prose and novel.

The architectural style of the Buddhist temples and pagodas in China shows the strong influence of Buddhist culture. The Brick Pagoda of Songshan Songyue Temple of China’s Henan Province, the Wood Pagoda of Yingxian of Shanxi Province and the Stone Pagoda of Kaiyuan Temple of Fujian Province, all of these have served as the valuable objects for the study of history of the ancient Chinese architecture.

From mid 4th century CE to mid10th century CE Buddhist architecture saw great development in both numbers and size of temples and by the end of the Northern Wei Dynasty, there were over 1400 temples in Luoyang the capital city and over 40,000 throughout the country. Temple architects began to use sophisticated courtyard complex in their temples and the layout of different buildings employed a systematic arrangement similar to the symmetrical palace structure rather than the early pagoda-centered form. In fact, the layout of the Chinese Buddhist temple observed the layout of traditional Chinese palace architecture. It usually has a group of courtyards and with side rooms flanked symmetrically on each side.

THE TANG DYNASTYƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Spanning from 618 to 907 CE, the Tang Dynasty is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, equal to or according to some, surpassing the earlier Han Dynasty. It had its capital at Chang’an (present-day Xi’an) which was the most populous city in the world at the time with an estimated population of above 50 million. Chinese culture matured and flourished during the Tang era and Buddhism became a major influence in Chinese culture, with native Chinese sects gaining prominence. The Tang exerted a powerful cultural influence over neighboring states of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.

ƒÆ’-¡ BODHISATVA CONCEPT

ƒÆ’-¡ The economic, military, political and cultural activities which took place at these cross-roads provided the basis for the flourishing of one of China’s earliest Buddhist centers. MahƒÆ’-¾yƒÆ’-¾na Buddhism which developed in China is based principally upon the path of a bodhisattva where everyone is encouraged to become bodhisattvas working for the complete enlightenment of all beings. In the 4th century CE, Bodhisatvas or enlightened beings of Mahayana Buddhism, in particular Manjusri and Avalokitesvara became popular in China.

ƒÆ’-¡ Due to the wide proliferation of Buddhist texts available in Chinese and the large number of foreign monks who came to teach Buddhism in China, various new and independent traditions emerged. Among the most influential of these was the practice of Pure Land Buddhism established by Hui Yuan, which focused on AmitƒÆ’-¾bha Buddha and his western pure land. Another major early tradition was the Tiantai school, founded by Zhiyi, which is based upon the primacy of the Lotus Sutra, along with supplementary sƒÆ’-¦«tras and commentaries. Zhiyi wrote several works that become important and widely read meditation manuals in China.

PRINTING OF BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES

ƒÆ’-¡ Among the many notable innovations during the Tang era was the development of woodblock printing. Yhe development of printing in China opened new possibilities for public communication and had enormous consequences for social and political life in China and elsewhere. The first printed book in the world was the Chinese translation of an Indian Sanskrit treatise, the so-called Diamond Sutra, which was printed in China in 868 CE. This is the oldest surviving printed book. Printing is considered as one of the greatest inventions of ancient China. The original form of printing invented in China is referred to as block printing. Here individual sheets of paper were pressed against wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved into them. This method was first recorded in China in the Tang Dynasty. Woodblock was used to print Buddhist scripture during the Zhenguan years (627~649 A.D.). The oldest known surviving printed work is a woodblock-printed Buddhist scripture in Chinese of Wu Zetian period (684~705 A.D.), discovered in Tubofan, Xinjiang province, China in 1906, it is now stored in a calligraphy museum in Tokyo, Japan.

ƒÆ’-¡ The Chinese Canon is called the Ta-ts’ang-ching or “Great Scripture Store.” The first complete printing of the “Three Baskets” or Tripitaka was completed in 983 C.E., and known as the Shu-pen or Szechuan edition. It included 1076 texts in 480 cases. A number of other editions of the modern Chinese Canon were made thereafter. It is significant to note that nearly every attempt at early printing in China, Korea, and Japan was undertaken by Buddhists.

The Tang dynasty was in decline by the 9th century, although art and culture continued to flourish. Between 960 and 1279 CE, Buddhism began its process of localization, where Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, the three major philosophic schools flowed together taking on a new aspect in the Chinese society. Confucianism had absorbed a lot from Buddhism and given birth to Neo-Confucianism. Taoism had done the same and also paved a way for the new sects such as Quan Zheng Jiao and Taiyi Jiao. Buddhism had finally completed its localization and become a major part of the Chinese traditional culture. Neo-Confucianism was deeply influenced by Buddhism.

CHAN OR ZEN BUDDHISM

Chan or Zen Buddhist practices or ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”dhyanaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ in Sanskrit were introduced to China from India in the early 5th century CE by the Indian Buddhist monk Bodhidharma who since become a legendary figure. Zen is a school of MahƒÆ’-¾yƒÆ’-¾na Buddhism. The Japanese word Zen is derived from the Chinese word ChƒÆ’†’¡n, which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit word dhyƒÆ’-¾na, which means “meditation” or “meditative state”. The emergence of Zen as a distinct school of Buddhism was first documented in China in the 7th century CE. From China, Zen spread south to Vietnam, and east to Korea and Japan. Zen emphasizes experiential prajƒÆ’†’±ƒÆ’-¾ in the attainment of enlightenment. It de-emphasizes theoretical knowledge in favor of direct realization through meditation and dhamma practice. The principal teachings and teaching methods of ChƒÆ’†’¡n were later often known for the use of the PrajƒÆ’†’±ƒÆ’-¾pƒÆ’-¾ramitƒÆ’-¾ sƒÆ’-¦«tras. The LaƒÆ’‚¡¹”‚¦kƒÆ’-¾vatƒÆ’-¾ra SƒÆ’-¦«tra and the Diamond SƒÆ’-¦«tra (VajracchedikƒÆ’-¾ PrajƒÆ’†’±ƒÆ’-¾pƒÆ’-¾ramitƒÆ’-¾ SƒÆ’-¦«tra) are the principle texts of the ChƒÆ’†’¡n School. The Zen teaching was a separate transmission outside the scriptural teachings that did not posit any written texts as sacred. Zen pointed directly to the human mind to enable people to see their real nature and become BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s. Through Zen there developed a way which concentrated on direct experience rather than on rational creeds or revealed scriptures. Wisdom was passed, not through words, but through a lineage of one-to-one direct transmission of thought from teacher to student. It is commonly taught that such lineage continued all the way from the Buddha’s time.

CHINESE BUDDHIST TRAVELERS

ƒÆ’-¡ Fa Hien (Fa Xian) (399-412 CE) is one of the best known first Chinese travelers to India in the fifth century and left elaborate records of his observations and experiences in his ten years of extensive travels in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. He was a Buddhist scholar monk and his mission was to acquire Sanskrit Buddhist scriptures from India with the intention of making them available in Chinese translations. His travelogue is filled with accounts of early Buddhism and also of the geography and history of many countries along the Silk Road.

Fa-Hien sojourned in Sri Lanka in 413 AD. His journey to Sri Lanka was by way of Tibet crossing the Himalayas near the river Indus, subsequently sailing on the Hooghly on a vessel bound forƒÆ’-¡  the island of ‘Sihaladvip’ asƒÆ’-¡  Sri Lanka was referred to in his writings.ƒÆ’-¡  Fa-Hien gives a fascinating detailed description of Anuradhapura and the king’s palace and the Abayagiri monastery where five thousand monks resided at the time of his visit. Fa-Hien’s writings and those of Xuanzang as well as other ancient Chinese records referred to Sri Lanka as the land of Sinhalas. The different Chinese names Shizi guo, Sit Tio, Si Tiao, She Tiao, Seng-Kia-lo denoted the same meaning – Simhala, Sinhaladipa or Kingdom of the Lions.

Xuanzang (Hsuan-tsang) is by far the most famous visitor to India from China, who traveled there in the seventh century (629-664 CE). Xuanzang was essentially Confucian but at a young age Xuanzang expressed interest in becoming a Buddhist monk and was ordained as one at the age of twenty. The myriad contradictions and discrepancies in the texts at that time prompted Xuanzang to decide to go to India and study in the cradle of Buddhism.ƒÆ’-¡  At Chang’an he studied foreign languages and began his mastery of Sanskrit . This great Buddhist scholar monk was a prolific translator and traveler associated with the early Tang period. In his autobiography, Xuanzang records in detail his 17 year trip to India.

He toured the Indian sub continent and neighboring areas most extensively for sixteen years.ƒÆ’-¡  He spent two years at Nalanda, the great Buddhist university of Bihar where he was in the company of several thousand scholar-monks. At Nalanda, in addition to his exposure to the Yogacara school of Buddhism, he studied philosophy, logic, Sanskrit, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, and grammar. Xuanzang met the venerable Silabhadra, the monastery’s superior, his omniscient master and incomparable metaphysician who made known to him the ultimate secrets of the idealist systems…the founders of Mahayana idealism, Asanga and Vasubandhu.

During his travels he studied with many Buddhist masters, especially at the famous center of Buddhist learning at NƒÆ’-¾landa University. When he returned, he brought with him some 657 Sanskrit texts. With the emperor’s support, he set up a large translation bureau in Chang’an (present-day Xi’an), drawing students and collaborators from all over East Asia. He is credited with the translation of some 1,330 fascicles of scriptures into Chinese. His strongest personal interest in Buddhism was in the field of YogƒÆ’-¾cƒÆ’-¾ra. YogƒÆ’-¾cƒÆ’-¾ra (Sanskrit; literally: “yoga practice”)ƒÆ’-¡  was an influential school of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing phenomenologyƒÆ’-¡  ontology through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices. It developed within Indian MahƒÆ’-¾yƒÆ’-¾na Buddhism in about the 4th century CE. YogƒÆ’-¾cƒÆ’-¾ra discourse is founded on the existential truth of the human condition: there is nothing that humanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s experience that is not mediated by mind.

On his return to the capital ChangƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an in 645 CE, Xuanzang was greeted with much honour. Refusing all high civil appointments offered by Emperor Taizong of Tang he retired to a monastery and devoted his energy to translating Buddhist texts until his death in 664 CE. Xuanzang was known for his extensive but careful translations of Sanskrit Buddhist texts to Chinese, which have enabled subsequent recoveries of lost Indian Buddhist texts from the translated Chinese copies. He is credited with writing or compiling the Cheng Weishi Lun as a commentary on these texts. His translation of the Heart Sutra became and remains the standard in all East Asian Buddhist sects.

In 646, under the Emperor’s request, Xuanzang completed his book Great Tang Records on the Western RegionsƒÆ’-¡  which has become one of the primary sources for the study of medieval Central Asia and India. It remains the longest and most detailed account of the countries of Central and South Asia that has been bestowed upon posterity by a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim. Xuanzang obtained and translated 657 Sanskrit Buddhist works. He received the best education on Buddhism he could find throughout India. His version of the Heart Sutra is the basis for all Chinese commentaries on the sutra, and recitations throughout China, Korea and Japan.

Yi Jing, who came to India shortly after Xuanzang’s visit, also studied in Nalanda, combining his work on Buddhism with studies of medicine, public health care and mathematics.ƒÆ’-¡  He was a Buddhist monk, fluent in Sanskrit and was familiar with the Indian literature on mathematics. Yi Jing’s translation of Buddhist works included texts by practitioners of Tantrism, whose esoteric traditions placed a strong emphasis on meditation. Being well exposed to Tantrism, with his mathematical tendencies, he dealt with a variety of analytical and computational problems. Tantrism became a major force in China in the seventh and eighth centuries, and since many Tantric scholars had a strong interest in mathematics (perhaps connected, at least initially, with the Tantric fascination with numbers). Yi Jing was in India for over two decades in the late 7th century CE.

The benefits to India and China through Buddhism need to be seen under a two way process. The spiritual advantages gained by China through Indian Buddhism, have been very important for the enrichment of Chinese civilization. The Chinese societyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s attraction to Buddhism was also due to the Buddhist revelation of a new spiritual world, which the traditional Confucianism and Taoism could not offer. Moreover, China was able to blend and synthesize Buddhism, with Confucian and Taoist thoughts.

ƒÆ’-¡ SECULAR IMPACTS

ƒÆ’-¡ Along with the strong impact of Buddhism felt in China, there were also wide ranging secular impacts between the two countries with exchanges of ideas in areas such as Linguistics, Literature, Architecture, Science, Mathematics, Medicine and Music. Many Indian scholars including astronomers and mathematicians and other professionals visited China particularly in the 7th and 8th centuries. It is reported that in the 8th century, an Indian astronomer names Gautama Siddhartha became the President of the Board of Astronomy in China. Buddhism had contributed much and influenced China’s astronomy and medicine. It is reported that there were many medicine and pharmacy books that were translated from Indian languages into Chinese.

It is recorded that in 647 CE, a delegation of Buddhist scholars from China visited India. As it happens, India is the only country in the outside world to which scholars from ancient China went for their education and training. There are records of more than two hundred distinguished Chinese scholars who spent extensive periods of time in India in the second half of the first millennium. The Chinese primarily sought knowledge of Sanskrit and of Buddhist literature, but they were interested in other areas of knowledge as well. Chinese construction of temples and bridges was much influenced by ideas that came from India through Buddhism.

WUSHU – CHINESE MARTIAL ARTS

ƒÆ’-¡ Chinese martial arts referred to by the Mandarin Chinese term wushu ƒÆ’-¡ and popularly known as kung fu (Chinese pinyin: gƒÆ’-¦ngfu), are a number of fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. The need for self defense and preservation of life, hunting and military training in ancient China were the initial reasons for the origin ofƒÆ’-¡  Chinese martial arts. According to legend, Chinese martial arts originated during the semi-mythical Xia Dynasty more than 4,000 years ago. The ideas associated with Chinese martial arts changed with the evolution of Chinese society and over time acquired some philosophical bases.

ƒÆ’-¡ Asian martial arts are linked with religion and spirituality. Numerous systems are reputed to have been founded, disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns. The Kshatriya caste of Hindus have an ancient martial art named Shastra vidhya. Japanese styles like aikido, have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace. The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is likely a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts. During the Warring States period of Chinese history (480-221 BCE) extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War (c. 350 BCE). An early legend in martial arts tells the tale of an Indian prince turned monk named Bodhidharma, believed to have lived around 550 CE. Regarded as the founder of Zen Buddhism, the martial virtues of discipline, humility, restraint and respect are attributed to this philosophy. Thus the values of ethical conduct and self discipline have been intertwined with martial practice since the earliest times.

The Shaolin temple or the Shaolin Buddhist Monastery founded in the 5th century, was an important historic Mahayana Buddhist monastery,ƒÆ’-¡  known for its association with Chinese martial arts and particularly with Shaolin Kung Fu. The Shaolin style is regarded as amongst the first institutionalized Chinese martial arts. The oldest evidence of Shaolin participation in combat was the defense of the Shaolin Monastery from bandits around 610 CE. Between the 16th and 17th centuries the Buddhist monks of Shaolin practiced martial arts and martial practice had become an integral element of Shaolin monastic life.ƒÆ’-¡  References to martial arts practice in Shaolin appear in various literary genres of the late Ming: the epitaphs of Shaolin warrior monks, martial-arts manuals, military encyclopedias, historical writings, travelogues, fiction and poetry.

In many Chinese martial arts, meditation is considered to be an important component of basic training. Meditation can be used to develop focus, mental clarity and can act as a basis for training. Traditional Chinese schools of martial arts, such as Shaolin monks, often dealt with the study of martial arts not just as a means of self-defense or mental training, but as a system of ethics. Wude means martial morality, and is an important element of Chinese martial arts. The words “wu” which means martial, and “de” which means morality. Wude deals with two aspects; “morality of deed” and “morality of mind”. Morality of deed concerns social relations; morality of mind is meant to cultivate the inner harmony between the emotional mind and the wisdom mind (Hui). The ultimate goal is reaching “no extremity” (Wuji) (closely related to the Taoist concept of wu wei), where both wisdom and emotions are in harmony with each other. If a student is to attain a high level of skill, possession of Wude is considered essential. Morality of Deed consists of Humility, Respect, Righteousness, Trust and Loyalty and Morality of Mind consists of Will, Endeavour, Perseverance, Patience and Courage. Self-control, determination and concentration characterize the trainee, who always reacts productively and without stress when the circumstances demand it. Self-defense, then, and strong self-control result from serious training. Each individual learns about themselves, and not only do their capabilities improve, but also their sense of respect and justice.

CHALLENGES FACED BY BUDDHISM

ƒÆ’-¡ The spread of Indian Buddhism in China was however not smooth, mainly due to the attitude of the Confucianists at different stages considering Buddhism as a foreign religion which threatened their supremacy over matters of state. Buddhism was never accepted as a state religion in China despite the strong support it received from Chinese emperors in different periods.

ƒÆ’-¡ Initially, Buddhism in China faced a number of difficulties in becoming established. The concept of monasticism and the aversion to social affairs seemed to contradict the long-established norms and standards established in Chinese society. Some even declared that Buddhism was harmful to the authority of the state, that Buddhist monasteries contributed nothing to the economic prosperity of China. However, Buddhism was often associated with Taoism in its ascetic meditative tradition, and for this reason a concept-matching system was used by some early Indian translators, to adapt native Buddhist ideas onto Taoist ideas and terminology. Buddhism was of appeal to Chinese intellectuals and elites and later it gained imperial and courtly support.ƒÆ’-¡  Buddhism’s emphasis on morality and ritual appealed to Confucianists and the desire to cultivate inner wisdom appealed to Daoists.

MODERN CHINESE BUDDHISM

The most popular form of Buddhism in both mainland China and Taiwan is the Pure Land Buddhism, also known as Amidism. It is a branch of mainstream Mahayana Buddhism and currently is the most popular school of Buddhism in Asia as a whole. Pure Land Buddhism is based upon the Pure Land sutras first brought to China circa 150, which describe Amitabha, an ancient Buddha. This concept, personified or otherwise, can be translated variously but is usually shortened to “Amituo” or “Amitofo” (in Chinese Mandarin language) “Amida” in Japanese and “Amito” in Korean. Today Pure Land is the dominant form of Buddhism in Japan.

Contemporary Pure Land traditions see the Buddha Amitabha preaching the Dharma in his Buddha-field called the “Pure Land”ƒÆ’-¡  or “Western heaven” (a region offering respite from karmic transmigration. In such traditions, entering the Pure Land is popularly perceived as equivalent to the attainment of nirvana. In fact, the main idea behind Pure Land Buddhism is that nirvana is no longer practical nor possible to attain in our present day. Instead, devotion to Amitabha will gain one enough karmic merit to go to the Pure Land (reminiscent of Heaven) from which Nirvana will be easier to attain, because in this paradise there are no negative experiences so no new negative karma is created. Existing negative karma would disappear. Some Pure Land Buddhists have taught that in order for a devotee to be reborn in Amitabha’s Western Paradise, they should chant or repeat a mantra or prayer to Amitabha as often as possible to reinforce a proper and sincere state of mind. This fairly simple form of veneration has contributed greatly to its popularity. Theravada Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism exist in the southwest and the north.

INFLUENCE OF BUDDHISM AND RECENT TRENDS

ƒÆ’-¡ Long after Buddhism ceased to be a major force in India, it continued to influence the development of material culture in China. A recent publication by John Kieschnick titled The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture, enumerates the diverse ways in which Buddhism and material culture interacted in China. It shows how Buddhism had a profound effect on the material world of the Chinese.ƒÆ’-¡  Buddhism has profoundly affected Chinese culture, politics, literature and philosophy. China also had a great effect upon Buddhism and Chinese Buddhism is a very distinct entity from its Indian roots.

ƒÆ’-¡ The 1978 Constitution of the People’s Republic of China guarantees freedom of religion with some restrictions. There are all signs that Buddhism is making a comeback in China after the set back during the Cultural Revolution. Buddhism and Taoism are being supported as an integral part of Chinese culture. Since the mid-1990s there has been a massive program to rebuild Buddhist temples that were destroyed in the Cultural Revolution.

In recent decades the Chinese government has given more support to Buddhism than other faiths. This has permitted the rise of a string of outward-looking and ambitious temples in recent years, the most prominent among them being the Guangxiao Temple in Guangdong Province, which claims to be the oldest and biggest temple in south China. China now has about 16,000 Buddhist temples and about 200,000 Buddhist monks and nuns, according to the State Administration for Religious Affairs. The number is believed to be rising. China has many of the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s highest Buddha statutes and statutes of deities. Most of them built in the 2000ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s. The worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s tallest Buddha statute is the Spring temple statue located in Henan, and the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s tallest stupa (pagoda) (148 metres high) was built in China in 2007. It is the Femen temple of Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. (View on Youtube Chinese Buddhist Cave Shrines)

These are holy days based on the Chinese lunar calendar when Chinese Buddhists celebrate by visiting temples to make offerings of prayers, incense, fruits, flowers and donations. On such days they observe the moral precepts very strictly as well as a full dayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s vegetarian diet, a practice that is said to have originated in China.

In April 2006 China hosted the World Buddhist Forum, in which Buddhist scholars and monks from many countries were present.ƒÆ’-¡  It was sponsored by China’s Buddhist Association and Religious Culture Communication Association and was the first international Buddhist conference since the founding of the PeopleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Republic China in 1949.ƒÆ’-¡  Over 1,000 Buddhist monks and experts in Buddhism from 37 countries and regions attended the forum, giving speeches or participating in discussions under the theme of “A harmonious world begins in the mind.” The Forum was held in the Zhejiang Province.

In fact, Chinese Buddhism is re-emerging as a major global force. The World Buddhist Forum held in 2006 shows that China has embarked upon a new role of promoting Buddhism internationally.ƒÆ’-¡  The Chinese leadership sees in Buddhism a noble path for the evolution of Chinese society. Ye Xiaowen, the Director of State Administration for Religious Affairs, said recently that Buddhism can reduce social divisions in China better than Islam and Christianity, adding Buddhism can help believers cope with fast-changing society plagued by wealth gap and social unrest. As Senaka Weeraratna says quite justifiably, China may well claim the leadership of the Buddhist world to better project its image and Chinese culture, which is rooted in Buddhism, and in addition effectively counter American led aggressive evangelism in many parts of the world.

Dr. Daya Hewapathirane,ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  CANADAƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

Sri Lanka Ministry of External Affairs EXCLUDES Buddhist Organizations from meeting Thai PM?

May 30th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

The Prime Minister of Thailand arrives in Sri Lanka onƒÆ’-¡ May 31, 2013ƒÆ’-¡ to mark the anniversary of a highly significant Buddhist event. Her arrival is to promote Buddhism and commemorate the Buddhist links between the two nations. Given the nature of her visit it is questionable why the Minister and Secretary of the Ministry of External Affairs have excluded ALL the renowned Buddhist Organizations most of whom have direct links with Thailand and who are patronized by the Thai King himself.

While including as invites all and sundry the Sri Lankan External Affairs Ministry has left out sending invites to the Regional Centers of the World Fellowship of Buddhists led by the All Ceylon Buddhist Congress, World Fellowship of Buddhists-SL Branch, German Dharmadutta Society, SUCCESS Sri Lanka (Jayagrahanaya), and other leading Buddhist organizations like Dharmavijaya Foundation and YMBA.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

The World Fellowship of Buddhists (WFB) is given patronage by the Government of Thailand and its main office is currently situated in Bangkok and has special patronage of H.E. the King of Thailand and the patron of the WFB is a relative of the King of Thailand. Even the Thai Prime Minister and the local Thai Embassy officials will also wonder why key lay Buddhist Organizations are not part of the invitees and may read their absence differently ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” so is there a hidden agenda?

These Sri Lankan Buddhist Organizations have every right to have an audience with the Thai Prime Minister to discuss matters concerning the challenges to Buddhism both locally and internationally, but the question is why have these local heads being deliberately left out.

This isƒÆ’-¡ notƒÆ’-¡ how the External Affairs Ministry, its Minister and its Secretary should follow protocol. Should we be surprised that when proper protocols are not followed and the voice of the Buddhists is disregarded that the country had to witness a self-immolation of a Buddhist monk in Sri Lanka whose appeals were ignored and led him to sacrifice his life for a noble cause while his other brother joined a long list of soldiers (Ranaviru) who defended and died and thereby sacrificed his life on behalf of the Sri Lankan nation. The country is morally indebted to this patriotic family.

The External Affairs Ministry need to correct this ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-mistakeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ forthwith and extend invitations to the heads of these Buddhist organizations as guests alongside the preferred list that has been already been prepared and sent.

The Buddhist public asks for no less.

ƒÆ’-¡ 

 

Life Abroad – Part 29: SORTING DIPLOMATS FROM THE OFFICERS

May 30th, 2013

Dr. Tilak Fernando

At a time the Sri Lankan foreign service, especially the diplomatic Corps, is being subjected to criticism by certain section of the Sri Lankan community both at home and abroad, it would be prudent to reminisce on a Sri Lankan diplomat, Sir Edwin Wijeyeratne, who had lived up to his profile and discharged his duties as a professional and a charismatic ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ambassadorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ to Mother Lanka.

History of Ceylon reveals that long before the National Congress saw the light of day, a young group of Ceylonese fiery men, including R. Sri Pathmanathan and R. Nadarajah, two sons of the wealthiest citizens of Colombo at the time, were absolutely patriotic to the core and had taken an oath to liberate ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”CeylonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and signed in blood. This had been done in the midst of several other ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Reform groupsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ which had surfaced intermittently without a definite focus to see their mission fulfilled.

Young hot blood


King George VI, Lady Leela, Sir Edwin Wijeyeratne and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother

The idea of the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”young and hot bloodƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ began to spread like wildfire; seemingly patriots such as E.T. Silva, M.A. Arunalandan, R.S.S. Gunawardena, Phillips Tambyah and a prominent Civil Servant, Paulus Pieris, risked his prestigious job to join the band of young men who were prepared to be patriots of no mean calibre.

Edwin Wijeyeratne was born on January 8, 1889 at Rambukkana to Gabrial Wijeyeratne, a much-respected notary public, and Dona Catherina Wickremasinghe Jayasekera Tennekoon, daughter of Jayasekera Tennekoon, notary. Wijeyeratne family hailed from Kotte, whose ancestors were famed for fighting at Mulleriyawa and Balana.

Wijeyeratne Senior, the first Sinhala notary in the entire four Korales had shifted from Utuwankande, Mawanella to Kegalle during the early part of the 16th Century, fleeing from the Portuguese whom they had fought with.

The family continued intermarrying with the distinguished Walauwes of Kotte, Madapatha and Matara. There were seven luminaries in Edwin Wijeyeratne mother’s family banner, given by King Parakrama Bahu VI of Kotte to an ancestor. Edwin was the eldest son of his parents.

Edwin Wijeyeratne was initially educated at the village school of Rambukkana; subsequently at St. Joseph’s College, Colombo where he passed the senior examination with Honours, earning 15 accolades at the final school prize giving.

At the demise of his father he took up lecturing at the Lorenz Tutory, simultaneously showing an interest in journalism and served under a renowned editor in Ceylon, Armand de Souza, whom Governors feared and officials dreaded.

The riots of 1925 nearly brought a martyrƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s crown upon Edwin. He was arrested and had a narrow escape. Simultaneously young Pedris was also taken into custody for his activities ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”against the lawƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. Others, F. R., D. C. and D. S. Senanayake, Baron Jayatilaka, Dr. C. A. Hewavitarne, W. A. de Silva, Arthur V. Dias, John Silva, Piyadasa Sirisena, A. E. Goonesinghe and several others who had done nothing to incite were also imprisoned.

Early career

When Sir Ponnambalam Arunachalam and Sir James Peiris formed the Ceylon Congress, Edwin being a colleague became a co-founder. By this time he had passed out as a lawyer and had a flourishing practice in his hometown, Kegalle. Being an expert in Civil and Kandyan Law and Buddhist Ecclesiastical Law he became a live wire in the Ceylon National Congress and a close friend of D.S. Senanayake.

In 1929 Edwin Wijeyeratne passed out as an advocate. In 1931 he entered the State Council from Kegalle and served till 1936, displaying great powers of oratory. He was an authority on parliamentary procedure, yet he did not stand for re-election in 1936.

He remained at the bar from 1936 to 1947. Edwin Wijeyeratne was appointed as President of the Ceylon National Congress on December 21, 1940. During this period he led the Ceylon National Congress delegation to London with Henry Amarasuriya and George E. de Silva.

The delegation created an excellent impression on Conservative and Labour Parliamentary groups.

In 1947 Edwin Wijeyeratne was appointed to the Senate and became the Minister of Home Affairs and Rural Development in D. S. Senanayake’s government.

Family life

Edwin Wijeyeratne married Leela Pethiyagoda Kumarihamy whose ancestors had fought with Arawwawala Adigar to prevent the Sinhala throne from passing to the Malabars. Arawwawala and Petiyagoda were executed.

Edwin and Lady Wijeyeratne were blessed with three sons. The eldest Tissa Wijeyeratne Barrister at Law, served as Additional Secretary to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Defence, Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Ambassador to France and Switzerland and Senior Advisor (Foreign Affairs) to the Prime Minister.

The second, Deshamanya Dr. Nissanka Wijeyeratne, served as the Government Agent in Anuradhapura and Jaffna, Secretary to Ministry Cultural Affairs, Secretary to Ministry of Information Broadcasting and Transport, Diyawadana Nilame of Sri Dalada Maligawa Kandy, Member of Parliament, Minister of Education, Higher Education and Justice, Member Governing Body of UNESCO head quarters in Paris and Sri Lanka Ambassador to Russian Federation. The youngest Dr. Cuda Wijeyeratne (MRCP) was a doctor of Medicine.

International Affairs

In 1951 he was ushered into an eventful new chapter in his life when D.S. Senanayake elected him as a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”mastermindƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ to represent Dominion of Ceylon in the Council of the world. In the same year, he assumed duties as the CeylonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s second High Commissioner to Great Britain succeeding Sir Oliver Goonatilleke, where he enjoyed the privilege of moving with kings but managed to maintain the common touch. Born as a Libran, astrologers had identified him as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”a gift of destiny to Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ comparing him with other international personalities such as Sir Winston Churchill, Adolf Hitler and Mussolini who were also Librans.

In the UK, he became a prominent Asian guest at all noble English country estates and castles. His personal camaraderie with Salisbury family made him a frequent visitor to the Hatfield House, home of the Salisbury’s and at Arundel Castle, the home of the ducal family of Norfolk. At the demise of King George VI, he honoured Ceylon by signing on the book of condolences on behalf of his country. During Queen Elizabeth IIƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Coronation he represented Ceylon as guest of honour at Windsor and Sandringham castles.

Diplomatic Charisma

Edwin Wijeyeratne received the great compliment and honour at the hands of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953 at Buckingham Palace. Very few Asians had received such a distinctive tribute in person at the very seat of chivalry. Sir Edwin Wijeyeratne became close to research and student communities in Cambridge, Oxford, London and he was of great assistance to students from Ceylon.

In 1954 Sir Edwin Wijeyeratne assumed duties as the Ceylon High Commissioner to India during his tour of duty he had discussions with Jawaharlal Nehru on the Indian problem. Whilst engaged in Buddhist work at Sanchi, he managed to establish a personal solidarity with the Royal families of Sikkim and Bhutan.

During his tour of duty as the Ceylon High Commissioner for Ceylon in Great Britain, he received a private audience with his Holiness the Pope and the President of Italy. He was entertained by Max Petitpierre, the President of the Swiss Republic; had lunch with President De Gaulle and was the guest of King Leopold in Belgium. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip were entertained by Sri Edwin and Lady Wijeyeratne on three occasions at their residence at No. 21, Addison Road, London, a singular and a unique privilege indeed which no Ambassador has had so far.

Sir Edwin and Lady Wijeyeratne entertained the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester twice and at their most receptions Lord Louis Mountbatten and the Countess had been regular visitors. Simultaneously on five occasions Sir Edwin and Lady Wijeyeratne were guests at “Broadlands” the home of the MountbattenƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s which goes to show the diplomatic connection this Sri Lankan ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ambassadorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ had established.

During a busy schedule of diplomatic missions, Sir Edwin Wijeyeratne represented Ceylon at the Coronation of the King of Nepal and became the guest of honour at private palace at Kathmandu. At the invitation of the Burmese (Myanmar), he carried the sacred relics of Sariputta and Mogallana to Myanmar to become a guest at the Burmese Presidential Palace.

Sir Edwin Wijeyeratne expired on October 19, 1968 in Kegalle, leaving behind a clear-cut image of how to be a true and conscious diplomat and as an ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ambassadorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ to his mother country and paving the path for his successors to emulate and to be proud of their service to Mother Lanka.

tilakfernando@gmail.com

CHOGM – Canada Boycott to Increase Tamil Votes

May 30th, 2013

Ira de Silva London, Canada

The Editor
The Island
Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Dear Sir:

The statement by a former Canadian High Commissioner, Mr. Martin CollacottƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ confirms the opinion of many Canadians that they know why the current Canadian Government is making anti-Sri Lanka statements and threatening to boycott the CHOGM in November – it is based not on principle but on Canadian domestic politics, an attempt to get the so-called Tamil vote away from the other political parties.

Mr. John Baird claims that he will not attend the summit – good. It will save Sri Lanka the embarrassment of having to deal with his loud mouthed, belligerent, undiplomatic behaviour. He believes his ƒÆ’-¡ aggressive attitude at international meetings brings credit to Canada. On the contrary, it has diminished Canada’s stature internationally. A recent comment on his performance claims that his performance has earned Canada the title “Nasty Canada”. (http://www.mcleodgroup.ca/2013/05/27/nasty-canada/)

The former high Commissioner confirms the view that successive Canadian governments allowed the Canadian Tamils to fund the LTTE and thereby prolonged the war. It confirms that Canada is responsible for supporting terrorism in Sri Lanka and is therefore accountable for the death and destructionƒÆ’-¡ of Tamil Tiger terrorism in Sri Lanka. It also clearly shows Canada’s double standard when it calls for human rights and accountability when it is faulted for human rights violations in Canada and violating the rights of all Sri Lankans by supporting LTTE terrorism. As for accountability, which Canada keepsƒÆ’-¡ preachingƒÆ’-¡ to Sri Lanka, when is the Canadian government going to accept responsibility and show accountability toƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka for Tamil Tiger terrorism which it supported for decades?

As clearly stated by the former Canadian High Commissioner, Canada by it’s actions has no credibility when it criticises Sri Lanka and should not be taken seriously when it does because it’s criticism is not based on principle but on bias towards the LTTE supporters in Canada who are still hell bent on achieving their goal of Eelam with Canada as their chief spokesperson. The other members of the Commonwealth know this, that is why in spite of Mr. Baird’s ranting in London in April, they did not support him. However the tragedy for Canada is that Mr. Baird is soƒÆ’-¡ insensitive that he does not see what damage he is doing to Canada’s reputation.

Canada was known as a peace maker, a country that believed in peace not terrorism and aggression. By adopting this biased, unprincipledƒÆ’-¡ attitude, the current Canadian Government has succeeded in diminishing Canada’s voice on the international stage. Sri Lanka can ignore Mr. Baird’s antics because all Sri Lankans are aware that Canada supported the LTTE and still does which is re-inforcedƒÆ’-¡ by Mr. Collacott as well as his opinion that “having turned a blind eye to the Tamil Tigers for so many years, we no longer have credibility in lecturing Sri Lanka over its post-war policies”.

The current Canadian Government, is not open to criticism or re-thinking it’s policy on Sri Lanka because they believe that it will get them Tamil votes in Canada. They do not realise that the only “Tamil votes” they will get will be those of the Canadians of Sri Lankan origin who support the LTTE. All those who do not support the LTTE will not, even those who voted Conservative in the past.

Yours truly,

Ira de Silva
London, Canada

Well Done ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Daily Mirror Editor asks Communities to unite in support of Ban on Cattle Slaughter

May 30th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

ƒÆ’-¡ In an age when editorials are irrelevant as information is electronically available within seconds of events happening, the role of editors need to transform into one of championing causes, bringing people together and not dividing them and working towards the integrity and sovereignty of the nation. The Daily Mirror Editor has led the way by its 30th May editorial calling for all communities in Sri Lanka to unite in solidarity against cattle slaughter. It is a magnanimous gesture and one that needs to give the editor applause.

ƒÆ’-¡ The calls for people to seriously review the issue of cattle slaughter and animal welfare was triggered with the self-immolation of Ven. Bowatte Indrarathana Thero though neither the media nor the Government were sensitive to the cause that forced the Thero to take his life.

ƒÆ’-¡ His death should not go in vain. The issue of cattle slaughter has been championed by numerous people and institutes over a long period of time. It was not simply the religious element and as the Daily Mirror editor says the health of Sri Lankans gives further impetus for people to move away from eating meat. Nutritionists are confident that the nutrition of children will not suffer by not eating beef.

ƒÆ’-¡ The Daily Mirror editor says ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The Catholic and Christian community in Sri Lanka also needs to seriously consider the need to avoid cattle slaughter as a first step to move towards vegetarianism as an act of unity with the Buddhist and Hindu peopleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. The editor goes on to urge the Catholic Bishops Conference to consider possibility of supporting a ban on cattle slaughter as a first step to stopping the killing of any animal for human consumption.

ƒÆ’-¡ We commend the Cardinal Malcolm Ranjith, the Archbishop of Colombo who appealed to Christians to avoid meat eating during the Vesak season.

ƒÆ’-¡ No Buddhist, Hindu or modern day Christian would oppose legislation to provide environment for the better treatment of animals and if this number more than 89% the Government has to listen to the majority voice and immediately ENACT THE ANIMAL WELFARE BILL.

We need a new culture of compassion, good morals and values and schools in particular must encourage children to treat animals with compassion.

Once again, we say well done to the Daily Mirror Editor, who has shown that editorials need to give good messages and bring communities together.

ƒÆ’-¡ 

 

 

 

Spare a thought

May 30th, 2013

Ms. Michelle Alexander

In Sri Lanka the laws pertaining to the welfare of animals are antiquated, and lag behind other nations which have incorporated higher ethical and scientific standards into their legislation.

The current bill on Animal Welfare has already been sanctioned in 2006, but is yet to be enacted. ƒÆ’-¡ The governing ordinance is the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Ordinance, No. 13 of 1907, which is an outdated statute and does not apply to all animals. For instance, the ordinance interprets ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-animalsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ as any domestic or captured animal and includes any bird, fish or reptile in captivity. In other words, protection is only limited to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-captiveƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ or ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-domesticƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ animals, thereby leaving animals outside these categories from the protective arm of the law. For example, stray dogs and other street animals.

Little is reported on the account of abuse meted out to stray/owned dogs and other street animals. They are abandoned, abused, starved or kept confined in enclosures too small for them. One of the most recent stories is where 38 dogs were given poisoned meat and killed in Buttala during Vesak season. ƒÆ’-¡ Some of these poor souls were pets and had owners, whom are surely cursing the heartless killers who committed these evil acts.

Just like the bad, there is the good as well. There are many organizations and private individuals devoted to the welfare of these animals. Two that come to mind are Animal SOS Sri Lanka and Adopt-a-dog. Animal SOS Sri Lanka is a UK registered charity, and they run a unique facility for street animals. Adopt a Dog in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ is a non-profit organization that mainly focuses on finding good homes for homeless animals. People can help in sponsoring dogs, donating, volunteering and fundraising. ƒÆ’-¡ You can learn more about the work they do from their websites:ƒÆ’-¡ http://www.animalsos-sl.com/ƒÆ’-¡ &ƒÆ’-¡ www.adoptadoginsrilanka.com. You can also follow them on facebook atƒÆ’-¡ http://www.facebook.com/adoptadoginsrilankaƒÆ’-¡ &ƒÆ’-¡ http://www.facebook.com/pages/Animal-SOS-Sri-Lanka/165576613502654?fref=ts

INTERNATIONAL VESAK COMMEMORATIONS AT UNESCO IN PARIS

May 30th, 2013

Media Release-Permanent Delegation of Sri Lanka to UNESCO Paris

The Permanent Delegation of Sri Lanka to UNESCO coordinated Vesak commemorations at UNESCO in Paris under the theme of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Buddhism and Inter-Faith Dialogue: Reconciliation through EducationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

A series of events were held on 23rd and 24th May 2013 under the patronage of the President of the General Conference of UNESCO, Ambassador Katalin Bogyay and Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka, Hon. Chamal Rajapaksa. Also in attendance was the Hon. Malani Fonseka, Member of Parliament of Sri Lanka.

VESAK Commemorations_UNESCO1

ƒÆ’-¡ Newly appointed Ambassador/ Permanent Delegate-designate of Sri Lanka to UNESCO, Prof. Karunaratne Hangawatte delivering the welcome address at inaugural session of the main symposium stated that the events to commemorate Vesak were not only a timely realization, but also conveyed a special message whereby crucial factors were expressed and focused upon, on the most important day for followers of Buddhism. He added that in keeping with the ingrained teachings of Buddhism, and under the leadership President Mahinda Rajapaksa, Sri Lanka had rehabilitated, reformed and reintegrated those who had taken arms against Sri Lanka and its citizens. This was in itself, Buddhism in practice.

Speaking at the main symposium, which was attended by a large number of members of the Maha Sangha and other religious leaders and delegates from around the world, the Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka, Hon. Chamal Rajapaksa stressed the significance of the day and its importance to Buddhists the world over. He further stated that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Our fervent hope and wish this year is that the message of inter faith dialogue and the essence it brings to bear, is a bridge towards reconciliation and narrows the divide that exists owing to ignorance, intolerance and hatred.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

VESAK Commemorations_UNESCO4

 

Delivering a special message, the President of the General Conference of UNESCO, Ambassador Katalin Bogyay noted that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-by celebrating the teachings of Buddha we are celebrating the incredible diversity of the faiths and religions of the world. We are promoting tolerance, understanding and mutual respect among all peoples and cultures.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Issuing a special message to mark Vesak at UNESCO, the Secretary General of the United Nations, Ban Ki Moon commended Sri Lanka for its role in making the events possible at UNESCO and noted the importance of drawing ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-on spiritual ideals to strengthen our resolve to improve our world.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ 

Expressing his best wishes for the events being organized in Paris, President Mahinda Rajapaksa in a video message stated that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-my country, which emerged from three decades of conflict, is today at peace. Meaningful and determined steps are being taken to strengthen this peace and ensure reconciliation, one to another, through education and dialogue.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’-¡ 

The keynote address was delivered by Ven. Master Chin Kung, Head and Founder of Pureland College in Australia while the symposium also brought together leaders of Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity and Islam for a discourse of the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Contributions of religious teachings towards reconciliationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡ 

A special session on meditation was conducted by the Ven. Parawahera Chandraratana Thero, Chief Priest of France and a Special Lecture titled ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-When hearts become corrupt and chaos spreads, what can we do to save humanityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ was delivered by Ven. Master Chin Kung, Head and Founder of Pureland College, Australia.ƒÆ’-¡ 

VESAK Commemorations_UNESCO3

A special Vesak concert on 23rd May 2013 brought together artistes from the Sri Lankan, Chinese, India, Thai and Indonesian communities to spread the message of peace and cooperation.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ In addition a series of panel discussions took place on 24th May 2013 with eminent personalities intervening on topics of relevance to UNESCOƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s mandate in promoting a Culture of Peace as well as the over ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”arching theme of interfaith dialogue and reconciliation.

ƒÆ’-¡ Permanent Delegation of Sri Lanka to UNESCO
Paris

 

GO FOR A REFERENDUM WITHOUT WASTING TIME

May 29th, 2013

ByƒÆ’-¡  Gomin Dayasri

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Parliamentary Select Committee only can change the ConstitutionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Minister Anura Yapa quotes the President.

ƒÆ’-¡ Parliament Select Committee on Constitution Reform is a perennial non-starter in a blufferƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s paradise – a procrastinatorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s dreamboat. A condemned vehicle incapable of hopping on to it for the needed passengers or if shoved in, on persuasion or twisted arm [by India or USA]- will jump off it taking the exit route or sabotage from within.

ƒÆ’-¡  TNA and UNP – the wistful fellow travellers who will not undertake an arduous and hazardous trip to help the Government- when they are accomplished stone throwers from outside. If similarly positioned would SLFP or UPFA buy a one -way ticket to oblivion? There are no takers on both sides of the divide who think of doing the best for the sake of the country.

ƒÆ’-¡  A Parliamentary Select Committee [PSC] can do much if the intentions of its members are honest and sincere as when the Parliament converted itself to a Constituent Assembly to usher the first Republican Constitution of 1972. That was in a different realm of politics with a different breed of politicians. – 40 years is a long time with a generation gone! After ending of the war ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”three years ago- people gave a near 2/3 majority to enable the Constitution to be revised- it was not to extend the term of the President or arrogate more power with the 18th Amendment. People voted in gratitude for winning the war and to ensure the country remains undivided after the blood and sweat. Feeling remains the same but conviction has gone away.

ƒÆ’-¡ Next round of elections could hear again the belated cry of seeking the PeoplesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ support to obtain a 2/3 majority to change the constitution. A shriek heard before to which the people responded favorably but are unlikely to repeat because the trust and confidence once reposed in the government cannot be rekindled without any genuine ignition towards a constitutional change.

ƒÆ’-¡  ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s a rallying cry that can still restore the government to power but not with the desired majority-back to main square but with many minuses:ƒÆ’-¡  not one step forward but rather two or more steps backward. It would have been a flight of steps down a spiral if there were a meaningful opposition to cash in on the situation.

ƒÆ’-¡ In a waiting game is Mahinda Rajapakse gambling with a timer in hand to release the germ as an election gambit? Or is there sheer laziness to be positive or incapacity to strategize or not having a capable helmsman to deliver a draft? Otherwise, if the intentions were serious, the road show and the road map could have been unfurled and a distance traversed instead of being anchored at base camp in favorable weather.

ƒÆ’-¡ Mahinda Rajapakse is capable of master plans in his head that can succeed or flop but his antecedents show success is achieved more often as the conductor in his own one-man band. A helping hand from the UNP or TNA will never be forthcoming. Possibly he is craftily trying to fix the UNP and TNA in the same carriage and place the dual compartment on the parliamentary parade ground as the bogey cart. UNP and TNA, in no love match, will try to delay and defer constitutional changes till the term draws to an end to show the President has let down his faithful flock and to make them lose faith in him in pleading for another term to reach the magic number; which sure will elude him in the present circumstances.

ƒÆ’-¡ Are all the prime political parties trying to travel on a PSC multi visa?ƒÆ’-¡  In the premise of the PSC, it is easy to delay than achieve, with slick coordination between the UNP, TNA, Muslim Congress and the ancient Left trying to take Mahinda Rajapakse on a right royal ride? Time is running out for the President! Or will the President if constructive proposals are not forthcoming on a given time frame, place his own formula Bill before the PSC and have it sanctioned by the friendly parties in parliament in his fold? Then take the Bill before the People at a referendum on a question framed asking for a response on an ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-in or outƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ basis on the 13thAmendment. It is to be a PSC with an in-built purpose? That may be the catch that cannot be matched.

ƒÆ’-¡ Supreme Court cannot deem a 2/3 majority is required where the people have already sanctioned the Bill at a referendum for it becomes the law. If the referendum is free and fair no force on earth can wait without giving effect to the Peoples desire. Cabinet of Ministers can refer such a Bill to a referendum.

ƒÆ’-¡  In our Constitution, it is no legal fiction that supreme power is vested with people which makes the Supreme Court in name only supreme, compared to sovereignty that is vested in the People and which cannot be alienated: makes it on interpretation, more supreme. So says the Constitution in black and white.

ƒÆ’-¡ Sovereign People in exercising their cherished franchise-there is no better route to determine the will of the people- do so by a majority vote. A majority vote is a vote won by more than one vote.

ƒÆ’-¡ ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s a case of amending the constitution by going to the People for a Decision. J.R.Jayewardane once called for a referendum to disenfranchise the people by denying them their right to exercise their franchise at a general election. What did the Supreme Court do when democracy was in such peril? They said ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢we agreeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ to such a Referendum by a narrow vote. Such is the Supreme Court.

ƒÆ’-¡ Instead, this time, make it totally hygienic and anti-septic to keep to the last letter of democracy- to avoid any comeback! JRJƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s referendum was not free and fair because the contortionist feared the Peoples Verdict. ƒÆ’-¡ On the 13th Amendment seek an open verdict. Go first to the People and seek their Opinion. People are best judges on the 13th amendment. Daily MirrorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s opinion poll provided a genuine straw poll in a hostile environ. If so, the ultimate result is foreknown.

ƒÆ’-¡ Lets play a game named Democracy according to the rules extolled by those who preach and complain we foul it; boldly access the People. Lets exploit it at the point we are strongest by reaching for the People in the name of democracy. Ask the People a straight question and act according to the PeopleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s direction. No man- white or brown – can bark bow-wow to that result. Of course, there will be a few like Jayalalitha and local NGO boys and girls (worthless names) that make a fast buck and will make a greedy noise for the buck. Who cares? Let the dogs bark, the caravans will move on.

 

Active alteration of demography of North is the need of the hour!

May 29th, 2013

Asada M Erpini

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The government is trying to alter the demography of the NorthƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. This accusation seems to have reached a crescendo since the reconstruction phase of the government of Sri Lanka had commenced following the liberation of the North from the grips of the LTTE terrorists. The Tamil National Alliance (TNA) is in the forefront among the accusers, with the bankrupt politicians of Tamil Nadu vying to outdo one another as the latter has discovered that shedding buckets of tears on behalf of Sri Lanka Tamils is a convenient and low-cost strategy to steal the limelight.

TNA was the mouthpiece of the LTTE when the latter held sway over vast swathes of land that it had illegally occupied. One cannot expect the TNA leader and its parliamentarians to even hint that they have abandoned the separatist ideology of the LTTE, as they would then become non-entities and pass into oblivion.

The Minister of Economic Development had announced just a few days back that 85% of the aid that Sri Lanka receives and the loans it has obtained is being spent on rebuilding and developing the infrastructure in the North.ƒÆ’-¡  Whatever basic infrastructure facilities that existed in the North were destroyed by the LTTE: two classic examples are the water supply tower in Kilinochchi that the terrorists blasted when they opted to speed towards Nandikadal lagoons for their doom as hoards of lemmings committing suicide, and the removal of the sleepers of the Northern railway track to build bunkers and to reinforce their hideouts.

When the government spends a vast and disproportionate amount of borrowings, aid and tax revenue on developing roads, water supply schemes, hospitals, factories, etc. in the North, it cannot afford to restrict the benefits to a mere 4% of the Sri Lanka population that the TNA probably can claim to represent. The fruits of the exercise should be enjoyed by all Sri Lankans irrespective of their ethnic or religious affiliations.

It is time that the government commences a vigourous colonisation scheme of the North by non-terrorist Tamils, Sinhalese and Moors who live in provinces outside the North, just as past governments did with the Gal Oya, Kandalama, Padaviya, Elahera and other such projects. People who are ready to move north should be given land and financial incentives to encourage them to do so. The Sinhalese would naturally be the largest ethnic group among them as they constitute 75% of the population of the country. But more importantly, it is the Sinhalese that sacrificed in the highest numbers ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” giving the lives of their sons, daughters, fathers and mothers ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” to liberate the country from the terrorist plague.

While the government-sponsored colonisation is in progress, there should also be an increase in the presence of the armed forces in the North. It is only then that it would be possible to nip in the bud any resurgence or resurrection of the LTTE armed challenge. There are reports that the UK is considering the encouragement of citizens to spy on their neighbours, following the death of a single soldier at the hands of a fanatic who was chanting religious invocations. If peace-loving Sri Lankans who love their country of birth reside in the North, they may even be ready to help the armed forces and their intelligence wings by giving information about suspicious characters engaged in not-so-legal activities.

One should not forget the days, a few decades back, when ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Kotiyas are comingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ was almost a joke. Kotiyas (Tigers) ceased to be a funny story when the LTTE started massacring innocent civilians, blasting economic and communication nerve centres and temples, and took on the armed forces of the legally constituted government of the country. No one wants a repetition of those events.


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