The Syrian conflict

August 30th, 2013

Michelle Alexander

With the escalation in the civil war in Syria, the USA is contemplating military action. This time however, they may have to do it without the UK, as Prime Minister David Cameron had to back down due to the House of Parliament voting against military action until more evidence is presented. This is a clear reflection of British MPs bowing to the will of the people, instead of just rushing Britain into another war.

The USA and its allies say it has evidence to prove the recent chemical attacks were carried out by the Syrian Government. They also claim that the death-toll from those chemical attacks is at 1300. However, initial investigations by the UN team in Syria seem to point out that evidence (not yet irrefutable) so far gathered implicates the rebels and not the Syrian Government in the chemical attacks. Furthermore, the death toll put forward by Doctors without borders indicates that the total number of civilians that perished in the chemical attacks is at 355, almost 4 times less than the figure put forward by the USA.

Isn’t it possible that the chemical attacks may have been caused by the rebels or hidden extremist groups themselves in order to convince the world of their cause by laying the blame at Assad and his government, which would allow the rebels/hidden extremist groups to get the weapons and aid they have been asking for? What would Assad have to gain by using chemical weapons?

When it comes to Syria, Obama’s own words may have cornered him. A year ago President Obama gave a speech stating that if Assad’s government used chemical weapons, that would cross a red line. As at now, over a 100,000 are reported to have been killed. Chemical weapons have been used (it is still early days to automatically state that the Syrian government was involved). Millions have become refugees. Parts of Syria are being reduced to rubble. A red line has been crossed”¦ several times over. Therefore, why did USA and its allies wait till the recent chemical attacks before deciding to take military action?

 Aiding Syrian rebels “”…” good or bad?

Plans to aid Syrian rebels bring to mind the time the USA aided the likes of Osama bin laden and the Mujahedeen in driving out the Russians from Afghanistan. Unfortunately, the end result for the aid given was repaid with suicide bombings, the World Trade Center attacks, abuses and rights violations in Afghanistan and so on. Aiding the rebels in Syria may backfire in a similar fashion as it is believed that several extremist groups are operating in the guise of rebel groups.

 Obama’s legacy”¦ similar to that of George W. Bush and the Iran/Iraq wars?

President Obama – “Let me be clear,” he said in an interview on CNN. “Our goal will not be to effect rƒÆ’†’©gime change, or alter the balance of power in Syria, or bring the civil war there to an end. We will simply do something random there for one or two days and then leave.” “I want to reassure our allies and the people of Syria that what we are about to undertake, if we undertake it at all, will have no purpose or goal,” he said. “This is consistent with U.S. foreign policy of the past.”

Not to effect regime change or end the war? Simply do something at random? No purpose or goal for military action? Then why get involved with the Syrian conflict at all?

 If President Obama goes ahead military action in Syria, he might as well renounce/be stripped of his Nobel Peace prize, as he did not end the Iraq/Afghanistan wars nor has he closed down the holding cells in Guantanamo Bay. Western Intervention did not work in Afghanistan, Iraq or Libya, etc, where by now, radicals are in charge or those countries are in total chaos.  

‘IF WE HAVE ARMS, IT’S FEDERALISM AND BEYOND’ – TNA-‘If we don’t have weapons we will get nothing':

August 30th, 2013

Courtesy The Daily News

Suresh Premachandran, MP of the Tamil National Alliance (TNA) said the Tamil people can begin talks on a federal solution only if ‘we have weapons.’

“We can talk going even beyond that. If we don’t have weapons we will get nothing,” he added.

He said this at the maiden election rally of the TNA in the campaign for the Northern Provincial Council (NPC) poll, held at the Mannar public esplanade with the participation of all TNA candidates contesting for the NPC, including NPC Chief Ministerial candidate C.V. Vigneswaran.

Parliamentarians Mavai Senthirajah was also present. TNA MP P. Ariyanendran addressing the gathering said the ‘struggle’ to find a solution for the Tamil people’s problems was continued by Selva after which a full blown armed conflict ensued.

“The armed conflict was continued by leader Prabhakaran. But today, we live on without anything,” he said.

“It is your duty to vote for the TNA and ensure its victory to fight for Tamils’ rights as well as to get what we want. Vote for us and we will be able to get what we require,” he said.

The media with a sense of foreboding criticised the actions of the TNA at a time the country has achieved peace and freedom after eradicating a 30 year war, a spokesmen for the government stated. Such sentiments as those articulated by the TNA have again created doubt and fear among the peace loving people in this country.

Therefore, the government urged the public to be cautious and be well aware of these efforts to be promoted by these extremist political groups in the future, through their political campaigns.

– See more at: http://www.dailynews.lk/?q=local/if-we-have-arms-its-federalism-and-beyond-tna#sthash.f99e6CzZ.dpuf

Open letter to Navi Pillai, in order to make her mission to Sri Lanka meaningful.

August 29th, 2013

By Charles.S.Perera

This listening to interested parties and civil society is an exercise which is not new to Navi Pillai having listened to the Tamils of the diaspora and the anti Sri Lanka NGOs, Human Rights Activists, members of the Darusman Committee,  and all that caboodle.  This exercise of listening unless she is calm and equanimous  will only confuse further her already confused mind about Sri Lanka.

But from what has been reported she seems to be asking the wrong questions, though she said at the out set that her visit is within the frame work of human rights.  However, she should be intellectually cautious  to  elucidate the psychological essence  from the answers the people give for the questions she poses.

Pillai should also keep in mind the American sponsored Resolution against Sri Lanka which begins:

That States must ensure that any measure taken to combat terrorism complies with their obligations under international law, in particular international human rights, refugee and humanitarian law, as applicable,

This is a strange statement inserted into the resolution by  America, as it is  the one Nation in the world today that leads the rest of the Western nation against “their” terrorism, which infringes  the above “principle”.

It is in that light,   where  the  very perpetrators of crimes against humanity are the ones  who  sit on judgment against  Sri Lanka  which over came thirty years of suffering by  elimination a ruthless group of terrorists, that Navi Pillai should  make her investigation to understand  whether  there is any reason why Sri Lanka should be held accountable for the elimination of terrorism.

Therefore, when she is listening to the people  she should understand their mental attitudes,  whether they are expressing their own views, whether the message they try to give contain facts or whether they are made up, and fictitious , whether they are hateful  and baseless insinuations, they sham or lie, or  whether they are just and sincere,  etc.

The Sinhala majority are looked at by the Tamil people with bias and anger  without justifiable reason for accusation of racism, chauvinism, and their discrimination towards the minorities. In order to gain insight into the real situation that existed before terrorism and exists after, Navi Pillai should also study the mental attitude of the Sinhala people. For that  Navi Pillai should also meet the Sinhala civil society in the south.

Sinhala people despite all the accusations levelled against  them are generous, friendly, forgiving and sociable.  They have nothing against the Tamil people. They ask nothing of them other than to   accept the Sinhala people as their compatriots,  share with them the motherland which belongs to every one, extend to them an unbiased hand of friendship, and give up the notion that the Tamil people are different from the rest of the people and therefore they should have their own Tamil Eelam. 

The riots of Sri Lanka were not begun by the Sinhala, but  they were brought into to it through  provocation by the Tamils of the North acting on their own or instigated by others with vested interest, meaninglessly murdering  Sinhala police men and a businessman.

The ambitious Political leaders of the North in order  to win over the  Tamil voters portray  the Sinhala people in the South as racists, against Tamil people, and that they deprive the Tamil people of their rights.

This bias began with some Tamil  politicians asking for equal rights when Sri Lanka had just won  Independence and was trying to build a nation of the people dispersed and communally separated by the Colonial rulers practicing divide and rule policies.  The high caste Tamil political leaders  who were mostly Western educated lawyers, liked this separation as it gave them a political leadership amoung the Tamil people  and enhanced their social stature.

But after the elimination of the Terrorists Sri Lanka has evolved, and there is no discrimination against the minorities. The Tamil people cannot any longer complain that they cannot communicate with the Government in their own language as Sri Lanka follows a

tri-Lingual policy.  Tamils  have equal opportunities with the rest of the people in  Sri Lanka.  They have been provided with equal education opportunities.  There are Tamil men and Women recruited to the Armed Forces.

The Tamil  people are not segregated from the rest of the people.  But now the TNA is trying to segregate the Tamils from the Sinhala in the North. In the South the Tamils  live side by side with the Sinhala and the Muslims. They have acquired land and property in the south and have their own business premises.   They work as doctors, teachers, engineers, scientists, businessmen and administrators every where in Sri Lanka.  They have Kovils and religious places in the South as much as they have them in the North.

But yet the Tamil political leaders have brain washed the poor Tamil civilians to believe that they will continue to suffer as long as they are with the Sinhala and other Communities in a unitary state of Sri Lanka, therefore  the Tamil civilians are trapped into demanding  a separate Tamil Eelam State.

It is here that Navi Pillai should look closely  into the 1st Clause of  the US sponsored Resolution against Sri Lanka:

Calls upon the Government of Sri Lanka to implement the constructive recommendations made in the report of the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission and to take all necessary additional steps to fulfil its relevant legal obligations and commitment to initiate credible and independent actions to ensure justice, equity, accountability and reconciliation for all Sri Lankans;

The difficulties of the implementation of the LLRC is not due to laxity or disregard for its implementation by the government, but the main obstacle for its implementation comes from the Tamil politicians- mainly the TNA and its supporters like  Pakiasothy Saravanamuttu.

Therefore, it should not be taken as an unwillingness on the part of the Government.  It is necessary that Navi Pillai does not  give too much importance to  what the TNA,  and the Tamil Catholic Priests have to say about the government and their demand for a separate Province for the Tamils.  None of them are interested in a genuine reconciliation of the Communities as they are the stake holders for a separate Tamil Eelam State.

The Catholic Priest Fr. Emmanuel has no interest what so ever for the reconciliation of the Tamil and Sinhala Communities, and the Catholic Priests in the North follow him and they are all for separation.  Therefore, Navi Pillai cannot get anything important for her search for the truth of what happened or is happening  in the North. All what they do,show or speak about  are with a view to separate and not to reconcile.

Outwardly the Tamil politicians will say they do not want a separate Sri Lanka, but a separate  Provincial area for the Tamil speaking people, amounts to separating the Tamil people from the people of other Communities.

But why should the Tamil people in the North be separated from the rest of the people.  It is a retrograde idea, we in the 21st Century, should have progressive ideas.  It is time that Sri Lanka which has come out of a ruthless terrorism because of the separatist idea of the past go forward.  The idea of a separate Province for the Tamils being inculcated into the minds of the Tamils of the North would be an impediment  for the Tamil people to  fall in line with the other communities for a progressive march forward.

Navi Pillai should also meet those Tamils who ran away from the terrorists who were keeping them as a human shield and came to the safety of Armed forces which rescued them.  She should ask them  who fed them when they were finally in the camps, ask them who gave them clothes, and provided other necessities .

Because Ms.Navi Pillai, the 300,000 or so Tamil men women and children who were rescued by the Armed Forces had to be given three meals a day and provided them with other necessities of life.   The Sinhala people from the south prepared packets of meals  and handed them over to the Army, which had them  transported by air to the North, where the IDP camps were located. The Sinhala people collected clothes and other necessity for the IDPs and had them transported by air.

Everybody is asking for accountability, violation of human rights,  but nobody asks how these 300,000 IDPs were looked after.  While the people in the South were providing food and other amenities, the terrorists sent a suicide bomber who blasted herself in the midst of the rescued Tamil civilians killing many including the Soldiers who were helping them.

Ms.Navi Pillai,  during the week you will be in Sri Lanka , do not be  like a “detective” collecting  only evidence against  the Government of Sri Lanka and its Armed Forces as to how the   Tamil people were inconvenienced, put in danger, or how their human rights were violated by them,  because there were many  more acts of  humanity  done by the Armed Forces you accuse for war crimes.

The Armed Forces helped the people they rescued by carrying  the old, the wounded or the children in their arms, and on  hand made stretches.   They fed them with their own rations going without meals themselves, some of them died shot by the terrorists when they were in the act of saving a disabled, or a wounded Tamil man , woman or a child running away from the terrorists.

Those acts and tragedies  have also to be taken into account when you finally make your report.  Those acts of kindness and humanity of the Armed Forces nobody will come forward to tell you.  Therefore, you have to seek out  such IDPs who  were rescued by the armed forces and ask them appropriate questions to extract the truth. It is important as those act are not compatible with the accusation of war crimes

The Armed Forces that the TNA says should not be in the North, are very much needed in  the North, to avoid another spate of terrorism.  That is probable only because the Tamil politicians like those of the TNA  fan the  fires of hatred against the Sinhala and keep alive  the anti Sinhala bias.

After the World War  America and its allies have permanent armed forces(NATO)  stationed in Germany, Japan, and in the Indian Ocean and elsewhere, and the British have their Armed forces permanently stationed in Cyprus and Gibraltar. 

Sri Lanka after having suffered for thirty years from  terrorism that began in the North to carve out a separate Eelam State, should also have  permanent army camps in the North and the East to protect the country and the people against a recurrence of such a situation.

Ms.Pillai  should also ask the Tamil civilians how much they know of the Sinhala people, and how have they come to  know of the Sinhala people .  Because many Tamil Civilians in the North have not gone to the south and had no contact with the Sinhala to  know about them, they merely repeat what the Tamil politicians like those of the TNA keep telling them- brain washing them against the Sinhala.

Therefore, your visit to Sri Lanka will not give you the essential information to form a valid opinion, unless  you probe into  the thoughts, attitudes, and  the nature of the people who give you “evidence” . It is that which will give you a clue to understand why the Tamil people in the north are complex and unable to understand the reality of  living  together with other communities, as they do in the South, but parrot about a separate Eelam State because the TNA MPs had been telling them .

That is why it is necessary that in the North too there should be a mixture of Communities as it is in the South quite contrary to what the TNA MPs profess, which is  for their own political benefit and not for that of the poor Tamil civilians of the North.  The Tamil people of the North would be better off living side by side with the members of other Communities instead of the forced segregation proposed by the TNA.

Navi Pillai should not fall into the trap of  red herrings that will be  thrown before her  to distract her attention from real issues.  Media freedom is one such, if she were to collect one days publication of all news papers and tabloids, she will find all those journals carry items attacking the government,  the President and the Ministers. All news papers do that in complete freedom without any censure.  But yet they complain that the government denies press freedom.

Disappearance of persons, attacks on journalists, are the issue that are continually raised, and attending to those issues will not get you any where.  Navi Pillai should instead see the overall development plan, where no one is discriminated for religion, language or communal difference.She should see who are really making the reconciliation process difficult. She may observe  that in Sri Lanka there is a climate of peace where all communities could live together happily and the difficulties for such unity come from the Tamil politicians and from the  Tamil Diaspora, and some Catholic Priests.

Lastly with regard to the last clause in the US sponsored  resolution against Sri Lanka:

3. Encourages the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and relevant special procedures mandate holders to provide, in consultation with, and with the concurrence of, and the Government of Sri Lanka to accept,, advice and technical assistance on implementing the above-mentioned steps;, and requests the Office of the High Commissioner to present a report on the provision of such assistance to the Human Rights Council at its twenty-second session.

Navi Pillai  knows that Sri Lanka fought against a ruthless terrorism for three decades.  No one came to ” advice or give technical assistance” to Sri Lanka Government  or its Armed Forces in the difficult task of ending terrorism in Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka after elimination of terrorism, went through an unprecedented  period of  a development process , and came out of the state of a developing country to become a middle income country, all that was without ” advice or technical assistance” from any one.  And Sri Lanka  wants none of it now.

Therefore, Navi Pillai would have understood after her visit to this Island that Sri Lanka needs no ones advice or technical assistance now to develop the country, reconcile the people and progressively go forward as an Independent Sovereign State.

It is time that the UN Human Rights Council is told that Sri Lanka should be left alone to reconcile the people and implement the recommendation of the LLRC, and that it had not  in eliminating terrorism committed any violation of human rights and that its Armed Forces  have done a heroic job of work first in the elimination of terrorists,  and secondly in the Sri Lanka’s development plan.

Finally Navi Pillai should demand the UN Human Rights Council that it should  not allow US and its allies to systematically pass resolutions against Sri Lanka calling for accountability and accuse its Armed Forces for war crimes,  for which there is no evidence what so ever.

Navi Pillay can meet LTTE Mahaveer widow but not families of civilians killed by LTTE

August 29th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

The UN Human Rights head is now in Sri Lanka and visiting the country’s North to see for herself the developments since the fall of the LTTE. Much prominence has been given to her meeting with a Mahaveer widow. Leaving aside that her “ƒ”¹…”missing’ husband is a former LTTE senior leader and thus no saint we would like to know on the assumption of Ms. Pillay’s claim to be “ƒ”¹…”neutral’ why she has not decided to first visit the real victims and their families who were the civilians that LTTE targeted and killed by planting bombs, claymore mines, indiscriminate shooting and sending suicide bombers? Should they not be getting more prominence given that they were the real victims targeted and eliminated to prop up LTTE’s terror image?

Yet, Ms. Pillay chose to meet Ananthy Sasitharan wife of a “ƒ”¹…”missing’ senior LTTE leader Sinnathurai Sasitharan (Ezhilan). So Ms. Pillay had time to listen to the widow of a former LTTE leader who incidentally also happens to be contesting the Northern Provincial Council elections from the Jaffna district on the LTTE appointed political party the TNA ticket “”…” this does not give much credibility to either the TNA or the spouse of the “ƒ”¹…”missing’ LTTE. Thus, the widow of the former LTTE is now a politician and therefore we question why Ms. Pillay chose to meet up a politician LTTE than actual victims. Being a politician disqualifies her from making representations as a member of civil society “”…” surely Ms. Pillays office should have known this simple protocol? Is it not interesting that it was Fr. Emmanuel Sebamalai, a Catholic Priest from Mannar who set up the meeting with Ms. Pillay.

Ms. Pillay should have taken the opportunity to ask her how many Tamils and non-Tamils would have gone “ƒ”¹…”missing’ during the LTTE heyday and what about the 5000 armed forces and police personnel abducted and remain unaccounted for? This is no small number and Ms. Pillay or her Human Rights office cannot ignore this number. If the wife of a LTTE leader can complain and Ms. Pillay has time to listen to her, should Ms. Pillay not be meeting up with the wives of the 5000 service personnel still missing?

Far before meeting any wives of terrorists, Ms. Pillay should have met the scores of people who are now blind because the LTTE bombed Sri Lanka’s Central Bank, the families of dead children cut to pieces, the mothers of children who died while traveling to school when LTTE bombed the bus they were travelling in. These are the victims because LTTE chose to use them as pawns simply to put their name on the international press board and for Governments to notice their terror activities. So we ask again WHY IS MS PILLAY NOT MEETING WITH THESE VICTIMS FIRST? Why has she got no empathy for these civilians and only opting for “ƒ”¹…”civilians’ she sees fit to meet?

While continuing to stress that Ms. Pillay’s emotional, genetic and ethnic ties being a Tamil herself disqualifies her from engaging in any neutral fact finding in Sri Lanka, this was proven in the manner Ms. Pillay was seen commenting on land issues which is totally irrelevant and outside her mandate. This speaks volumes about the conflict of interest in her role in investigating Sri Lanka and it surprises us that the UN Ethics Office has yet to explore this conflict of interest.

Land issues have nothing to do with Pillay

However, given that there are calls made by pro-LTTE lobbies to reduce the military and claims of illegal land occupation, the argument merits us to refer records by Government officials in Vavuniya, Kilinochchi and Mulllaitivu districts of complains by people returning to Sri Lanka after 25 years to find their lands illegally occupied “”…” these lands had been taken over by LTTE and distributed amongst Mahaveer families during the 2002 ceasefire agreement by the UNF Government who had given these LTTE mahaveer families official title deeds.

These allegations warrant investigation of UNF officials and officials of the Land Registry if any wrong doing has taken place. No one has any right to be destroying original deeds and writing new deeds whether it is for LTTE Mahaveer families or not. Much of the current problems stem from the fact that these Mahaveer families are now refusing to leave the lands they are falsely making claim over and the conflicts have arisen again due to prominent caste factors which many Tamils take pains to hide but Ms. Pillay being a Tamil herself will only know too well how caste system works and how caste system has again come to the surface following the fall of the LTTE.

However, what Ms. Pillay is guilty of is that she is picking and choosing who she defines as a “ƒ”¹…”victim’ who she claims is a “ƒ”¹…”civilian’ and who she meets. Top on any list of civilians and if she is meeting victims she should first be meeting up with the families of civilians that LTTE eliminated and the survivors who are either blind or carrying some other injury for no fault of theirs. While we do empathize with the civilians caught up in the conflict areas we cannot rule out that some of them voluntarily or by force took part in some sort of terrorist activity that the LTTE ordered them to do. This is amply recorded in UN statements where even the UN Secretary General is on record for saying that civilians were forced to take part in combat operations “”…” this clearly denies them refuge as a non-combatant.

What we would like to question Ms. Pillay about is why she has not taken any efforts to meet up with the widows and families of the 5000 armed forces and police personnel who are still missing for this is something she is mandated to investigate and she should be questioning the LTTE front organizations as well as the Tamil National Alliance to their whereabouts. She should also have met up with the families of the victims who were targeted by the LTTE and who died which included women, pregnant women, children, babies, student monks, villagers, farmers, the elderly, feeble and scores of others. Where are Ms. Pillay’s time slots for them?

 

 

LIFE ABROAD “”…” Part 42 : TEA FOR TWO “”…” LONDON LOST TOO !

August 29th, 2013

Dr.Tilak Fernando

Tea production in Sri Lanka has always played a vital role to boost the economy of the country and the world market which in 1995 led Sri Lanka to become the world’s leading exporter of tea.

A Scotsman named James Taylor arrived in Ceylon in 1847 mainly to grow coffee. Upon his arrival he was assigned to Loolecondera estate in Kandy by the company who brought him down. In 1866 the company embarked on a study program in India on tea growing.

Initial experiment

Taylor started experimenting with tea plantation in 19 acres out of Coffee plantation with the first set of tea seeds brought from India backed by favourable reports.

Seemingly “ƒ”¹…”his experiments with diversified methods of processing tea began where the tea leaf was rolled on tables by hand in the verandah of his bungalow and blazing was done in clay stoves over charcoal fires, with wire trays to hold the leaf’ .

The notorious “ƒ”¹…”Coffee blight’ in 1869 wiped out the entire coffee industry in “ƒ”¹…”Ceylon’ leaving planters high and dry, leaving the option of tea growing as the only alternative left following Taylor’s lead.

Taylor’s moral fibre and resolve made him organise a much larger tea factory in 1872 on the Loolecondera estate. In March that year he wrote thus:

“I have a machine of my own invention being made in Kandy for rolling tea which I think will be successful”. Finally the first shipments of Ceylon tea reached the London auctions in 1875.

James Taylor

Expeditious expansion of the Ceylon’s tea industry made large British companies to take over many of the small estates. During this era four estates were purchased by a grocer by the name of Thomas Lipton who later became synonymous with tea.

Seemingly plantations surrounding Loolecondera estate such as Hope, Rookwood, Mooloya, Le Vallon and Stellenberg transformed into tea plantations to become among the first tea estates to be established in “ƒ”¹…”Ceylon’.

In 1992 John Field, The High Commissioner for Great Britain in Sri Lanka, summed up James Taylor’s legacy thus:

“It can be said of very few individuals whose labours have helped to shape the landscape of a country. But the beauty of the hill country, as it now appears, owes much to the inspiration of James Taylor, the man who introduced tea cultivation to Sri Lanka.”

Transformation

In 1839 the British owners of tea estates established an official division calling it The Ceylon Chamber of Commerce. This was followed by the establishment of Planters’ Association in 1854.

The Ceylon Tea Traders Association established in 1894 handled all produced tea in progression with the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce.

In 1896 the Colombo Brokers’ Association was formed and in 1915 the late Thomas Amarasuriya became the first Ceylonese to be appointed as Chairman of the Planters’ Association.

The Tea Research Institute established in 1925 was aimed at maximising yields and methods of production which helped the tea production. The Ceylon Tea Propaganda Board was formed in 1932; in 1934 a new regulation prohibited the export of poor quality tea out of Ceylon.

In 1941 Messrs Pieris and Abeywardena established as the first Ceylonese tea broking house while The Ceylon Estate Employers’ Federation came into effect in 1944.

In 1958 The State Plantations Corporation was established. By 1965 Sri Lanka became the world’s largest tea exporter for the first time. However, during 1971″”…”1972, the Sri Lanka government nationalised the tea estates owned by the British companies and The Sri Lanka Tea Board was founded in 1976.

Following this tumult a British planter by the name of Fellows, who happened to be a Visiting Agent for Tea Planters in Sri Lanka decided to sell his Biddenden farm in Kent, UK, to Sir John Kotelawela, a former Prime Minister of Ceylon, who settled down in the UK after an odious defeat in Sri Lanka’s general elections when S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike managed to reduce Sir John’s ruling party majority to a single number of eight parliamentary seats.

Fellow’s farm consisted of approximately 25 acres of land where Sir John lived there until his demise in the UK. In 1992-1993 many of the nationalised tea estates were privatised again with the sale of its 23 state-owned plantations due to heavy losses incurred to the industry under State Management.

London Tea Centre

The Ceylon Tea Centre at Regent Street in Central London had been established by the British Planters’ Association to promote tea sales long before the nationalisation of tea estates were done in 1972 by the Ceylon government.

The Ceylon Tea Centre building became the only property the country had to represent the name “ƒ”¹…”Ceylon’ in the UK except for Tea, prior to the establishment of the Sri Lanka High Commission in London.

The whole of London’s Regent Street and the area surrounding Piccadilly Circus are regarded as the most popular parts of London. After the nationalisation of tea estates the Ceylon Tea Centre in London was handed over to Sri Lankans to run the show.

The Ceylon Tea Centre, therefore having located in a most prominent area of London was meant to act as a catalyst in sales promotion and give wider publicity to Ceylon tea as the Tea Centre was regarded as a semi-sovereign Sri Lankan Organisation where the Tea Commissioner was seen driven off in chauffer driven cars (akin to a High Commissioner) with Sri Lankan flag mounted on his vehicle.

The vast building on a 99 year lease had several floors where at one time all Sri Lankan activity centres such as the Tourist Board, Ceylon Shipping Lines and the National Airlines supplemented by a basement restaurant named the Colombo CafĮՠթ where visitors to the Tea Centre were not restricted only to buy Ceylon Tea but they could enjoy a mouthwatering Sri Lankan meal at the Colombo Restaurant.

Much later in the day, additional Branch of the Bank of Ceylon was ceremoniously opened for the convenience of all concerned who had to deal with Sri Lankan institutions in the UK.

Indian competition

Once the Indian Tea Centre at Oxford Circus, which is not far away from the Ceylon Tea Centre, opened business the initial battle of competition commenced with each other where the Indian Centre offering food and tea at much reduced rates.

Oxford Street is the visitors’ and many British peoples’ shopping paradise where thousands of people throng at all odd hours. The Indian Tea Centre being at a prominent slot in Oxford Street visitors and shoppers were automatically made to abandon the Ceylon Tea Centre both being convenient to reach while shopping at Oxford Circus and the Indian Centre becoming a smart pricer.

Tea Centre was further affected when the Indian High Commission opened their welfare centre with restaurant facilities offering meals at a much cheaper rate.

Seemingly the collapse of the Ceylon Tea Centre was seen as a result of the gross mismanagement by those who ran the show at latter stages even after an appointment of a Diplomat from the Sri Lanka High Commission to oversee its operations and ensure the smooth running of the institution!

The final nail on the coffin of the Ceylon Tea Centre was driven during Major Montague Jayawickreme’s time as the Minister under whose purview came the Ceylon Tea Centre when the lease on the entire building was transferred to a giant Insurance Company which made all Sri Lankan offices to abandon the ship and find accommodation elsewhere at astronomical rents!

At the time of this countless loss to the country The Sun, an English newspaper published by the defunct Independent Newspapers Ltd in Sri Lanka (M.D. Gunasena’s) carried a headline news story exposing a scoop by digging out many skeletons out of the relevant Ministerial cupboards linking it with a “ƒ”¹…”Jaguar Scorpio motor vehicle which cost £18,000′ at the time!

The foregone conclusion of the general public had been that Piccadilly Circus being a cosmopolitan International hub where anyone could have become a millionaire just by selling Ceylon tea, even out of a caravan or a hand cart, to put in a colloquial Sri Lankan jargon, where only the Ceylon Tea Centre failed and had to go out of business!

Citizen’s comment

After the closure of the Ceylon Tea Centre in London, a citizen of Sri Lanka from Piliyandala expressed her views in an English daily broad sheet under the letters to the editor column as follows:

“The Sri Lanka Tea Board some years back, opened a branch in London. The aim was to promote local teas in the European market. Although the prices of tea at the centre was on the high side, the Board maintained the break-even level mainly due to the reputation “ƒ”¹…”Ceylon Tea’ had widely gained.

Africa and India also opened branches in London and they sold quality tea at a lesser price. The ultimate result was that the Tea Board lost the competition and had to close down the London Centre. The Tea Board has a fair market share in the Middle East and Eastern countries. Competition is stiff from both Africa and India in these countries as well. The Board has to be on the alert to avoid the same fate recurring in these markets as well”.

The name “Ceylon Tea” or “Sri Lankan tea” is still regarded as a sign of quality tea throughout the world and many believe that the present dynamic Sri Lankan High Commissioner in London has the drive, interest and gumption to resuscitate the Ceylon Tea Industry once again in a different perspective altogether.

tilakfernando@gmail.com

Tea History: courtesy Jane Pettigrew 

– See more at: http://www.dailynews.lk/?q=features/tea-two-london-lost-too#sthash.EgxoG3uP.dpuf

President Rajapaksa inspects agricultural machineries at Minsk Automobile Plant

August 29th, 2013

By Janaka Alahapperuma

President Mahinda Rajapaksa visited the Minsk Automobile Plant for an inspection tour at the conclusion of his three-day state visit to the Belarus Republic, the former Soviet Union country in Eastern Europe on 27 August. Minsk Automobile Plant is highly established industrial plant where high quality passenger buses, trucks and lorries are manufactured for both local and export markets.
During the bilateral discussions President Rajapaksa had with both the Belarusian President and the Prime Minister, it was formally agreed to set up assembly plants for buses and tractors by Belarusian investors in Sri Lanka as joint ventures. It was confirmed by the Belarusian investors and business leaders at the Belarus- Sri Lanka Business Forum which was organised to identify potential areas for collaboration in order to further develop economic and trade cooperation between the two countries at the National Library Auditorium in Minsk, the capital city of Belarus.
On arrival to the Minsk Automobile Plant President Rajapaksa and his entourage were received by the company management. Vladimir Volchok, the Director General, and Mr. Vitaly Goncharik, the Deputy Director General of the plant joined with the President and described the manufacturing process during the inspection tour.
belarusautoplant1
President Rajapaksa, with his delegation, also visited the Minsk Tractor Works where a variety of tractors and other agricultural and industrial machineries are being manufactured. President Rajapaksa took special interest and closely inspected hand tractors and agricultural machineries used in agricultural sector.
Pictures are seen here President Rajapaksa inspecting a heavy vehicle assembling line at the automobile plant, a heavy truck being manufactured and closely inspecting a tractor and another hand tractor on display.  At the Minsk Automobile Plant, President Rajapaksa, together with External Affairs Minister Prof. G.L.Peiris, Secretary to the President Lalith Weeratunga, Provincial Councilors and other members of the delegation inspected a high-quality passenger bus on display. Vladimir Volchok, Director General and Vitaly Goncharik, Deputy Director General of the plant are also in the pictures.

Pix By: Sudath Silva

Nearly 5,000 security, police personnel abducted by LTTE :HR ACTIVISTS SEE NO EVIL

August 29th, 2013

Vijayani Edirisinghe  Courtesy The Daily News

3, 484 soldiers,189 policemen, 1,175 civilians made to disappear :Whereabouts of 609 LTTE conscripts too unknown :

Nearly 5,000 security and police personnel believed to have been abducted and “ƒ”¹…”disappeared’ during the 30 year war had perished at the hands of LTTE terrorists having being subjected to torture, according to recent investigations by Defence Intelligence Units.

Although the LTTE diaspora is harping on losses incurred by the LTTE, no one spoke about or highlighted the injustices caused to these Security Forces personnel and innocent civilians and violations of their human rights, a senior Army officer said.

He said the LTTE engaged in abductions and kidnappings since 1972. They began abducting security forces personnel from 1981 and thereafter continued a spree of such abductions and kidnappings until 2008.

The total breakdown is 3,484 security forces personnel, 1,189 police personnel and 1,175 civilians, that disappeared at the hands of LTTE terrorists. This is in addition to the abduction and forced conscription of 609 Tamils into terrorist ranks.

LTTE cadres still under custody had confided that these abducted forces personnel and civilians were engaged in slavery, tortured and systematically killed by LTTE terrorists from time to time.

Some leading LTTE cadres who are respondents in a case being heard in the Vavuniya High Court in their confessions have said 26 army personnel abducted by the LTTE were interrogated, denied food for several days, shot and their bodies were burnt on tyrepyers by the LTTE after they were sprayed with kerosene.

– See more at: http://www.dailynews.lk/?q=local/hr-activists-see-no-evil#sthash.z9Q16PI8.dpuf

Tamil ethnic bias and potential conflict of interest disqualifies Navi Pillay from conducting investigations against Sri Lanka

August 28th, 2013

 

Shenali D Waduge

Ms. Navanethem “Navi” Pillay has impressive credentials.  A South African of Indian Tamil origin, she is the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. She was also the first non-white woman on the High Court of South Africa, and she has also served as a judge of the International Criminal Court and President of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.

She attended Harvard Law School, obtaining an LL.M. in 1982 and a Doctor of Juridical Science (SJD) degree in 1988. Pillay is the first South African to obtain a doctorate in law from Harvard Law School.

Given her notable achievements in the law as a scholar, lawyer and later as a Judge in several jurisdictions she is undoubtedly aware of such important natural justice principles as the –

1)    Conflict of Interests

A conflict of interest exists even if no unethical improper act results. A conflict of interest can create an appearance of impropriety that can undermine confidence in the process of an investigation or inquiry. A conflict of interest could impair an individual’s ability to perform his or her duties and responsibilities objectively. A conflict of interest (COI) also occurs when an individual is involved in multiple interests, one of which could possibly corrupt the motivation for an act in another.

2)    Nemo iudex in causa sua (or nemo iudex in sua causa) is a Latin phrase that means, literally, no-one should be a judge in their own cause. It is a principle of natural justice that no person can judge a case in which they have an interest. The rule is very strictly applied to any appearance of a possible bias, even if there is actually none.

3)    “Not only must Justice be done; it must also be seen to be done.”

R v Sussex Justices, Ex parte McCarthy is a leading English case on the impartiality and recusal of judges. It is famous for its precedence in establishing the principle that the mere appearance of bias is sufficient to overturn a judicial decision.

In a landmark and far-reaching judgment, Lord Hewart CJ said:

” a long line of cases shows that it is not merely of some importance but is of fundamental importance that justice should not only be done, but should manifestly and undoubtedly be seen to be done.”

Nothing is to be done which creates even a suspicion that there has been an improper interference with the course of justice. The ruling is derived from the principle of natural justice.  It has been followed throughout the world in countries that use the English common law system.  It has been applied in many diverse situations, including immigration cases, professional disciplinary inquiries, and in the Pinochet case, where the House of Lords overturned its own decision on the grounds of Lord Hoffman’s ( one of the Judges) conflict of interest.

Pinochet case in the House of Lords

Lord Hoffman was the Chairman and a Director of Amnesty International Charity Limited, a company with close links to the human rights organisation Amnesty International.

Amnesty International had been given permission to take part in the hearing before Lord Hoffmann and four other law lords. Unusually, Amnesty’s barristers were allowed to address them at the hearing.
Though Amnesty’s position was that people responsible for human rights violations in Chile should be brought to justice, there was no suggestion that Lord Hoffmann was actually biased against Gen Pinochet. But he had “an interest in the outcome of the proceedings” (according to Lord Goff) and he was “in effect, acting as a judge in his own cause” (according to Lord Hope).
Lord Hutton said “public confidence in the integrity of the administration of justice would be shaken if his decision were allowed to stand.” The law lords agreed that Lord Hoffmann had sat while disqualified and ordered a fresh hearing.
The Hoffmann affair caused great damage to the international reputation of the English judiciary. Lord Hoffmann never explained and never apologised. Yet irreparable damage was done to England’s standing as a country where a fair trial was possible.

4)    Judicial disqualification

Judicial disqualification, also referred to as recusal, refers to the act of abstaining from participation in an official action such as a legal proceeding or conducting an investigation or inquiry due to a conflict of interest of the presiding court official or administrative officer. The judge or presiding officer must be free from disabling conflicts of interest thus making the fairness of the proceedings or investigation less likely to be questioned.

Racial Prejudice of Juries and convicting Judges

During the 19th and 20th centuries, especially in the civil rights movement era, all-white juries in USA acquitted white defendants accused of murdering blacks, and convicted blacks in a manner totally out of proportion to their numbers in the general community. Such cases were rarely prosecuted at all, and when they were due to outside political pressure, only the minimum effort to go through the motions of a trial was made. 

Navi Pillay’s bias

The UN Human Rights Head on arrival in Sri Lanka claims she comes with an open mind. In this context we cannot overlook the fact that the whole issue facing Sri Lanka whether at a terrorist level or political leads to the aspiration of 72 million Tamils to have a separate Tamil Homeland to call their own (irrespective of whether it is in Sri Lanka’s North or Tamil Nadu).

This then raises the question of how Ms Pillay having emotional, genetic and ethnic ties being a Tamil with roots in Tamil Nadu how she can function with neutrality, impartiality, unbias and be emotionally detached?

When facts speak for themselves and evidence reveals that Ms. Pillay has an axe to grind it stands to reason that before we object to Ms. Pillay’s role in Sri Lanka it is only ethical for her to remove herself from any role relating in Sri Lanka. As the neutrality of judges is a sine quo non in the judicial process so whenever a judge realizes he or she cannot look at a case dispassionately the correct thing to do is to withdraw and arrange for a totally neutral person to take over. This is what Ms. Pillay is morally and ethically obliged to do in respect to her dealings with and in relation to Sri Lanka.

Ethics Guidelines in the UN

The UN itself has its own ethics guidelines and advice and figures a list of conflicts of interest found at the organizational level and personal level.  

An “ƒ”¹…”organizational conflict of interest arises where, because of other activities or relationships, an organization is unable to render impartial services’. In other words the objective of the organization gets affected.

A personal conflict of interest is a “ƒ”¹…”situation where a person’s private interests “”…” such as outside professional relationships or personal financial assets “”…” interfere or may be perceived to interfere with his/her performance of official duties’.

The UN ethics office advocates that staff should always “ƒ”¹…”strive to avoid situations’ “”…” we like to raise this same question to Ms. Pillay. The UN ethics office also says that “ƒ”¹…”we need to be aware of how our actions, in the absence of an explanation, may appear to be interpreted by others’ “”…” Ms. Pillay will realize what are concerns are because “ƒ”¹…”situations do not necessarily imply wrongdoing’ and we are certainly not questioning Ms. Pillay’s credentials but our concern rests on the primary argument that being personally, emotionally, genetically and ethnically Tamil, that potential conflict of interest stake is very high for an entire country and population to accept given that previous statements and behaviour by Ms. Pillay raises questions about her ability to be neutral.

The UN’s financial disclosure program also stresses on conflict of interest in financial affairs. As such the UN outlines conflicts that may arise from accepting an honor, decoration, favour, gift or remuneration in connection with official duties (either from Governments or Non-Governmental sources without prior approval). There are criterions for official hospitality, favouritism “”…” using office or knowledge gained from work to favour family members or friends. If the UN is to maintain and promote the spirit of openness and transparency, and if the objective is to be efficient and credible to safeguard the interests of the Organization it certainly does raise some credibility issues about Ms. Pillay.

Lack of appearance of Objectivity and Neutrality in Ms. Navy Pillay

So while we question Ms. Pillay on her neutrality based on her genetic, ethnic, emotional and personal connections to the Tamil cause, she may also like to answer why she kept using data supplied by the LTTE news agencies to question a legitimate government and continued to quote from LTTE front organization sources.

This makes her appear as a subversive and seditious international civil servant standing in between a sovereign Government and the UN Human Rights body and also raises concerns about how far she can expose all the information sharing to these LTTE fronts that are out to create an Eelam (in either Sri Lanka or Tamil Nadu). While she listens with empathy to spouses of dead LTTE leaders she needs to also travel South and meet the dead of the civilians killed by the LTTE outside combat areas. If she has not made arrangements to meet the families mourning children killed in villages, student monks killed in Arantalawa and over 10,000 other such civilians then she will be seen as blatantly one – sided and biased.

It was on the grounds of biased reporting that Iran has recently refused entry to Ahmed Shaheed the UN Human Rights Official to enter Iran

” the measures taken by Ahmed Shaheed and the show of interviews launched by him, (displays) he is more of an actor than a rapporteur” and further

“ƒ”¹…”he has not acted fairly and has played the role of the opposition, and his measures have been outside the purview of a UN Rapporteur”¦the ground is not prepared for his presence in Iran until this approach is modified’.

Sri Lanka needs to stand up and talk in a spirited manner in the international arena. Display qualities of moral courage and outspokenness. A policy of appeasement, retreat, defeatism, kowtowing and cringing in foreign relations in the last two years has led to loss of national pride, self – respect and dignity, and in turn demoralized a once proud Sri Lankan public.   

Recusal (act of abstaining from participation)

Officials with a conflict of interest are expected to recuse themselves from (i.e., abstain from) decisions where such a conflict exists. The necessity for recusal varies depending upon the circumstance and profession, either as common sense ethics, codified ethics, or by statute. For example, if the governing board of a government agency is considering hiring a consulting firm for some task, and one firm being considered has, as a partner, a close relative of one of the board’s members, then that board member should not vote on which firm is to be selected. In fact, to minimize any conflict, the board member should not participate in any way in the decision, including discussions.

Judges, investigators or anyone else acting in a quasi “”…” judicial capacity are also expected to recuse themselves from cases when personal conflicts of interest may arise. For example, if a judge has participated in a case previously in some other legal role he/she is not allowed to try that case.

Voluntary withdrawal from an investigation is also expected when one of the investigators in a case might be a close personal friend, or when the outcome of the case might affect the investigator directly, such as whether a car maker is obliged to recall a model that an investigator drives or if the investigator has a sectarian or emotional link to the substance of the matter under inquiry. Recuse is required by law under Continental civil law systems and by the Rome Statute, organic law of the International Criminal Court.

However, if a judge or an investigating official knows when to withdraw considering that the scales are not balanced equally, it is surely for Ms. Pillay to make the call instead of making us raise these questions.

It is up to Ms. Pillay to now decide how best she can remain unbiased. As an ethnic Tamil sharing genetics and emotional attachments to the Tamil cause through family and roots as well as various other bindings that must prevail, surely Ms. Pillay must know she is unsuited to function in any role where Sri Lanka is concerned or for that matter with India given the strident nature of Tamil Nadu calls for separatism and establishment of a greater sovereign Tamil nation with major parts of Sri Lanka annexed to it.  

 

 

Lessons for Sri Lanka from the Libyan experience

August 28th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

It is not difficult to conclude that Western imperial powers are mapping out their war master plan for economic and political domination across regions. They are openly and covertly interfering in domestic affairs, they are now even openly arming opposition groups, their motive is to destabalize governments that do not follow their policies and their cohorts in crime, the media agencies are doing a splendid job of giving the print news to help the public form their opinion against governments and leaders. We are witnessing a digital brainwashing at its best and humanitarian intervention/R2P or rather imperial intervention appears to be the way forward.

(If Imperialists want) Insurgents can and will be trained (even against international laws): They make them “”…” they can break them!

Contrary to all laws what took place in Libya and now taking place openly in Syria is the manner the West is not only training rebels but providing them arms and financial support as well as steering their attacks. This is the future template in future R2P situations and Asia needs to be alert.

Regime Overthrow “”…” once planned does no detours:

If a Government is listed to be overthrown “”…” no amount of compromising will change that decision. Forsaking the country and its citizens in order to appease will result in not only being considered a betrayer of the nation but the eventual enemy of the nation’s advocating regime change. These nations do not turn enemies into friends “”…” their friends are treated as enemies. Saddam, Osama, Mubarak, Gaddafi share startling parallels.

The lies:

They say their concerns is not about regime change “”…” but it is

They will say their concern is about deaths of “ƒ”¹…”civilians’ providing verifiable proof about their deaths.

They will sell a different version to their plan to their people “”…” these countrymen continue to be fooled.

They will say they would retreat once their R2P humanitarian mission is over “”…” but they will not. Iraq, Afghanistan, Haiti, Libya are all living examples.

“ƒ”¹…”Their’ reporters will provide the lies “”…” the entire landscape will be changed according to what suits their plans, photos will be created, witnesses will emerge, video clippings are supposed to provide evidence. The media magic will do wonders.

Getting rid of the “ƒ”¹…”Dictators’

When Gaddafi gave money to the Sarkozy election campaign, he was not a “ƒ”¹…”dictator’, when Gaddafi struck deals with the West showering them with money, he was no “ƒ”¹…”dictator’ “”…” but he became the “ƒ”¹…”world’s’ worst enemy and was hounded and unceremoniously deposed. Any democratically elected leader can easily be tagged “ƒ”¹…”dictator’ and marked to receive the same fate as that of Gaddafi, Saddam and Mubarak.

Why were nationalist leaders like late Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, Fidel Castro of Cuba, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran, Jong-il of North Korea, Rafael Correa Delgado of Ecuador, Evo Morales of Bolivia and Bashar Al-Assad of Syria targeted?

Why were Sukarno of Indonesia, Salvador Allende of Chile, Jean Bertrand Aristide in Haiti, Manuel Zelaya of Honduras, Sandinistas in Nicaragua, Jacobo Arbenz of Guatemala and Mossadeg of Iran successfully overthrown?

What were Gaddafi’s real crimes?

In the case of Gaddafi his fault was to challenge the captains of global finance.  His list of crimes included:

·         Advocating a welfare state (not for giant corporations but for people in need). Before the imperialist-orchestrated overthrow of Gaddafi, Libya was the highest living standard nation in Africa better than the rich Western-backed Saudi Arabia.

·         Guaranteeing subsistence “”…” all Libyans were provided free health care

·         Under gender equality, UNDP ranked Libya as 52 (Egypt was 108, Algeria 70, Saudi Arabia 128)

·         Resisting to join the US/NATO sponsored military alliance in the region (both Libya and Syria were 2 Mediterranean nations refusing to subordinate to US/NATO designs to control the Sea Basin and Middle East)

·         Both nations refused to participate in NATO’s Operation Active Endeavor naval patrols

·         Both nations refused to be a member of NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue military partnership which includes most regional countries: Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Mauritania

·         Gaddafi refused to join the U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM), designed to control valuable resources in Africa, safeguard trade and investment markets in the region, and contain or evict China from North Africa (AFRICOM formed in 2007 has 49 countries signatory)

·         Crime of promoting trade, development and industrialization projects at local, national, regional and African level “”…” Libya played a lead role in connecting entire African continent by telephone, television, radio broadcast, distance teaching, telemedicine by establishing RASCOM (Regional African Satellite Communication Organization) so that Africa would have its own satellite and slash communication costs in the continent. (this was a blow to the annual $500m Europe was making from its satellite transmission lease). Aid to launch project was refused by IMF and World Bank and eventually Gaddafi put $300m, the African Development Bank $50m, the West African Development Bank $27m and 49 African nations launched its first communication satellite on 26 Dec 2007.

·         Gaddafi’s crime was to maintain public ownership of its own central bank and authority to create its own national money. $30billion frozen by US Government belongs to the Central Bank of Libya.

·         Gaddafi was guilty of standing between the Western policy of “ƒ”¹…”divide and rule’. Gadafi wanted to create a United States of Africa while the EU wanted to create the Union for the Mediterranean (UPM) region (but North Africa had to be cut off from rest of Africa on the principle of racism “”…” that Africans of Arab region was more civilized than the rest of Africa)

·         Gaddafi’s crimes including striking deals with BRIC countries “”…” Brazil, Russia, India and China

·         Planning to trade with gold.

Methods used to oust governments vary:

Preferred option is non-military “”…” will get leaders to agree to neoliberal strategies of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) proposed by bigwigs of IMF and World Trade Organizations.

Countries would have to agree to allow their financial systems to be tied to network of global banking cartel. After much coercions Gaddafi agreed to a number of neoliberal economic reforms in 1983 which gave lucrative business investments to foreign companies “”…” if national leaders disagree, the next option is the military one.

3 strategies were adopted on Libya:

1.   Creating the “ƒ”¹…”uprisings’ and backdrop “ƒ”¹…”support’ for ouster of Gaddafi (Egypt and Tunisia carbon copy but became uncontrollable resulting in military rule)

2.   Brutal crackdown of supposedly “ƒ”¹…”spontaneous’ “ƒ”¹…”peaceful uprisings’ “”…” while there are forces to galvanize the peaceful protests there are forces to turn these peaceful events into violent ones to blame the targeted Governments

3.   The New Spring “”…” scenario of civil war, orchestrated chaos

What NATO did

The NATO Alliance flew more than 26,000 flight missions including 9,658 strike sorties.  This pales in comparison to the U.S.-led “Desert Storm” Gulf War air campaign of 1991, which lasted less than 45 days and saw the international coalition fly over 100,000 sorties and drop 85,000 tons of bombs. NATO’s “Operation Allied Force” against Yugoslavia in 1999 lasted slightly longer at 78 days, in which more than 38,000 sorties were accomplished. UNHRC head is silent on NATO crimes nor are they ever investigated.

The real interests

Countries are targeted not without reason. If it is not oil it is natural resources, if it is not that it is geopolitical or strategic sealane for trade “”…” countries are taken over because of commercial and political advantage (in that order).

US and NATO said their mandate was to protect the Libyan civilians “”…” it turned out they were on a witch hunt for Gaddafi.

Protection of Libyan civilians does not entail bombing Libya

National leaders MUST NOT act as puppets

To become a real “ƒ”¹…”ally’ and true “ƒ”¹…”friend’, national leaders have to grant the West and the global financier’s FULL control of its economic, geopolitical and foreign policy. Translated this means completely foregoing national sovereignty and leaders who agree to that will be showered with all that meets their material desires until they are eventually discarded or even eliminated. Not only would their “ƒ”¹…”friends’ have got tired of looking after them the entire country would look down upon them as ridiculing the nation and betraying future generations of natives “”…” such leaders are destined to enter history books with hate. Therefore this option is nothing that national leaders should ever consider taking whatever pressures are brought upon them by the powers that be. The people are the best defense “”…” get close to the majority populace that is where one’s safety is not by distancing from them.  

Be wary of “ƒ”¹…”unarmed’ protests

The evidence that the supposed “ƒ”¹…”spontaneous’ “ƒ”¹…”unarmed’ “ƒ”¹…”peaceful’ protest demonstrations in Egypt, Tunisia, Bahrain and Libya were all nurtured orchestrated and armed from abroad collaborating with expat opposition groups, locally funded allies is something all targeted nations need to keep in mind. The template is being replicated all over.

Be wary of “ƒ”¹…”Friends’ even “ƒ”¹…”Family “”…”

Having penetrated into the Gaddafi family, former UK premier was best of buddies with Gaddafi’s son so much so that in thinking the Gaddafi’s will not be hounded, the son divulged details which eventually was used against them and helped in facilitating the ousting.

Saif al-Islam Gaddafi described former prime minister Blair as a “ƒ”¹…”personal family friend’ and he had visited Libya many times since 2007. It was in 2010 that Saif claimed that “ƒ”¹…”He’s (Blair) adviser to the LIA, the Libyan Investment Authority. He has some consultancy role.’ It was only after Blair’s visit to Libya in 2004 that BP signed a $900million deal with the Libyan National Oil Company. The rest is not hard to figure out just as how Sarkozy used Gaddafi money for his election campaign and thereafter disowned even knowing Gaddafi “”…” Blair did the same.

Media’s role in overthrowing Governments

When people rely on information the power of media can never be underestimated. Only a handful would go the length to discover for themselves the truth the media relays. Thus, the media becomes a perfect tool to distort the truth. They can create just about any story. In the case of Libya, they reported Gaddafi was mass murdering “”…” he was not, they reported Libyans wanted to get rid of Gaddafi “”…” but they did not report that 1million Libyans (in a country of 6million) came out in support of Gaddafi.

We know how media lied on Iraq and Afghanistan and the information they withheld from the public. Can media be trusted to ever tell the truth?

Media reported Libya’s crimes but was totally silent on NATO’s 24 hour non-stop bombing indiscriminate bombings.

Media reports on crimes by President Assad’s troops in Syria but not a word gets said about Western-backed rebels imported and now scattered all over Syria.

How could a responsible media leave out that the “ƒ”¹…”rebels’ in Libya were armed from the very first day (which categorically proves it was not a peaceful movement)

Why did media hide that the rebels were working hand in glove with Western intelligence?

Why did media not admit that Gaddafi’s government WAS NOT carrying out aerial attacks against protestors or even mass rape as they alleged.

Why didn’t media accept that 10,000 people were not killed in Benghazi by Gaddafi’s government but only 110 on both sides prior to NATO’s attack?

Did the Western news agencies along with Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya not lie and fabricate stories as they continue to do in Syria?

Why did the mainstream media conveniently omit to report on NATO’s non-stop air raids, killing people and destroying homes, hospitals, schools? On 8-9 Aug 2011, 85 died including 33 children in a city in Misurata from NATO’s deliberate targeting of residential areas and civilian infrastructure “”…” why were these crimes not highlighted?

Why did media purposely describe armed rebels as freedom fighters?

We notice that “ƒ”¹…”unarmed protestors’ has become a good tool to use as was seen repeated in Syria where allegations abound about mass scale killing of peaceful protestors and civilians committed by their own government.

Thereafter corporate media run the sensationalist, unverifiable “ƒ”¹…”eye-witness’ reports that are meant to steer anti-government rhetoric.

Media misinformation was proven in the lies on the massacres in Houla and Hama, BBC ran a photo from Iraq claiming it was taken in Syria. Incidentally, the Houla massacre took place the day before Kofi Annan was to arrive in Syria and was obviously planned to embarrass Assad and we see similar episodes take place elsewhere too. These “ƒ”¹…”massacres’ were all opportunities to justify “ƒ”¹…”intervention’ the main goal.

Yet, after Libya it is obvious that foreign intelligence agencies are very much steering the rebel movements both in Libya and Syria.

In viewing what took place in Libya and now taking place in Syria and comparing it with the scenarios currently taking place in Sri Lanka it is time to draw parallels and to wonder who is target and who are helping as well as the likely scenario. Leaders, the Government, the Opposition need to now think which way they wish to steer the country “”…” do they betray the people for their own personal survival (which is NOT guaranteed as examples foretell) by turning Sri Lanka to a client state or do they with the backing of the people use diplomacy to sail the odds to continue to maintain the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the nation. Either way Sri Lanka is in for hard times, not helped in the least by bandwagons of forces even within the Government who are out to personally profit from making whatever deals they can.

What are Fibroids?

August 28th, 2013

By, Dr. Nishan Wijesinha (Specialist Consultant) MIS Services 107, St Anthony’s Road, Colombo 3. {Telephone: 0115738935}

Fibroids are muscular tumors that grow in the wall of the uterus or in the commonly “the womb”. Fibroids are almost (not cancerous). Fibroids can grow as a single tumor, or there can be many of them in the uterus. They can be as small as an apple seed or as big as a grapefruit. In unusual cases they can become extra large.

Fibroids become more common as women age; especially during the 30s and 40s through menopause. After menopause, fibroids usually shrink.

Eating a lot of red meat including tuna is linked with a higher risk of fibroids.

Eating plenty of the herbs parsley and mint can protect women from developing fibroids.

Where can Fibroids grow?

Most fibroids grow in the wall of the uterus. Doctors put them into three groups based on where they grow:

  • Submucosal (sub-myoo-KOH-zuhl) fibroids grow into the uterine cavity.
  • Intramural (ihn-truh-MYOOR-uhl) fibroids grow within the wall of the uterus.
  • Subserosal (sub-suh-ROH-zuhl) fibroids grow on the outside of the uterus.

Some fibroids grow on stalks that grow out from the surface of the uterus or into the cavity of the uterus. They might look like mushrooms. These are called pedunculated (pih-DUHN-kyoo-lay-ted) fibroids.

fibroid

How are Fibroids treated?

Several drugs commonly used for birth control can be prescribed to help control symptoms of fibroids. For example (Depo-Provera®), this can be used to control heavy bleeding, as well as for birth control.  Other drugs used to treat fibroids are “gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists” (GnRHa). The one most commonly used is Lupron®, to shrink fibroids. Sometimes they are used before surgery to make fibroids easier to remove.

Sri Lanka and Belarus leaders grace the Business Forum in Minsk

August 28th, 2013

By Janaka Alahapperuma

President Mahinda Rajapaksa and Belarus Prime Minister Professor Mikhail Myasnikovich graced the Sri Lanka “”…” Belarus Business Forum which was held at the National Library Auditorium in Minsk, the capital city of Belarus. Sri Lankan President and Belarus Premier participated the occasion as chief guests.  Economy Minister of the Belarus Republic, Nikolai Snopkov also joined the two leaders.
Both leaders and other distinguished guests were warmly welcomed at the entrance by Sri Lankan traditional drummers and dancers. The guests lighted the traditional oil lamp at the launch of the first ever Sri Lanka “”…” Belarus Business Forum in Minsk.
The Sri Lanka “”…” Belarus Business Forum had been organized to identify potential areas for collaboration in order to further develop economic and trade cooperation between the two countries. On the side line of the forum a large-scale presentation of big tourist operators and hotels of Sri Lanka was also held for representatives of the Belarusian tourist industry.
After the presentation of tourist opportunities of Sri Lanka, the Chairman of the Belarusian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Mikhail Miatlikov noted Sri Lanka is a new country for Belarus and our holidaymakers could visit this country and turn their tourist market to become livelier. The high level of service, natural beauty and ancient history will appeal to the tourists. Speaking at the Business Forum he further said Sri Lankan delegation is interested in export of certain Belarusian goods such as sugar, tires and oil products. Therefore the heads of the states agreed on setting up joint ventures for those industries.
minsk1
Minister of External Affairs Prof. G.L. Peiris, speaking at the Sri Lanka “”…” Belarus Business Forum, described the attractive options available in Sri Lanka for foreign direct investment. The companies of Sri Lanka are interested in establishing business contacts with Belarusian organizations working in automobile manufacturing, production of agricultural equipment, energy, juridical, insurance and banking services, tourism and hospitality, logistics, sales of tea, spices, dressing, fruit and vegetables, seafood, production and sales of rubber goods, sales of products based on coconut fibre, production of leather footwear, textile products, the Minister noted.
The Belarusian Prime Minister asserted that the Business Forum organized on the sidelines of President Rajapaksa’s three day state visit would be a harbinger to meet the desires of the two countries. Claiming that this cooperation should not be limited only to economic and trade, he mentioned monetary planning, technology, specialist services, energy, education and culture as other sectors. The Belarusian Prime Minister also emphasised that both countries would stand to benefit by selling goods produced in Sri Lanka through joint ventures not only in the island but in other countries of the region.
Delegations of business men and women from both Sri Lanka and Belarus attended the Forum with the objective of strengthening cooperation between the private sectors of the two countries. Representatives of 26 companies and conglomerates of Sri Lanka took part in the business forum and business matchmaking session. The chair of the group of companies- Sri Lanka, Joel Selvanayagam said “We have enormous potential and technologies. By uniting them we can advance our economies”.
The Forum identified there are plenty of opportunities for Sri Lanka-Belarus joint business ventures. Among the identified joint ventures are sectors such agricultural gear including tractors and trucks, manufacture of motor vehicles including passenger buses, milk and milk-based products, infant food and goods for children, footwear and  goods required by the military.
Numerous agreements were signed during the business forum including the Memorandum on cooperation between the National Center of Marketing and the Council of Export Development of Sri Lanka. Leaders of both countries were of the view that such business forums provide a good opportunity for both countries to work towards implementing the agreements that were signed.
The Minister of External Affairs Prof. G.L. Peiris, Secretary to the President Lalith Weeratunga, Sri Lanka’s Ambassador in Russia Udayanga Weeratunga and Additional Secretary to the Ministry of External Affairs Mrs. Kshenuka Seneviratne were also present.
Pix By: Sudath Silva

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause of travellers’ diarrhoea

August 28th, 2013

Dr Hector Perera         London

This is a common cause of bacterial diarrhoea caused by ETEC among travellers and in underdeveloped nations, especially among children. ETEC is transmitted by food or water contaminated with animal or human faeces. Although ETEC causes a significant amount of illness worldwide, the infection will end on its own and is rarely life-threatening. When food is prepared in hotels and in takeaways, would they take enough care in food preparation? Take for instant some vegetables such as salad leaves, leeks and “ƒ”¹…”mukunuwenna’, one has to think would they be cleaned properly before they were cooked. One of the reasons is time pressure that means they need many things to cook so they do not pay enough attention to the cleanliness and hygienic conditions. Salad leaves are hardly washed when they get from the market, they are used as supplied. Vegetables are sprayed with insecticides, herbicides and likely to get contaminated with soil and dirty water. In the past there were reports about possible contaminations from these kinds of raw foods when eaten from restaurants.  Salad leaves are eaten fresh so bacteria and ETEC might enter the digestive system easily.

Escherichia coli is a bacterium that normally lives in the intestines of humans and other animals. Most types of E. coli are harmless, but some can cause disease. Disease-causing E. coli are grouped according to the different ways by which they cause illness. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, or ETEC, is the name given to a group of E. coli that produce special toxins which stimulate the lining of the intestines causing them to secrete excessive fluid, thus producing diarrhoea.

We know for fact that green leaves such as “ƒ”¹…”mukunuwenna, kan kun, tampala’ and spinach are very nutritious vegetables but have you witnessed how they are grown? If the supply is from good farming conditions then there would be no problems but I have seen how they are naturally growing near water ways such as by the river flooding and over flowing areas? Along with rain and drain water comes some dirt that feed the plants. Who knows whether it is contaminated with human, animal faeces, discarded motor oil and chemicals such as paints?  They need thorough and careful washing to get rid of dirt adhering to the leaves and stems. It’s up to you to understand whether they would be carefully prepared in large scale food preparations.

The Best Way to Remove Intestinal Bad Bacteria.

Your intestinal tract is home to millions of micro-organisms that help you digest food and fight disease. In a perfect world with no pollutants, food additives or excessive antibiotic drugs, these organisms would be in balance and cause no problems at all. But because we don’t live in a perfect world, many of us find ourselves with symptoms of imbalance in the intestinal flora.

Symptoms of Imbalance

 Although these symptoms may have other causes, they are often associated with an imbalance in the gut. Chronic constipation, diarrhoea or irritable bowel syndrome are the most common clues that your digestive tract needs to be balanced. Until recently, these problems were treated with pharmaceutical medicines that may have helped the symptoms but did nothing to remedy the cause. According to a study in Oxford Rheumatology in June 2008, incomplete digestion due to flora imbalance leads to leaky gut syndrome, which, in turn, can cause such complaints as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

The symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) vary from person to person and there are often periods when they are better or worse.

There may be times when your symptoms improve and you’ll be able to do many normal, everyday activities. However, at other times your symptoms may flare up and get worse, affecting your daily life.

Fatigue

The main symptom of CFS is persistent physical and mental fatigue (exhaustion). This does not go away with sleep or rest and limits your usual activities.

Most people with CFS describe this fatigue as overwhelming, and a different type of tiredness from what they have experienced before.

Exercising can make symptoms worse. This is called post-exertional malaise, or ‘payback’. The effect of this is sometimes delayed for example, if you were to play a game of sport, the resulting fatigue may not develop for a few hours afterwards, or even the next day.

People with severe CFS are unable to do any activities themselves or can only carry out simple daily tasks, such as brushing their teeth. They are sometimes confined to their bed and are often unable to leave their house. This may be due to sheer laziness than actually suffering from CFS. How many people are keen to keep personal hygiene? That again not that they suffer from CFS symptoms. 

 Fibromyalgia is pain and stiffness in the muscles, ligaments and tendons. It is not arthritis because it does not affect the joints, although the joints might hurt. It is important to understand that simply because you feel tired or exhausted that you suffer from this disease. A medical doctor has to come to a conclusion. Fibromyalgia may affect one part of the body or several different areas such as the limbs, neck and back.

There is no simple cure for fibromyalgia, but there are ways of managing your symptoms. It is thought that people with fibromyalgia are unable to obtain the deep restorative sleep our bodies need. This leads to a cycle of fatigue and pain. There are usually aches all over the body although there will be certain areas where the pain is more localised.

How will it affect?

Some of the main symptoms are: pain, fatigue and exhaustation, sleep disturbance and waking up feeling unrefreshed, aching and stiffness, headaches, concentration problems, irritable bowels.

Feeling tired a lot of the time can make it hard to carry out simple every day tasks such as doing housework or going to work. This can also make you feel frustrated and depressed.

How is it treated?

Your doctor may prescribe you with: painkillers or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) to help with the pain, a steroid injection into a joint to reduce pain, antidepressants to help with the pain, sleep disturbance and depression, anti-convulsion drugs, normally used to treat epilepsy.

It is very important to have an active lifestyle when you have fibromyalgia. Aerobic exercises, such as swimming and walking, will reduce pain and fatigue, build strength in your muscles, and help you lose weight. This, in turn, could help you to sleep and feel better.

How to Get in Balance

 At least 7,000 micro-organisms can be found in the human body, so it would be presumptuous to think that all complaints could be cured by balancing one or two of the most commonly known. But many problems can be improved by lowering your Candida albicans population and improving the numbers of Lactobacillus acidopholus, Lactobacillus bifidus and Bifodobacterium. Candida albicans is technically a type of yeast rather than a bacterium. It can get out of hand under certain circumstances such as overuse or improper use of antibiotics, over consumption of processed foods and sugar and under consumption of naturally fibrous foods such as vegetables and whole grains. The people who depend on junk foods have to be over cautious because that kind of food are lacking of nutritional values. As I mentioned before sometimes University students depend on junk food due to various reasons.

The medical advice is, one way to lower your yeast count is to take a course of caprylic acid supplements over a period of two weeks, during which you severely limit simple carbohydrates including sugar, bread and potatoes. Drink plenty of water and take a fibre supplement to assist your body in getting rid of the killed yeast. Some people drink carbonated sugary drinks than fresh water, this has to be cut down to a minimum. After this, increase your consumption of sugar-free yogurt, raw and lightly cooked vegetables and fresh fruit. In another place I saw they are advised to take probiotic product such as Align, Bio Beads or Accu Flora, which are all available over the counter but again you need to consult a doctor. While we don’t live in a perfect world, your best bet for good health is to eat a more perfect diet of fresh vegetables, fruits, whole grains and quality protein such as eggs, legumes and lower-fat meats. This, according to researcher Gail Cresci of the University of Georgia, is the best way to keep your intestinal flora in balance. Any comments please perera6@hotmail.co.uk  

Sri Lanka and Belarus inked Seven Bilateral Agreements

August 28th, 2013

By Janaka Alahapperuma

Belarus Republic and Sri Lanka have inked the seven bilateral agreements designed to promote all-round cooperation on Monday afternoon (26) at the Cabinet Hall of the Government House in Minsk, the capital during Sri Lankan President’s three day state visit to the country.  On Sri Lanka side President Mahinda Rajapaksa signed the joint statement with his Belarus counterpart, President Alexander Lukashenko at the end of bilateral discussions.

Both leaders jointly presided over the signing ceremony of seven Agreements and Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs). At the signing ceremony they hailed the agreements, which they said marked a big step forward in bilateral relations.
Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko said it was “with great pleasure” that the deal was finally concluded and the goals achieved by signing those agreements. The primary goals were to “maintain and promote friendly trade and economic cooperation” and to “strengthen the existing friendly relations with Sri Lanka,” he said.
In this connection, President Rajapaksa said that “this visit has been very fruitful. Bi-national relations represent a strategic alliance which may be assumed, for instance, as a bond of respect, fraternity and common development. Sri Lanka is offering many attractive incentives and facilities for direct foreign investments, he further noted. Expressing his thanks to the warm welcome received not only by his but also the Sri Lankan delegation, President Rajapaksa appreciated the recent economic and social progress achieved by the Belarus state under the leadership of President Lukashenko in recent years. The President also stated that Sri Lanka which was plagued by terrorism for 30 years and now advancing speedily in development.
Sri Lanka and Belarus agreed to enhance cooperation in a number of sectors, including investment, education and technology. Agreements were also signed in the areas of trade and economic cooperation, taxation and tourism.
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Minister of External Affairs Prof G.L. Peiris and the Justice Minister of Belarus Slizhevsky Oleg signed a treaty on mutual legal assistance in criminal matters between the two nations and an MOU on cooperation between the Justice Ministries.
The agreement for visa exemption for holders of diplomatic and official passports was signed by Sri Lanka’s Ambassador in Russia accredited to Belarus, Udayanga Weeratunga and the Belarus Minister of Foreign Affairs Vladimir Makei. Secretary to the President Lalith Weeratunga and Deputy Chairman of the Belarus National Security Agency Vladimir Sulimov signed an agreement on technical cooperation in military affairs.
The Minister of External Affairs Prof. G.L. Peiris, Secretary to the President Lalith Weeratunga, Sri Lanka’s Ambassador in Russia accredited to Belarus Udayanga Weeratunga, and Additional Secretary to the Ministry of External Affairs Mrs. Kshenuka Seneviratne also took part in the signing ceremony.
Pix By: Sudath Silva

A question for Navi Pillai

August 27th, 2013

By:  Dharshan Weerasekera

Of the many questions that will be asked of UN Human Rights High Commissioner Navi Pillai on her week-long visit to Sri Lanka, I doubt anyone will ask the following.  Hence, someone should ask it.  The question is this:  “UNHRC resolution A/HRC/22/L.1/Rev.1, which mandates your visit, includes a clause which calls on the Government to fulfill its public commitments to devolution.  The specific words are:  “Calling on the Government of Sri Lanka to fulfill its public commitments to devolution of political authority, which is integral to reconciliation and full enjoyment of human rights by all members if its population.”  Can you please identify the specific occasions where you feel the Government made these “public commitments?”  If they were made in writing, could you ask your office to provide the specific documents, and if they were made orally, could you ask your office to provide audio or video clips of the commitments being made?”

I believe that if we Sri Lankans can get the above material, it would be possible to formulate certain legal remedies, which we can hold in reserve, just in case Ms. Pillai goes back to the UNHRC, and, either in the oral report she is scheduled to submit in September, or in the written report to be submitted at the sessions in March next year, decides to “whack” Sri Lanka by recommending further UN actions against this country.

A number of local commentators have identified two documents as being the places where the Government made the aforementioned commitments.  They are:  first, a 21 May 2009 Joint CommuniquƒÆ’†’© with India, and second, a 23 May 2009 Joint Statement between the Secretary General and President Mahinda Rajapaksa, made on the occasion of the SG’s visit to the Island just after the war.  It would be interesting to see if Ms. Pillai also identifies the above two documents, and no others, as her primary sources.

It is important to look at the relevant portions of these documents from which it may perhaps be possible to interpret that a commitment to “devolution was made.  Dayan Jayatillake has identified the relevant portions as follows.  From the Joint CommuniquƒÆ’†’© with India:  “Both sides also emphasized the urgent necessity of arriving at a lasting political settlement in Sri Lanka.”  From the 23 May 2009 Joint Statement with the SG:  “President Rajapaksa and the Secretary General agreed that addressing the aspirations and grievances of all communities and working towards a lasting political solution is fundamental to ensuring long-term socio-economic development”¦.President Rajapaksa expressed his firm resolve to proceed with the 13th Amendment, as well as to begin a broader dialogue with all parties including Tamil parties in the new circumstances, to further enhance this process and to bring about lasting peace and development in Sri Lanka.”  (India and Sri Lanka:  The road not taken, Dayan Jayatillake, 28/6/13, www.groundviews.org.)

If Ms. Pillai also picks the above portions as her “evidence,” I believe it can be shown quite easily that the UNHRC had no valid grounds to insert a call for “devolution” into resolution A/HRC/22/L.1/Rev.1.  (Note, in the relevant clause, “devolution” is posited solely and specifically, it is not qualified in any way, as for instance, “devolution and/or all other appropriate means,” or some other such phrase.)

First, the relevant statement from the Joint CommuniquƒÆ’†’© does not contain any reference to “devolution”:  it merely affirms the need for arriving at a “political settlement.”  A “political settlement” could involve “devolution,” and it could involve other arrangements, or a combination of all those options.  Either way, it does not justify isolating “devolution” as the preferred policy option.

The second and longer statement (from the Joint Statement with the SG) does contain a reference to the 13th Amendment, which obviously involves “devolution.”  So, the question is whether in that statement the President, and hence GOSL, made a commitment to “devolution,” by expressing a commitment to implementing the 13th Amendment.  I don’t think so, for the following reasons.  First, the statement does not say, “President Rajapaksa expressed his firm commitment to proceed with the 13th Amendment.”  It says instead, “President Rajapaksa expressed his firm resolve to proceed with the 13th Amendment.”  In diplomatic documents, as in legal ones, every word counts.  The people who drafted this document chose “firm resolve” over “commitment” for a reason.  Why?

I am not privy to the thoughts of the people who drafted the above document, but it seems to me there is a reasonable explanation.  The word “commitment” connotes a certain finality and irrevocability; the word “firm resolve” allows for a certain degree of flexibility:  when one “commits” to something, one is bound to it, one cannot pull-back, when one “firmly resolves” on something, one might, under dire enough circumstances, waver.  In other words, the people who drafted the above document wanted to preserve for the President some leeway, in case circumstances arose which precluded, or hampered, his implementing of the 13th Amendment.  Are there such circumstances?

Again, I can only speculate, but in my view there are.  For instance, suppose that certain segments within the minority communities that stand to gain the most from provincial devolution continue to harbour hopes for a separate state.  Suppose also that one of the main political parties of the aforementioned communities retained a demand for a separate state in nothing less than its party Constitution.  (The Illangai Tamil Arasu Katchi (ITAK) the main constituent of the TNA, reportedly retains such a demand in its party Constitution.  For instance, in an article in The Hindu, Indian journalist R.K. Radhakrishnan has said that as of May 2012, the ITAK had refused to amend its “Separate-State Constitution.”  (Sri Lankan Tamil Party retains “Separate-State Constitution”, The Hindu, 27 May 2012.) Of course, the ITAK is welcome to rebut these allegations by producing a copy of its Constitution, preferably in an English or Sinhala translation, so that the rest of us can find out what it says.)  Suppose also that prominent members of the aforementioned political party, if one were to believe the newspapers, have been in the habit of attending Eelam rallies in foreign countries!

I believe that under such circumstances, any reasonable person’s “firm resolve” to implement the 13th Amendment would waver, and justifiably so.  In any event, my point is that the relevant statement in the aforementioned document covers such contingencies, and therefore, even on the face of it, it doesn’t imply that the President made an irrevocable “commitment” to implementing the 13th Amendment.

My second reason is more general.  Pronouncements made in CommuniquƒÆ’†’©s, Joint-Statements, and so on, even if they profess commitments, are not legally enforceable under international law, unless the person making the pronouncement is the sovereign of a country.  In Sri Lanka, sovereignty is in the people, and is inalienable (Article 3).  As a citizen, I take that very seriously.  It is not possible for public officials, no matter how high, to make agreements or “commitments,” that impinge or bear in any way on the sovereignty of the people, without at a minimum submitting those agreements to ratification by the “representatives” of the people, which is to say Parliament.

I am not saying that public officials can trivialize or make a mockery of joint communiquƒÆ’†’©s, statements, and so on.  Nevertheless, such pronouncements are ultimately declarations of intent only, and the responsibility for carrying through that intent remains with the declarer.  Treaties and other formal covenants, on the other hand, are different.  They impose legal obligations that must be met, irrespective of any subsequent change in circumstances.  In this country, the Constitution and other laws set out the procedures for establishing treaties, covenants, and other formal agreements binding on the country as a whole.  If the Secretary General, or anyone else, wants to hold Sri Lanka to “devolution,” they need to follow those procedures.  Perhaps they already have.  But if so, I for one would like to see the documents.

To return to Navi Pillai, as I said earlier, a specific clause has been inserted into resolution A/HRC/22/L.1/Rev.1 that calls on Sri Lanka to honour “public commitments” made to “devolution.”  If such commitments were not made, it means that the UNHRC has made a formal demand of Sri Lanka which it has no legitimate right to make.  In other words, the UNHRC has tried to interfere in the internal affairs of Sri Lanka, which raises the spectre of a violation of Article 2(7) of the UN Charter.  It is imperative, therefore, to find out where and how the aforementioned “public commitments” to “devolution” were made, and to find it out not from local commentators, but from the UNHRC itself. Since the High Commissioner herself is in the island at the moment, we should take the opportunity to ask her directly.

 Dharshan Weerasekera is an attorney-at-law.  His book, “The UN’s relentless pursuit of Sri Lanka, and the need for effective counter-measures,” was published recently by Stamford Lake.

Are we progressing or regressing

August 27th, 2013

Michelle Alexander

Today, the Daily Mirror has highlighted a news report of a local Face Book user operating a closed group called “Kellanwa Rape karanna kamathi kollo”. It is said that there are several Face Book pages operated by locals with pictures that are taken of school girls and women going about their business (without their knowledge), and publicized for the entertainment of other frustrated, sick-minded individuals.

If one goes through some of the local media websites, one would find a plethora of sexist, derogatory, racist and vile comments being added by readers of various articles. Some of the most degrading comments can be found particularly with articles relating to female personalities, certain ethnic groups, articles on brothel raids (with no-one even caring to consider if some of these women are actually victims themselves) and so on. Even those who leave a decent remark or rational argument is set upon by others with no mercy shown (usually this involves vile terms in response to that poster or female members of that poster’s family, derogatory comments about their ethnic/religious group etc). While blaming the media is a very easy thing for one to do, it is irrational to blame the media for this. They only provide a service. It is the users who should be held to task if they act in an irresponsible, racist, criminal or derogatory manner.

When those in power are seen getting away scot free even after being accused of crimes such as rape or murder, or even making disparaging remarks, can we really put the full blame on ordinary people for their mentality?

Are we turning into a society with citizens so frustrated that the only way they could feel good about themselves if they abuse/belittle women? If that is so, will this mean that Sri Lanka runs the risk of turning into a smaller version of India when it comes to the treatment of our women and girls?

Are we turning into a society where a “willing to consider” attitude is not extended to those with opposing views, and instead, people resort to abusing those with opposing views into silence?

Are we turning into a society with citizens incapable or unwilling in conducting civilized conversations and debates?

Food for thought.

Are the Muslims falling asleep ?

August 27th, 2013

Bisthan Batcha

 The question is being asked in various fora as to whether the Muslims in Sri Lanka, who were subjected to mental trauma and physical harassment in the recent past by the actions of certain racist Groups, have now deemed it to be “ƒ”¹…”safe’ once again for Sri Lankan Muslims. Have the Muslims slipped into a state of complacency ? Do they believe that it was just a passing storm which has now lost it’s sting ?
When the anti-Muslim diatribe of the Bodhu Bala Sena reached it’s zenith, coupled with the apparent apathy on the part of the State,  many Muslims were of the opinion that there were just two reasonable courses of action that the members of the Community could take.
Option 1 : To maintain a low profile and keep one’s head down until the whole thing blows over
Option 2 : To directly counter the threats and allegations made against the Muslims
The key problem with Option 1 is the complete lack of control over the unfolding events. The Muslims had no idea about the nature, content or duration of the vicious attacks they were subjected to or whether such attacks will ever end or whether the attacks will become a part of the social fabric of this Country in the future. An alarming signal in this regard, which many may have missed due to it’s “ƒ”¹…”low noise’, was that many Buddhists who expressed outrage at the behaviour of the BBS nevertheless ended their criticism by saying “”¦. But there is an element of truth in what the BBS are saying, no ?”  (Kiyana ekey aththakuth thiyanawa, ne ?)
The main failing of Option 2, which may have escaped even it’s protagonists, is that in attempting to counter the allegations of the BBS, many Commentators were becoming emotional and actually launching tirades against the BBS “”…” which after all is an Organization of Buddhist Clergy. When a group of Religious Leaders is under attack, it is almost a reflex action on the part of the Laity to defend the group “”…” whether or not they agree with the words and deeds of the members of that religious group. In fact it was reported in one Web article that the BBS felt that “the halaal issue had strengthened the Buddhist community”. Let us not forget that when the ACJU was at the receiving end of various unsubstantiated allegations regarding the halaal issue, most Muslims (including the anti-ACJU groups) found themselves defending the actions of the ACJU. Therefore there is a strong possibility of the anti-Muslim feeling becoming more hardened and more widespread if Option 2 is adopted.
Does this then mean that there is no course of action that the Sri Lankan Muslims could take to overcome the threat to their physical and mental well-being posed by such racist groups as the Bodhu Bala Sena and Sinhala Ravaya ?
Actually, there is a third option  which, unfortunately, has not received the attention that it deserves. This involves the strategy of Identifying and Neutralizing the Concerns and Apprehensions that the Buddhist Community  may have regarding the Beliefs and Practices of Muslims in Sri Lanka. The most important feature of this Strategy is that it is Proactive (Acting before a situation becomes a source of confrontation or crisis) in nature and therefore very much under the control of the Muslims “”…” unlike Option 2 which is of a Reactive (Solving matters as they arise) type.
However, the most regrettable feature of this entire episode is the utter failure on the part of the Sri Lankan Muslims to focus strongly and sharply on what unites them as a Community and not to dwell on their differences. This failure has had many cascading effects –  the major disappointment being the non-emergence of any kind of “ƒ”¹…”Group’ to provide leadership and direction to the Muslims in these times of trials and tribulations. We are told that there is an attempt to form a Consultative Committee. We are told of various informal multi-ethnic Groups that are working “ƒ”¹…”quietly’ behind the scenes to resolve the growing ill-feelings between the two Communities.
When other concerned Muslims hear and read of such developments they are left with a sense of not wanting to upset the apple-cart by initiating some form of action or dialogue of their own. The absence of proper Leadership at this crucial juncture in the history of the Sri Lankan Muslims is the single most important reason for the perceived Inaction and Disinterest on the part of Muslims at this point in time.
My Muslim Brothers and Sisters would do well to take a leaf off the book of the BBS when it comes to goal-setting, planning and implementing  strategies  for the benefit of their Community. The BBS identified their Target Group, they identified a Single Issue and they successfully sold the benefits of their Idea to large segments of the Buddhist Community. We too need such a Leadership, but consisting not of Politicians or of the Ulemas, but of respected Members of Muslim Civil Society who are capable of winning the trust of the Ummah because of their standing in the Community. We need a Leadership that can persuade the Ummah to look not just at the “ƒ”¹…”dots’, but rather at the Big Picture obtaining by connecting the dots.
 Are the Muslims of Sri Lanka able to put aside their differences and to focus on the urgent need to introduce measures to ensure the physical and mental well-being of the members of their Community in the years ahead ?  Are the Muslims able to empathize with their Buddhist Brothers and Sisters to the extent that they of their own volition change patterns of their behavior which cause concern and apprehension to the Majority Community ? Or do the Muslims feel that they alone are entitled to the right of being angry and offended ?

In this review of the first book on United Nations Human Rights Council, H. L. D. Mahindapala asks:Can Navi Pillay save human rights and UNHRC?

August 26th, 2013

H. L. D. Mahindapala

Part I

 The UN has notched some significant successes during its 68-year run, indicating that its life span is going to be more durable than its predecessor, the League of Nations, which  died prematurely. Unfortunately, one of its successes has not been in the field of human rights, though it is projected as the sacred temple for the protection, preservation, promotion of human rights. The unceremonious burial of the United Nations Human  Rights Commission under the weight of the damning report of Kofi Annan (2005), which condemned its selectivity and politicization, confirms the failure of the UN to fulfill its duties of protecting, preserving and promoting human rights on a global scale.

 Of course, it must be admitted that the UN did not begin in 1945 with an emphasis on human rights. Established in the immediate aftermath of the World War II UN was concerned more with the two pillars of (1) international peace and security and (2) economic development than with the third pillar of human rights. That came as an afterthought later.

 Ironically, it was the UN that gave birth to United Nations Human Rights Commission in 1948. And it was the UN that killed and buried it in 2005. And, shortly after that, on March 15, 2006 UN’s GA Resolution 60/251 gave birth to another human rights body with a slightly different name: United Nations Human Rights Council. The dead Commission recycled and rechristened as Council was intended to avoid the earlier mistakes and make a difference in  preventing violations of human rights. But has the new Council fulfilled its mandate? Dr. Rosa Freedman, Lecturer, Birmingham University specializing in International Law and Human Rights, raises this critical issue in her book, The United Nations Human Rights Council, a Critique and Early Assessment, (Routledge -2013). 

 The initial achievements of the Commission were remarkable. It produced the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), the International Covenant on Economic , Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966). Together these documents constitute the International Bill of Human Rights. But as the activities of the Commission gathered momentum over the years the contrasts and the conflicts between the ideals and the practices became quite apparent. As stated by Freedman “”¦the Commission was set up and run by Western states, many of which were still colonial powers, applying double standards between human rights aspirations and the treatment of people under their control. Decolonised countries, as a result of recent colonial practices, tended to distrust the largely westernised UN human rights machinery.” (pp 16- 17). Clearly, the accusation of double standards of the UN machinery, running largely according to the Western political agenda, did not come from Sri Lankan critics. It was there almost from the beginning, visible for even a blind man’s dog to see it.

 Dr. Freedman’s critique of the Council, exposing its fundamental flaws, are  relevant to Sri Lanka which is confronted by the contradictory, selective, politicized, country-specific power politics played by the Council. If human rights “”…” the new secular religion of humanity with NGO apparatchiks acting as its high priests “”…” is to be a redeeming force in the future then the Council cannot go the same way as the failed Commission. There is much to be learnt from the failure of the Commission. Much also depends on the heads of UNHRC whose actions can make or break the Council. Their role is to avoid  the failed past at any cost and play a decisive and balanced role to lift the Council to the next level of greater credibility and viability. Right now, the born-again baby has fallen on the lap Ms. Navi Pillay. Can she handle it? In what direction will she take it? Can she rescue human rights from the snake pit into which its predecessor fell and died?

 She is faced with the gigantic mission of not only preventing the Council from regressing  into the failed past but also to steer a new and clear path, holding the scales evenly to avoid it being an instrument big and regional power politics. If she fails there is no guarantee that a future Kofi Annan will not condemn her. The risks to the future of the Council became apparent when Israel quit, early in January, refusing to report to the Universal Periodic Review “”…” an annual event in which the 193 countries in the UN report the human rights conditions of their respective countries. With this move Israel became the first country to defy the UN. It alarmed even US, its protective ally. Eileen Donahoe, US Ambassador to UNHRC, reacted cautiously saying: . “The United States is absolutely, fully behind the Universal Periodic Review, and we do not want to see the mechanism in any way harmed.” The fear was that Israel was setting an example that could be followed by other countries, leading to the second death of UNHRC. Recently Israel has indicated its willingness to come back. However, everyone concerned is keeping their fingers crossed.

Ms. Pillay, like her predecessors, will be faced with  hydra-headed crises of human rights popping up in every nook and corner, with no end in sight. Sitting in that controversial and thankless chair, facing the flak from all sides, is not going to be easy. For instance, UN Watch of Canada accused her of being anti-Western when  she accused Australia of being “racist” for sending the boat-people “”…” the illegal migrants who are seen as “economic refugees” —  to Papua New Guinea. China and non-Western nations, on the other hand, accuse the Council of  being pro-Western. That is the nature of her job. She has to cop the flak from  all sides.

 However, since she has undertaken to fulfill the mandate of the job, it is her task is to stabilize the Council and make it a credible and viable institution for states, particularly the small states to depend on the Council as a beacon to light the way into the future of human rights “”…” an issue which will be in perpetual crisis with attacks coming from all quarters. Human rights are under attack from US drone strikes or suppression of gay rights. It is under attacks when Muslim women are subjected to genital mutilation or denial of education to Muslim girls. It was under attack when the Chargossians in Diego Garcia were evicted forcibly by Britain and thrown out as homeless vagrants to make way for US to build a strategic naval base in the Indian Ocean. It is under attack each time the Indian forces suppress the Kashmiris fighting for their right to hold a plebiscite underwritten by UN. Or when the Indian forces committed war crimes against  the civilians in Jaffna in their war against the LTTE. Any number of the cultural, religious, political and  social taboos can crop up any time and create problems for the Council.

 Every global explosion of violence is bound to land on Ms. Pillay’s plate. She will be trapped permanently in the cross-fire. Her role will not only be to look after her back but also front of the Council. Her task is not going to be easy in the coming days. In every issue and at every given moment, she will be plagued with the problem of finding the correct moral center. Tilting away from the moral center can drag her and the Council down to depths of degradation. Finding the moral center is not going to be easy particularly with the crises in human rights showing no signs of abating. On the contrary, the crises seems to be heading towards escalation, going beyond manageable proportions, if one is to take the latest example in Egypt. Each crisis adds to the moral complexities of the other. The Arab spring was supposed to provide a haven for  democracy and human rights. But  the Arab spring is spiraling down into unpredictable chaos, taking a heavy toll of human lives with it. Rising tensions indicate that the 21st century is not going be any different from the violent centuries that went before it.

 Potential threats to global peace from dark forces in N. Korea, for instance, are hanging like Damocles’ sword. At the end of ten years of overthrowing Saddam Hussein and investing over $60 billion on building American-style democracy in Iraq there is still no hope for human rights or democracy in the UN-sponsored regime change. So can Ms. Pillay, as the head of the supreme body handling human rights, achieve even a fraction of her mandate to prevent violations of human rights?

 Her success or failure will determine whether human rights can rise above the usual futile rhetoric,(or is it just another meal ticket for I/NGOs apparatchiks?), and become a live force for the good of peace, stability and progress. The legacy she leaves behind is vital for the future of Council “”…” and for human rights. The spotlight is on her right now. Now that she is in Sri Lanka her role in monitoring, assessing and passing judgments on the Sri Lankan crisis, particularly the post-war period, will be a solid test of her capacity to not only guide the future of human rights but also lift the Council from sinking deeper into the mess from which it came. 

 Sri Lanka, indeed, is good place to start for many reasons “”…” not the least of which is the role played by the Council in the post-war period under the stewardship of Ms. Pillay. This issue will be taken  up in the next article as it deserves special attention. Right now the focus is on the image and the role of UN in the fields of human rights. It is common knowledge that the image of the UN as a whole has been sullied under numerous leaders and factors. One of them was when the UN slipped into the hands of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General from 1972 to 1982. He was  an SS officer of the criminal Nazi regime. When he died at the age of 88, The New York Times wrote (June 14, 2007) that his “hidden complicity in Nazi war crimes was exposed late in his career “¦ (D)uring World War II, he was a lieutenant in army intelligence, attached to brutal German military units that executed thousands of Yugoslav partisans and civilians and deported thousands of Greek Jews to death camps from 1942 to 1944. Waldheim lied about his wartime service in the Balkans, maintaining that his military career ended in 1942 after he was wounded in a battle on the Russian front.”

 That was not the last time that the world swallowed the lies and manipulations of the UN. This generation can never forget how Colin Powell, US Secretary of State, lied to the Security Council, with maps and reports, to wage their illegal war against Iraq. Nor can we forget the chilling reply of Madeleine Albright on US TV program “60 Minutes” (June 28, 2008) when she was questioned about the legitimacy of the 600,000 deaths of Iraqi children caused by the US-led naval cordon that blocked supplies of essential medicine and food. She was asked whether the price was right and she replied: “This is a very hard choice — but the price was worth it!” Chilling, isn’t it?

 Equally chilling is the role of the former UN  Secretary General, Dag HammarskjƒÆ’†’¶ld, who died in a plane crash, under the cloud of being complicit in the CIA plot to bring down Patrice Lumumba, the first elected Prime Minister of Congo. It is argued that Lumumba’s brutal murder could have been avoided if the UN “peacekeepers”, who had been naively invited into the crisis by Lumumba, allowed use of its airplanes for the  transport of the  Congolese forces loyal to Lumumba. Besides, after Lumumba won a  vote of confidence the UN shut down the capital’s only radio station preventing his parliamentary victory to be broadcast to the Congolese.  The UN also blocked Soviet planes supporting Lumumba from using its airfields. Soviet Union blasted HammarskjƒÆ’†’¶ld for his lack of objectivity in  handling the Congolese crisis.

 Then there was Kofi Annan who was embroiled in the oil-for-food program in Iraq. In this scandal Annan was accused of siphoning some of the lucrative contracts to his son. UN is over-populated with wheeler-dealers who are out to cut political or commercial deals for their benefits.

 In short, the UN which is supposed to the solution to the problem of human rights has become a source of committing human rights  violations, betraying the cause of human rights, with some of its over-enthusiastic officials taking sides at the expense of human rights.  Its acts of commission and omission “”…” from Congo to Srebrenica, from Diego Garcia  to Iraq, from Palestine to Kashmir, from the Soviet gulags to Guantanamo, from Malvinas to Tibet, from rendition to children recruited forcibly into needless wars, (the list is long,) — have left the small nations in particular as pawns in the power play of human rights.

 Take, for instance, the role played by Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy when she was the  Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict at the UN.  Posing as the Mother Theresa for all children she went junketing in war-torn countries in Africa and Afghanistan to raise her concerns about the children forcibly dragged into futile wars. Wearing a head scarf to indicate her cultural empathy with Islamic norms, she expressed concerns about the “dancing boys” of Afghanistan. Well done! But what meaningful steps did she take to deal with the most shameful and heinous crime committed against children globally by the cassocked agents of the Vatican state? Why didn’t she name and shame the Vatican state for knowingly covering up the crimes committed against children? How come she turn a blind eye to the boys dancing in the chapels for the delectation of the priests? This kind of move certainly would thrill Ranil Wickremesinghe who has never stopped dancing  with his boys at Aas-Siri Kotha. But isn’t Ms. Coomaraswamy supposed to apply her principles on a universal basis, without fear or favour?

 Though she ignored the criminal activities of the Vatican state she was quick to despatch Alan Rock, who was aligned to the LTTE agents in Canada, to investigate and report on the alleged child recruitment of Government of Sri Lanka. She ignored hundreds of thousands of boys being abused in the chapels but she was in an obscene hurry to  investigate a handful of boys in Karuna’s brigade after he broke away from the LTTE.  The issue here is not the numbers (though they contribute to the overall picture) but the emphasis on selected, country-specific issues by UN panjandrums that reveal their  political biases. How can human rights thrive, or even survive, when the paid guardians of its sacred tenets play politics to serve their personal agendas?

 Ms. Coomaraswamy was one of the first to get off the mark and promote the new political cult of Responsibility to Protect (R2P). She flew all the way from her UN office in New York to deliver a lecture on this topic at Melbourne University. She even sent Gareth Evans, the head of International Crisis Group, to launch the R2P doctrine at her local political base, the International Centre for Ethnic Studies (ICES) at Kynsey Road. Evans appeared when the Vadukoddai War was nearing its end, with all visible signs of the LTTE being  wiped off the map of Sri Lanka. The West was sending its emissaries to force the GOSL to stop the war and Evans was one of them who preceded Bernard Kouchner and David Milliband, two foreign Ministers who rushed to give new life to the LTTErs breathing their last.

 The appearance of Gareth Evans at ICES to preach the doctrine of responsibility to protect was somewhat odd because he was the Foreign Minister of Australia who joined his counterpart in US, Madeleine Albright, in throwing the naval cordon round Iraq that caused the deaths of 600,000 Iraqi children. What baffles me is how he could go along with Madeleine Albright in Iraq without even apologizing for the killing of innocent children and then front up in Sri Lanka brazenly to preach the doctrine of protecting non-combatants. I wrote to him (he is now  the Chancellor of the Australian National University) and asked him whether he should not be tried as a war criminal for causing the deaths of innocent Iraqi children. Obviously his silence indicates that his commitment to R2P does include his responsibility to answer embarrassing questions. Or even questions that point to his guilt?

 Moreover, with the deaths of 600,00 children on his conscience he had no qualms of taking on the job of heading the International Crisis Group “”…” another INGO that dictates morality to countries like Sri Lanka. The broad international front of human rights activists is overcrowded with Waldheims who hide their partisan politics or their criminal past. This is particularly the case with the human rights activists who parade regularly at the Council in Geneva, posing as lily white martyrs for the noble cause of serving the UN Charter, hiding their direct and indirect links to mass murderers like Velupillai Prabhakaran, or similar crimes.

 When the Waldheims, Madeleine Albrights and Gareth Evans are in the forefront of human rights, with cheer-leaders like Ms. Coomaraswamy egging them on from the side, who can guarantee the future of innocent children? Can a flawed and fragile instrumentality like the Council, dependent on questionable evidence provided by handpicked “experts” “”…” some of whom are complicit in crimes against humanity — be the guarantors of human rights which is a determining factor in the future of humanity?  The future of human rights, unfortunately, is in the hands of some of the most questionable characters who are bent on earning a crust by marketing the blood and wounds of the victims of crimes against humanity.

 In the main, there is a five-pronged attack on human rights : 1. failure of the UN structures, procedures and the appointed guardians to serve the cause of human  rights independently and objectively; 2. the use of UN instrumentalities to strengthen the global power bases instead of human rights; 3. the clash of states, either ganged up with Big Powers, or the regional powers (example: Organisation of Islamic Conference) in which double standards on human rights play a dominant role; 4. the clash of big and small nations with the UN itself over the use and abuse of human rights and 5. the reporting mechanism of I/NGOs that peddle their partisan politics in the guise of promoting human rights. The defects hardwired into the UN system tend to cast a shadow over the Council. Dr. Freedman warns: “Despite the need to avoid repeating its predecessor’s failings, the Council’s form, nature and many of its roles and functions are strikingly similar to those of the Commission.”

 So can Ms. Pillay make a difference? Will she breakthrough or break down? 

 Her visit to Sri Lanka, though late, is welcome. It is a grand opportunity for her to discover the moral center of complex issues in conflict zones. Finding a balance, through a serious and genuine examination of the pros and cons, is essential not only to restore the lost faith in human rights but also to help the nation/s to steer a path to peace, stability and reconciliation without over-bearing international power-brokers dictating morals which they never apply to their own situations.

 She will be faced many dilemmas and complexities as she goes round. Some of those issues will be dealt with next article.

Commissioner Pillai: Separate the chaff from the wheat!

August 26th, 2013

By Philip Fernando in Los Angeles

Let us hope that the visiting UN Commissioner Navinathan Pillai would not get inundated with the rabble and the self-serving!  Dr. Pillai please see for yourself that Sri Lanka can assertively claim a commonality of interests prevailing among all communities as a conduit for healthy give-and take after centuries of living together side by side in thick and thin.  No one would relinquish their stake-hold on a platter. Neither would they want interference in their right to adjudicate their internal affairs. 

Please inhale a good doze of prevalent ambiance and not get bogged down in the rhetoric. The notion that an incurable conflict proneness or feeling of being besieged do not dominate the conversion among most of Sri Lanka’s diverse ethno-religious-groups.  You would soon know that Northern PC elections are in full swing.  

It would indeed be more productive to interpret specific issues to find solutions rather than endlessly debating abstract generalities. The Rajapaksa government at the Centre may or may not respond with open arms to a TNA government in the North. She should however, not dwell on the erroneous assumption that “Ethno-religious affinity” within each group ‘is driven by primeval bonding among the kith and kin sharing a common history, culture etc.that habitually leads to conflict. 

The policy preference of each group-Sinhala, Tamil, Muslim as regards food, clothing and shelter””‚or basic needs, right to work, assemble and free speech remain the same–minor differences apart.  There is an intense rivalry among the political parties vying to gain ascendance. Some call it a fractured political landscape.  This is found in many places in the world””‚the US in particular has a divided government. 

Sense of unity 

Certain unifying urges cut across the ethno-religious divide periodically turning into stressful episodes. These are found in most countries and should not be taken as the delineating norm. Neither are linguistic differences and geographical boundaries the defining pattern like in the past. Those transacting business with the government today are finding things at a fairly efficient level.  Shortcomings prevail her and there.  Overall, it is smoother operation today””‚the best in many years. 

Sri Lankans now enjoy accessibility as regards fundamental governance at a secure level””‚education, healthcare, electricity, water and transportation amenities have widened exponentially during the last decade. Poverty levels have been sliced down sharply while per capita income of the country had put Sri Lanka into the middle income group category and things are on an upward spiral. 

No second class citizens

The development agenda while being intense is on over-drive””‚the outlays poured into transportation infra-structure, for example, has covered virtually every province of Sri Lanka.  Development is inclusive.  Equal opportunity is within the grasp of most with the drive towards success.  I saw this trend in the Jaffna district during my visit there.  The notion of being a second class citizen i quite obscure.

The cultural effervescence with a bubbly music, drama and fine arts sectors are emerging quite fast.  Talk shows and drama series keep the nation at the edge of the seats many a night as TV programs broadcast them on multiple channels. Media competition for ratings and readership are at an unprecedented level.  The access to internet, cell phone and the like have reached peaks levels.

The resurgence of North and East

Most importantly, the Commissioner should be able to gauge the potent ideology of coming together of those with different ethno-religious affinities now gaining ground.  The performance of the Sri Lanka state has been notably praise-worthy for keeping the solidifying fiber of society in tact amidst some disturbances springing up from time to time.  In most instances, the culprits were disgruntled folks bent on making mischief during run-of-the-mill grievance protests.  

The problem solving aptitude of the President has received all-round recognition.  One harsh critic reluctantly agreed that “we have a Teflon President””‚people never point the finger at him even when he make mistakes.” The ultimate success of unity rally would depend on the capability and dedication of the commandant.  The country seemed assured of that.

At the end of the day, it is important how the UN Commissioner views these things and what memories she takes away. 

The oft quoted sources of discontent in any country relates to a variety of factors such as denial of cultural identity, political discrimination, repression, or economic deprivation.  It could be stated with a great deal of certainty that Sri Lankan leaders have shown great sensitivity towards resolving any form of discontent mentioned above. The dismal failure of the militaristic approach to conflict resolution are etched well in their collective memories.

An effort to build a viable administrative platform in the North is on.  It may be embryonic but relates to reconstruction and rehabilitation. There is an urgency to avoid confrontational politics as regards the military governor and the presence of the army. There is a readiness to empathetically and resolutely mediate between the needs of the people in the North and the political powers in Colombo. Commissioner, the ball is in your court!

C.V.Wigneshwaran TNA Chief Ministerial Candidate to NPC, gives a new twist to 13th Amendment.

August 26th, 2013

By Charles.S.Perera

The TNA’s Chief Ministerial Candidate C.V.Wigneshwaran is supposed to be a jurist, but unfortunately he seems to have got every thing wrong. He has said in a statement to  Colombo Gazette,  referring to the Indo-Lanka Pact,  “This is an international agreement. This came about following an agreement between India and Sri Lanka. But if it is going to be changed then India must be consulted.”

Wigneshwaran has to read up his law books before making such a statements as the Indo-Lanka Agreement is a bilateral agreement, and it has not the character of an International Agreement.

The 13 Amendment  is no more a part of that Agreement , but  an Amendment to the Constitution  of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka need not consult  India to remove the 13 Amendment from the Constitution.

“International agreements too may lapse through war or denunciation, or when a fundamental change in circumstances occur”

The Indo-Lanka Agreement was entered into for a specific purpose of disarm the terrorists, and bring peace to Sri Lanka.  Since the circumstance have changed and India could not keep its part of the agreement the Indo-Lanka pact has lapsed.

The 13Amendment was entered into the Constitution of Sri Lanka  as Sri Lanka’s part of the Agreement, for India to fulfil its part of the agreement- which was to disarm the terrorist and bring about peace in North and East.

As the Indo-Lanka pact is not valid any more as India failed to keep its part of the agreement the government of Sri Lanka is not bound any more to maintain the 13 Amendment in the Constitution or Consult India to remove it from the Constitution.

Wigneshwaran has said that the 13th Amendment came about as a solution to address issues faced by Tamils.  He is wrong as the Indo-Lanka pact was not to address solution faced by the Tamils, but as a solution to end  terrorism and bring peace to  Sri Lanka.

He had further said that the Tamils have issues and it is ” shocking” if the Sinhalese Majority are not aware of that.”  But he does not seem to know that the  Sinhala Majority also has issues.

Wigneshawaran is living in a different Sri Lanka. The Sri Lanka of to-day we know has removed the cancer of terrorism and is on the way to reconcile the Communities to take the country forward as a nation of  united people not separated by narrow communal differences.

If this is the language that Wigneshawaran speaks, he will be another barrier for the reconciliation of Communities if he were to be the Chief Minister of the North Provincial Council. It would be unfortunate not only for the Tamil people of the North, but also for Sri Lanka as a whole.

His political views are hackneyed and out of date. They are not different from that of the dead terrorist Prabhakaran.  It is no surprise that the TNA has selected him to be its Chief Ministerial Candidate.

If these are the types of Jurists we have it was no wonder that the Sri Lanka Constitution was wrongly interpreted by the  Supreme Court on the question of the impeachment of Shirani Bandaranayake.

Inauspicious Timing of Pillai Visit Where The Urgency Of Grave World Issues Dictate !

August 26th, 2013

Insight By Sunil Kumar

August 27th 2013
 
 While the UN Human Rights envoy Naveen Pillai’s visit to Sri Lanka could be deemed a fact finding mission it has come at an inauspicious time when the President is out of the country which despite the criticism of some seems to have no bearing on the realities that the President’s itinerary probably had his visit to Belarus pre-scheduled. Therefore it was well within his right to proceed as planned with no obligation to re-schedule simply to entertain  someone whom Sri Lanka views as mostly contentious and often oversteps her metes and bounds often showing pro-Tamil bias ( being a Tamil herself). Whatever the related circumstances may be, it is hoped that the UN envoy will conduct herself accordingly, not overstep her brief as called for by many observers and enjoy her visit.
 
Perhaps if viewed objectively she seems to be dabbling in an issue which bears no relevance to the normalcy and tranquility of what the previously troubled Island Nation is today as realistically she will find neither tangible evidence of what she may be looking for (as the reasons which in all probabilities prompted her visit are linked to coercions by the Global Tamil Diaspora) nor will she be able to finger point substantially to affirm all the accusations the enemies of the State appear have put her upto if this be the case.

While it is a sad fact of life that a multitude of Sri Lankans suffered immense losses the question  is ~ would Ms. Pillai be able to ascertain for herself the realities surrounding the armed insurrection of the Tamil Tigers sufficient to make an impartial judgement of what really transpired and incorporate the grievances of the entire nation in unbiased perspective  and the chances are she will not as the apparent conflict of interests surrounding her visit simply cannot be swept under the carpet unless of course she does in fact overstep her brief and draws unilateral conclusions which she is not entitled to .

However it may be towards Sri Lanka’s advantage that she is there to fact find  as she could see for herself first hand what the Nation is today by way of development and progress and will also be able to ascertain how the people of Sri Lanka including Tamils are settling into a life of a renewed existence, rebuilding and contentment where under the mendacities of the Tamil Tigers they had no hope whatsoever of a decent future beyond exaggerated portrayals of secession (Eelam)where they would reign supreme which was of course a pipe dream beyond their capacity to deliver leading a life of thuggery, debauchery and psychotic autocracy led by a psycopath and eventually it was the Government that rescued them from their plight.

There will of  be contradictions to this as there remains those who regardless of what the Governmewnt does for them continue to be disgruntled and are veritably coerced to be in this frame of mind by those attempting continuously to bring the Government into disrepute but something that will never be accomplished as hard facts and tangible proof  of the Nation’s progress is everywhere  which most Sri Lankans are proud of and grateful for. Something which if Ms Pillai has correct vision ( in more than one perspective) would invariably be hard to miss!

Naveen Pillai’s visit to Sri Lanka which began on Sunday has been shadowed by criticism from those who are truly aware of what the Nation represents to the world as a paragon of development that has come after decades of insurrection where the lives and property of many Sri Lankans were destroyed by the violence and attrocities of the ‘Tamil tigers’ and only set right by continued and persistent action by the Government and the Armed Forces which in turn has been falsely presented to the world as “crimes against humanity.”

They were in fact legitimate actions towards the preservation of the territorial integrity of a sovereign nation which sadly is not acknowledged by sources such as the UN which surely has better things to do with its time in a world ravaged by real terrorists and crimes against humanity are on the daily newsmenu  vith visible sufferings of masses of humanity but appear to go unnoticed  by the likes of Ms. Pillai and other world sources hounding Sri Lanka who should get their act together and go after the real culprits.

If Ms. Pillai who once vehemently insisted that Sri lanka was guilty of war crimes and subsequently alongside her somewhat myopic boss also hell bent on hounding Sri Lanka over the same issue and rescinded their views based on the oppossition to it presented by the Government of Sri Lanka on very legitimate and rational arguments relative to the criminalities of the Tamil Tigers and the  rights of the majority Sinhala Nation to defend and preserve sovereign territory against an insurgent force instigated by a miniscule minority, today chooses to revive her once apathetic opinion through this visit of hers she is bound to be sorely dissapointed.

If however she chooses to express an unbiased opinion and focuses on what really transpired in Sri Lanka for nearly three decades ( despite being based only on gleanings minimised by the time which has elapsed albeit the evidence undoubtedly being tangible) where it was the timely action of the Government  that saved the nation’s disintegration and falling into the hands of uncrupulous and ruthless terrorists in a precedent creating campaign hailed universally the purpose of her visit will not be in vain!

Ms Pillay what about civilians murdered by LTTE in Sri Lanka in non-combat areas and during ceasefires?

August 26th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

What or who gave the right to terrorists and their movements to plan, execute and eliminate people? What or who gave terrorists rights when they are not signatory or bound by the international laws that prevail? Who gave terrorists any right to declare war on nations and with what right have some even entertained these notions that have obliterated situations beyond repair? What or who gave terrorists right to be placed on par with legitimate and elected governments when they are outlawed and proscribed? The fact remains that throughout 3 decades the LTTE specifically planned to kill and murder ordinary people getting about their lives, people unprepared for the surprise attacks that came their way, people living in their villages, traveling in buses and people who were unarmed. These killings are nothing but cold blooded murder and they need to be now punished. In any court of law the person committing the murder is just as guilty as those planning it or those aware of it. As accessories in murder all of the LTTE front organizations now promoting themselves as peace charlatans and in particular the political party calling themselves the Tamil National Alliance must stand on trial for all these civilian murders that have taken place since early 1980s.

LTTE claimed to be fighting for a separate land mass to rule their own people “”…” this was defined as ONLY those people who functioned to LTTE dictates. Those that didn’t are now feet underground and they number over 250 Tamils of standing while we are clueless about the number of  ordinary Tamils who suffered the same fate and this includes scores of LTTE cadres as well.

What is important and an issue that the Sri Lankan Government officials have not raised and should raise with Ms. Navi Pillay is that the civilians killed over 3 decades were nowhere near combat zones/areas. They did not die because of some missiles accidentally hitting where they lived. They were not caught between LTTE terrorists or the army to claim collateral damage and they were not killed because of targeted killings such as drones that the US takes part in.

The Sri Lankan civilians who died deserve far more attention than the examples that are used to demand accountability during the final stages of the war because UN officials, Darusman Report have all acknowledged that the LTTE were using civilians as combatants and this does not give these Tamil civilians protection under human rights law if they are indulging in any terrorist activity (whether by force or voluntarily) “”…” how is a soldier to identify this given that most often LTTE fired in civil clothes. How precarious for us to imagine a soldier taking time to ascertain whether the person in civil was in the LTTE or not before shooting and would the soldier have been alive to tell us that he was not an LTTEr. But these are the bizarre rulings issued from officials sitting in air conditioned rooms across the seas.

The issue here was that every government, every UN official and every international law maker have purposely ignored that LTTE were planning and murdering people and they had a virtual carte blanche to do so. Moreover, they improvised human beings to act as bombs making identification all the more difficult. Were the dead, non-combatants? Were they in a combat zone? All laws of war are generally applicable to armed conflicts (international or otherwise) and while terrorists have yet to be defined we have some countries banning terrorist groups as they see fit “”…” omissions or inclusions have created confusions world over given that countries like the UK where LTTE was banned since 2001 and its Government declaring that the LTTE was second only to the Al Qaeda, finds it acceptable to allow LTTE to openly have its international office function in London, LTTE front organizations to hold fundraising events in UK where the most amusing factor was to see UK parliamentarians even attend and sit behind a backdrop of a towering cut out of Prabakaran and then continue to allow the nurse who trained little children to kill and then to kill themselves by committing suicide taking a cyanide capsule to live happily ever after in UK. So when Governments say one thing and do the total opposite can this world be ever rid of terrorism or put an end to the loss of life?

In adopting Geneva Conventions it is emphasized again that while humane treatment for captured legal combatants are given great prominence what about the rules of law for people snuffed out just because it serves the terrorist agenda? How can the Red Cross or UN respond to this? International bodies must stop picking and choosing who to term terrorist and whose label they hope to dangle simply to get Governments to tow the line according to their agendas? In simply allowing LTTE to kill thousands of people and putting more emphasis on peace talks and ceasefires that the West knew were times used to regroup and rearm because the West manufactures virtually all the weapons used in conflicts “”…” what is the game these nations are playing with ordinary people? Ideally what should happen if any peace is to prevail in this world is to declare Manufacture and Sale of Arms as a War Crime. If there are no arms and no nuclear arsenal around would there be any wars and more importantly loss of life!!!!

While the international referees are ever ready to dangle the red card to Third World governments in how they should treat terrorists according to the text books of international laws drawn up by them the civilized world they pay scant regard to the manner terrorists like LTTE have been operating in cohorts with their alliances and alias’s the world over.

If the answer to all ills can be resolved through negotiations that means no group has any right to be brandishing guns to get their way. When they use the guns on innocent people who have nothing to do with their grievances or unsuccessful aspirations then they need to be punished and not given VIP treatment as LTTE has been given. In doing so the international players have completely delayed justice for the scores of people who were simply pawns in a larger game.

How would LTTE have got their Eelam/Self-Determination by killing innocent unarmed civilians?

The below list of civilian deaths by LTTE since 1980s excludes the killings on unarmed civilians by Indian Peace Keeping Force as well as the civilians who died in India when LTTE assassinated the son of the Indian prime minister who first started training, arming and financially supporting Sri Lankan Tamil militants in India for which the world and India keeps mum about. If this was not state sponsorship of terror what is?

The list will reveal how LTTE attacked Sinhala and Muslim villages in the North so as to kill or chase them from the North in a bid to claim the area as being inhabited ONLY by Tamils to which the Tamil National Alliance were also accessory as were the LTTE front organizations and others. This is a criminal offence.

21/01/1984 Bombs placed at Hotel OBEROI, COLPETTY, exploded causing damage to equipment and killing/injuring civilians.
29/11/1984 First attack by LTTE on civilian villagers (Doller Farm) killing 62 civilians
30/11/1984 2nd attack by LTTE on civilian villagers (Kent Farm) killing 29 civilians
01/12/1984 18 Sinhalese shot dead at Kokilai and Nayaru
14/05/1985 18 Sinhalese villagers shot dead at Wilpattu.
14/05/1985 Sacred city of Anuradhapura attacked killing 120 Sinhalese Buddhist pilgrims including Seelawansa Thero apraying inside sacred Sri Maha Bodhi premises
04/06/1985 Sinhala settlement in Dehiwatta attacked killing 15 civilians
02/08/1985 RUHUNU SOMAWATHIYA Temple at Thrikonamadu attacked killing 6 civilians
14/08/1985 Villagers at Aranthalawa, Ampara attacked killing 7 civilians
18/08/1985 Sinhala villagers in Namalwatta fired upon killing 7 civilians
07/11/1985 Sinhala villagers in Namalwatta attacked again killing 10 civilians
19/02/1986 LTTE attack Sittaru Ella village.
19/02/1986 Village in Kantale, Trincomalee attacked killing 19 civilians
03/05/1986 Bomb planted in aircraft of Bandaranaike airport explodes killing 16 civilians including foreigners
05/05/1986 Village in Kiniya, Trincomalee is attacked killing 5 civilians
07/05/1986 Bomb explosion at Sri Lanka Telecom Head Office, Colombo killing 14 civilians
21/05/1986 Bomb explosion at the Mitsui Cement Complex, Trincomalee killing 20
25/05/1986 Attack and setting fire to 20 houses of Sinhalese in Mahadivulwewa, Trinco killing 20 civilians
30/05/1986 Bomb explosion at the Elephant House supermarket, Slave Island, Colombo 02, killing 11 civilians
31/05/1986 A bomb explosion on YAL DEVI Train at Veyangoda, Gampaha kills 10 civilians
02/06/1986 Village in 3rd Mile Post, Trinco attacked killing 10 civilians
04/06/1986 ANANDANKULAM Sinhala village in Andankulam, Trinco attacked killing 17 civilians
11/06/1986 Two bomb explosion in two CTB buses, in Trinco goes off almost simultaneousl and kills 22 civilians and injures over 75
21/06/1986 Village in Wilgamvehera, Trinco attacked killing 9 civilians
25/06/1986 A Bomb explosion in the Sittaru/Kantale area Trinco kills 16 civilians
08/07/1986 Monkey Bridge Sinhala village Trinco is fired upon killing 15 civilians
09/07/1986 Village in Mollipothna, Trinco attacked killing 16 civilians
13/07/1986 Attack on PAVAKKULAM, Trinco killing 11 civilians
17/07/1986 Bomb explodes in Block 4 Sugar Corp, Trinco killing 10 civilians
19/07/1986 Sinhala village in GODAPATHANA, Beruwil & Wadigawewa in Polonnaruwa attacked killing 17 civilians
22/07/1986 Land Mine explosion on a Civilian Bus at MAMADUWA, Vavuniya kills 32 civilians and injures many
24/07/1986 Bomb explosion at Issenbessagala, Anuradhapura kills 17 civilians and injures over 40 civilians
17/09/1986 Block 04 of the Suger Corporation, KANTALAI, Trinco attacked killing 10 civilians
17/09/1986 Sinhala villagers in Wadigawewa, Trinco fired upon killing 12 civilians
04/02/1987 Sinhala villagers in Manthottam, Ampara attacked killing 8 civilians
07/02/1987 Village in ARANTHALAWA, Ampara is attacked with clubs and swords and 27 civilians are hacked to death
18/02/1987 Parcel Bomb explosion at  NELUMGAMA, Badulla killing 7 civilians
25/03/1987 25 Sinhala villagers in SERUNUWARA, Anuradhapura are shot dead
17/04/1987 96 civilians and 31 SF personnel who were travelling in a Passenger Bus at Habarana and Kithuluthuwa, Trincomalee are shot dead
20/04/1987 Sinhala villagers in Jayanthipura, Trinco is fired upon killing 15 civilians
21/04/1987 Car Bomb at the Central Bus Stand, PETTAH, Colombo kills 106 civilians and injures over 295 civilians
29/05/1987 Sinhala villagers in Kadawathmadu, Polonnaruwa fired upon killing 7 civilians and injuring scores of others
02/06/1987 Massacre of 35 student Buddhist Priests and 04 civilians at Aranthalawa, Ampara – each Buddhist priest butchered one after the other
11/06/1987 Private Van proceeding from HOROWPATANA to TRINCOMALEE was blasted by a Preasure Mine at VEPPANKULAM, Trinco killing 13 civilians
12/06/1987 Godapotha Temple in Polonnaruwa attacked killing 8 civilians and injuring many
21/06/1987 Sinhala village in Godapotha, Beruwila, Polonnaruwa fired upon killing 5 civilians
29/07/1987 9 civilians killed in Thoppur, Trincomalee
06/10/1987 BATTICALOA Mail Train at VALACHCHENAI, Batticoloa is fired upon killing 40 civilians
06/10/1987 THARAVAI Sinhala settlement in Batticoloa attacked killing 25 civilians
06/10/1987 57 houses of Sinhalese villagers in Sagarapura, Trincomalee are set on fire killing 27 civilians
07/10/1987 30 Civilians travelling in a CTB Bus from MONARAGALA to POTTUVIL at LAHUGALA, Ampara are shot and killed
10/10/1987 GANTALAWA village in Kantalai, Trinco is fired upon killing 9 civilians
15/10/1987 Sinhala village in Ella Kantalai, Trinco is attacked killing 14 civilians
16/10/1987 A Bus proceeding from PULMODDAI – ANP Road in Trinco is stopped and attacked killing 8 civilians
09/11/1987 A Car Bomb explosion inside a vehicle opposite Zahira College, Maradana, Colombo killing 23 civilians and injuring over 100 civilians
15/12/1987 Village, Devalegodella, Polonnaruwa attacked killing 7 civilians
22/12/1987 6 fishermen abducted and killed in Morawewa, Trincomalee
31/12/1987 KATHANKADU, Muslims village in Batticoloa attacked killing 30 civilians
31/12/1987 Mahadivulwewa village in Trinco is attacked and 15 houses are set on fire and 8 civilians are killed and scores others are injured
01/01/1988 Sinhala settlement in Kuruniyankulama, Trincomalee is fired upon killing 3 civilians and injuring many
02/02/1988 Bogamuyaya village, Ampara is attacked killing 11 civilians
02/03/1988 D-1 MORAWEWA village in Trincomalee attacked killing 24 civilians and wounding many
05/03/1988 Land Mine explosion on a civilian lorry at SITTARU, KANTALAI, Trincomalee kills 24 civilians
11/03/1988 Private Bus at Suhadagama, Horowpathana in Polonnaruwa attacked with small arms and grenades killing 19 civilians and wounding many
14/03/1988 Civil Bus at Peniketiyawa, Trincomalee is ambushed killing 28 civilians
14/03/1988 Galmitiyawa village, Trincomalee is attacked killing 12 civilians
15/03/1988 Village at Kivulkade, Trincomalee is attacked killing 7 civilians 
17/03/1988 Sinhala villagers at 35th and 36th Colonies, Deegavapi in Ampara are attacked killing 13 civilians and injuring many
22/03/1988 Village at Pudukulam, Vavuniya attacked killing 4 civilians and wounding many
22/03/1988 Village at Medavachchikulam, Vavuniya attacked killing 9 civilians
31/03/1988 Saindamaradu/Kalmunai villages in Ampara attacked killing 17 civilians
08/04/1988 Meegaswewa village in HOROWPATANA, Anuradhapura attacked killing 14 civilians
30/04/1988 Civilian Bus at Avaranthalawa, Vavuniya attacked killing 4 civilians
01/05/1988 Land Mine on a CTB Bus at Sittaru, Kantale in Trincomalee kills 26 civilians and injures many
09/07/1988 A CTB Bus leaving Jaffna ambushed at Irattaperiyakulam, Vavuniya killing 2 civilians
21/07/1988 Time Bomb explosion in Bandula Hotel causing damage to the Building in Trincomalee town kills 5 and injures many
28/07/1988 Sinhala village, Ethawetunuwewa, Mullaitivu kills 16 civilians
10/08/1988 Village, Central Camp, Ampara attacked killing 11 civilians
16/08/1988 Bomb exploded in Trincomalee town kills 4 civilians and wounds many
25/08/1988 Village in Marawila, Polonnaruwa attacked with 11 civilians killed by cutting their necks
10/09/1988 Sinhala settlement at 16th Colony in Ampara attacked killing 7 civilians
10/10/1988 Village in Mahakongaskada, Medavachchiya in Vavuniya fired upon killing 44 civilians and injuring many
14/11/1988 Civil Bus at Peniketiyawa Trincomalee ambushed killing 28 civilians and injuring many
12/12/1988 Village in Sumedagama in Trincomalee attacked killing 28 civilians
17/01/1989 Village, Maharambekulam in Vavuniya attacked killing 9 civilians
02/02/1989 Village in Bogamuyaya, Ampara attacked and 11 villagers are hacked to death 
11/02/1989 Sinhala village, Dutuwewa, Mullatitivu attacked killing 37 civilians and injuring many
11/02/1989 Sinhala village, Singhapura, Mullaitivu attacked killing 6 civilians and injuring many
27/02/1989 Sinhala village, Borawewa in Polonnaruwa attacked killing 8 civilians and injuring many
13/04/1989 Car bomb explosion on the CENTRAL ROAD, Trincomalee town kills 51 civilians and injures many
17/08/1989 IED explosion in NOCHCHIKULAM, Vavuniya kills 8 civilians
30/05/1990 Village, Mihindupura/Dehiwatta in Trincomalee kills 5 civilians
24/07/1990 8 Sinhala villagers hacked to death at Aralaganvila in Ampara
25/07/1990 8 Civilians hacked to death at Meeyankulam in Polonnaruwa
25/07/1990 9 Villagers hacked to death at Wan-Ela, Trincomalee
26/07/1990 19 civilians hacked to death in Thammennawa, Anuradhapura
29/07/1990 Mosque at Samanthurai, Ampara fired upon killing 5 Muslims
30/07/1990 14 Muslims at Akkaraipattu, Ampara shot and killed
31/07/1990 Villagers in Podankady/Kantale in Trincomalee attacked killing 11 civilians
03/08/1990 Kattankudy mosque massacre in Batticoloa killing 103 Muslim divotees 
05/08/1990 17 civilians working in a paddy field at Mullayankadu in Ampara
06/08/1990 34 civilians working in a paddy field at Ampara killed
07/08/1990 Attack on BANDARADUWA village in Ampara kills 30 civilians
08/08/1990 A Private Coach proceeding from MORAWEWA to HOROWPATHANA attacked  at Meegaswewa, Trincomalee killing 26 and injuring many
08/08/1990 Villagers in Nawagamuwa, Vavuniya attacked killing 7 civilians
11/08/1990 Muslim attacked in Divisions 03 and 06 ERAVUR, Batticoloa killing 173 civilians and injuring many
12/08/1990 Muslim civilians working in a paddy field in Veerachcholai, Ampara attacked killing 4 and wounding many
13/08/1990 06 Muslim fishermen killed in GUNGAI village in Muttur, Trincomalee
13/08/1990 A Muslim village adjoining a Sinhala village,  Avaranthalava in Vavuniya attacked and 10 civilians killed
13/08/1990 Lorry travelling from NEGOMBO to KOKKUVIL at Pulmoddai, Mullaitivu ambushed killing 14 civilians
09/09/1990 Farmers travelling on a tractor at Uhana, Ampara attacked killing 7 civilians
13/09/1990 Security Forces recovered 07 mutilated bodies of Muslim villagers who were hacked to death at South of Poonani, in Ampara
19/09/1990 VELLAMUNAI Fishing village in Puttalam attacked killin 23 civilians
21/09/1990 Pudukudirippu in Ampara attacked killing 15 civilians
24/09/1990 Gajabapura village in Mullaitivu attacked 5 houses set on fire and 4 civilians killed
28/09/1990 Ethnic Muslims were chased away from Jaffna Peninsula and Mannar.
30/09/1990 9 civilians hacked to death in Mahaoya, Ampara
01/10/1990 Sinhala village, Peruwalthalawa in Ampara attacked and 9 civilians killed
02/10/1990 Village in Wahalkade in Anuradhapura attacked killing 4 civilians
11/10/1990 09 Muslims who were collecting fire woods near KIRANKOVE Jungle, Arugambe, Ampara hacked to death
23/10/1990 Chena Cultivators at Kokabe, Thanthirimalai Village in Anuradhapura attacked killing 10 civilians
25/10/1990 Village in Paranamedavachchiya, Mullaitivu attacked killing 4 civilians
27/10/1990 villages at Thanthirimalei, Anuradhapura shot upon killing 5 civilians
29/10/1990 Villages at Olikulam in Batticoloa attacked killing 3 civilians
01/11/1990 Security Force Guard Point and the Helambawewa village in Mullaitivu fired upon killin 10 civilians outside post
03/11/1990 Village in Bandarakubukwewa in Anuradhapura attacked killing 4 civilians
23/01/1991 Village and Guard Point at Bogamuyaya, Ampara attacked killing 29 civilians and injuring many
02/03/1991 Village in Kalupavel Batticoloa attacked killing 4 civilians
02/03/1991 Suicide Vehicle Bomb explosion at Havelock Road, Colombo 05 kills Hon. Min. of State for Defence Mr. RANJAN WIJERATNE. 19 civilians also die
02/03/1991 Village in Erakkandy, Trincomalee fired upon killing 5 civilians
24/03/1991 Bomb explosion at Fish Market AKKARAIPATTU, Ampara kills 9 civilians and injures many
14/04/1991 Village in 22nd Colony, Ethimalai in Ampara attacked killing 17 civilians
20/04/1991 Village in Niyandella, Okkampitiya in Ampara attacked killing 22 civilians
12/06/1991 Bomb explosion in MANMUNAI FERRY at KOKKADICHOLAI, BATTICALOA kills 10 civilians
21/06/1991 LTTE Suicide cadre explods in front of entrance of Ministry of  Defence Flower Road, Colombo and kills 12 civilians and injures over 85
24/06/1991 WELIGAHAKANDIYA Village in Periyapyllumalai, Ampara attacked killing 10 civilians
06/07/1991 Muslim village in Puddur, Polonnaruwa attacked killing 16 civilians
06/07/1991 Sinhala village attacked and 10 civilians abducted and killed in Manampitiya, in Polonnaruwa
08/08/1991 08 Muslim farmers on their way home from their paddy fields were killed, West of Samanthurai in Ampara
19/09/1991 Muslim village, Palliyagodella, Medirigiriya in Polonnaruwa attacked killing 13 civilians
26/01/1992 A Land Mine blast on private bus between ARANTHALAWA and BORAPOLA in Ampara attacked killing 10 civilians and wounding many
10/04/1992 Car Bomb explods close to National Youth Council Building at MAHARAGAMA,killing 9 civilians and wounding many
10/04/1992 Car Bomb explosion at Maradana, Colombo kills 8 civilians and wounds many
10/04/1992 Bus Bomb explods while parked at AMPARA Private Bus Stand killing 28 civilians and injuring a large number
29/04/1992 ALINCHCHIPOTHA Muslim village, Karapola & Muthugala in Polonnaruwa attacked killing 130 civilians and wounding over 70
16/05/1992 Village in Kosgolla in Ampara attacked killing 5 civilians
15/07/1992 Civil Bus proceeding from KATHANKUDY towards KALMUNAI at Kirankulam, Batticoloa attacked killing 19 civilians
21/07/1992 COLOMBO/ BATTICALOA Train stopped at Prangiyamadu, Batticoloa and passengers ordered to get down and were shot at 8 civilians died
30/07/1992 Bomb explosion inside bus in Trincomalee town kills 9 civilians and wounds many
09/08/1992 Mailanthenna village attacked killing 25 civilians and wounding many
01/09/1992 Saindamadu in Ampara attacked killing 22 civilians
10/09/1992 Ferry at KILIVEDDY POINT, Trincomalee blasted killing 6 civilians and wounding several others
01/10/1992 Konwewe village in Mullaitivu attacked killing 15 civilians and injuring many
15/10/1992 Palliyagodella and Ahamedpura villages in Polonnaruwa attacked killing 146 civilians and injuring over 80
26/12/1992 Land mine explosion between 120 “”…” 121 Km Posts at Vakaneri South on WELIKANDA “”…” VALACHCHENAI Road kills 6 civilians traveling in jeep
19/01/1994 Bomb blast in a Bus at RAMBAWEWA in Anuradhapura kills 10 civilians
16/03/1994 10 boats gone to fish close to KUDIRAMALAI Point in Puttalam attacked and 17 civilians killed
24/10/1994 Opposition Leader/UNP Presidential Election Candidate Mr. GAMINI DISSANAYAKE and six Politicians  Mr. GBM PREMACHANDRA – MP/DUNF Leader, Mr. WEERASINGHE MALLIMARACHI – MP/Former Minister of Food & Co-op, Dr. GAMINI WIJESEKARA – Gen Secretary of the UNP, Mr. CHRISTY PERERA- UNP Provincil Counseller, Western Province, Mr. OSSIE ADEYGUNASEKERA- MP CBO Dist/ SLMP Leader were assassinated, whilst they were participating in the UNP Presidential campaign meeting by a Suicide Bomber at GRANDPASS JUNCTION, COLOMBO. 54 civilians also died and over 70 civilians were injured.
11/02/1995 Village in Siyabalamduwa, Monaragala attacked killing 5 civilians
25/05/1995 Fishing village attacked and 42 civilians hacked to death in Kallarava, Trincomalee
07/08/1995 Suicide attempt using cart bomb explodes at the gate of the Western Province Chief Minister’s office killing 23 civilians and wounding over 40
09/10/1995 Bomb blast at Wellawatta, MP  Mr. D. Devananda’s Residence.
20/10/1995 suicide cadres attack Oil Refinery at KOLONNAWA and Oil Installation at ORUGODAWATTA.
21/10/1995 Village in Mangalagama, Batticoloa attacked 16 civilians killed
21/10/1995 Village in Monarathenna Polonnaruwa attacke 36 civilians killed
21/10/1995 Village in North of Padaviya, Galthalawa, Mullaitivu attacked killing 19 civilians
23/10/1995 Village in Eththimalai/Kotiyagal, Monaragala attacked killing 19 civilians
25/10/1995 Village in Panama, Ampara attacked killing 8 civilians
26/10/1995 Village in Thammenna Halmillewa, Anuradhapa attacked killing 26 civilians and injuring over 25
26/10/1995 Village in ALINCHIPOTHANA village Alapathwewa, Mullativu attacked killing 26 civilians
11/11/1995 A Second Suicide Bomber who had been in the vicinity of AHQ detonated himself in close proximity to SLAVE ISLAND Railway Station.
22/02/1996 Village in MAHANIKAWEWA Kebithigollewa, Anuradhapura attacked killing 6 civilians
01/06/1996 Village of ELUVANKULAM in the PUTTALAM area attacked killing 4 civilians including children and set on fire
11/06/1996 Village in Eluvankulama, Puttalam attacked killing 14 villagers
01/07/1996 Parcel bomb explodes on a train playing to the South kills 52 civilians
24/07/1996 Bomb explosion on the ALUTHGAMA Train at DEHIWALA Station killing 59 civilian passengers and wounding over 365 civilians
01/09/1996 Passenger bus as Aranthalawa plyhing between Ampara and Kandy attacked 11 civilian passengers killed and over 30 injured
12/09/1996 SLTB Bus plying from AMPARA to KANDY. (Aranthalawa) attacked killing 11 civilians
29/01/1997 Claymore explosion in Vaddukodai, Jaffna kills 9 civilians
10/02/1997 Village in Oddaimavadi, Batticoloa fired upon killing 5 civilians
15/03/1997 Claymore mine at a CTB bus from TALAIADY to JAFFNA. (Maruthankerni kills 15 civilians
12/05/1997 An attack on the Morawewa Police Station and village by the LTTE kills 5 civilians
15/10/1997 vechile bomb explosion at car park of Galadari Hotel close to World Trade Center, Colombo kills 11 civilians
14/11/1997 KELANITISSA Power House, Orugodawatta blasted destroying 2 oil tanks
25/01/1998 Suicide attack on the Sri Dalada Maligawa (Temple of Tooth of Lord Buddha) causes extensive damage to the Temple and kills 9 civilians
27/03/1988 Bomb hidden in a gunny bag inside a CTB Bus plying from Medawachchiya to Horowpathana at Wewelketiya, Anuradhapura kills 9 civilians
01/06/1998 Vehicle bomb explodes at MARADANA in the heart of COLOMBO killing 38 civilians
05/07/1999 4 Villagers travelling in a van to Rathmalgahawella, Ampara hacked to death
16/07/1999 Mr. PIYASENA KARUNARATNE “”…” Chief Organizer of EPDP. (THIRUNAVELI, JFN) shot dead
18/09/1999 3 Sinhala village in Galapitagala, Badirekka, Borapola attacked killing 50 civilians
22/09/1999 bomb explodes in a public transport service bus in Negombo .
22/09/1999 A bomb exploded in a private coach near the Kirmethiyawa Temple Junction.
26/09/1999 A time bomb exploded in a private coach near the 02nd Mile Post, Badulla.
17/12/1999 Two bombs explod in 02 buses of Peoplized Transport Service in Divulapitiya.
18/12/1999 Suicide attack at Presidential Election Campaign Meeting held in Town Hall, Colombo 07 to assassinate former President Mrs. CHANDRIKA BANDARANAIKE KUMARATUNGA – she lost an eye as a result. 16 civilians were killed
18/12/1999 Suicidce bomber at UNP  Propaganda Meeting Ja-Ela a Suicide Bomber killing Retired Maj. Gen. C L ALGAMA including 12 civilians, 45 wounded
27/01/2000 An IED Bomb Parcel placed under Foreign Mail Box at Vavuniya post office explodes killing 13 civilians and injuring over 50
30/01/2000 Bomb explodes in Peoples’ Transport Services bus MORATUWA Depot at DUTUGEMUNU Junction in POLGAHAWELA killing 13 civilians
30/01/2000 A bomb explosion in a train. (GALOYA)
03/02/2000 A time bomb explodes in private bus at WANDURAGALA whilst transporting civilians from KURUNEGALA to POLAGAHAWELA. 
07/02/2000 Bomb explosion on Peoplelized Transport bus while it was parked at the Bus Stand. (Bibile)
08/02/2000 Bomb explosion in bus travelling from COLOMBO to NEGOMBO near KARUNARATHNE Maha Vidyalaya. (WATTALA)
08/02/2000 Bomb explosion on Peoplelized Transport Services Bus at the Central Bus Stand. (Pettah)
30/03/2000 AN-26 Aircraft belongs to Antenovo UR Company which was carrying passengers from PALALY to ANURADHAPURA  (SHRAVASTHIPURA) had crashed THALAVA area. All passengers and crew members were killed. (Feb or Mar)
07/04/2000 4 civilians died after an attack on their village help from Aralaganwila police left 11 police dead
11/04/2000 Gomarankadawala police post attacked 1 civilian killed
12/04/2000 Musical show attacked in Trincomalee Fort Federick killing 10 civilians injuring over 60
07/06/2000 Suicide bomber kills Hon. Min. of Industrial Development Mr. C V GOONARATNE and wife with 24 other civilians in RATMALANA
14/06/2000 Suicide bomber explodes himself at Wattala junction killing 2 civilians
23/11/2000 Motors fired towards Muttur jetty and Almahar Maha School killing 2 students and injuring 11 civilians
07/12/2000 KURULUBEDDA Village and killed 5 villagers. (Welikanda)
12/08/2001 Firing at KOVIL FESTIVAL in ERAVUR Batticoloa kills 2 civilians and injures many
17/10/2001 Attack on RUWANPITIYA village kills 2 civilians.
18/11/2001 Claymore explosion at SRIPURA RAJA MAHA VIHARAYA kills 3 Buddhist monks including the chief incumbent of the Vihara and driver
01/12/2001 Bomb explosion at an EPDP Office in Batticoloa Town injures 23 civilians and a member of the EPDP.
23/11/2003 One Muslim killed and 2 others injured from hand grenade attack at KANDALADIUTTU.
24/11/2003 Two Muslims killed and 2 others injured due to hand grenade attack on a lorry at KATTAKUDICHCHI.
24/11/2003 3 Cadjan huts set fire and hand grenade thrown to the refugee camp at FAIZAL NAGAR KINNIYA.
25/11/2003 6 Civilians including 04 Muslims injured due to a hand grenade attack near the mosque at SALAIADI TRINCOMALEE Town.
28/11/2003 3 Muslims farmers of EDMAN NAGAR, KINNIYA killed cutting with sharp weapons whilst they were staying in the night in their paddy fields in CHINA- BAY
30/11/2003 A Muslim person in working in KASMIR HOTEL TRINCOMALEE assaulted at the SHIVAN KOVIL, Trincomalee and admitted to hospital with head injuries
01/12/2003 A Muslim civilian of Colony No 5 KAKAMUNAI SOORANGAL shot and injured  at KINNIYA.
27/05/2006 7 civilians going to Wilpattu national park killed by land mine in Nochchiyagama
29/05/2006 12 Sinhalese civilians working at Irrigation cannel shot and killing at OMADIYAMADU, VLK.
17/06/2006 Pesali naval boat patrol attacked killing 5 civilians and injuring over 30 civilians – naval personnel also killed 
26/06/2006 Suicide attack on Maj. Gen. Parami Kulatunga leaves 1 civilian dead and 4 civilians injured in Pannipitiya
06/08/2006 Killing of 17 Aid Workers, attached to ACTION AGAINST HUNGER, an NGO Working at (FAIM) MUTTUR.
08/08/2006 Bomb blast at Dickman’s Rd, Bambalapitiya kills 1 civilian and injures 8  
18/09/2006 10 Muslim civilians killed while engaging in construction works at Radella, Pothuvil
18/11/2006 Remote controlled claymore targeting army truck kills 4 civilians and injures over 11 others in Thandikulam
05/01/2007 Time bomb explodes in private bus plying between NITTAMBUWA to GIRIULLA killing 5 civilians and injuring over 54
06/01/2007 Explosion inside Matara bound bus plying from Colombo to Seenigama kills 12 passengers and injures over 29
08/01/2007 CEB Power Supply Sub-Station at Maradana Road, HANDALA, WATTALA was blasted.
27/01/2007 LTTE Sea Tiger Abortive attack on COLOMBO Harbour.
09/03/2007 4 wild life officials killed inside Wilpattu wild life sanctuary 
02/04/2007 Bus plying from AMPARA to BADULLA via BIBILE blown at Kondavattuvan, Ampara killing 14 civilians and several army personnel
05/04/2007 4 farmers killed in Nidanvala, BATTICALOA.
12/04/2007 PALEURUWA Village fired upon killing 7 civilians 
13/04/2007 TMVP members attacked leaving 2 civilians dead  
23/04/2007 Claymore mine targets civil bus plying from MANNAR to VAVUNIYA CHEDDIKULAM killing 3 civilians and injuring over 30 
13/05/2007 A Buddhist Monk of PABBATHARAMAYA, Phase I, MAHADIVULWEWA was shot dead 
02/06/2007 2 Tamil workers of SRI LANKA Red Cross from the East abducted and killed
12/06/2007 Bomb set off at Uraniyawatta in ORUGODAWATTA 
27/09/2007 Claymore mine targeting police jeep of CHUNNAKAM Police Station kills 2 civilians and injures over 9 
28/11/2007 Suicide bomber explodes herself at Minister Douglas Devananda’s office in Colombo 5 killing a civilian (Stephen Peiris) 
28/11/2007 Parcel Bomb explosion at NUGEGODA JUNCTION in front of NOLIMIT Building kills 20 civilians and injures over 30 
05/12/2007 Claymore mine targeting bus with civilians explodes in Kebethigollewa killing 14 civilians and injuring scores of others 
02/01/2008 Claymoroe mine explodes near Nippon Hotel, Slave Island, Colombo kills 3 civilians and several service personnel
08/01/2008 Claymore explosion kills Minister of Nation Building, Non-Cabinet Minister D M DASANAYAKE, MP for ANAMADUWA in JA-ELA injuirng 14 civilians
11/01/2008 A small scale bomb explodes at the FORT Railway Station, near the 06th Flatform Staircase. The explosion caused minor injuries to one Muslim Civilian.
16/01/2008 Claymore mine on CTB bus plying from OKKAMPITIYA to BUTTALA in 03rd Mile Post, WELIARA kills 27 civilians and injures over 60 
16/01/2008 Attack on Chena cultivators in NIYANDAGALA YAYA, WARALANDA. (MONARAGALA) kills 6 civilians 
17/01/2008 Troops find 8 civilian bodies / 2 home guards in THIBOLKETIYA, MONARAGALA.
31/01/2008 Suicide attack in Thirunelvely Jaffna kills 4 civilians and injures 15 
02/02/2008 Bus plying from KANDY to ANURADHAPURA blown up in DAMBULLA Bus Stand killing 20 civilians and injuring over 60
03/02/2008 Suicide cadre blows herself at Fort Railway station killing 15 civilians including 7 students and injuring over 85
03/02/2008 Improvised Explosive Device explosion inside National Zoological Gardens, DEHIWALA .
04/02/2008 Claymore explosion hits bus plying from PARAKRAMAPURA to JANAKAPURA kills 8 civilians and military personnel
18/02/2008 A Priest of the WMP Church killed in AMPARA . His wife and the child were also injured. 
23/02/2008 Improvise Explosive Device explodes inside bus plying from MORATUWA To COLOMBO in MOUNT LAVINIA killing 18 civilians 
10/03/2008 Remote Control Device (IED) explodes near the Roxy Cinema in WELLAWATTA killing 1 civilian and injuring 6 including children 
06/04/2008 Suicide attack kills Hon. Min. JEYARAJ FERNANDOPULLE, Minister of Highways and Road Development, the Chief Government Whip and Treasurer of SLFP, Chief Guest attending road marathon in Gampaha 9 civilians including children die
25/04/2008 Remote Control Device explodes in crowded CTB Bus plying between PILIYANDALA and KAHAPOLA at Piliyandala Town killing 27 civilians including a Buddhist priest
26/05/2008 Bomb blask inside Panadura bound train at Dehiwela railway station kills 9 and injures over 50 
29/05/2008 Raid on Naval Detachment in CHIRUTIVU ISLAND, a small islet located in the JAFFNA LAGOON  kills 5 civilians and injures over 12 while also killing military personnel 
30/05/2008 LTTE attacked a House in a village in YAYA 18, MASVADIYA. Home Gaurds deployed in nearby bunkers had rushed to the scene and confronted with the terrorists. 01 x Home Guard and 02 x Civilians were killed and 02 x Civilians were injured due to the incidnet.
31/05/2008 A Hand Grenade was exploded inside a Bus Halt at WELLAWATTA. Due to the incident 02 x Civilians were killed and 08 x Civilians were wounded.
04/06/2008 Remote Controlled Bomb took place in WELLAWATTA Railway Track targeting a Train plying from PANADURA to COLOMBO kills 24 civilians
06/06/2008 Bomb blast in Moratuwa near the SHAILABIMBARAMA TEMPLE kills 25 civilians and injures over 90
06/06/2008 Bomb blast on bus from MATALE to KANDY via WATTEGAMA near the POLGOLLA Open University kills 2 civilians and injures over 7
10/06/2008 Suicide blast at UNP meeting kills UNP Chief Ministerial candidate Maj. Gen. Janaka Perera, his wife and 27 civilians injuring over 80
16/06/2008 Suicide bomber explodes herself near police gate in Vavuniya Town and kills 1 civilian and 12 police personnel 
05/08/2008 Explosiong close to Clock Tower of AMPARA Town kills 12 civilians and injures ove 35 
30/08/2008 Bomb explodes at 04th Cross Street, PETTAH kills 1 soldier and injures over 47 civilians
08/09/2008 10 x Civilians injured due to a bomb explosion near Mohamadia Hotel at Gas Works Junction in PETTAH.
09/10/2008 Suicide bomber targets Hon. Minister MITHRIPALA SIRISENA, Minister of Agricultural Development and Agrarian Service Development and General Secretary of SLFP at PIRIVENA JUNCTION,  BORALESGAMUWA. The Minister escaped but 2 civilians die
07/11/2008 civilian bus travelling from BUTTALA to KATHARAGAMA thrown hand grenade killing 4 civilians
09/11/2008 Monaragala village attacked killing 7 civilians
28/10/2008 Two LTTE Air attacks drops 3 bombs in Thallady / 2 bombs on Kelanitissa power station – 1 civilian dies
16/11/2008 Dr PALITHA PADMAKUMARA, at THAVAKKADU hospital was shot dead at VAVUNATIVU, Batticoloa
28/12/2008 Suicide bomber in Wattala kills 1 civilian 
02/01/2009 Suicide attack in Slave Islan near air force head quarters 14 civilians injured
18/01/2009 2 civilians attending to cattle killed in Monaragala / 4 missing
09/02/2009 Suicide bomber explodes outside IDP center in Puliyampokkanal killing 9 civilians and injuring over 40 (military personnel also killed)
10/02/2009 Firing on IDPs coming towards Security Forces – 19 IDPs killed and over 75 injured 
12/02/2009 Hand grenade thrown at bus traveling from Puliyankulam kills 1 Tamil civilian
21/02/2009 Karametiya village at RathmalgahaElla in Iginiyagala attacked killing 16 civilians
20/04/2009 3 suicide attacks on IDPs fleeing from LTTE in Pudumathalan kills 17 IDPs and injures over 200
25/04/2009 5 civilians killed in Okanda
02/09/2009 10 civilians killed and over 60 jured at IDP camp in Sugandhipuram

Just in case there are some who are under the impression that LTTE was the sole representative of the Tamils as the TNA said, some of these killings would put that notion to rest.

07/06/2000 Mr. KANAPATHIPILLAI NAVARATNE RAJAH – TELO, Member of Pradeshya Sabha, Arapathi, Batticaloa killed by LTTE.
25/05/2000 Intelligence Leader of PLOTE Mr. KANDAPPA JEYARAJA WILSON and another member VIJERAMU JERATNAM PANNAI were killed in a bomb explosion whilst travelling on a Motor Cycle in VNA.
19/10/2000 British Broadcasting Correspondent Mr. NIMALARAJAN MYLVAGANAM killed by unknown by a person at his residence in JAFFNA.
08/11/2000 Mr. ASHLY NIMALANAYAGAM SAUNDRANAYAGAM, a TULF member elected to Parliament from BATTICALOA District was gunned down while he was travelling to BATTICALOA town to VALAICHCHENAI.
08/08/2001 K Sugu Manager of CWE shop in Mannar killed by unidentified gunmen
17/11/2001 Killed Mr. SINNATHAMBY RAJKUMAR “”…” UNP Candidate for Batticaloa District “”…” General Election 2001. (BCO)
23/07/2004 EPDP took the coffin of EPDP PS hairman V RAVINDRANwho had been killed by the LTTE and placed it opposite the Norwegian Embassy in CBO.
03/01/2006 A priest named SELLATHAMBY VINAGARATHNAM at Santhively Kanagianman Temple, Eravur was shot dead by LTTE cadres.
12/08/2006 The Deputy Director General of Secretariat Co-ordinating for Peace Process Mr. KETHESH LOGANADAN was shot dead by the LTTE Pistol Group while he was at his residence at # 1/B, Vandam Place, Windsor Avenue, Dehiwala.
10/11/2006 Killed Mr. NADARAJAH RAVIRAJ – TNA MP, at NARAHENPITA, CBO 05.
07/02/2007 The Chief Priest of Santhiveli Pulleyar Kovil Sellaiah Parameshvaran Kurukkal who blessed HE the President MR during his visit to Vakarai killed
26/09/2007 A Catholic Priest, Rev. Fr. NICHOLASPILLAI PAKKYARANJITH, the MANNAR District Co-ordinator Jesuit Refugee Services (JRS) was killed in a Claymore attack in uncleared area in MANNAR.
06/03/2008 JAFFNA District Tamil National Alliance Parliamentarian K SIVANESAN and his Driver was killed due to Claymore attack on 06/03/2008.
13/05/2008 MAHESHVARI VELAUTHAM, Legal Adviser of Hon. Min. DOUGLAS DEVANANDA (55 years old) of Anapathi, Karanavai East, Karaveddy killed at home
20/04/2008 Rev. Fr. M X KARUNARATNAM @ KILI FATHER, Chairman of the North East Secretariat on Human Rights (NESOHR) killed in WANNI.
27/11/2008 The Priest of SEVAMUTTU MARIAMMAN KOVIL was shot dead by an unidentified gunman in MAMANAGAMA, BATTICALOA.

Similarly, the scores of Muslims attacked and chased away by the LTTE were many as was the number of Muslim leaders gunned down inspite of that the present Justice Minister and Muslim Congress leader wined and dined with Prabakaran with the Eelam flag hovering in the Wanni.

13/11/1987 Mr. ABDUL MAJEED – MP for MUTHUR was shot dead at MTR, TCO.
20/07/1997 Mr. MEH MAHAROOF “”…” UNP MP for TRINCOMALEE. (06th Mile Post, Nilaveli, TCO) killed by LTTE.
16/09/2000 A MI 17 helicopter was air borne transporting Hon. Min. of Ports Development, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Mr. M H M ASHRAFF with party members crashes killing all crew and passengers.
02/10/2000 Suicide bomber riding bicycle kills Mr. MOHAMAD LATIFF BAITHULLAH, (A Sri Lanka Muslim Congress member) in Muttur kills 27 civilians
02/10/2000 Vehicle convoy of Dy Min. of Post and Telecommunication Mr. M L A M HISBULLAH going to KALAWANCHIKUDY attacked

We would like to know from Ms. Pillay her comments about the deaths of thousands of civilians outside of combat zones and even during the UN backed ceasefires.

We think it is time these civilians and their families were given justice.

 

 

 

WE ARE SCEPTICAL ABOUT NAVI PILLAI’S VISIT IN THE MIDST OF NPC ELECTIONS AND CHOGM

August 26th, 2013

Malin Abeyatunge

The infamous UNHRC commissioner Navi Pillai is on her way to Sri Lanka on a fact finding mission has told Thomson Reuters Foundation by Email interview in her own words quote” I am going with an open mind and I plan to give a balanced preliminary assessment of my own impressions at the end of my visit unquote (Daily Mirror-23/8/2013).

This means, in other words, she acknowledges that she never had an open mind of  Sri Lanka’s situation all this time but imply she was prejudiced, biased and irresponsible  in her reporting to UNHRC about Sri Lanka at the past UNHRC Sessions. Will she continue to carry the same baggage (or garbage) on her visit which she was carrying on during the last few years as Commissioner of UNHRC parroted by the LTTE rump, dollar coughing Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, ICS group and alike so called humanitarian organisation funded by the west with vested interest albeit she says that she is coming with an open mind.

GoSL had already told that they have nothing to sweep under the carpet and is free to travel anywhere she pleases, meet any one she wishes. Where else in the world a horrendously biased fact finding person like Navi Pillay get a carte blanche  in any other country other than Sri Lanka. Knowing her past history as Commissioner of UNHRC, we doubt that her report will be an unbiased and balanced report as her acceptance of the  Government’s invitation after a lapse of two years  may be to time the Nothern Provincial Council Elections and the CHOGM.

If she wants to genuinely know the humanitarian programs and  actions implemented by the GoSL over the past four years, and to get firsthand  information she should speak to many of those Ex-LTTE combatants who have been rehabilitated and now  integrated  with the Sri Lankan society enjoying the dividends of freedom.  Her Speaking to TNA Parliamentarians is like listening to the TGTE, GTF. BTF and other LTTE rump organisations spread in the west which she is quite comfortable with.

We should not forget that Navi Pillai has still not stripped her Tiger Stripes and will use her visit to confirm what she has been parroting over the years against Sri Lanka. Hence, majority Sri Lankan  would be sceptical whether inviting her on a fact finding mission by GOSL  will be another  ƒÆ’†’llang Kaamak”.

 

 

Navi Pillay ?

August 26th, 2013

Gamini Gunawardane   

“ƒ”¹…”The  Island’ 16th Aug., reported that UNHR Commissioner Navi Pillay was due to visit this country during the last week of this month with a delegation, on the invitation of the government.     

Like the little boy in the story of the king who was parading the streets naked thinking, and  others agreeing, displaying his newly woven greatest of dresses which fools could not see, asked the obvious question whether the king was not naked, it took an engineer to jolt me with the following “ƒ”¹…”dumb’ question: “ƒ”¹…”Now if Navi Pillay, herself being a Tamil, is coming here to ascertain the condition of the Tamils after the “ƒ”¹…”war’, can her report be fair and impartial, but biased towards Tamils?’ I suddenly realized that what he was raising is the simple principle of rule against bias, under Rules of Natural Justice, that one could not be the judge in one’s own case. “Nemo iudex in causa sua” It is a principle of natural justice that no persons can judge a case in which they have an interest. The laconic equivalent in Sinhala folk lore is : Naduth pansale, baduth pansale !  Translated roughly, “both, complainant and the judge is the (monk of the) temple”.

This, it struck me, could be a natural bias. It does not however mean that no Tamil person could look at a problem like this impartially, without any bias. The issue in question here is not only one of factual assessment but it also remains a highly emotional issue, particularly to a Tamil. Hence it may not be fair even by Ms. Navi Pillay to expect her to come to a total objective determination, she being human. This is probably why there is another judicial adage that “ƒ”¹…”Justice should not only be done, but should appear to be done.’

Yet, I recall that when a delegation of Indian Parliamentarians visited the North some time ago, some of them were modest enough to acknowledge that the conditions in our then detention camps were very much better than those in India. Here again, the parliamentarians from the Tamil Nadu declined to join the delegation when invited, for reasons best known to themselves. Judging by the emotional bias that protagonists of the anti Sri Lankan sentiments generated there, one is reminded of another common saying that “ƒ”¹…”none are so blind than those who do not want to see.’ Again, the same thing happened when the LLRC invited the world Human Rights organizations, to place the evidence they had, before the Commission, they declined contemptuously. This probably was on the same premise of the “ƒ”¹…”Naduth pansale, baduth pansale’ assumption.  But ironically, now their, as well as that of the UNHRC’s demand, is that the SL government implements the recommendations of the selfsame LLRC! It is all the more interesting in view of the fact that “ƒ”¹…”Darusman’ Commission of the UNSG recommended in their report, that the information placed before them be not revealed for 20 years! Why?

Thus, as far as the Sri Lanka government is concerned, despite the unsubstantiated allegations leveled, it has consistently conducted itself by Buddha’s principle re his teaching: “ƒ”¹…”Ehi, passiko opanaiko, pacchattham vedithabbo” meaning,” Come, see for yourself, it is open for scrutiny and , experience it yourself”.  Accordingly, Navi Pillay & her delegation too are coming here on a government invitation and are to be afforded all facilities to make their own assessment. Now the question is, given her past conduct and utterances made, and positions taken by her in this regard, and the pains taken by her in moving the adverse resolutions against Sri Lanka, besides being a Tamil herself, whether we could expect an impartial and an unbiased report from Ms. Navi Pillay?

“Nemo iudex in causa sua”

 

Sri Lanka of course welcomes Navi Pillai as a visitor and an open minded fact finder.

August 26th, 2013

 by Charles.S.Perera

Navi Pillai has said that she does not come to criticise Sri Lanka, and that her visit is within the framework of human rights.

But there is a small hitch in her statement,

“I frame myself within the human rights standards set for the whole world by all the governments of the world including the government of Sri Lanka. So I’m not writing my statute. I’m looking at the framework that was also developed by Sri Lanka. So if I raise criticism its whether they are complying to those standards,”

It is with regard to the human rights itself. The human rights standards set for the whole world cannot be applied to Sri Lanka. Unlike other countries in the world Sri Lanka is the only country that went through  thirty  years of  utter misery instilled by a ruthless group of terrorists.

How can those who have not gone through that intense suffering for thirty long years ever understand what it was like ?  Any sacrifice it seemed worth just to end that unbearable mental agony the Nation was going through.

The elimination of that terrorism cost a lot in lives and material leaving many maimed, the memory of that thirty years of suffering will remains for ever embedded in the history of the Nation. Under such circumstances what accountability can any one ask Sri Lanka to give for the elimination of that terror, and bringing back peace.

 No one member of the International Community through out that period sympathised with Sri Lanka and its people and helped the successive governments to eliminate  terrorism, but instead helped in aggravating the terrorist situation, demanding from the government a political solution, by the  foreign  NGOs stationed in Sri Lanka, human rights activists, and foreign Ambassodor and governments.

Through out that period, though there had been a steady flow of foreign Ambassadors, government representatives, NGOs into the areas controlled by the terrorists eating and dining with them, none of them raised the question of human rights with the terrorists, or demanded the terrorists to give up terrorism and negotiate with the government for a peace settlement , though such demands were made to the government which was then the victim of terrorism.

It was when the situation was getting dangerously out of control of the Government that in 2005 the President elected by the people realised that the International Community was  working to a secret Agenda. The Western Governments while  demanding the government to come to a peace settlement, were helping the terrorists to form themselves  into  a “military force” allowing them to purchase arms, telecommunication material, and even preparing  airstrips for a terrorist Air Force.

The President Mr.Mahinda Rajapakse  understanding  the dubious role that was being played by the International Community demanded the Norwegian mediators to arrange with the terrorists for peace  negotiations.  The terrorists wanted such negotiations held in  foreign venues  and agreed to send delegations.  After attending one or two sessions of negotiations in venues desired by them the terrorists themselves abandoned the negotiations and made it an occasion to purchase arms and military material to strengthen their  terrorists forces.

The Government of Sri Lanka observed that the terrorists were only marking time preparing themselves for a major armed attack against the Government Forces. It was then that the Government  took a decision to give up the peace solution, and decide on a military solution when the terrorists closed the sluice gates of a tank depriving the farmers of water.

That was the beginning of a military operation against the terrorists that resulted in their elimination.

It was after the elimination of terrorism that the International Community  which  failed in its  secret Agenda commenced  accusing the Government of Sri Lanka for violation of Human Rights, and its Armed Forces for war crimes.

 Navi Pillai from a Tamil Community  which suffered segregation under  South African  Apartheid  Government, may have undoubtedly  at some period of her life, hero worshipped Prabhakaran the terrorist leader as a Tamil  rebel leader seeking freedom for the Tamil people of Sri Lanka segregated by an apartheid Sri Lanka Government.

The memory of that  prejudice against the Sinhala Government of Sri Lanka,  against which Prabhakaran  had taken up arms may still be lingering  in her mind.

It is  therefore important that Navi Pillai on the first day or two of her visit see Sri Lanka  comparing it  with the sordid conditions of apartheid in South Africa, and immerse herself in the breath of fresh air of freedom and peace every body in this Island paradise of Sri Lanka without distinction of  race, colour, religion  or  communal difference  enjoy.

 

It is only then  she will understand that violation of human rights, and accountability are a far cry from the reality of  peace, freedom of moment  and progress that Sri Lanka has offered to its people be they Sinhala, Tamil, Muslim or other, after the elimination of a brutal terrorist group.

This reality of peace, freedom and on going  development and progress are after a ruthless terrorism which it  eliminated with the  minimum loss to civilians  in air strikes and tactfully using small weapons to protect civilians , and shoot at the terrorists, while  the terrorists were using heavy guns planted amoung the Tamil Civilians held as a human shield.

The Sri Lanka military offensive against the terrorist was not like the irresponsible air strikes by the  USA and allied forces to eliminate  a “dictatorship” in  Libya , which began by shooting 110 Tomahawk Cruise Missiles by US and British Naval forces into Libya.  NATO would not give the number of bombs dropped in Libya, but one American  Website makes a comparison:

“NATO bombed the inhabited part of Libya, which is just about the same size in square miles as Massachusetts, and with just about the same population of 6,700,000 human beings. So if you want to imagine what happened to Libya, imagine 14,000 bombs and rockets raining down on Massachusetts.”

http://www.dailykos.com/story/2013/03/27/1197266/-14-000-Bombs-on-Libya-Massachusetts.

In the boarder villages of Pakistan the number of civilian deaths resulting from US Drone attacks have been reported as :

“The secret government document was quoted by the London Bureau of Investigative Journalism (LBIJ) in a report and reveals: “Of 746 people listed as killed in the drone strikes outlined in the document, at least 147 of the dead are clearly stated to be civilian victims, 94 of those are said to be children,”

These are just two cases of civilians killed by the US and the Western Countries in their  theatres of war which need not be repeated for which Navi Pillai as the UNCHR has not demanded accountability.

Navi Pillai at the end of her visit to Sri Lanka is to make a report of her findings to the UNHRCouncil in Geneva.  When making her report she should think twice about  Sri Lanka’s accountability, and violation of human rights in its military operations to eliminate terrorism, as ,

(i) she has failed to raise the question of  accountability  from the USA and its Western allies for  far greater number of recorded  killing of civilians, violation of human rights and  war crimes.

(ii) the Sri Lanka’s military operations against the terrorists were justified and was an urgent necessity to arrest the continuous massacres of innocent men, women, and children, through every imaginable methods of murder, assassinations, massacre and destruction.

(iii) In that war Sri Lanka made many sacrifices, and  any  civilians deaths   cannot be with any stretch of imagination be called  planned or deliberate acts of  criminality by the Armed Forces.

(iv) The Armed Forces which rescued nearly 300,000 Tamil civilians kept as human shields by the terrorists had no reason, necessity or desire to kill or maim the Tamil Civilians escaping  from the terrorists seeking their help.

(v) Navi Pillai should also understand after seeing for herself the cordial existence of  different Communities, that the Government of Sri Lanka protects and serves all its people providing facilities without discriminating against one Community  or  another, whether Tamil or Muslim.

(vi)  Navi Pillai should also understand that there are always in any country or community disgruntled elements who are never satisfied with what they have, compare their circumstances with those of others and grumble, complain and make difficultiesThey are not saints without faults.

Fact that there are so many organisations working freely criticising the government is proof of respect for media freedom, which interested parties project as denial of such rights by the Government.

Navi Pillai should take all these into consideration when making her final report, without harping excessively on violation of human rights, and accountability.

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August 26th, 2013

ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ”¹-  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ 1965 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  LLB ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ”¹-  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ”¹-  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”. ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ”¹-  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.
ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ 27ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚   ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯? ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ” I killed them. I am very sorry mam” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pjSpbFYWmI&list=SPBCF9359CC0A49368.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ 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ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚.  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”. . ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  750 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

“ƒ”¹…”Sri Lanka Night’ concert in Belarus Capital

August 26th, 2013

By Janaka Alahapperuma

President Mahinda Rajapaksa arrived in Belarus, former Soviet Union and the Eastern European nation on a three-day official visit, graced the cultural and traditional dancing show, “ƒ”¹…”Sri Lankan Night’ at the Bolshoi Opera Theater in Minsk, capital city of Belarus last night on August 25.
Sri Lankan cultural show was organised by the Sri Lankan Embassy in Russia accredited to Belarus as a part of the ongoing awareness campaign launched prior to the President’s visit to promote Sri Lanka tourism under the theme “Sri Lanka- Wonder of Asia”.
Belarus Deputy Prime Minister Anatoly Tozik and Cultural Minister Boris Svetlov and many senior government officials accompanied the President to witness the cultural show. The theater was filled to its capacity by Belarus nationals from all walks of life who watched the spectacular cultural display aimed at attracting Belarus tourists to Sri Lanka. Minister of External Affairs Prof G L Peiris, Secretary to the President Lalith Weeratunga and Sri Lankan Ambassador in Moscow Udayanga Weeratunge were present at the occasion.
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Chandana Wickramasinghe, an acclaimed dancer and founder of The Dancers’ Guild of Sri Lanka coordinates the cultural shows and dancers under the guidance of Ambassador Weeratunga for these promotional events during the President’s visit. Few Belarus traditional dancing troops also performed in the Sri Lankan show.
Sri Lankan President is scheduled to meet with his Belarusian counterpart Alexander Lukashenko today (26) at 1.30 pm Sri Lankan time. Agreements are to be signed on trade, tourism and economic corporation and also on corporation relating to combating criminal activities. Other bilateral meetings will take place with Prime Minister Professor Mikhail Myasnikovich, Chairman of the National Assembly of Belarus, Anatoly Rubinov and Chairman of the House of Representatives, Vladimir Andreichenko.
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The Belarus – Sri Lanka Business Forum will also take place today at the National Library of Belarus in Minsk. President Rajapaksa also accompanied by a delegation of businessmen to attend this forum where the President will be making a speech along with Prime Minister Myasnikovich. This will provide an opportunity for business men and women from both countries to interact and network.

Pix By: Sudath Silva

Pillay’s visit to Jaffna: UN must be fair in selectivity of contesting political parties

August 26th, 2013

Rajith Keerthi Tennakoon Executive Director/Campaign for Free and Fair Elections (CaFFE) Center for Human Rights and Research (CHR)

 
Campaign for Free and Fair Elections (CaFFE) is deeply concerned about United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navanethem Pillay  meeting selected political parties or groups contesting in the coming Northen Provincial Council (NPC) Election during her visit to Sri Lanka.
If the High Commissioner meets selected political parties or groups contesting for the NPC, it will give that group an unfair, unethical advantage not in accordance with level playing field, which is a fundamental component of representative democracy.  Two of the main points of focus in September 21st Provincial Council Elections in the Northern Province have been United Nations Human Right Council’s  discussions on alleged human rights abuses by Sri Lankan government during the last stage of the war and its discussions on verious human rights issues in Sri Lanka.
In such a context CaFFE media monitoring reports shows that the Jaffna based Tamil based media has already mainly focused on Navi Pillay’s visit to Sri Lanka.
Therefore if the UN’s High Commissioner for Human Rights meets only selected political parties or groups who are contesting the PC elections, during her visit to Sri Lanka, it will give that group(s)  an  unfair advantage said CaFFE Executive Director, Keerthi Tennakoon.  In addition, that meeting will certainly lead to sustained media attention by Jaffna based Tamil media.
CaFFE believes that if the High Commissioner desires to meet political parties/groups contesting for the up coming Northern Provincial Council Elections, she should give equal hearing opportunity for each party.
As the head of an organization mandated and bound to uphold the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, CaFFE expects Ms. Pillay to uphold the principal of equality that is an intrinsic aspect of natural justice.
Rajith Keerthi Tennakoon
Executive Director/Campaign for Free and Fair Elections (CaFFE)
Center for Human Rights and Research (CHR)

ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.
 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚   ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚   ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ (25) ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.
 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­.  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.
 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚   ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­.  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.
 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ 
ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. 
 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.
 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¥ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.
 
ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ 
ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡
ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡/CHR

UNHCR’s visit to Sri Lanka: welcome to the Emerald Isle, if the lady comes with an open mind

August 26th, 2013

Asada M Erpini

The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights is to visit Sri Lanka from 25th of August. Sri Lanka had extended her an invitation to visit the country two years back, but she obviously had her reasons to accede to it only now. It has already been announced that “ƒ”¹…”Civil Society’ representatives have arranged meetings on 26th and 27th with the lady, to brief her probably on “how bad the country is”. If the UN High Commissioner has sufficient time to listen to “ƒ”¹…”Civil Society’ representatives, it is hoped that she also would have the time to read, or at least be briefed about, the views of a member of Sri Lanka’s “ƒ”¹…”Uncivil Society’.

The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights will be looking into human rights issues during her stay in the country: after all, that is what she is being paid the enviable UN salary and other perks. Without entering the country with her anti-Sri Lanka and pro-terrorist attitudes that she has cultivated over many decades, and without going by the misinformation that had been dished out to her and the rest of the world by all manner of LTTE backers and propagandists,  she needs to come with an open mind and see what Sri Lanka really is.

One of the main issues that every political pundit and human rights guardian from the affluent countries and the representatives of the international community “”…” the US, EU, the Nordic countries “”…” seems to be concerned about is the human rights violations that are purported to have occurred in the final stages of the liberation war that culminated in May 2009.

The number of “ƒ”¹…”innocent (Tamil) civilians’ killed by the armed forces of Sri Lanka keeps on increasing, and there are sudden spurts in the numbers whenever there is an important international event. When the UNHCR sessions were held in Geneva in March 2012 and March 2013, the alleged human rights violations by the insignificant Sri Lanka – insignificant in all other matters that concern the big powers “”…” were at the forefront in the agenda. India, with over 1.2 billion people and enough human rights issues pertaining to Pakistan, Punjab, Kashmir, Assam and Tamil Nadu Dalits, which would keep her busy for generations if she is genuine in solving the problems in her own country, found it proper to poke her unwelcome finger in the affairs that are the prerogative of a separate sovereign nation. Little does India do to admit the biggest human rights violators that Sri Lanka ever saw were the LTTE terrorists that India herself raised from a rag tag bunch of street thugs from Sri Lanka’s North.

During the time of the liberation war that vanquished the locally-based LTTE armed wing, the UN Office in Colombo estimated “”…” yes, estimated, and not calculated “”…” the number dead in the confrontation at approximately 7100.  The UN did not release the figure as official, as the institution was not in a position to verify the figures. Gordon Weiss, at the time employed by the UN in Colombo, said that 20,000 had been killed, but as he landed in his native Australia “”…” obviously his impending release of “Cage” would have had nothing to do with the figure dead “”…” said that 40,000 were killed by the Sri Lanka armed forces. The Darusman Report, which was never a UN Report, gladly quoted the 40,000 for the number dead, and the so-called reputed BBC and the Times of the UK had no hesitation in regurgitating this figure. With time, the figure has got established as 40,000, and, surprisingly, has now ballooned to 125,000. The last figure is most likely the number that will be bandied about by the anti-Sri Lanka groups when the Commonwealth Summit gets going in Sri Lanka in November.

There are many reports that the UN failed to protect the civilians. But the sad state is that all these reports imply that it is only the Tamils of the North that suffered. Tens of thousands of Sinhalese and Muslims perished at the hands of the LTTE terrorists, but clearly these unfortunates were not humans and they obviously did not have human rights as far as the human rights merchants are concerned: Anuradhapura, Kebethigollewa, Dollar and Kent Farms, Colombo Central Bust Stand, Aranthalawa, Palliyagodella, Erawur and Kattankudy massacres (the list could go on and on) are a just a few of the despicable acts that the LTTE perpetrated on innocent civilians, to which the International Community opted to turn a blind eye. Yes, the UN has really failed in its duty, and the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights has to answer for these lapses.

The world has witnessed horrendous killings of the innocent people, including many children. According to the latest media reports, the number killed from nerve gas attacks in Syria that happened a few days back was over 1300, while others quote figures of over 1700. There are grotesque images of dead children and corpses wrapped in white lined up in long rows. Such reports and images will enable anyone interested to count the dead and get an authentic figure of the number killed.

Sri Lanka is yet to see any images of the 7,000, 20,000, 40,000, or the 125,000 Tamil civilians killed by the armed forces of Sri Lanka. All that the whole world saw, instead, was how 300,000 Tamils ran to the armed forces to escape from the clutches of the LTTE in the final stages of the liberation war, when the images of the unprecedented rescue of civilians was relayed live. The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights will do a yeoman service to Sri Lanka and its peace-loving citizens if she contacts any of the parties concerned and releases tangible evidence of the “ƒ”¹…”human rights violations’ by the Sri Lanka armed forces.

There is at least one redeeming feature in the long delayed visit by the UN High Commissioner: a Reuters report dated 23 August states, “ƒ”¹…”United Nations human rights chief said on Friday she has an “open mind” and will not be “pre-judging anything” ahead of her first trip to Sri Lanka’. Peace-loving Sri Lankans, no doubt, will earnestly hope that the lady will do what she has professed to do.

 

Belarus is ready to welcome Sri Lankan President

August 26th, 2013

By Janaka Alahapperuma

President Mahinda Rajapaksa will begin his three day official visit to Belarus, former Soviet Union country today on Sunday 25 August. Meanwhile Sri Lankan Embassy in Russia accredited to Belarus has organised many cultural and traditional dancing events called “ƒ”¹…”Mega Tourism Caravan’ an awareness campaign prior to the President’s visit to promote Sri Lanka tourism under the theme “Sri Lanka- Wonder of Asia” in major shopping malls in the Belarus capital city, Minsk.

During the visit, President Rajapaksa is expected to hold bilateral discussions with the President of Belarus Mr. Alexander Lukashenko, Prime Minister Prof. Mikhail Myasnikovich, Chairman of the Council of the Republic of the National Assembly of Belarus Mr. Anatoly Rubinov and the Chairman of the House of Representatives of the Belarus National Assembly Mr. Vladimir Andreichenko.

slmegashow1

The President will be accompanied by a delegation of businessmen to attend a business forum where President Rajapaksa will be making a speech along with Prime Minister Myasnikovich. In addition to the political engagements, President Rajapaksa will also attend a tourist forum and visit an automobile plant in Minsk.

Sri Lankan Ambassador to the Russian Federation, Udayanga Weeratunga accredited to former Soviet Union nations said President Rajapaksa’s visit will strengthen Sri Lanka’s relationship with Belarus for the benefit of both countries in terms of stability, security, trade, tourim and development.

Chandana Wickramasinghe, an acclaimed dancer and founder of The Dancers’ Guild of Sri Lanka coordinates the cultural shows and dancers under the guidance of Ambassador Weeratunga for the promotional events during the President’s visit.

Republic of Belarus is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania and Latvia. The parliament of the republic declared the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990, and during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.  Belarus declared independence on 25 August 1991. Alexander Lukashenko has been the country’s president since 1994.  

Pix by: Sudath Silva

Armed robbery at journalist’s residence: Two army deserters held – Five-member gang included three brothers

August 26th, 2013

By Shamindra Ferdinando Courtesy Island

August 25, 2013, 10:00 pm

article_image

The scene of Saturday’s abortive robbery (pic by Ranjith Wimalasiri)

The police investigating Saturday’s abortive armed robbery at the Dickman’s Road residence of The Sunday Leader Associate Editor Mandana Ismail Abeywickrema, yesterday said that two of the four suspects, now in police custody, were army deserters.

Confirming the alleged involvement of deserters in the robbery, Military Spokesman Brigadier Ruwan Wanigasooriya told The Island that the army would provide all information regarding the suspects required by the police. The Brigadier identified the suspects as K. P. Chamara Kumara of Weralupitiya, Avissawella and rifleman Asanka Ubeysiri.

Police headquarters spokesman SP Buddika Siriwardena told The Island that the Colombo Crime Division (CCD) and the Bambalapitiya police were awaiting clearance from doctors to question the suspects in hospital.

SP Siriwardena said that all four suspects now receiving treatment at the National Hospital, under police guard, were out of danger. Of them, three had gunshot injuries, he said, adding that of the five-man gang, three including Chamara Kumara were brothers.

The three included deserter Kumara and the person shot dead by a police sergeant when he resisted arrest. The police identified the dead person as K. Indika Sampath. The third brother was identified as K. Rohitha Lakshman.

Siriwardena quoted Mrs. Abeywickrema as having said that she had been confronted by a gang of five when she got up in the early hours of Saturday after hearing some noises. She, her daughter and parents had been at home at the time of the incident.SP Siriwardena said that the police had acted swiftly after receiving a call from the journalist’s husband, Romesh, who suspected something unusual was happening on returning home in the early hours of Saturday.

Siriwardena said: “Having received a call from Romesh, the police emergency directed a mobile unit whereas another squad operating in the same area rushed to the scene. The police mobile rushed in and the sergeant leading the group shot at gangsters who pounced on the police. During the confrontation four policemen suffered injuries, with one receiving serious injury to his neck.”

According to the SP, Romesh contacted police emergency as he couldn’t contact his wife on the land line as well as her hand phone.

The police spokesman said that the police team engaged in the confrontation and the second team which closely followed had managed to arrest four wounded robbers and recover millions worth of gold jewellery and some cash.

Explaining her ordeal, Mrs Abeywickrema quoted a member of the gang as having said that they were there to finish her off on a contract given by a person who didn’t like her work. Mrs. Abeywickrema said that the gang assured that her parents wouldn’t be harmed.

Responding to allegations that Abeywickrema could have been targeted by a group for her writing, SP Siriwardena said that initial investigations pointed to an armed robbery. The official said that the police were confident of establishing whether there was any other motive than robbery.

Army headquarters said that Kumara had been arrested in September 2009 for an offence and was ordered on Oct 6, 2009 to be detained at Gemunu Watch Regimental headquarters at Kuruwita before being moved to army correctional facility at Panagoda. Brigadier Wanigasooriya said: “The soldier escaped from detention on Oct 8, 2009. He surrendered to the army on May 24, 2010 and was again detained at Panagoda for a period of 90 days before being handed over to GW regimental centre at Kuruwita on Sept 9, 2010. He disappeared again on Oct. 6, 2010 and was subsequently declared a deserter. The Hungama police arrested the deserter on June 25, 2013 and handed him over to Kuruwita on July 9, 2013.

Responding to a query, Brigadier Wanigasooriya said that after a summary trial, the army had decided to discharge the soldier as per the due procedure and he was temporarily discharged (such temporary discharge is instituted until clearance from all army establishments is obtained) from 15 July 2013 to 20 August 2013. On 20 August the soldier reported back, but since his clearance from some institutes hadn’t been received he was given another letter of temporary discharge from 21 August 2013 to 25 Oct. 2013. The Brigadier said that the suspect had got involved in the Dickman’s road robbery during this period.

Rifleman Asanka Ubeysiri had joined the army on March 6, 2009 and deserted on May 25, 2010. However, he hadn’t been involved in any previous incidents, the military spokesman said.


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