ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ 

June 7th, 2013

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º

ƒÆ’-¡  * ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ 

ƒÆ’-¡  * ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡  * ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¨ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ (07) ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶«. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

nanophoto1

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¨ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¥ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾.

A review of Dr. Dayan Jayatilleka’s latest book, Long War, Cold Peace -

June 6th, 2013

H. L. D. Mahindapala

Devolution bad for Ceylon and worse for Tamils — G. G. Ponnambalam

My friend Dayan Jayatilleka takes great pride and pleasure in branding himself as a “political scientist”. That is his right and privilege. Besides, it is a term very fashionable in academic circles even though the research in this pseudo-science has not yielded the kind of positive results like the scientific research that produced aspirin or viagra. Marx and Engels, the two most influential sociologists of the 20th century, were the first to claim in the 19th century that unlike other “utopian sociologies” theirs was “scientific socialism”. There is no need to elaborate on this claim as we all know how it ended in Berlin and China. That apart, this claim imposes on Dayan certain obligations to retain that title. A scientist working to establish universal and unalterable laws of nature / history cannot loosely make assertions which do not accord with reality. His/her calculations and analyses cannot brush aside the realities that contradict his/her theses and pretend that they don’t exist, or can be overlooked.

The absolute test of a scientist is to be dead accurate to the last decimal point. For instance, Dayan refers constantly to a 30-year-old war in his book Long War, Cold Peace. That would take him to a date three years after the war was declared by the Vadukoddians. The Vadukoddai Resolution which declared war on May 14, 1976 cannot be erased by the arbitary dismissals of “political scientists”. The duration of a war is calculated from the date it was declared officially to the date on which which came to an end. Accordingly, the dating of the Vadukoddai War should begin from May 14, 1976 and end in May 18, 2009, which adds up to 33 years, give or take a few days. So on what political science has Dayan concluded that it is a 30-year-old war and not 33 years?

However, it must be said that there is total confusion on this date. BBC says 26 years. Even the Ministry of Defence is not clear when the war began and when the war ended. This detail may seem rather trivial. But getting this date correct is important not only for histriographers (present and future) but also to those who are attempting to bring peace and reconciliation. Clarity of knowing what happened precisely in the past is vital for the reconstruction of the future. It also can determine as to who should be held responsible for unleashing violence when the options were open for non-violent negotiations as seen in the case of the other two Tamil-speaking communities — the Muslims and the Indians. Besides, at the end of a 33-year-old war — the longest running war in Asia — haven’t the Vadukoddians who opted for the military solution in 1976 come back to negotiations in the post-Nandikadal phase, beginning in May 2009?

Two factors are critical in fixing the date at 1976. First, Velupillai Prabhakaran, restructured and renamed his war machine in April 1976 as Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) making it the juggernaut that carried the Vadukoddai violence to its bitter end in Nandikadal. He became the official war lord of the violence endorsed in the Vadukoddai Resolution. The resolution called upon the youth to take up arms and never shirk until they achieved Eelam. It was the ideology that Prabhakaran pursued to his last waking minute in Nandikadal. Second, the entire Jaffna elite, led by S. J. Velupillai Chelvanayakam, the so-called Gandhian, officially endorsed the military solution in passing the Vadukoddai Resolution in May 1976. Velupillai Chelvanayakam who led the Federal Party, scrutinised and endorsed every word of the Vadukoddai Resolution, as stated by his son-in-law, Prof. A. J. Wilson in his biography of the father of Tamil separatism (p.128 – S. J. V. Chelvanayakam and the Crisis of Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism, 1947 – 1977, A. J. Wilson).

Legitimising Vadukoddai violence officially by Velupillai Chelvanayakam, “the trousered Gandhi” (Ibid – p.95), is as important as the LTTE war machine that was launched in the same year. The convergence of the two forces in 1976 — one at the top in Vadukoddai and the other at the lower-level with Prabhkaran carrying out the violence legitimised by the Vellahla leadership — cannot be ignored in determining the the date of the Vadukoddai War. It is true that Velupillai Prabhakaran began his killings in May 1975 when he gunned down Alfred Duraiyappah, the mild-mannered Mayor of Jaffna. But the official endorsement for the Vadukoddai violence and the launching of the LTTE killing machine for the Vadukoddai violence came within one month of each other in 1976. It is the convergence of two forces that over-determined the politics of the post-Vadukoddai period.

What happened in Vadukoddai in 1976 is absolutely critical: the Vellahla elite handed their power to Velupillai Prabhakaran hoping to ride on their backs to power. It was the deliberately chosen means of speeding up “the little now and more later” policy of Velupillai Chelvanayakam through the guns of Velupillai Prabhkaran. Resorting to violence in any situation is a huge gamble which could go either way. And it did turn against the entire Vellahla elite who opted for the miltiary solution in Vadukoddai.

The Vellahla elite handed the guns to the lower-level to target the Sinhala south. But the first victims were the fathers of the Vadukoddai Resolution. Velupillai Prabhakaran, the first born son of Velupillai Chelvanayakam’s Vadukoddai Resolution, devoured their fathers. Violence has a way of recoiling and hitting the very sources from which it came. The Tamil Tigers were the brutal Jacobins who decimated their own leadership as in the French Revolution. In modern terms, Prabhakaran became “the latest Pol Pot of Asia” (James Burns, New York Times) — the mass murderer of his own people. The Vellahla elite reaped the violence they sowed.

History records that the two Velupillais jointly took to violence on an organised scale in 1976. Prof. Wilson concedes that both groups coalesced in the mid-seventies. (Ibid- 128). Though both took place in two different dates, within a space of one month, of the same year, the ideology spun at the top and the execution of it by the lower-level dovetailed neatly to produce the horrors of the post-Vadukoddai period. Both groups abandoned mainstream non-violent politics to pursue violence to the bitter end as laid down in the Vadukoddai Resolution. The legitimising of mono-ethnic violence at the highest level gave the required political cover for Velupillai Prabhakaran to perpetrate and perpetuate his brutal violence.

For the first time in the history of Jaffna the Vellahlas embraced the non-Vellahlas as their “boys” in Vadukoddai. It was a deadly combination. Vadukoddai Resolution was the extremist fire that was lit at one end of a dry rope of mono-ethnic extremism that burnt slowly but surely until it hit the powder keg packed by Velupillai Prabhakaran. Appapillai Amirthalingam and his band of Tamil lawyers defended their “boys” violence in courts. Velupillai Chelvanayakam even garlanded Sivakumaran’s statue, one of the first militants who attempted to assassinate a Police Superintendent. He even accepted a human blood mark placed on his forehead instead of the customary yellow pottu that represents holiness in Hinduism. (Ibid – 119).

This sketch was outlined to highlight the incorrigible commitment of the Left-wingers and academics to churn out books on contemporary Sri Lankan politics without factoring in the dynamics of mono-ethnic politics that generated extremist violence in peninsular politics. I am afraid, that is precisely what Dayan has done. He has resorted to the Vellahla-NGO trick of blaming the Sinhalese. Example: blaming D. S. Senanayake for rupturing the north-south relations by introducing the Citizenship Act even though it was done with the consent of all the leading community leaders, including G. G. Ponnambalam, the sole representative of the Jaffna Tamils at the time. From the ethnic leaders, the notable exception was that of Thondaman, who was partly responsible for the failure of the Indian workers to register in time for citizenship. In a knee-jerk reacton he first asked the Indian workers not to register and when he realised his blunder and asked them to register at the eleventh hour it was rather late and thousands missed out.

Dayan’s accusation of D. S. Senanayake as the first cause for the breakdown of inter-ethnic-relations flies in the face of the historical realities. Velupillai Chelvanayakam was an unknown deputy to prominent Ponnambalam at the time. When the deputy breaks away from the leader on grounds of personal rivalry (Chelvanayakam considered Ponnambalam to be his “implacable foe” (Ibid- p. 46)) why should D. S. Senanayake be blamed for defining Ceylon cirizenship on a solid foundation of consensual politics? I am revisiting this issue again because it reveals the habitual tendency of the Left-wing and anti-Sinhala-Buddhist intellectuals to blame everything on the Sinhalese and exonerate the Jaffna Tamils.

Even when the Srima-Shastri agreement accepted the fact that the stateless Indian estate workers were citizens of India and should be repatriated to their homeland “Chelvanayakam denounced the deal as “a pact between racialists”, an overreaction partly explained by his helplessness in the face of arragnements made between two sovereign states.” (ibid -p. 102). Then again, nationalisation of the commanding heights of the economy — a policy hailed almost universally as a progressive move to eliminate the ills of capitalism in the post-World War II phase — was condemned by Chelvanyakam as “Sinhalisation” (Ibid — p. 100 & 121). Earlier, G. G. Ponnambalam went before the Soulbury Commission and decried the cooperative movement — a global movement of grassroot people to have a grip on the rapacious market place — as discrimination against the Tamil traders. Dayan, unfortunately, has accepted uncritically this Jaffna-centric propaganda of blaming the Sinhalese. Surely, the anti-Sinhala paranoia and propaganda, based on mono-ethnic extremism of the north, cannot be logically and rationally elevated to the level of “political science”. But that is standard narrative propagated by “political / social scientists” who occupy chairs in the universities, both at home abroad.

I haven’t come acrossƒÆ’-¡ a single anti-Sinhala-Buddhist tract, starting from Prof. S. J. Tambiah’s Buddhism Betrayed?, that has deviated in any significant way from the mono-ethnic thrust of Jaffna-centric politics that demonised the south. This overworked line is perpetuated to this day to white-wash the oppressive, brutal and violent political culture of Jaffna. From Tambiah to Dayan the political line has been to rationalise Jaffna-centric mono-ethnic extremism and blame the Sinhala south for everything that went awry. The long line of academics argue that if the Sinhala south had been more accomodating the violence could have been avoided. But none of them have paused to ask: if the Sinhala south was that chauvinistic refusing to accommodate the minorities, or to live and let live in a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic society, how did they co-exist in relative peace and harmony with the other two Tamil-speaking Muslims and Indians, resolving differences through negotiations? Why did the Sinhalese fail only with the Jaffna Tamils of the north? If so what are the factors that militated against resolving differences non-violently with the north only?

Take the example of Dayan blaming D.S. Senanayake, accusing him of striking the first blow against inter-ethnic relations by introducing the Citizenship Bill. Here again he repeats Jaffna-centric propaganda without taking into consideration historical realities. Prof. K. M. de Silva, Sri Lanka’s foremost historian, has outlined in two brilliant essays ( see The Ceylon Journal of Historical and Social Studies Vol II July -December 1972 and Vol III January June 1973) how Sir. Ponnambalam Arunachalam left the Ceylon National Congress, causing the first rupture between the Sinhalese and the Jaffna Tamils. G. C. Mendis, writing in the era of pre-politicized history, also pointed out that the communalism, whipped up in the thirties, (by G. G. Ponnambalam), caused the rising tensions between the two communities in the south. So according to respected historians it is not the Sinhalese who made the first move to break up inter-ethnic relations. The root cause has been invariably the intrasigence, arrogance and the short-sighted calculations of the Jaffna Tamils overestimating their power and underestimating the power of the Sinhalese.

D. S. Senanayake, on the contrary, went out of his way to bring all the communities together in every which way and he proved himself to the consummate master of consensual politics. If Dayan had done his homework, as a “political scientist” ought to, he would know that the following voted for Indian Residents (Citizenship) Bill: G. G. Ponnambalam, KC., T. B. Jayah, H. Ismail, K. Kanagaratnam, Gate Mudliyar M. S. Kariyapar, V. Nalliah, Mudliyar M. M. Ebrahim, S. U. Ethirimannasingham, J. Aubrey Martensz, Maj. J. W. Oldfield, CMG, OBE, S. A Pakeman, OBE, MC, EB, historian, T.Ramalinkam, A. Sinnalebbe, E. E. Spencer and A.L. Thambiyah. (Hansard Col. 592 — December 10, 1948). Dayan will agree that none of them is a Sinhala-Buddhist chauvinist bent on rupturing inter-ethnic relations.

Dayan’s surrender to Prof. (Buddhism Betrayed) Tambiah’s line is also seen in his reference to Anagarika Dharmapala (1864 – 1933) without a commensurate reference / judgment on Arumuka Navalar (1822 – 1879), the rabid caste fanatic who consolidated the political power and status of the Vellahlas — one of the most decisive factors in peninsular politics that spilled over to the rest of the nation in the post-independence period. Like all Left-wing ideologues Dayan is wont to repeat the Jaffna-centric propaganda rather than analyse critically the divisive and violent forces that spilled over from the north into the south, exacerbating inter-ethnic relations beyond redemption. So he merrily repeats the hacked political propaganda of blaming “chauvinistic” southern politics, contradicting his own claim that the north-south crisis cannot be categorised in either/or terms but only as and/and. He repeats how young S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike championed federalism in the twenties, soon after he arrived from Oxford. But obviously he does not know that G. G. Ponnambalam had rejected proposals for district councils — let alone provincial councils and federalism — saying that they were “bad for Ceylon and worse for Tamils” ( Wilson – 108).

So which of the two statements is valid for contemporary times and for the future as well? Ponnambalam’s rejection of devolution of powers to the periphery has a greater significance as it comes from a leader who argued for 50 – 50.The rejection of devolutionary powers even at the level of district councils by Ponnambalam overrides Bandaranaike’s idea of federalism. If devolution was bad at the grassroot level how can it be valid at the higher federal level? Ponnambalam rejected the District Council proposal when the Federal Party was negotiating the modalities for devolution of power with the Prime Minister, Dudley Senanayake. In fact, M.. Tiruchelvam, who was the Minister for Local Government in Dudley Senanayake’s National Government, had drafted the legislation for District Councils. It was a concrete proposal and “Tiruchelvam acknowledged in the Senate that the Prime Minister had “tried his best to honour his promise” by introducing the District Council Bill.” (Ibid – 109). It was at this critical stage that Ponnambalam rejected devolution. He said that he rejected District Council on the principle that it was “bad for Ceylon and worse for Tamils”.

Dayan’s text does not reveal any knowledge of these developments when he quotes only Bandaranaike’s theory of federalism. Nevertheless, he hangs on to Bandaranaike’s statement obviously because it is favourable to his pet theory of enforcing the 13th Amendment. In keeping with academic objectivity, it is imperative that he balances it with Ponnambalam’s outright rejection of Chelvanayakam’s district councils and federalism. Ponnambalam even argued that Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi meant a separate state and not federalism. He didn’t see any advantage in it for the nation or the Tamils. So which leader’s argument are we to accept?

Ponnambalam and Bandaranaike were contemporaries who set the stage for theƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ post-independenceƒÆ’-¡ phase in inter-ethnic relations.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ They were the two key pioneers who shaped the ideologies on which the post-independentƒÆ’-¡ nation parted company. AfterƒÆ’-¡ Ponnambalam it was only a hop, step and a jump for Chelvanayakam, hisƒÆ’-¡ junior, to takeƒÆ’-¡ mono-ethnic extremism to theƒÆ’-¡ lowest possible level. Peninsular politics was focusedƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ perenniallyƒÆ’-¡ on political rivalsƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ competing to beƒÆ’-¡ the sole representative of the Jaffnaites. WhenƒÆ’-¡ Ponnambalam, the new comer to Jaffna politics,ƒÆ’-¡ arrived on the sceneƒÆ’-¡ with his version ofƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ “50 – 50″ communalism to beat the established aristocracy of turbaned Mahadevas (p.327, Communal Politics under the Donoughmore Constitution, 1931 – 1947,ƒÆ’-¡  Jane Russell,)ƒÆ’-¡ he succeeded. Chelvanyakam took the next step andƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ jumped fromƒÆ’-¡ “50 – 50ƒÆ’-¡ “ƒÆ’-¡  to separatismƒÆ’-¡ — the lastƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ extremeƒÆ’-¡ step –ƒÆ’-¡ to beat Ponnambalam who dominated Jaffna and he too succeeded. After Ponnambalam there was noƒÆ’-¡ room for mainstream democratic politics to gain the upperhand. His rejection of all offers pushed Jaffna into a cul-de sac of mono-ethnic extremism. After the extremism of Ponnambalam and his junior Chelvanayakam it was one way streetƒÆ’-¡ all the way to Nandikadal.

In settling the old scores in history, or inƒÆ’-¡ conflict resolution,ƒÆ’-¡ it is neither logical nor valid to pick only on the statements of Bandaranaike (as usual) to blame everything on the Sinhalese.ƒÆ’-¡ Twentieth century history did not begin or end with Bandaranaike. Other actors too played a dominantƒÆ’-¡  role in pavingƒÆ’-¡ theƒÆ’-¡ road from Vadukoddai to Nandikadal. Any academic scrutiny of the forces that led toƒÆ’-¡ the ethnic explosion must balanceƒÆ’-¡  the Sinhala reaction with that ofƒÆ’-¡ the provocative statements and aggressive and strategic manoueversƒÆ’-¡ of the Jaffna jingoists who pushed peninsular politics toƒÆ’-¡ mono-ethnic extremism. To blame only Bandaranaike without evaluating the role ofƒÆ’-¡  G.G.Ponnambalam, Jaffna’s leadingƒÆ’-¡ racist, is worse thanƒÆ’-¡ blamingƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka for India’s neo-imperialist intrusions.

On balance, shouldn’t more weight be given to Ponnambalam’s rejection of devolution at all levels in the thirties, forties, fifties, sixties and seventiesƒÆ’-¡ than Bandaranaike’s theoretical proposition of federalism in the twenties? ƒÆ’-¡ Besides, why should only statements of Banadaranaike be quoted as valid and not that of Ponnambalam? Put simply,ƒÆ’-¡  since Ponnambalam rejected devolution for the north consistently why should the Sinhalese go forƒÆ’-¡ Bandaranaike’s federalism? Also, if devolution was not good enough for Ponnambalam how can it be good for the Indians, Dayan or anyone else?

So where does all this leave Dayan’s argument for the 13th Amendment?

(To be continued)

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Tamils donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t want violence; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ but anything possibleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ – Sampanthan

June 6th, 2013

Asada M ErpiniƒÆ’-¡ 

A report in local English daily quotes R, Sampanthan, the Tamil National Alliance (TNA) leader as having said, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-neither it (TNA) nor the Tamil people wanted a return to violence.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

The Tamils that Sampanthan could claim to represent amount to less than 4 per cent of the population of Sri Lanka. The so-called Tamils of Indian Origin ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” all Tamils are of Indian Origin ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” constitute a further 5.2 per cent. This applies not only to the Tamils, but also to the Sinhala people, who comprise 75 per cent of the population. They have thankfully managed to enjoy four years of bomb-free, peaceful existence, and they, too, more than any other groups, would be keen to avoid a return to violence, which incidentally was instigated and perpetuated by none other than groups of Tamils ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the LTTE and its supporters.

Refuting the allegations of the connections between the LTTE and the TNA, Sampanthan goes on to say, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Successive governments were responsible for the creation of the LTTEƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. The much maligned ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Sinhala governmentsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ are a convenient scapegoat for all separatist and anti-Sri Lankan Tamils to blame for the crimes they themselves have committed over the past many decades, starting in the 1930ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s.

“We did not create the LTTE”, Sampanthan is reported to have said. More than the TNA creating the LTTE, what occurred was the opposite: it was the LTTE that created the TNA and gave it undeserved pre-eminence by disposing of all other Tamils and Tamil groups that did not tow the LTTE line.

The veiled allegations of Sampanthan should be taken seriously. After all, although the man has said that TNA did not create the LTTE, the truth is that TNA was born with the blessings of the LTTE and served as the mouthpiece of the terrorist group LTTE. All that the LTTE knew was violence, and a progeny of the LTTE warning of the possibility of violence is to be expected.

Readers of the local media are quite used to coming across nothing other than warnings when it comes to the TNA leader: on this occasion he goes on to say that attempts to dilute the 13th Amendment (to the constitution) would negate the existence of the devolution.

The13th Amendment to the constitution was a matter that was rejected outright by the LTTE. More importantly, the constitutional change was something that was forced upon Sri Lanka by the Indian Prime Minister at the time and to which the hapless President of Sri Lanka had to agree under duress. The 13th Amendment is not legal and is also an amendment that the people of Sri Lanka had never asked for nor had accepted.ƒÆ’-¡  The correct place for the unwelcome intrusion is the dustbin, and Sri Lankans, including Sampanthan if he wants to at least pretend that he values being a Sri Lankan, is to go for home-grown solutions.

It may be time for the peace-loving Sri Lankans, the majority of whom – whether Sampanthan likes it or not – happens to be from the Sinhala ethnic group, too, to warn the TNA leader. The men and women in uniform from the rural backwoods of Sri Lanka, under the able political and military leadership of the present government made the LTTE, which all the western pundits said could not be defeated militarily, bite the dust in the Nandikadal lagoons. Anyone among the TNA acolytes or the LTTE remnants who even considers going back to violence to demand Eelam in any other name is sure to get blown to high heavens at the hands of the valiant armed forces.

Incidentally, it is strategically important not only to maintain the military presence in the North, but also to strengthen it substantially so that separatist moves by Tamils living in their Eelam dream world could be nipped in the bud.

Are NGOs foreign funded philanthropists or actors of regime change?

June 6th, 2013

ƒÆ’-¡ Shenali D Waduge

They say they are doing a magnanimous service that they are the philanthropists of the world, the saviors of humanity, the voice and will of the common masses and the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s intellectual policemen and accuse Third World Governments of undermining their work and we say may be partly true but mostly not. There are valid reasons why we begin to doubt and look at NGOs as the alternate to military intervention and the new foot soldiers of regime change towards a new era of recolonization.

There are over 50,000 NGOs operating throughout the world. They receive over $10BILLION in international funding ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” their objectives vary but almost all following Western dictums and jargon. Under the false tags that they sell for their existence NGOs have become not only a platform to oust governments but has turned into a safe haven for dissidents to take cover and portray themselves as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-victimƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ while carrying out smear campaigns which under NGO philosophy is acceptable. The NGO law is they can smear and indulge in hate speech while it is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-undemocratic to reactƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

When NGOs by virtue of their name ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-non-governmentalƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ receive funds from overseas government how can they be ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-non-governmentalƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬? Is it not to these ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-agenciesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ that they are accountable and it is these foreign governments who ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-reviewƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ their work and their ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-performanceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ only guarantees more allocation of funds?

With massive funds disbursed to their accounts they have attracted and created a new class of elite opening jobs for academics, professionals, journalists and even politicians. They drive posh cars, live in fashionable homes, entertain lavishly, travel extensively and make sure decorated reports reach out to the international community so that their bread and butter remains in tact. All those aligned to their way of thinking are termed the NGO darlings. Watch out for the terminology being used ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” these confirm links with NGOs. There is no requirement for bribes ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” instead there are study tours, scholarships, foreign seminars, overseas conferences, foreign accolades and awards dished out amongst the same fraternity of people ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” so naturally theres an airtight reason to remain within that circle throwing away what is ethically and morally right. Yet, leave aside all the sweet sounding vocabulary associated with NGOs and all that they profess to do we would like to know exactly what they have done with USD10billion for the common people ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the people who should matter most, enough of crocodile tears?

Bear with us when we are finding it very difficult to comprehend and decipher what NGOs are meant to do and what they end up doing.

Thus, when former CIA agent tells us that US infiltrates ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-civil societyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to overthrow governments (Philip Agee), we are a little dumbfounded. America is a nation that is virtuous, synonymous with freedoms, rights and all the disciplines that they aspire to promote in less civilized nations. ƒÆ’-¡ Why would the US involve itself in trade embargoes, military support for revolutionaries, Bay of Pigs invasion, assassination plots, commercial isolation, diplomatic isolation ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” you name it America has done whatever means possible to dislodge Cuba and continues to do so?

Naturally, we have reasons to be wary of foreign funded NGOs emerging to dictate terms to sovereign governments while also operating underground movements to oust the same government with which they are holding diplomatic discussions. Is this what the West calls ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-democracyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬? Was that not why Russia has branded all NGOs as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-foreign agentsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and brought in stringent laws and banished USAID from operating in Russia?

India too is cracking down on over 4000 NGOs who are receiving money directly from US, UK and Germany. India suspended Indian Social Action Forum which has 700 networks across India. In 2011, about 22,000 NGOs in India had received more than $2billion from overseas of which $650million was from the US.

Firstly we need to know the entities to look out for.

Amnesty International, National Endowment for Democracy and Freedom House spearhead a new trend in the West to use NGOs as a tool in lieu of military force to create environments suitable to the West.

NED ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” National Endowment for Democracy

Brainchild of Allen Weinstein in 1983. Its first director of the Endowment, Carl Gershman, outright admitted that the Endowment was a front for the CIA. In 1986 he stated:

We should not have to do this kind of work covertly. It would be terrible for democratic groups around the world to be seen as subsidized by the CIA. We saw that in the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”60s, and thatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s why it has been discontinued. We have not had the capability of doing this, and thatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s why the endowment was created.[5] (emphasis added).

NED is funded by US Congress implying that it works for both Republic and Democratic Governments. The Democratic Party funds NED through the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” chaired by Madeline Albright. The Republican Party funds NED through the International Republican Institute (IRI) ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” chaired by Senator John McCain. NED is also funded by the American Center for International Labor Solidarity and the Center for International Private Enterprise (US Chamber of Commerce). NEDƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s board of directors consists of a collection of corporate lobbyists, advisors and consultants, former U.S congresspeople, senators, ambassadors, military, and senior fellows of think tanks.

NED, USAID operate globally and target political parties, trade unions, businesses, youth and student organizations, womenƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s groups, civic organizations, religious communities, professional bodies and of course the media.

NED funds the Freedom House which was founded in 1941 and its innocent motive is to work towards democracy and human rights but in reality it is used to push US interests. Freedom House was used by the Bush Administration to support the War on Terror with the US Govt providing 66% of funding for it through the USAID and US State Dept and the NED. This clearly shows the manner in which politics and financial connections are interlinked. Freedom House also played a major role in the Arab Spring aiding the training and financing of civil society groups and individuals. Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s own civil society mouthpiece Pakiasothy claims the Government is not listening to civil society. You can well imagine why we should not listen!

NED is said to have funded the opposition in Costa Rica, right wing groups in Nicaragua, funded the ousting of HaitiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s first democratically elected leader Aristide, funded coup against Chavez of Venezuela. Incidentally, Agencies and organizations acting on behalf of the Canadian Government were also involved in the regime change overthrow of Haiti President Aristide and Harper and Baird have the audacity to preach to Sri Lanka about human rights!ƒÆ’-¡  The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) is said to have played a role in this illegal coup funneling $23million to the Group of 184 and 10 other organizations to oust Aristide. CIDAƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-developmentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ strategy it is said was to impose an aid embargo on AristideƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Government while assisting rebels to destabilize a legal government. We have absolutely no issues of Harper not attending CHOGM if this is the record of Canada!

The IRI is implicated in the 2009 Honduran coup, supporting the ousting of democratically elected leader Manuel Zelaya because he supported an anti-free trade pact and refused to privatize telecommunications. The Council on Hemispheric Affairs says AT&T funded both IRI and Senator McCain who sat on its Chair to target Latin American states that refused to privatize their telecommunications. So when a Government speaks of privatization it is good to know that these can be the desires of foreign conglomerates and Governments that refuses are certainly on the hit list!

Incidentally, the fall of Libya didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t just happen. NED-backed activists helped make it happen. LibyaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s transitional PM is Dr. Abdurrahim El-Keib who holds dual US/Libyan citizenship and former chair of Petroleum Institute sponsored by British Petroleum, Shell, Total and Japan Oil Development Company. LibyaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s oil and gas supply according to the UK Guardian is handled by Tawakkul Karman who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2011 and leader of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Women Journalists without ChainsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ a NED grantee organization. The Arab Spring was anything but naturally conceived.

The Egyptian Spring was no different. In 2009 16 Egyptian activists were in Washington on a 2 month Freedom House Fellowship. There are many Sri Lankans too claiming to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-fleeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ the country and ending up receiving full scholarships. These people were taught how to use social media, how to alternate computer simcards to evade state internet surveillance. The April 2011 article in the New York Times ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-US Groups Helped Nurture Arab UprisingsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ states ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-A number of the groups and individuals directly involved in the revolts and reforms sweeping the region, including the April 6th Youth Movement in Egypt, the Bahrain Center for Human Rights and grass-roots activists like Entsar Qadhi, a youth leader in Yemen, received training and financing from groups like the IRI, the NDI, and Freedom House.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ That was how a youth movement ousted Mubarak from power. What more do we need to say? Noteworthy too that youth movements are a target in Sri Lanka especially when envoys like Blake makes visits to universities or the current ambassador is seen funding youth activities.

NED had given $1,419,426 worth of grants to civil society organizations in Egypt in 2009. In 2010 that grant became $2,497,457 half of which was allocated to the Center for International Private Enterprise to organize workshops, engage civil society, activate bloggers etcƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦. and a lot of workshops, study tours, foreign tours are taking place in Sri Lanka too! German NGO Friedrich Naumann Foundation is under investigation for such. Friedrich Naumann Stiftung had also funded the Rajiv Gandhi Foundation.

Incidentally, USAID has commenced a $ 4.5 mn project to strengthen rule of law, USAID is taking 13 government officials from central and provincial ministries on a seven day study tour to Timor-Leste (East Timor) to learn ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”how land ownership issues are being resolvedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ in that US and Australian colony.

Amnesty International

Its supposed to be an ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-independentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ human rights organization ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” but is it. Not when its new executive director in January 2012 Suzanne Nossel was a former assistant to Richard Holbrooke when he was UN ambassador, and before that she was Hillary ClintonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Organizations at the US State Dept and before that she was working at yet another US Government connected organization ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Human Rights Watch ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” what can we say about the credibility of Amnesty? And when Amnesty reports on Syria without even setting a foot in the country because the Syrian Government did not allow them inside this speaks volumes about the lies that get regularly concocted by these international humanitarian organizations and their crocodile tears. Former FBI agent Coleen Rowley gives all the information about the manner that R2P ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” humanitarian intervention takes place.

Yes, we have every right to question. NGOs and their heads in particular maintain a very cocky attitude of their self-importance. Nevertheless the corruption, embezzlement, unaccountable for millions and the most tragic situation that aid sent never reaches the desired destination is never answered or accounted for. With all the money coming into NGO accounts there was nothing to see of what they had done in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s North and nothing to see in countries of Africa.

According to the World Bank much of its aid to developing nations are channeled through NGOs and if the billions dispersed are spent on internal administrative costs of the NGOs and the luxury lives of their heads with nothing noteworthy being seen or enjoyed by the Third World it makes us wonder whether the entire humanitarian aid concept is a faĮՠդade and money is simply being circulated amongst themselves and used for everything other than benefitting the poor.

A good example is how the UNDP (United Nations Development Program) has been implicated in funding regime change NGOs in Zimbabwe using over US$5million and 29 NGOs were suspected of being involved in regime change.

President of Malawi accused foreign governments in 2011 of funding NGOs to topple a legitimate government. Wikileaks revealed how US ambassador to Venezuela promoted 300 civil society organizations to oppose Chavez financially aided by USAID and the Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI). OTI funded a Freedom House program in Venezuela with US$1.1 million, while Development Alternatives Inc. (DAI) provided grants totalling $726,000 on behalf of OTI.

When Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s US ambassador makes regular visits to the North and East it must wake up Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s foreign minister in slumber to take action without purposely being silent and allowing the nation to find fault with the President for inaction.

MalaysiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s former head Mahathir is also accusing the same entities of trying to cause regime change in Malaysia using Saudi funds.

Did it not take over a decade and trillions spent on the War on Terror for Hillary Clinton to acknowledge that the Al Qaeda was created by the US with Saudi money?

So if Al Qaeda was linked to the Kosovo Liberation Army and now Kosovo is a separate state should we not conclude that the entire drama was concocted to a western plan?

Similarly should we not raise eyebrows about the hundreds of other CIA-NGO success stories that include the overthrow of elected governments in Latin American, Africa, Middle East and Asia?

When CIA-linked Jamestown Foundation created a Caucasus Fund in Tbilisi, Georgia and USAID and George SorosƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Open Society Institute were heavily involved in ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-civil societyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ movements began backing terrorist groups is that not cause to wonder why?

When leaked cables reveal US, British and Norwegian support for exiled ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Chechen-IchkeriaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ leader Akhmed Zakayev who also received support from the governments of Denmark, Finland and the Czech Republic should we not be alarmed? The Chechen movement was also championed through the American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus (ACPC), Freedom House which is financed by the National Endowment for Democracy and USAID. ACPC and Freedom House work with the Jamestown Foundation.

So why would Freedom House be involved in elections in Ukraine in 2004 and finance the presidential candidate Victor Yushchenko though the US denied the money given to the International Centre for Policy Studies ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚Yushchenko was a board member. Surprisingly, Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s President Premadasa sent British High Commissioner Gladstone packing for interfering in Sri Lankan elections!

How is aid really spent?

What NGOs do not end up doing apart from the media blitz it enjoys portraying before any proposed event can be seen in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake where of the $1.4billion raised hardly 40% was spent and 1million Haitians still live in squalor. However thousands of organizations have begged for funds and received millions from kind hearted people but none of this money has gone to the people affected. American schoolchildren had given large sums of money to a charity called Christian Solidarity to free Christians in Sudan who were ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-traffickedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ by Arab slavers but the story itself was concocted revealed in 60minute program where the charity had rounded up ordinary village children who were projected as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-slavesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. Sri Lanka knows too well how documentaries are compiled against the State.

In 2006 the Australian accused NGOs of spending 80% of aid sent to Cambodia for salary packages and running costs with some of the directors of these NGOs giving themselves packages of US250,000 including villas in CambodiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s capital, SUV and other perks. This cannot be any different among NGO heads elsewhere too.

A report by Action Aid in 2005 that that the top 700 international consultants were paid an average of $100,000 which was the entire annual wage of 160,000 Cambodian civil servants! This unfortunately is true where all NGO heads exist!

The international religious NGOs

From being termed a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-development tabooƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, religion has been turned into a powerful force. Most of the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s powerful NGOs are while backed by Western Governments are all Christian and they openly refer to themselves as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Christian NGOsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ but promoting ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-equalityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. Thus, the Catholic Church played a major role in the fall of Governments in Eastern Europe, Latin America is experiencing a wave of Pentecostal movements and now thereƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s the militant Islamists and they are all connected. These new faith-based organizations (FBOs) have become foreign Governments foot soldiers. US Government openly funds these religious NGOs ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” World Vision is just one getting an annual budget of $1.6billion.

Quite a number of NGOs in the UN Economic and Social Council who have been granted consultative status are religious based. Which means that while engaged in development and humanitarian aid activities they invariably use that status to promote their religion and religious ideology which leads to the question of conversion. It is not by fluke that the Christian or Islamic populace has expanded and is expanding. Numerous methods are being employed to add to their numbers. There is also the fact that the Vatican is recognized as a State by the UN and many see that as a guarantee of status. The response of the Muslim world has been to create the OIC and within this there are many Islamic NGOs who receive funds in a format replicating how the Western Governments use NGOs for their purpose.

It is when countries begin to see religious NGOs being used to convert that problems arise. India is one such country where many accuse CIA of wanting to convert India to Christianity. Conversions took place in the 1950s which India and Sri Lanka experienced in the Catholic Action. In Orissa, Kerala entire coastal belt of Tamil Nadu, and most of the coastal belts in India have been converted where NGOs offer money and jobs. The aim is to have a Christian church in every post office area. In Chennai alone there are over 3000 churches excluding the prayer centers. It is also accused that Sonia G minted and circulated Indian coins with Christian cross. There are many controversies within Christianity itself making Western nations return to the Gnostic religious roots while ignorant Asians are falling for the lies being sold to them. The Roman Catholic Church links to the CIA cannot be missed. The Knights of Malta is a global charity and became a major supplier of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-humanitarian aidƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to the Contras during the 1980s war.

With over 50,000 NGOs enjoying $10billion ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” all it takes to end world poverty is $50billion a year ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” America spends $100billion on gambling and groceries annually, American spent $705billion for entertainment and recreation and junk food and soft drinks cost $200billion!

While the world is mesmerized by the illusion that organizations have created innocent philanthropic activity what they actually do is never accounted and never exposed because money silences many. When organizations supposedly working for ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-democracyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ or for the betterment of civil society or for the eradication of poverty ends up using these slogans as camouflages should we not demand that these organizations come clean? Truth is that most NGOs are funded by either foreign Governments or international corporates and they are stationed in countries not to deliver any good to the society of these nations.

Truth is that they are able to create coups, brainwash innocent youth and even engulf media personnel because they are playing with Third World nations where they know the power that money can do. When politicians fall prey should we find fault with others? Yet, we cannot allow the immoral nature of what is taking place to continue. Media on their part if they are victims of handouts must keep away from manipulating news and allow the public to decide for themselves. We do not want to be fed with lies just because they are getting a better deal.

 

Sri Lanka must ask India not to remove Pali Language from its Indian Administrative Service Examination

June 6th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s projection internationally as a country interested in preserving the Buddhist heritage and Indian Government promotions to encourage tourists to visit Buddhist sites in India as a custodian of Buddhism, has come in for a rude shock with the news that the Government of India has recently removed Pali – an ancient classical language being the language of propagation of Buddhism – as a subject from the main examination of the Civil Services (popularly known as Indian Administrative Services i.e. IAS) of India, 2013, which were under the purview of the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission). This news is most disturbing to the Buddhists the world over.

The inclusion of Pali in this competitive examination was one of the major reasons that attracted many young prospective candidates for the Indian Administrative Service to opt to engage in Pali and Buddhist Studies. The examination was treated as a major lifeline in the preservation of the Pali language, and it was credited to have played an important role in stemming the decline of the study of Buddhism in its Indian homeland.

Pali is the language that has to a great extent encapsulated the BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s teachings as contained in the Tipitaka, which is considered a treasure trove of Buddhist knowledge and an important carrier of the Buddhist doctrine throughout the world.

More importantly Theravada Buddhist countries such as Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos and communities practising Theravada Buddhism in various other countries both in Asia (Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, and Bangladesh) and the West, are bonded by the common thread of Pali, an important component in Buddhist studies.

India which has shown a great interest in recent years in holding various workshops and seminars in Buddhist Asian countries refocusing attention to IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s strong historical links to Buddhism would suffer an irreversible set back in its current efforts to win over Buddhist countries in Asia by this silly policy decision to drop Pali Language from its IAS examination.ƒÆ’-¡ 

The Pali language should not be allowed to become a victim of Indian bureaucracy and other hostile groups funded mostly from outside India who have a hidden agenda to weaken the status and influence of IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s indigenous religions. ƒÆ’-¡ 

As a leading Buddhist nation, Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s President on behalf of the Buddhists in Sri Lanka and the world over must appeal to India not to turn its back on its Buddhist heritage and abandon in particular Pali ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the language that Buddhism was spread globally.

In view of Pali being an ecclesiastical language of Buddhism and very close to Magadhi (language of the Buddha) the Buddhists of Sri Lanka will give their whole hearted backing to the President in any such endeavour.

It is with great prestige that Sri Lanka stands proud to be a Buddhist nation.

 

Investing in principled human rights leadershipƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

June 6th, 2013

A message sent to the HUMAN RIGHTS LAW CENTER-MELBOURNE – ƒÆ’-¡ Gyan de Mel

Dear Hugh ,

HRLC is one of the mob of 8 that is supporting the screening of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The killing fieldsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ crap to be shown in some capital cities in Australia. They are part of the Racist Group that is trying to punish Sri Lanka for defying the crumbling ƒÆ’-¡ Anglo-American Empire and ending the terrorist war. The crimes committed by the LTTE have been totally forgiven by the Christian Church and the so called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-International CommunityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ President Mahinda Rajapaksa of Sri Lanka ƒÆ’-¡ is the Prodigal Son of the West and has to be punished at all costs. (similar to Presidents Gaddafi and Saddam Hussein) He gave the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬Right to LifeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to 20 million or more Sri Lankans by ending a 30 year terrorist war. After the 18th of May 2009, every Sri Lankan can leave his/her ƒÆ’-¡ house and be sure of returning safely. This guarantee was not there for 30 years before that date. He also liberated close to 300,000 Sri Lankans who were under the Jackboot of LTTE and its leaders.

If ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-human rightsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is the issue here, ƒÆ’-¡ then look no further than the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Champions of Human RightsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡  That is where you guys have to ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…” Invest in principled human rights leadershipƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Also, closer to home, ƒÆ’-¡ what ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-human rightsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ have the real owners of Australia got? They are being killed in custody and destroyed before your very eyes. They have not even got a mention in the so called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ConstitutionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’-¡ of Australia. ƒÆ’-¡ I challenge HRLC(or any one of the other 7 who support the Australian Tamil Congress) to screen the documentaries made by our very own investigative journalist John Pilger ƒÆ’-¡ titled ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The First AustraliansƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’-¡ I am sure you would not take up this challenge. The difference between these parties (the ATC and the First Australians) is that the First Australians do not have the cash to splash, ƒÆ’-¡ but the ƒÆ’-¡ ATC has.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Investing in principled human rights leadershipƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’-¡ by ƒÆ’-¡ your mob is like the Catholic Church investigating its clergy for Paedophilia. The real ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-investmentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’-¡ here is by the Australian Tamil Congress. I am sure plenty of $$ have been ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”investedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ in making this ƒÆ’-¡ crap(ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The killing fieldsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ by Callum Macrae) and in all other interested parties trying to propagate the garbage. The ordinary citizens of Jaffna do not want any of this rubbish but to get on with day-to-day life. Their children now carry school books and not assault rifles. Almost four years have passed since the last IED exploded in Sri Lanka … ƒÆ’-¡ but ƒÆ’-¡ Vultures of War still have not lost their taste for carrion. The one big loss to the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-International CommunityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is that the 30 year long sale of Arms and Ammunition has suddenly dried up. What a pity that no one is being killed there now!!!

Come on Hugh, ƒÆ’-¡ if your organization is truly ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-PrincipledƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ then you have plenty of work to do, ƒÆ’-¡ before you pick on Sri Lanka. Is Sri Lanka the only country in the world that is supposed to have committed ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-human rights violationsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ?? (U.S Congressman Eni F.H.Faleomavaega – February 26, 2013 ƒÆ’-¡ – ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-I have mentioned in my statement about the double standards that we are applying in as far as violation of Human Rights and the sense that I have is why is the most powerful country in the world picking on a small little country like Sri Lanka- the size of West Virginia…. ….ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  In Vietnam Mr. Secretary, letƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ask the tens and thousands of women and children innocent civilians that we exposed to Agent Orange , when we were there for the ten year period . LetƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ask the people in Laos and Cambodia for the six million pounds of cluster bombs we dropped there, and these countered never declared war on us…..Where is the consistency in our standards as far as Human Rights are concerned ??)

Hugh, Start at the beginning ( a very good place to start) by investigating just a few of the horrible crimes mentioned below

  1. The use of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Agent OrangeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in the Vietnam war.(Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971 estimates 400,000 people were killed or maimed, and 500,000 children born with birth defects as a result of its use.[1] The Red Cross of Vietnam estimates that up to 1 million people are disabled or have health problems due to Agent Orange.[2] – ƒÆ’-¡ Source Wikipedia)
  2. The Mi Lai massacre. (The My Lai Massacre was the Vietnam War mass murder of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968, by United States Army soldiers of “Charlie” Company of 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade of the Americal Division. Victims included women, men, children, and infants. Some of the women were gang-raped and their bodies were later found to be mutilated[2] and many women were allegedly raped prior to the killings.[3] While 26 U.S. soldiers were initially charged with criminal offenses for their actions at MƒÆ’‚¡»¹ Lai, only Second Lieutenant William Calley, a platoon leader in Charlie Company, was convicted. Found guilty of killing 22 villagers, he was originally given a life sentence, but only served three and a half years under house arrest. – ƒÆ’-¡ Source Wikipedia)
  3. Paedophilia in the Catholic Church worldwide. (The Catholic sex abuse cases are a series of convictions, trials and investigations into allegations of child sexual abuse crimes committed by Catholic priests, nuns and members of Roman Catholic orders against children as young as 3 years old with the majority between the ages of 11 and 14 Sexual abuse of children under the age of consent by priests receives significant media and public attention in Canada, Ireland, the United States, the United Kingdom, Mexico, Belgium, France, Germany and Australia, while cases have been reported throughout the world.[7] Many of the cases span several decades and are brought forward years after the abuse occurred. Since 1995, over one hundred priests from various parts of Australia were convicted of sexual abuse.[27]ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ - ƒÆ’-¡ Source Wikipedia)
  4. The GƒÆ’†’² DƒÆ’†’ i Massacre ƒÆ’-¡ (The GƒÆ’†’² DƒÆ’†’ i Mssacre, known in Vietnam as the BƒÆ’†’¬nh An Massacre[3] was a massacre conducted by the ROK Capital Division of the South Korean Army on 26 February 1966 of unarmed citizens in GƒÆ’†’² DƒÆ’†’ i hamlet, in BƒÆ’†’¬nh An commune, TƒÆ’†’¢y SƒÆ’- ¡n District (today TƒÆ’†’¢y Vinh District) of Binh Dinh Province in South Vietnam.[1] The Capital Division troops killed 380 villagers within an hour.[1][2] -Source Wikipedia)ƒÆ’-¡ 
  5. Bogside Massacre ƒÆ’-¡ (Bloody Sunday – sometimes called the Bogside Massacre[3]ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚was an incident on 30 January 1972 in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland, in which 26 unarmed civil-rights protesters and bystanders were shot by soldiers of the British Army. Thirteen males, seven of whom were teenagers, died immediately or soon after, while the death of another man four-and-a-half months later was attributed to the injuries he received on that day. Two protesters were also injured when they were run down by army vehicles.[4] Five of those wounded were shot in the back.[5] The incident occurred during a Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association march; the soldiers involved were members of the First Battalion of the Parachute Regiment – Source Wikipedia)

I could give you examples of atrocities committed by the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Champions of Human RightsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ to fill many reams of paper but that is not my intention. Mentioned above is but a miniscule sample of the subject matter. If your organization is a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-PrincipledƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ one, ƒÆ’-¡ then start at the beginning, but if you are ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-singing for your supperƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ then it becomes impossible. If you do, you will be sent home immediately.

I will be the first one to support you, ƒÆ’-¡ if your approach to the problem is PRINCIPLED.

Take care.

Cheers and all the best,

Gyan de Mel

MINDFULNESS MOVEMENT IN THE WESTERN WORLD

June 6th, 2013

Dr. Daya Hewapathirane

ƒÆ’-¡ Mindfulness is a technique that is integral to the Teachings of the Buddha. It is the seventh element of the Noble Eightfold Path which encapsulates the principal teachings of the Buddha. Mindfulness or ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”satiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ is a whole-body-and-mind awareness of the present moment. It is awareness of body, feelings, thoughts and phenomena that affect the body and mind. It is the detached observation of what is happening within us and around us in the present moment. Being fully mindful means being fully attentive to everything as-it-is, not reacting to or making judgments of what comes to your mind. In the practice of mindfulness the mind is trained to remain in the present, open, quiet, and alert, focused on the present moment and to accept oneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s thoughts and responses without judgement. All judgments and interpretations of feelings and thoughts are overlooked or just registered and dropped. To be mindful is to be fully present, not lost in daydreams, anticipation, indulgences, or worry. It is a mental mode of being engaged in the present moment without evaluating or emotionally reacting to it. Regular mindfulness training helps to enhance and strengthen the brains ability to pay attention.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Mindfulness involves self-discovery and becoming more compassionate to self and then ultimately towards others. Mindful living leads to a more fulfilling and grounded life being able to understand oneself and oneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s environment without judgement. It is about waking up to your life and enhancing mental and emotional resilience. Mindfulness is becoming a lifestyle among some sections of the Western society. It has become an element in their daily routine bringing them benefits similar to those of physical exercise and sound relaxation. In a society characterized by unpleasant and unhealthy effects of excessive competition, impatience and stress, mindfulness practice makes people recognize the need to slow down and pay attention. Among many people, As a remedy to an uneasy, unbalanced,ƒÆ’-¡  troubled, discontented, distressed and unhappy mind characterized by negative mood and stress, mindfulness exercises have been found to be of much help to develop a happier, healthier and fulfilling life.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 

Mindfulness practice has been subject to much research in several disciplines in recent years and publications on mindfulness has proliferated in the Western world. The efficacy of mindfulness is supported by a growing body of scientific research. Applied research has shown that mindfulness has a positive impact on peopleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s health and wellbeing.ƒÆ’-¡  In particular itƒÆ’-¡  has a positive impact on the human brain. Studies have shown that it can alter brain patterns and behavior. Hospitals and community centres have started to offer courses on Mindfulness practices.

ƒÆ’-¡ Mindfulness entered the medical mainstream in the 1970s. Today, Mindfulness is taught and practiced in many prominent hospitals in the USA, Canada several other Western countries. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Mindfulness-based Stress ReductionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ practice (MBSR) developed by the Medical School of the University of Massachusetts in USA has been used successfully to treat a wide variety of illnesses. Mindfulness exercises have helped alleviate suffering from psychological illnesses such as anxiety, panic disorders and phobias. They have become clinically proven methods for alleviating stress and chronic pain. An increasing number of Medical Centres worldwide now offer mindfulness based therapies for mood and other disorders. Many studies have revealed the effectiveness of ƒÆ’-¡ mindfulness practices in reducing psychological stress. They have led to improvements in both mental and physical health, alleviating depression, anxiety, loneliness and chronic pain. ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ In recent years there has been a growing interest in the practice of mindfulness as part of psychotherapy. Some psychotherapists find that mindfulness meditation as an adjunct to counseling and other treatments can help troubled people learn to release negative emotions and thought habits.

After receiving mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, patients report noticing that negative thoughts lose their power over time.ƒÆ’-¡  Mindfulness techniques were used to help children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder to concentrate, and for soldiers with post-traumatic stress disorder recover and now for professionals of various fields as a technique for developing focus, clarity and compassion. Research has shown that Mindfulness practice can be effective in managing depression. It can be as effective as antidepressants in treating depression.

ƒÆ’-¡ Its ability to improve performance is one of the primary reasons for greater attention on Mindfulness practice in the West. Professionals and those of the corporate culture, but also institutions, companies, and nations are adopting ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”mindfulƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ practices and associated ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”compassionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and listening to others as management practices to an increasing extent.ƒÆ’-¡  Among some of these institutions are Google, the USA Military, especially the US Marine Corps, prisons, Social services work, LinkedIn networking site. In the US military mindfulness training includes ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”brain calmingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ exercises to improve performance. Snipers benefit from mindfulness training. It enhances attention, concentration and aim. It is gaining ground as a useful practice ƒÆ’-¡ among prominent sports personnel including Olympic athletes and movie stars. Students who want to boost their performance and also parents, teachers or caregivers wishing to be more attentive to othersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ needs may ƒÆ’-¡ 

All find mindfulness training highly useful.

ƒÆ’-¡ Buddhist Ethical Principles underlying Mindfulness Practice

ƒÆ’-¡ In the Western corporate culture, in the rush to secularise it, Mindfulness have been turned into a technique divorced from ethical responsibility. Mindfulness in the Buddhist tradition is to transform oneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s sense of self. It is not about attaining personal goals attached to personal desires. The goal of mindfulness practice is to liberate oneself from greed, ill will and delusion (ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-loba, dosha mohaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ or the three main defilements in Buddhist teachings) and not to achieve stress reduction.ƒÆ’-¡  The real focus of Buddhism is on awakening, on coming to some insight or wisdom about our true nature. Without that, we cannot get at the real source of our ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”dukkhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢or suffering.ƒÆ’-¡  From the Buddhist perspective, the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”mindfulness movement ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’-¡  that is becoming increasingly popular in the Western World is not addressing the most deep-rooted forms of human suffering or ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”dukkhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. In fact, it seems to be reinforcing the kind of self-centred individualism that seems to be the basic problem in Western society.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Dr. Daya Hewapathirane

Richmond BC, CANADA

 

SOS CALL FROM MINORITIES IN INDIA

June 6th, 2013

PROFESSOR ALI SUKHANVER

ƒÆ’-¡ The Muslim community in India constitutes about 13.4% of the total Indian population but the people belonging to this community are leading a miserable life even worse than the Dalits. The Muslims are the real Untouchables. Last year in July, a very renowned and esteemed news paper of India, The Hindu sent an investigative team of its reporters to different residential areas of the Capital Delhi and assigned to it the task of finding a flat for a Muslim family. The team went to different property agents but everywhere it got the same response, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The landlords want only Indians, not Muslims.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ The reporting team contacted Radha of Gulshan properties in New Friends Colony, New Delhi also. A few days back the Gulshan properties had advertised for a flat to be rented on but the reporting team got the same response there.

The agent said, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Another Muslim wanted to take the same flat on rent but he was also refused by the owners though the flat has been vacant for a long time but they will not give it to a Muslim.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ The Hindu latter on published the findings of its reporting team with the title, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Muslims: The Untouchables of IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. Particularly after the Mumbai Blasts, the situation for the Muslims in India has become more painful. Everywhere they are eyed upon as criminals and terrorists. Even the very popular film stars like Shah Rukh Khan, Salman Khan, Amir Khan and Sanjay Dutt are also facing the same insulting and degrading treatment only because they belong to the Muslim community. Moreover it is not only the Muslim community which is facing this ordeal of partiality and discrimination; almost all minorities are being deprived of the basic human rights in India. The Hindu extremists seem unwilling to allow any minority to survive and flourish in the Indian society.

ƒÆ’-¡ The minorities in India are continuously facing targeted killings as well as the denial of justice to them by the Indian state.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ They are brutally suppressed and crushed by the state authorities for the sin of practicing their faith. Unfortunately such type of exploitation is nothing new; the tale of brutalities against the minorities has been going on for the last many decades. At the beck and call of the Hindu extremists, the fundamentalist Hindu political parties like the BJP seem always eager to make life a hell for the minorities in India. The accounts of arson, murder and crimes against women belonging to the minorities always sound dreadfully familiar but the treatment with the Muslims as well as with the Christians is worst of all. Each detail, each gruesome fact seems taken out of a script enacted before. The Evangelical Fellowship of India published their in yearly Persecution Watch Report in January 2013.

The report reveals that incidents of violence towards Indian Christians in 2012 were more than 131. In 2011 the number of such incidents was around 140. Incidents range from accusations of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”forcible conversionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ to desecration of churches and violent attacks against individuals. In most instances, Hindutva activists led mobs disrupted Christian worship services and manhandled physically and verbally abused the congregation, including women and children. The EFI Director Richard Howells said, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The Evangelical Fellowship of India is deeply concerned at the uninterrupted and increasing hostility against the minority communities in India.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’-¡ A few days back Shafiqur Rahman Barq, a BSP member from Sambhal in Uttar Pradesh walked out of the lower house as Vande Mataram was being played. The speaker of the house Meira Kumar got angry and said in a very bitter tone, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-One honourable member walked out when Vande Mataram was being played. I take very serious view of this. I would want to know why this was done. This should never happen again.” After the incident the Hindu majority media started accusing Shafiqur Rahman Barq of insulting the national anthem.

The Hindu extremist groups staged demonstrations protesting against Shafiqur Rahman Barq and demanded serious action against him. But Shafiqur Rahman Barq said talking to the CNN and IBN that he did not insult the national anthem; Vande Mataram is an ode to motherland not the National Anthem. He said, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Muslims like me bend only before Allah, not before any other gods.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ According to the reports, Shafiqur Rahman Barq is still receiving serious threats from the Hindu extremist groups who are demanding him to leave the country.

ƒÆ’-¡ The recent brutal murder of Khalid Mujahid is the worst example of extra-judicial killing of Muslims in India. He died in mysterious circumstances under police custody while he was returning to Lucknow Jail after hearing of his case in Faizabad District Court. He was arrested in year 2007 on charges of serial blasts the same year. Unfortunately the Indian media which played havoc at the killing of Sarabjeet Singh at Lahore remained criminally silent over the murder of Khalid Mujahid. More pathetic is the fact that even our own Human Rights groups also joined hands with the Indian media in observing this criminal silence. It is their moral responsibility to raise their voice against these atrocities.

 

AMENDMENTS TO 13TH ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” REFERENDUM NOT NEEDED – Arun – Paying heavy price due to 13A

June 6th, 2013

Rasika Somarathna Courtesy The Daily News

There is no need for a Referendum to amend the 13th Amendment (13A) to remove the provision for all Provincial Councils (PCs) having to consent to legislation on matters coming within the Provincial List. A Referendum is not necessary ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” a two thirds majority is sufficient, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”as one provinceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s decision anyway should not effect the entire country; therefore why should the whole country vote in a referendum to pass this legislation?ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, SLFP Batticaloa organiser Arun Thambimuttu asked.

The Cabinet yesterday has proposed to bring in such legislation, the Cabinet spokesman said. (Please see accompanying story.)

Thambimuttu said he was of the view that the country is paying a heavy price for a system, the Provincial Council system, that is nothing but a white elephant. In fact, Thambimuttu said that an organization ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Tamils for Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ which involves Sri Lankan Tamils from all walks of life, was of the same mindset.

While mentioning that 13A came into being as a result of the Indo-Lanka accord of 1987, he said it was high time to review whether it is working for the country or not. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-We feel that it is time for Sri Lanka to evolve a system of governance that suits the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, he added. He noted that the public at large was questioning the validity of the PC system.

Thambimuttu said ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Tamils for Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ which he is a part of, was proposing districts to be the administrative units instead of PCs. He said the organization was also calling for Village Councils or Grama Sabhas for people at the grassroots to solve their issues.

Explaining further, Thambimuttu said that his organization was for the formation of District Councils with heads of Pradeshiya Sabhas, Municipal Councils and Urban Councils being involved. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Also one third of the seats should be filled through local elections with an elected district governor being the political head,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ he added. He explained that the Provincial Council system (13 A) was not a solution to the issues of the Tamil people and added a solution should be for the nation as a whole and should not be for an ethnic group. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The future of Tamils are intertwined with the future of Sinhalese. History has repeatedly proven this fact,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ he added.

Commenting on IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s role in the 13A, Thambimuttu said he appreciated IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s concern for the Tamil people but it also should understand the ground realities in Sri Lanka. He said IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s involvement in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s constitutional debate may be seen suspiciously by both Tamils and Sinhalese due to that countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s past involvement in the process. Noting that Indian politicians have made several adverse comments in this regard, he said they should understand the anxiety of the Sri Lankan people when Indian politicians make such remarks. He said there were differing opinions among some government members and local politicians regarding the 13A and added that they should not seek outside help to realise their aims.

He said ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Tamil for Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ a pressure group came into existence as Tamil nationalism had hijacked the agenda of the Tamil community for the last 80 years. He said that parties such as the Tamil National Alliance which proclaim to be the representatives of Tamil people secured only seven per cent of the Tamil vote during the last parliamentary elections. He questioned how the TNA therefore could claim to be the sole spokesperson for the Tamils of Sri Lanka. Thambimuttu stressed that whether PCs should exist or go should be left to the peopleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s verdict alone.

Thambimuttu said ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Tamils for Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ has begun an awareness campaign and was working on a proclamation document outlining the relevant history. He added that this will be presented soon to the diplomatic community, including Indian political leaders.

He said that President Mahinda Rajapaksa and Parliament should decide on holding a referendum to let the people decide on whether they need provincial councils established under the 13th Amendment to the constitution or not.

Commenting on the debate surrounding the 13A and PCs, Thambimuttu who hails from a prominent political family in the former conflict affected East said, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-there is a simple answer beyond reproach, which is to hold a referendum for the people to decideƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

Scientific energy saving cooking demonstration in ITN television in Sri Lanka, to educate the people to save about 60% wasting gas. Please watch out for date of broadcasting.

June 6th, 2013

Dr Hector PereraƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  London

ƒÆ’-¡ I practice what I preach; itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s not limited to words only but applied practically as well. If I just talked using some scientific terms, it would be some kind of double Dutch to ordinary people, a boring session. When I met a top official in ITN TV station, I told him politely that if I had an interview as a chat show, the ordinary people would not understand me at all. That was very near a long Vesak holiday period so it was difficult to get enough personal to get a recording of the scientific energy saving cooking demonstration. Then I mentioned that I have very limited cooking facilities just like to majority of people so I wanted to do a demonstration at the place where I stayed.

I knew in advance that my demonstration should help the general public to save wasting gas and energy. Energy prices have gone up and up not only in Sri Lanka but in England as well. The reason I choose gas because one could visually see any increase or decrease of the flame but in an electric cooker this is not quite easily visible. In most other cooking programmes, the cooks just add this and that quickly so the general public do not get a clear idea what was going on. I think the chefs are not scientifically educating the general public because they themselves are unaware of application of science to cooking and energy saving but they just add this and that without due care for wasting gas.

ƒÆ’-¡ In that case our servants in the past are no better than some of these TV chefs. Recently I saw a cooking programme while I was in Sri Lanka, where the interviewing young lady was talking near the chef who cooked something in an open pan which was fuming and bubbling furiously at that moment. Occasionally it caught fire on the volatile chemicals and interviewing young lady considered it very exciting. I think he was unaware that those chemicals were supposed to be in the cooking pan for whatever it cooked so it gives the flavour, instead those chemicals got burnt or just wasted.

I really wanted to make it different to any other cooking demonstration. I am sure it has fulfilled, you may witness it once you see the actual cooking demonstration in ITN. I am not sure when it would be broadcasting, hopefully soon.

In the ITN cooking demonstration, I washed three cups of rice and before that I placed four cups of water to boil in a stainless steel cooking pan. I could have put the rice and water together and cooked rice but when I got the water boiled or warmed while I got the rice ready that really saved me a few minutes. Once I put the rice into the pan, I knew it would take less than five minutes to boil because the water was already fairly warmed. Then as it showed the first signs of froth coming, I immediately reduced the flame to about 30% from the original flame. That means nearly 70% of the gas was not used for cooking. From the start I showed some gas can be saved. ƒÆ’-¡ The time is important in chemistry practicals then here as well, I noted the time it started to show the first signs of steam coming out. From that time after a given time, I just switched off the gas when I assumed that rice was cooked. I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t open the rice pot to check whether it was cooked or any water left at the bottom. You would notice no over flowing when it started to froth. How did I know that rice is cooked, by experience? Please tell me how many times some of these Sri Lankan ladies cooked rice, may be two times a day for a number of years. Every time it froths what they do is to take the lid off and let is subside or do something like stirring to make it go down. That type of cooking is quite normal to many house wives. I am certain they do not think of the time, they just check the water in the rice pot by using a long handled spoon. They check if rice is cooked, if not add some cold water. Then after a few minutes they again open the rice pot and repeat the process. I am sure they do not realise that the process looses some heat then there is a drop in temperature gradient inside the pot. Sometimes they stir it so that rice gets mixed then by doing that so much heat is lost to the surrounding. Which lady with nice face make ups would like to open the steaming pot of rice? If they do that certainly some make up would dribble down, that is what I think. Is that why they use rice cookers? Present day most Sri Lankan ladies use rice cookers because they do not know the art of cooking rice in the normal way, what a shame? Once you see my method, you would understand that even a child can cook rice or anything. How did I cook, just simply applying some science?

We also had servants in the past, they cooked on firewood stoves but they got the technique right to get cooked rice. How did they cook perfectly in clay pots on firewood stoves? Those days, I was not observing the techniques to cook rice just see something in passing by that is all. The moment I had to cook, sleep and study in a single room in England that really worried me. I had to device something so that my clothes do not smell curry smell. This is where my energy saving scientific cooking idea initiated. Where did Isaac NewtonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s gravitational force theory initiated, yes by sitting under an apple tree.

During the Vesak season, in the cooking demonstration to the ITN, there I showed how I cooked two other curries, one was a vegetable curry then the other was a chicken curry. I wanted to show what an average family would prepare for a normal daily meal, rice, vegetable curry then a fish or chicken curry. According to my ideas, it doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t take that long to prepare a family meal, could be done under 45 minutes.

Unlike those days, now everything is made so easy. Fires for cooking by gas, not firewood, all ingredients are easily found in supermarkets in nice packets or in bottles. Those days one needs to grind them on chilli grinding stones or on ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Miris galaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ or pound in traditional ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”WangediyaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, that time has long gone. Now a days cooking is so easy, just think in the right direction, save gas and apply some science then job done. Here the qualitative and quantitative matters that means what is put into it and how much to be added. I told that a certain amount of curry powder, chilli powder and all other ingredients were added to each curry but not to exceed certain ingredients such as chilli powder and also salt. ƒÆ’-¡ Believe me too much salt is bad for health. Sometimes certain ingredients were the same to both vegetable and chicken curry but the quantity was different and some ingredients were not added to chicken such as maldive fish. Certainly less chilli powder was added to vegetable curry than to the chicken curry. ƒÆ’-¡ When the ingredients were added and mixed to chicken curry, I left it for few minutes so that the ingredients gradually get absorbed into the chicken, same was done to the vegetables. Some ingredients remained on the top and some inside the cut pieces of the vegetables and meat pieces. In Chemistry we call this chemisorption. Some people call it, marinade or time to get some absorbed. I told the reason why vegetable and chicken were cut into smaller pieces because that increases the area so that there would be better contact with the ingredients and reaction would be better. In any occasion, I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t touch the curry powder or ground chilli by hand because that could stain the skin on the palm. Try not to touch turmeric with bare hands because it would badly stain. If you really wanted to mix by hand try and put the hand in a polythene bag then mix the ingredients by hand. I have seen how our servants mixed them by hand. You need to keep all the ingredients in an orderly manner on a table or on plates so that you want miss any of them; otherwise you tempt to open the boiling chicken curry to add them from time to time. This is how you get showered with chicken cologne. Try and add all the ingredients at the right proportion, in right quantity then you would get a tasty dish. How would you know that, of course by experience? One come to know how much of each to be added by past experience. May be one need a little practice before get the confidence? A simple ingredient called cloves give a special taste to chicken curry but if one added more than three pieces then by eating the resulting curry, one has to experience a burning sensation from mouth to the other end, so please do not add too much of cloves and nutmeg. These two spices give a special taste to chicken curry but too much is absolutely spoil the taste. If you keep on opening the boiling curries from time to time, so ingredient smells escape that means these volatile chemicals tempt to deposit on any cold surfaces such as on your face, hair, hand and on any exposed part of the upper chest. I regard these curries as chemicals and cooking or heating is somewhat like chemical reactions. In chemistry we need to heat certain chemicals for a certain time to complete the reaction for example in refluxing. Certain reactions need to be done for long time sometimes over an hour or more but some just heating would complete the reaction. When there are so many ingredients in a boiling curry, these ingredients react, interact with each other. That means there are intermolecular and intramolecular reactions taking place. I explained these terms with respect to actual cooking then the viewers certainly would understand but if I just mentioned in words only but no demonstrations then the viewers would find very difficult to keep their eyes open, make them very sleepy, may be a good sleep dose. That is I why requested an actual cooking demonstration than a chat show.

While I was getting the vegetable curry and the chicken curry ready to cook, rice was gradually boiling and getting ready to finish. You would witness in the programme that the rice pot didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t over flow with froth and I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t open it all to check any water. As soon as the rice was finished, I placed both curries on the fires but I made sure no flame went out of the base. Any flame out of the base just radiates and is wastage of gas. Again I left the rice pot on the same spot because there is some more absorbed heat on the gas rings that helps to cook even without flame, itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s thermal capacity. I wanted to get the flame hit the base only not spreading out of the base. Any wind from the fan or the air conditioner or a wind from the window was avoided. That means I kept the windows open to get fresh air but not too wide to disturb the flame. I started with about 60% flame because 100% flame could spread out of the base of the cooking pan. Then within a matter of few minutes, fumes came out of the vegetable curry because there was no water or only very little water was added to the vegetable curry then immediately cut the flame to about 30% to avoid any burning. The chicken curry also had little liquid other than some from vinegar and any juice oozed out of the cooking chicken and some tomatoes. When the first trace of steam came out of the lid, I knew it started to boil then I cut down some heat, then watched out for more steam to come. I reduced the flame to about 30% so that there was not enough fire for vapours to gush out of the cooking pan. The kinetic energy of the molecules was limited by reducing the flame. Some escaped water vapour get condensed under the lid then dribbled down to the brim of the lid then condensed as water, there by making a water seal all round the lid. If there was not enough heat, the vapours would not escape from the lid; most of it get condensed under the lid and fall back into the cooking pan. Then the process repeats somewhat like water recycle process. I explained all these with respect to actual cooking than just by words only. When the lid was in closed position, the curries or rice had uniform temperature throughout. The steam pressure cooked all the rice and curries. The cooking demonstration together with some scientific words made the viewers aware of these scientific terms. I allowed this recycling to take place for about 20 minutes for the vegetable curry and about 30 minutes to the chicken curry. Unlike meat, vegetables get cooked faster; there are fewer tissues unlike in meat. Both vegetables and meat are bad conductors of heat so you need to heat them slowly otherwise water escapes quickly as water vapour then temperature rises, eventually burn the whole thing. Since the lid remains in closed position, the temperature inside the pans remains almost even but if the lid was opened, some of the ingredient vapours escape with volatile chemicals then only these ladies gets a cooking aroma on their face, hair and on cloths. Those chemicals came from ingredients added to flavour the dishes but now you have allowed some of them to escape so how would you regard the curries be tastier? Ladies, try and get the ingredients all at the beginning, otherwise you would be walking with curry smell, a mobile kitchen. Let me ask a question, who would like to be a mobile kitchen, certainly none of you. In my demonstration, I clearly showed by action that I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t open the cooking curries to add something or to taste something, so why some others do?

As I mentioned time is important that means after 20 minutes after it attained the state of dynamic equilibrium, heat for the vegetable curry must shut down. Then 30 or 35 minutes after the state of dynamic equilibrium, heat for the chicken curry must shut down but that does not means you are allowed to open the lid. I showed by practice when they attain that state of dynamic equilibrium. At this stage, I call the molecules are very aggressive and unsettled that means it has high entropy. If I mentioned this single word in an interview, certainly the listeners would go to sleep or make them sleepy because they do not understand but when I explained with respect to a cooking demonstration then they certainly understand. That is why I mentioned to begin with that I wanted a demonstration than a chat interview.

Once the cooking was finished, I allowed about ten minutes cooling down that means the entropy to settle down. I opened the pot of rice and served into a dish until the pot was more than half empty so that the camera gets a good view of the bottom of the pot. Once you see the ITN demonstration, you would believe me there was not a single grain of rice got burnt? There was over no flowing or frothing like in most cases. The curries didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t give out any appreciable vapours to settle on me while cooking. I was standing quite close to cooking pans while cooking but I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t get a shower of the curry smell. I cooked chicken so I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t get chicken cologne on me. There was only a trace of vapour came out while cooking and that had less kinetic energy and the molecular speed was not enough to settle on other places. They were opened again after a few minutes.

The best thing to check was to taste the food that I cooked. Some people tried them out and the people admitted it cooked well, taste better because the ingredient vapours didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t escape since I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t open them while cooking.

My question is why couldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t the viewers as well cook in that manner? I hope some energy saving experts also would witness my work to see if the technique really saved, gas, time and the curry smell. Just imagine if millions of people could follow my simple scientific energy saving cooking, how much wasting gas can be saved just on one day then for a week then for an year, how much money burnt on wasting gas could be saved? I have a feeling about 60% or more gas can be saved, the best thing is for the viewers to judge. Would you think I was foolish enough put Rs Two millions as a challenge? Now I would like to increase it to Rs six million from Rs two millions. That means if any energy saving expert or a scientist came forward and said my scientific energy saving cooking do not save gas, do not save time waiting in the kitchen do not cut down curry smell then I would have happily handed over that increased challenged money. What would I get for teaching the whole nation how to save about 60% wasting gas? Millions of people certainly save some money that would have burnt on gas, cut down some air pollution as well. What do I get in return by teaching the public how to cook scientifically saving gas? Would I get any reward, an official recognition? I just have to wait and see. All this time the general public have been burning truck loads of money unnecessarily on gas, am I correct? I am sure apart from energy saving authorities; millions of people would witness my kind of scientific energy saving scientific cooking demonstration, I am sure here after, cooking would never be the same again. In Vesak season people give ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”dansalƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ can I regard this as a kind of such a meritorious deed, a rare opportunity to serve the whole nation? Once you see the ITN cooking programme please let me know if you got any comments to perera6@hotmail.co.uk

Sri Lanka’s high enrolment rates in schools contribute to achieving gender parity

June 6th, 2013

Media Release-The Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka to the United Nations Office at Geneva

Sri Lanka has observed that the high enrolment rates at primary and secondary levels which reflect the impact of longstanding policies supporting access to basic education without discrimination, have contributed towards Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s success in achieving gender parity in primary, secondary and tertiary education.

ƒÆ’-¡ Intervening during an Interactive Dialogue with the Special Rapporteur on Education and IE on Human Rights and International Solidarity at the on-going 23rd Session of the Human Rights Council, Ms. Priyanga Wickramasinghe, Counsellor in Geneva, noted that Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s education policy and legislation is formulated to reach all children. It identifies vulnerable groups of children such as those with disabilities, affected by conflict, street children and those abused or abandoned and presents examples of innovative strategies and interventions targeted at these groups to eliminate discrimination in Education.

ƒÆ’-¡ Ms. Wickramasinghe said, the National Child Development Fund is established with the aim of providing financial assistance to children affected by economic and other difficulties to further their educational pursuits. In cases where a child is deprived of schooling for economic reasons, measures would be taken by the Child Rights Promotion Officer to re-school the child and take further follow up measures, including by educating the parents in this regard. She said access to education is guaranteed to ethnic minorities in their national language of choice, be it Sinhala or Tamil, in all parts of the country With regard to the 594 former child combatants who surrendered at the end of the conflict in 2009, the Counsellor said Sri Lanka followed a policy of treating all such children as victims and not as perpetrators and all possible steps were taken to look into their welfare. As of January 2013, they have all been rehabilitated and reintegrated into society and are pursuing their education. 212 youth among the former LTTE combatants who were previously pursuing tertiary education were re-inducted to the university system to follow their undergraduate studies, following rehabilitation.

Intervening during the Interactive Dialogue with the Working Group on the issue on discrimination against women in law and practice, later the same day, Ms. Wickramasinghe said, Sri Lanka had for over 60 years continued to enjoy the benefits of a universal free education system from primary to tertiary levels which has contributed significantly to their empowerment. Due to increased sensitivity to womenƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s issues and gender-sensitive Government policies, the status of women in Sri Lanka has improved significantly over time as is demonstrated by higher levels of attainment in education and economic empowerment, equal participation in the labour force, as well as increased engagement in decision-making processes.

Intervening during the Interactive Dialogue with the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking and on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights especially women and children, it was noted that Sri Lanka has enacted legislation to make trafficking a very serious offence under the Penal Code, which embodies a broad definition on human trafficking. Having ratified the UN Convention against the Transnational Organized Crime and signed the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, the Government enacted the Penal Code (Amendment) Act No 16 of 2006, which introduced legislation in line with these instruments and which applies to multiples offences committed in whole or partly in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is also working in collaboration with the IOM and ILO to provide specialized training for government officials in identifying victims of trafficking and in other preventive measures. The first government shelter for victims of human trafficking in Sri Lanka was opened in December 2012 in collaboration with the IOM. The provision of a shelter for victims of trafficking will ensure that identified victims are provided safe shelter and are also referredƒÆ’-¡ for necessary services, including medical, psychological and legal assistance and that the re-victimization of victims is prevented.

Full Statement is given below :

23rd Session of the HRC Statement by Sri Lanka ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Item 3

Clustered ID with the SR on Education and IE on Human Rights and International Solidarity

ƒÆ’-¡ Mr President,

The delegation of Sri Lanka thanks the Special Rapporteur on the right to education for his report (A/HRC/23/35), which focuses on the enforcement of the right to education and its justifiability. We note with interest the wide range of recommendations that he has offered in the report.

Sri Lanka concurs with the Special Rapporteur that a nationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s development flows from the initial investment not just in a comprehensive education system, but also in the mechanisms and procedures necessary to monitor and safeguard the right to education.

The Constitution of Sri Lanka recognizes the complete eradication of illiteracy as one of the fundamental duties of the State and gives the assurance to all persons of the right to universal and equal access to education at all levels, as a directive principle of State policy.

As far back as in 1945, the Free Education Act of Sri Lanka paved the way for all children to gain free access to education at primary, secondary, and tertiary education. The Education OrdinanceƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  No. 31 of 1939 provides the principal legal basis for the system of education and enforced compulsory school attendance under Regulation no. 1 of 1997, for all children between the ages of 5 and 14. Further the Employment of Women, Young Persons and ChildrenƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Act no. 47 of 1956 as amended, stipulates that it is a criminal offence to offer employment to children under the age of 14 that would lead to depriving them of education.

Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s education policy and legislation is formulated to reach all children. It identifies vulnerable groups of children such as those with disabilities, affected by conflict, street children and those abused or abandoned and presents examples of innovative strategies and interventions targeted at these groups to eliminate discrimination in Education. The National Child Development Fund is established with the aim of providing financial assistance to children affected by economic and other difficulties to further their educational pursuits. In cases where a child is deprived of schooling for economic reasons, measures would be taken by the Child Rights Promotion Officer to re-school the child and take further follow up measures, including by educating the parents in this regard.

With regard to ex-child soldiers, Sri Lanka followed a policy of treating all such children as victims and not as perpetrators and all possible steps were taken to look into their welfare. As of January 2013, they have all been rehabilitated and reintegrated into society and are pursuing their education. 212 youth among the former LTTE combatants who were previously pursuing tertiary education were re-inducted to the university system to follow their undergraduate studies, following rehabilitation.

It also needs to be emphasized that access to education is guaranteed to ethnic minorities in their national language of choice be it Sinhala or Tamil in all parts of the country.

The high enrollment rates at primary and secondary levels reflect the impact of longstanding policies supporting access to basic education without discrimination. These policies have also contributed towards Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s success in achieving gender parity in primary, secondary and tertiary education.

Mr President,

Sri Lanka also thanks the Independent Expert on Human Rights and International Solidarity for her report (A/HRC/23/45) containing an elaboration of her mandate and work towards the formulation of the draft declaration on the rights of peoples and individuals to international solidarity.

Thank you.

Little known Lanka based firm a big player in Belgium cigar supremacy

June 6th, 2013

PRESS COMMUNIQUE ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY & COMMERCE, SRI LANKA

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” JUNE 05, 2013

  • BelgiumƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s second cigar Brand gets 250 Mn from Sri Lanka annually
  • ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Govt steps to draw investments praiseworthyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ - Blomme
  • Readying to double output for its two consumer segments

tobaco

Emmanuel Blomme (CEO of United Tobacco Processing Ltd-centre) stresses a point to Rishad Bathiudeen (Minister of Industry and Commerce-left)ƒÆ’-¡  on 30 May in Colombo as Jos de Clerqc, the Trade & Investment Commissioner of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Flanders Investment & TradeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ looks on.

A little known Lanka based BoI sister firm of a century old Belgium cigar maker not only feeds the parentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s huge supply chain, but also is successful in nurturing a special brand identity in a competitive European segment. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-J.Cortes is a collection of 100% selected tobacco. The tobaccos for our J. CortƒÆ’†’¨s brand is selected from only the finest Cuban Havana, Brazilian Bahia and Indonesian Java tobaccosƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ said Emmanuel Blomme, CEO of United Tobacco Processing Ltd (UTP) on 30 May in Colombo.

UTP is a Sri Lankan BoI firm and the sister firm of the BelgiumƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s of J. CortƒÆ’†’¨s Cigars nv.

J. CortƒÆ’†’¨s Cigars nv is the second largest manufacturer of cigars in Belgium and the first ranked cigar exporter in Belgium, taking almost 50% of the total Belgian export of cigars. In France J. CortƒÆ’†’¨s France has a market share of about 15.1%. The European consumption of cigars averages at six billion sticks per annum. J. CortƒÆ’†’¨s nv has three key brands- J.Cortes, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”NEOSƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”AmigosƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. The Sri Lanka operation feeds in to the J.Cortes (100% selected tobacco) brand.

Blomme, who also discussed with Rishad Bathiudeen, Minister of Industry and Commerce on 30 May during the same day evening session where Minister met the visiting Flanders Belgium trade and investment delegation (led by Jos de Clerqc, the Trade & Investment Commissioner of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Flanders Investment & TradeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬), also praised Minister Bathiudeen on the governmentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s incentives for investors and export diversification.

Blomme, whose Colombo operations sources fine Indonesian tobacco, stressed to Minister Bathiudeen: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Pan-GSP countries cooperation can bring great benefits to emerging economies such as Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The overall group strength of J Cortes is more than two million cigars per day and the Group is exporting to more than 80 countriesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ added Blomme, whoƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s unusual promotional video footages made in Colombo plant show his FTZ workers and even the security guards performing their duty shifts in hi-speed song and dance moves ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-as part of the complete Cortes familyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ appears to defy the gravitational pull of Trade Union forces in the Zone.

The ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certified Sri Lanka operations of J Cortes reaches both retails and business to business (B2B) consumer segments. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-In addition to the 250 Mn Cigars produced in Sri Lanka destined for Europe, ColomboƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s United Tobacco ProcessingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ also currently supplies one billion cigar cuts to various Cigar manufacturers around the globe. It is this B2B capacity we are strengtheningƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Emmanuel revealed.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Our investment here already exceeds Euro 15 Mn. We have decided to double our Sri Lanka output capacity in our B2B segment and recruit at least 1000 more to our BoI operations. We want to double our cigar-cuts output to two billion per annumƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Emmanuel added.

Save Pali, ancient classical Indian language of Buddhism in India

June 6th, 2013

Hema Goonatilake

The following is a message I received from Prof. Siddharth Singh of Banaras Hindu University and I would request all Buddhists – need not be Pali scholars – to support this cause by signing this petition as removal of Pali at this important examination is heralding the final death knell on Buddhism and Buddhist Studies in its land of birth.

The Government of India has recently removed Pali – an ancient classical language – as a subject from the main examination of the Civil Services (popularly known as Indian Administrative Services i.e. IAS) of India, 2013, which were under the purview of the UPSC (Union Public service Commission).

The presence of Pali in this competitive examination was one of the major reasons that attracted many youngsters to opt for Pali and Buddhist Studies. The examination was touted as a major lifeline of the language, and was credited to have played an important role in stemming the decline of Buddhism in its homeland.

Most Indian Buddhist scholars are not aware that the Government of India does not consider Pali as a classical language of India.

In a 2006 press release, Minister of Tourism & Culture Ambika Soni told the Rajya Sabha (upper house of the Indian Parliament) the criteria which were laid down to determine the eligibility of languages to be considered for classification as a “Classical

Language”:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500-2000 years; A body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers; The literary tradition be original and not borrowed from another speech community; The classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or its offshoots.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Activists have argued that the Pali language and literature fulfils the above criteria. Pali, the language used to encapsulate the BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s teachings as contained in the Tipitaka, is a treasure trove of Buddhist knowledge and has become an important carrier of Buddhist propagation throughout the world. The latest setback has the potential of suffocating Buddhist growth in its own homeland.

Activists contend that the standpoint of the Indian government is illogical, unjustified and reflects ignorance of the Indian bureaucratic system and political leadership towards its own heritage.

The removal of Pali by UPSC and non-recognition of Pali as an Indian classical language calls for strong protests not only by those who are related with Pali and Buddhist Studies but also by all those who study, respect or relate themselves with Indology or Buddhism in whatever ways.

A petition has been organised to mount pressure on the Government of India to take the following actions:

1. Include Pali as a classical language of India

2. Withdraw the decision of removing Pali Language & Literature from the Civil Services Examination conducted by Union Public service Commission (UPSC) of India.

An online petition entitled ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Save Pali, ancient classical Indian language of Buddhism in IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ has been setup:

http://www.thepetitionsite.com/979/079/931/save-pali-ancient-classical-indian-language-of-buddhism-in-india/.

Supporters of the Pali language are also urged to write to Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India. His address is as follows:

South Block, Raisina Hill

New Delhi

India-110011

Telephone: 91-11-23012312

Fax: 91-11-23019545 / 91-11-23016857

Email: http://pmindia.gov.in/feedback.php

A Facebook Page entitled ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Save Pali and Buddhist Studies in IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ can be viewed here:https://www.facebook.com/groups/586673281343224/?ref=ts&fref=ts

 

 

 

DUAL NATIONALITY – A CORE ISSUE- LIFE ABROAD ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Part 30:

June 6th, 2013

Dr. Tilak Fernando

 

As the world became sophisticated, various parts of it have become isolated into separate countries and created what is today known as national boundaries. With such isolation each country has introduced an official document called a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”passportƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ for travel in the present political and social scenario.

Each country issues this piece of identification to its citizens, but the possession of a passport however does not exempt the holder from compliance with any immigration regulations in force in any territory.

Many moons ago a few Sri Lankans made a journey to the West for educational purposes and when they achieved their objective gracefully returned to their roots to serve their motherland as eminent lawyers and politicians. This was followed by professionals who officially migrated to the UK on official work permits; seemingly the numbers who left Sri Lanka started to swell.

Psychological wedge

Way back in the 1980s those who lived in Britain for three consecutive years met the criteria for permanent residency which made no compulsion for those Sri Lankans who qualified for PR to seek UK citizenship while holding on to their Sri Lankan identity.

Mrs. Sirimavo BandaranaikeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s administration once made a statutory demand on Sri Lankan expatriates to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”remit five per cent of their earnings back to the mother countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. This naturally managed to drive a sharp psychological wedge through Sri Lankans who were working and living abroad.

The British government in the meanwhile gave an option and an ultimatum to those who enjoyed the PR status to apply for British citizenship giving only a breathing space to do so. Under the circumstances many who qualified were wedged between the devil and deep blue sea situation because to obtain British nationality they had to give up their Sri Lankan identity and without the PR or British nationality they could not live and/or work abroad permanently! Therefore, willingly or unwilling those who had no option sought the UK citizenship to abide by the UK regulations at the time.

Dual nationality

In 1987 Sri Lanka ratified the Dual Nationality Bill in Parliament enabling Sri Lankan expatriates to apply for dual nationality with certain conditions laid down by the immigration authorities. A nominal fee of Rs.5,000 was levied for this purpose at the beginning which was seen as a welcome measure to those who had to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”unenthusiasticallyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ part with their Lankan identity. However, the late General Sepala Attygalle, once Secretary to the Ministry of Defence and as the Sri Lanka High Commissioner in the UK subsequently managed to convince the late President R. Premadasa that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Sri Lankan affluent community in the UK made no contribution to their mother country whatsoever, which seemed to have enraged the patriotic President and made him to take a stern decision overnight to increase the dual nationality fee by 2,000 per cent (two thousand per cent) to Rs. 100,000 by a special gazette notification.

The late Foreign Minister, at the time, Lalith Athulathmudali, identified it as a short-sighted and impractical policy and referred to the action as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”killing the goose that lays the golden egg.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

President Chandrika Kumaratunga during her tenure in office increased this fee further to Rs. 200,000 turning it into a money spinner. Such an exorbitant fee, in the eyes of Sri Lankan expatriates, seemed to have appeared not simply as an administrative charge levied on the exercise but as having to buy back their birth right for a fee! This very fact is thought to have stood as a stumbling block giving rise to different schools of thought.

ExpatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s role

Seemingly some pointed a finger at the expatriate community making blanket statements such as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-most of the people, who live and work abroad, cannot drop that relative personal and economic freedom and come back forever. They are practically lost to Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

Others felt such accusations were groundless and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-metaphorically speaking ninety nine per cent of Sri Lankan expatriates, especially the Sinhalese, always ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”lived in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ in mind and thought despite their having to leave the country for individual and personal reasonsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

The invaluable contribution made to the motherland by the Sinhala diaspora, through their dedication and charity to help war victims and those subjected to brutal terrorist attacks were self-evident proof during the terrorist war that started to rip the nation into smithereens.

In such a backdrop, the phraseology used by some arm chair pundits at home to condemn expatriates as, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”practically lost to Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ was considered as highly inappropriate and offensive to all those who had been working hammer and tongs with commendable fortitude to counter and preserve the good name of their motherland.

Suspension

Sri Lanka has temporarily suspended the processing of dual citizenship applications in order to outline new conditions, and the process will re-commence in the near future. In doing so a strict criterion is said to have been evolved for processing all future applications under the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Overseas Sri LankansƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Scheme which has received the Cabinet approval to amend the Citizenship Act No.18 of 1948 and the Immigration and Emigration Act No.20 of 1948.

Under new regulations, a pre-screening procedure will be executed to check applicantsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ eligibility which will involve a one-to-one interview with a panel, headed by Defence Secretary and aided by the Secretary of External Affairs along with the Secretary of Public Administration who will be vetting applicantsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ professional qualifications, investment capability and their need to acquire dual citizenship.

As per new criteria, a Sri Lankan applicant having a passport of another country will initially be given a permanent residency for five years after which he/she will become eligible to receive the dual citizenship status. To be properly justified by every applicant, each application will be studied as to how and why applicants acquired a foreign citizenship at the beginning, along with the reasons behind in seeking dual citizenship in Sri Lanka again. The revised fees for the process under the new system would be a total fee of Rs 200,000 to be paid in two installments – permanent residency and dual citizenship of the process.

Pensioners

The existed regulations on dual nationality did not demand various other stipulated conditions except having to pay Rs.200,000 to regain dual nationality.

The fate of those Sri Lankan expatriates who are now retired and drawing a pension in a foreign country is not very clear in the proposed scheme. An important factor that the government needs considering is the existence of an older generation of Sri Lankan expatriates (children of Mother Lanka) who in their retirement (after discharging their parental obligations) are confined to brick walls and television sets abroad! Many such pensioners’ nostalgic dream would be to return to their own roots and live in tranquility.

By the same token it could be said that while some may have the means and capacity to invest in Sri Lanka others may not be so fortunate to do so. If this category of pensioners is encouraged to return to their roots naturally their pensions in foreign exchange too will be channeled to the country which will make a difference to Sri Lanka’s foreign exchange earnings. It would otherwise be a pity to see a category of unfortunate retired Sri Lankan expatriates given only a blank choice of being contented with looking at video clips of their fast developing motherland whenever someone known to them visits Sri Lanka on holiday.

Another incentive to woo the lost professionals back to Sri Lanka would be to offer them the privilege of bringing a motor vehicle (with proof of their earnings abroad) under tax free permits which is at present released to many other categories.

When a country is rich it goes without saying that her people too will be richer.

tilakfernando@gmail.com

Response to Dr.Karunyan Arulananthan’s Calls For US Pressure On Sri Lanka in CNN

June 5th, 2013

Dr. Chula NA Rajapakse MNZM FRCP/FRACP Spokesperson,ƒÆ’-¡  United Sri Lanka Assn.

The anti Sri Lankan tirades ofƒÆ’-¡  Dr.Karunyan Arulanathan, a recipient of Ceylon’s free education that saw him graduate as a medical doctor, on whichfoundation he now enjoys the luxuries ofƒÆ’-¡  US, to mount this tirade, comes as no surprise. For, he along with others in the Tiger Diaspora, sustained three decades of terror in Sri Lanka, through support with funds and propaganda. The quelling of this terror by the SL forces in may 2009, is a bitter pill for the likes of him to stomach.

ƒÆ’-¡ This terror was unleashed in response to the post independence loss of the colonial privileges enjoyed by theƒÆ’-¡  minority Tamil community, as the privileged community of the divide and rule British Colonial policy. This, saw Tamils though constituting only 12% of the population dominating the public, technical and financial services at independence in 1948 .The post independenceƒÆ’-¡  loss ofƒÆ’-¡  these colonial privileges were internationally orchestratedƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  as discrimination, with Goebellian zeal, by the likes of KA..

ƒÆ’-¡ The moment the TigersƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  lost the warƒÆ’-¡  in May 2009 the tune was changed to ” human rights violations” during the last stages of Sri Lanka’s liberation from terror”., to wreak their vengeance.

ƒÆ’-¡ If 40,000 -140,000 Tamil lives were lost consequent to Sri Lankan forces fire, in the last stages of the war, would 300,000 of these Tamil civilians, hostaged by the tigers as human shields, who are alleged to have been victimsƒÆ’-¡  the SL forces fire, stream into the arms of these very Sri Lankan forces, asƒÆ’-¡  they did in full view of the international media and their camera’s , the moment the Tiger built embankmentƒÆ’-¡  to prevent their escape, was breached ?

ƒÆ’-¡ If the SL forces were so targeting them, upto May 2009,ƒÆ’-¡  why did these same forces spend the next 2 years risking their lives, demining these civilian’s homes for them to be resettled there, as has happened now.

ƒÆ’-¡ The testimonies of tens of Tamil civilians representing these three hundred thousand , six doctors & a Tamil member of Sri Lanka’s parliament ,ƒÆ’-¡  who lived with these civilians during these last months and weeks, all vouch that the only fire that was directed at them was from the TigersƒÆ’-¡  to prevent their escape so depriving the Tigers of their shields. They only had the highest praise for the SL forces. These are easily viewed on UTube in the documentary ” Lies Agreed Upon”

ƒÆ’-¡ All the allegations against the SL forces in these last weeks have come in documentaries like those of Channel 4 UK, where the allegationsƒÆ’-¡  came fromunattributable video’s orƒÆ’-¡  those with blurred faces and muffled voices.

ƒÆ’-¡ UNSG appointed Darusman commission calling for inquiry into allegations against Sri Lanka. TheyƒÆ’-¡  do so based on information, the sources of which cannot be released for 30yeara! SoƒÆ’-¡  much for their credibility & transparency. FurtherƒÆ’-¡  the choice of the commissionersƒÆ’-¡  went against the most basicƒÆ’-¡  tenetƒÆ’-¡  of natural justice as it was done with no consultation with Sri Lanka, and all three of them were known to have made comments adverse to SL in themonths preceding their appointment .

ƒÆ’-¡ Many visiting western parliamentarians including MP’s from UK and Australia , who have spent several days visiting the North of Sri Lanka as guests of the TNA, the Tamil parliamentary party representing much of the north, have all to an individual confirmed that the impressive realities of Sri Lanka today, in terms ofƒÆ’-¡  ethnic reconciliation and reconstruction of the ravages of war are quite different to what theƒÆ’-¡  likes of KA make out.

ƒÆ’-¡ Julia Bishop the deputy opposition leader of Australia,ƒÆ’-¡  stated categoricallyƒÆ’-¡  that when she asked for specific instances of disappearances from TNA, and torture from the human rights watch, they who have been making these allegations , none were forthcoming.

ƒÆ’-¡ Two commissions appointed, the Lessons Learnt & Reconciliation Commission and the SL Army Commission who called for specific instances of such breaches and human rights violations during the war,ƒÆ’-¡  to investigate had no submissions, not one.ƒÆ’-¡  This further highlights that the likes of KA have no substantial evidence butƒÆ’-¡  are only bent on undermining Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s recovery and reconciliation.

ƒÆ’-¡ A careful census carried out by the Tamil teachers of the north in 2010, one year after the end of the war,ƒÆ’-¡  left only one or two thousand unaccounted for from before the war , in the regions of the last battles.

ƒÆ’-¡ All this evidence is overwhelmingly against anyƒÆ’-¡  large scale civilian casualties as allegedƒÆ’-¡  by the likesƒÆ’-¡  KA , during the last stages ofƒÆ’-¡  the war, to investigate further . It also supports the view that these allegations are only made to undermine Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s recovery and reconciliation.

ƒÆ’-¡ Further the cry for more and more commissions only come from the International tiger diaspora not from the Tamils living in Sri Lanka where more Tamils live among the Sinhalese in the south as most probably did KA in the first three decades of his life, In Colombo thecapital , the population split between the Muslims, Tamils & Sinhalese is equal and has been for decades.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Some of the many measures towards ethnic reconciliation in recent months and years for the record, includeƒÆ’-¡  reversal ofƒÆ’-¡  Sinhalese as the only state language to Sinhalese & Tamil, program to make the public servants competent in both languages, the relocation in their homes of the 300,000ƒÆ’-¡  Tamil human shields rescued fromƒÆ’-¡  the Tamil Tigers, the 22% growth in theƒÆ’-¡  Tamil dominated north compared to 8% nationally, Colombo havingƒÆ’-¡  at least as many Tamils as Sinhalese, & 7 out of the 20 billionairesƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  in the Colombo stock exchange being Tamil.

ƒÆ’-¡ These have seen former tiger leaders and other prominent Tamil leaders, joining the government as cabinet ministers and prominentƒÆ’-¡  governing party candidates in the forthcoming northern provincial council elections.

ƒÆ’-¡ The likes of KA should join these ranks and be of service to their Tamil brethren back in Sri Lanka without undermining the best hopes they have had for decades , nay centuriesƒÆ’-¡  .

ƒÆ’-¡ The Obama administration & CNNƒÆ’-¡  should not fall victim to this Goebellian

Rhetoric.

ƒÆ’-¡ Dr. Chula NA Rajapakse MNZM

FRCP/FRACP

Spokesperson,ƒÆ’-¡ 

United Sri Lanka Assn.

Security perspectives of province-based devolution: A reappraisal

June 5th, 2013

by G. H. Peiris Courtesy Island

ƒÆ’-¡ Dr. Dayan Jayatilleka’s latest contribution to the debate he and I have been having on the Thirteenth Amendment (and ‘province-based devolution’) has been quite an antidote to lethargy and disinterest which is said to be an after effect of a nasty attack of dengue. He says what he feels he has to with a certain elegance and flair that has an invigorating effect. What he lacks in substance, he quite often (but not always) makes up with style. So, I have reasons to be grateful for his piece titled ‘Devolution, Sri Lanka’s defence and security: A realist response to Prof GH Peiris’ (The Island of 23 May), thus giving me the energy to place his professed realism under further scrutiny.

ƒÆ’-¡ The ‘Devolve or Perish’ Warning

ƒÆ’-¡ When stripped of the usual bombastic phraseology ? “collective cognitive dissonance” and “the line of fire of Indian kinetic power” are two of the more interesting ones in this instalment of the ‘Dayan Chintanaya’ ? there is little that is not repetitive of what he has already said. He has reformulated his earlier assertion on the antecedents of province-based devolution facilitated by the Thirteenth Amendment in a futile attempt to make it sound marginally more plausible. He has repeated his claim that it was Sri Lanka’s failure to devolve power on the basis of a province framework (conforming to the ‘two-nation theory’ adumbrated by the ITAK/TULF and meeting their demand for regional autonomy for an area claimed as the “exclusive traditional Tamil homeland’) that precipitated the Indian intervention. He has tried to reinforce his earlier ‘devolve or perish’ theme with a fanciful Armageddon scenario which, according to him, reflects the “… the realities of the balance of power and the island’s strategic vulnerability”. Countering these assertions without repeating myself is difficult. But I’ll try, confining as far as possible to the specificities that have been highlighted by him this time in order to strengthen his earlier claims.

ƒÆ’-¡ First of all, there is Dr. DJ’s persistence with the Bandaranaike avatar of the late 1920s, the barely perceptible ‘regional autonomy’ idea in the conglomerate of political thought (including a preference for ‘Ceylon’ to remain a part of the British Empire ? believe it or not!) that prevailed during the decades that followed, and the tenuous and tentative agreement between SWRD Bandaranaike and SJV Chelvanayagam in the aftermath of the ethnic riots of 1956 (the prelude to ‘Emergency ’58’) ? a ‘pact’ which almost the entire spectrum of political opinion barring a thin scatter of diehard Trotskyites promptly rejected.

ƒÆ’-¡ About SWRD’s federal proposal which, as I pointed out earlier, was largely an exercise in “kite-flying” by an ambitious political novitiate (“born to rule”, as his daughter was to inform us about 70 years later), there is another dimension which Dayan has missed. A similar proposal, we recollect, was submitted to the Donoughmore Commission two years later by an obscure radala delegation from the highlands whose barely concealed motive was that of clearing the Kandyan decks of the Soyzas, Silvas and Fernandos. In the context of what we know of Bandaranaike’s vacillating stances in relation to contemporary issues of vital importance to the country such as communal representation and universal adult franchise, there is reason to imagine that he too, yet to discard the Brown Sahib garb, would have considered it a “jolly good thing” if it is possible to banish the Arunachalams, Saravanamuttus, and the Ponnambalams from the centre stage of national politics to their ‘homeland’ in the north. Needless to say, Donoughmore and his partner saw through these bogus humanitarian postures. Had they been taken seriously, we might well have had a ‘Ceylon’ consisting of three of four large ethnic ghettos by the time it acquired dominion status.

ƒÆ’-¡ Dr. DJ does not concede the point that there could have been outcomes of province-based devolution (or ‘regional autonomy’ which the ‘B-C Pact’ if implemented against the wishes of the overwhelming majority of Sri Lankans including a large segment of the Tamil community would have facilitated) other than what he naively imagines ? that of the northern Tamil leadership accepting without reservation the concept of a unitary Sri Lanka in exchange for regional autonomy for the claimed ‘homeland’, reduced in size (as it had to be) to the Northern Province. There are several corollaries to this one-track mindset, one of which is that the only alternative to regional autonomy for the Northern Province is military rule over that part of the country. Another is that neither the “international community” (i.e. governments whose Sri Lankan policy is driven by those sections of the ‘diaspora’ that persist in their commitment to destroy Sri Lanka, the others don’t count), nor a “Tamil party of any significance” will accept anything less than province-based devolution (those who so obviously do, the Vinayagamoorthy Muralitharans, Douglas Devanandas and the Arumugan Thondamans, to name only a few, in Dayan’s thinking are, ipso facto, of no significance – only the Tiger puppets matter).

ƒÆ’-¡ The attempt to draw lessons from the disintegration of Yugoslavia is something of a novelty in Dr. DJ’s present discourse. That he considers Yugoslavia a trump-card in his pack is suggested by the fact that he has repeated it in a more recent piece (The Island, 30 May). To cite Dayan from his 23 May ‘response':

ƒÆ’-¡ “As a student of comparative politics I am keenly aware that the unravelling of Yugoslavia – whose fine army, steeped in guerrilla fighting traditions had long deterred Stalin’s Russia ? commenced precisely with the abolition of the autonomous status of the province of Kosovo. That unravelling was the result of political lobbying and argumentation by Serbian ultranationalists, along exactly the lines that Prof Gerry Peiris and his co-thinkers (such as the Bodu Bala Sena, oxymoronic though it be) that are engaging in today”.

ƒÆ’-¡ I do not mind the personal insult because it is a response of desperation ? a part of the verbal diarrhoea produced by failure to digest facts. Nevertheless I should digress to say that even the concept of a ‘Bala Sena’ (empowered militia) does not conform to my understanding of the essence of Buddhist thought – not that I claim any expertise on the subject. “Oxymoron” is perhaps correct, if it is intended to mean “a combination of contradictory ideas”; and, I have yet to discard from my mind the possibility of the ‘Anti-Halal Campaign’ being yet another exemplification of the on-going, externally induced, multi-pronged subversion of Sri Lankan interests (Even to harbour such a thought, according to the main spokesman of the BBS, is a “mah? p?payak” – I guess I have to take my turn at the katu imbula). Dr. DJ, it is time you realise that demonising Sinhala-Buddhists is just an objectively counterproductive anthropological pastime, and that the long-term record of “inclusivism” (Jaffrelot, 1993) and tolerance of the Buddhist of our country, though not unblemished, is much cleaner than those of other persuasions elsewhere.

ƒÆ’-¡ What I do mind, however, is the utter absurdity of Dr. DJ’s Yugoslav analogy – how on earth can a serious “student of comparative politics” be so superficial (and, so illogical) about what is widely considered the most significant political convulsion of post-war Europe? I should relate as briefly as possible the sad story of Yugoslavia and let the reader decide on the extent to which the abolition of Kosovan autonomy initiated the break-up of Yugoslavia.

ƒÆ’-¡ Disintegration of Yugoslavia

ƒÆ’-¡ The ‘Kingdom of Yugoslavia’ in its modern geographical configurations came into being at the conclusion of the First World War in 1918. Carved out as it was from the former Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires, it brought together within a sovereign nation-state several disparate nationalities inhabiting parts of the Balkan peninsula and the Danube basin. Thus, its multi-ethnic population came to comprise Serbs (approximately 37%), Croats (21%), and Bosnian Muslims, a.k.a. ‘Bosniaks’ (12%), Albanians (9%), Slovenes (8%), Macedonian Slavs (6%), Montenegrins (2%), Hungarians (2%) and several smaller groups. Having been subjugated by the Axis Powers in 1941, Yugoslavia regained its sovereignty in 1945 as a ‘socialist republic’ under the control of Marshall Josip Broz Tito, the chief of the country’s communist party, who had led the Yugoslav resistance against the occupying forces during the Second World War. After consolidating his hold over Yugoslavia, Tito severed his links with the Russian Communist Party, and remained the leader of his country until his death in 1980, establishing what has often been described as the most benevolent among the contemporary regimes in Eastern Europe.

ƒÆ’-¡ The federation established under Tito consisted of 6 ‘Republics’ – Serbia (42% of the country’s population), Croatia (21%), Bosnia-Herzegovina (19%), Macedonia (8.4%), Slovenia (7.2%) and Montenegro (2.5%). Within Serbia, the provinces of Vojvodina (with sizeable Hungarians, Czech and Slovac ethnic minorities) and Kosovo (where ethnic Albanians accounted for over 80% of the population) were granted a limited range of special rights of self-government.

ƒÆ’-¡ Until about the early 1970s the Yugoslav economy made impressive progress. In the final phase of the Tito regime, however, two destabilising processes began to operate against the earlier trends – one, the deceleration of growth in the context of global recession resonating in soaring inflation and unemployment in the economy as a whole; and the other, a widening of economic disparities between the different republics. Illustrative of the latter is a set of estimates according to which, by the early 1980s, while unemployment was as high as 50% in Kosovo, 27% in Macedonia, 23% in Bosnia, and 20% in Serbia, it was negligibly low in the wealthier ‘republics’ of Croatia and Slovenia.

ƒÆ’-¡ To trace the principal strands of the deepening crisis that culminated in the dismemberment of Yugoslavia and the brutal civil war that occurred in its wake – it began with the failure of the experiment with ‘collective leadership’ (rotational presidency among the ‘republics’) at the Centre in the aftermath of Tito’s death in 1980. This coincided with the development of splits within the communist party on ethnic lines. More or less simultaneously the Serb leadership attempted to gain control of the central government in Belgrade. This achieved only partial success in the sense that the Serb-controlled Centre then began to lose grip over the other member ‘republics’ of the federation. There was a further escalation of ethnic rivalry when, in 1987, Slobodan Mil?sevic, the leader of the Serbian communist party, wrested control over the central government. He embarked upon a strategy that involved, inter alia, the establishment of exclusive Serb hegemony not only over Serbia through various forms of ‘ethnic cleansing’, but also over other parts of Yugoslavia in which there were Serbian communities. This, in turn, had the effect of inducing the other member ‘republics’ to adopt pre-emptive measures to escape Serb domination.

ƒÆ’-¡ The earliest among such retaliatory measure was the declaration of independence by Slovenia in 1991. A few months later Croatia seceded from the Yugoslav federation. This was associated with violent confrontations between the Croatians and the Serbs living in Croatia. Following a European Community-brokered ceasefire at the end of that year, Croatia gained formal independence. The declaration of independence by Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1992 paved the way for a 3-year civil war in the course of which the Serbs extended their control over almost two-thirds of Bosnian territory.

ƒÆ’-¡ In 1992, when Bosnia-Herzegovina asserted independent nationhood, the Serb-Bosniak confrontations escalated into an open civil war involving, among other things, some of the most brutal forms of ‘ethnic cleansing’ – annihilation of tens of thousands of Bosniaks (reminiscent of the Nazi genocide half a century earlier) as well as their mass eviction from the Serb-majority areas. According to UN estimates, over the three-year period of the civil war, these mass murders and evictions had reduced the population of Bosnia by about 1 million, and created a refugee population of 2.3 million – i.e. 52% of the population of Bosnia as enumerated in 1991.

ƒÆ’-¡ The Serb-Bosnia civil war was brought to an end through the ‘Daytona Accord’ of 1995 brokered by the NATO powers which partitioned Bosnia to create two independent republics – one, named ‘Republika Srpska’, consisting of the Serb-majority areas, and the other named the ‘Bosnia-Croat Federation’, consisting of the remaining areas of Serbia. Meanwhile, in 1992, Serbia and Montenegro were proclaimed the (new) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). Mil?sevic’s rule over the FRY continued to be featured not only by economic recession but also by secessionist movements gathering momentum in the province of Kosovo (south-western Serbia) and the ‘republic’ of Montenegro. In Kosovo where about 80% of the population is accounted for by ‘Kosovo Albanians’ had for long been the venue of an incipient separatist movement with the proclaimed goal of either independent nationhood or union with Albania. There emerged in this part of the FRY in the late-1980s a ‘Kosovo Liberation Army’ (KLA) that began to launch guerrilla attacks against the Serb security forces. At the height of FRY-KLA confrontations almost a million inhabitants of Kosovo had been displaced, and tens of thousands had been killed. The final outcome of these developments was the formal termination of the lose association between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006, and the UN-backed declaration of independence by Kosova in 2008.

ƒÆ’-¡ What must be noted in particular is that even under Tito the Yugoslav federation was not a liberal democracy (as the concept is generally understood) and that it had a centrally regulated economy and a political apparatus tightly controlled by the ‘League of Communists of Yugoslavia’ headed by its Presidium ? the policy-making body for the entire country. Inter-ethnic power-sharing was thus largely confined to the representation which all ethnic groups had in the communist party and its trade unions. It was, more than all else, the increasing dominance of that party apparatus by the Serbs alongside ethnicity-based factionalism at the higher levels of the party hierarchy that triggered off the disintegration of the federation.

ƒÆ’-¡ In the context of all these considerations what really is amazing is that the man who represented our country at the highest international forum believed (or pretends to believe since that time) that there is any worthwhile parallel between that arbitrarily established nation-state that existed over a brief span of seven decades, a 40-year federation that was tightly controlled by a single political party, and the secession of a tiny segment (4,000 square miles) of what remained of that federation by the early years of the new millennium, to the nation-state of Sri Lanka, the relations between its ethnic groups, and the impulses of the Eelam Wars.

ƒÆ’-¡ Devolution and Empowerment in India

ƒÆ’-¡ In a rebuttal of my suggestion that the implementation of the B-C Pact of 1957 or the document produced by the ‘Political Parties Conference’ of 1986 could have had outcomes different from that visualised by him, Dr. DJ has produced another classic example of superficial understanding of political affairs. It runs as follows:

ƒÆ’-¡ “Well, let the reader judge the lucid realism of that scenario bearing in mind, however, that ‘to go by Indian experience’ as Prof Peiris says we should, nowhere has a region seceded because an agreement for autonomy was arrived at and implemented. On the contrary, every serious scholar agrees that it is precisely the flexible accommodation of regional (sub) nationalisms that has permitted the vastly diverse India to stay together”.

ƒÆ’-¡ Please take a careful look at this exhibition of realism. Now, if a “serious scholar” is defined as a person subscribing to the view that it was the successful accommodation of sub-national demands through territorial devolution that kept India intact, one cannot find fault with what Dr. DJ has said. Unfortunately for him such a definition of “serious scholarship” is tenuous. There happens to be many eminent Indian scholars with impeccable academic credentials and intellectual integrity who admit that territorial devolution has often failed to fulfil the demands of sub-national group interests, that there have been many instances of devolution aggravating rather than diffusing ethnic rivalry, and that, what had held together the Indian union more effectively than all else is the overwhelming military might of the central government of India. This is why one of the leading authorities of comparative politics (Horowitz, 1985) whom I cited earlier has concluded that: “Where central authority is secure, as in India, the appropriate decisions can be made and implemented by the centre. But where the very question is how far the writ of the centre will run, devolution is a matter of bilateral agreement, and an enduring agreement is an elusive thing” (emphasis added).

ƒÆ’-¡ No, I think Dr. DJ should read more, much more, before he could make authoritative pronouncements on Indian experiences. He should read about what happened in the period leading up to, during, and after the Khalistan uprising (one of the closest parallels one could find to our Eelam uprising). He should familiarise himself with the scholarly writings on that misty but persistently turbulent ‘North-East’ of India which, despite India’s admittedly laudable claims of democratic governance, is physically accessible to outsiders only if they obtain Delhi’s permission to go past the Siliguri Corridor. He should learn about the never ending blood-letting between different tribal groups and between the ‘natives’ and the ‘immigrants’, the innumerable ‘liberation armies’ and their outbursts of murderous havoc, and the periodic Delhi-directed ‘cordon, search and liquidate Jawan operations’ that take place virtually unknown to the world outside except through the writings of Indian scholars and journalists. Further, Dr. DJ would do well if he were to try and grasp the extent to which devolution has kept a large part of Kashmir within the Indian Union; And, perhaps more important than all else, the disastrously negative impact of devolution on both India’s relations with its neighbours and Hindu-Muslim relations in India.

ƒÆ’-¡ Swiss Confederacy Model

ƒÆ’-¡ Dismissing my assertion that, given Sri Lanka’s size and form, province-based devolution is unnecessary for Sri Lanka on the grounds that “size has nothing to do with it”, Dr. DJ refers once again to the musings of young Bandaranaike and the not so young Leonard Woolf. My reference to the basic geographical configuration of Sri Lanka as a consideration of relevance was not due to my being unaware of small federations. Apart from Switzerland, there are five other federations ? the tiny archipelagic Micronesia, Comoros, St. Kitts & Nevis, and the lose collection of sheikdoms comprising the United Arab Emirates ? that are much smaller than Sri Lanka. But in all these there are the geographical peculiarities that account for the existing structures of government.

ƒÆ’-¡ The origin of the ‘Swiss Confederation’ could be traced back to the formation of an association of settlements in three Alpine localities referred to as waldstatte (“forest states”) in the 13th century. Its survival and growth in the centuries that followed could be explained mainly with reference to the desire on the part of the people inhabiting this rugged mountainous area, in settlements physically isolated from one another, to collectively safeguard their independence from the powerful kingdoms and empires that rose and fell in the adjacent parts of Europe (Austria, Italy and France) periodically extending their control over parts of the Swiss Alps. By the time the Swiss Confederacy assumed its present geographical configurations in the mid-19th century, it covered about 16,000 sq. miles of territory.

ƒÆ’-¡ While the persistent desire for independence and, in the 20th century, neutrality in the context of the world at war, provided the main impulses for integrity and cohesion of the Swiss confederation, its locational centrality in Europe, periodic invasions (accompanied by migration) from adjacent areas, and the physically disparate nature of its settlements, contributed to the persistence of sharp cultural (ethnic) diversities within its territory. A major ingredient of this diversity is language. About two-thirds of the Swiss population speak German; one-fifth, French; one-tenth, Italian; and one-hundredth, Rhaeto-Romanic. The Swiss population is also divided in roughly equal proportions on the basis of religion ? Protestant and Catholic.

ƒÆ’-¡ The only serious threat to the integrity of the Swiss confederacy occurred as far back as 1847 with the formation of a league referred to as ‘Sonderbund’ consisting of the Roman Catholic cantons, evidently in violation of the Swiss constitution of that time. The ensuing conflict was suppressed by the federal troops the following year, paving the way for the emergence of a stronger central government. This transformation acquired formal expression with the promulgation of a new constitution in 1874 which converted the existing association of cantons into a unified federal state.

ƒÆ’-¡ The basic territorial unit of the Swiss Confederacy is the ‘Commune’ of which there are about 3,000. Communes range in size from less than a tenth of a square mile to about 100 square miles, and are vested with considerable autonomy in many matters that directly concern daily life. For instance, the larger communes have their independent law enforcement institutions. The communes fall within one or another of the 26 ‘Cantons’ or ‘Demicantons’ into which the confederacy is divided. Each canton has almost the entire gamut of institutions of government. There is a close spatial correspondence between clusters of cantons and the distribution of the linguistic groups. If this is what Sri Lanka needs, OK, lets empower the Pradeshiya Sabhas, being cautious, however, of the criminally minded ‘neo-ratemahattayas’ and the ‘neo-arachchis’ who often tend to hold sway at that level.

ƒÆ’-¡ Switzerland has for long enjoyed a high level of political stability, remaining free of violent inter-group conflict. It is regarded as an example of extraordinarily successful federalism in the sense that, while it has preserved its sovereignty, territorial integrity, and neutrality in external relations over several centuries of periodic political upheavals in Europe, since about the mid-19th century, it has also averted internal conflict and accommodated popular participation of all its ethnic groups in the affairs of government.

ƒÆ’-¡ Given these extraordinary circumstances, could there be any pragmatically worthwhile suggestion that the type of territorial devolution in the Swiss confederacy would be appropriate for Sri Lanka? Of Oxford returnee Bandaranaike I have said enough. Leonard Woolf, it is said, was far too dreamy even for Virginia. Attempting to replicate the unique circumstances of successful territorial devolution in Sri Lanka, it seems to me, would be like an attempt to transplant the Swiss Alps on our island territory.

ƒÆ’-¡ External Intervention: “Worst Case Scenario”

ƒÆ’-¡ On this, once again, I need to quote Dr. DJ verbatim as a safeguard against an accusation of sleight-of-hand. This is what he says:

ƒÆ’-¡ “It is not that intervention is already planned. However, the atmosphere, diplomatic (Geneva, New York), conceptual (retroactive R2P) and world opinion, is building up ? or being created ? which is not unpropitious for such intervention and in which any intervention would be readily endorsed. It certain went uncontested in 1987. The last time, Sri Lanka was able to roll back that intervention because the LTTE took on the IPKF, generating collective cognitive dissonance in Tamil Nadu which in turn led to V P Singh making and fulfilling an electoral promise to withdraw Indian troops. In any future scenario of intervention, this factor will not operate. There will be no Tamil army fighting the Indians or anyone else who may come along. There will also be not foreign troops in the Sinhala areas, and therefore no possibility of a heroic, protracted, patriotic guerrilla war of national liberation against them”.

ƒÆ’-¡ Dayan proceeds in this vein, and adds:

ƒÆ’-¡ “I would also draw attention not only to the speculation about US military arrangements with the Maldives, but far more importantly, the supplementing of existing Indian naval air base in the South (which has the longest airstrip in the region) with the brand new airbase in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, to which India plans to transfer its top-of-the line Sukhoi SU30MKI war planes. …”

ƒÆ’-¡ Enough is enough; those of us who haven’t cracked our ribs are shivering in our boots! The average reader, I guess, is expected to feel, “look, this guy is such an expert in strategic cum military matters that he even knows from which base the Indian bombardment of Sri Lanka will be launched, and which aircraft will be used for the purpose”. Yet, there are more than a few who would know that much of this is pure bunkum. About the military logistics of the predicted intervention, Dr. DJ should know that Delhi, if it decides (ignoring all consequences) to launch an attack of Sri Lanka, could commence operations from any or all of the 6 major air force bases in the Deccan area; that even by 2005, India had a fleet of about 50 SU30MKIs in its total operational fleet of about 800 fixed-wing military aircraft in addition to a large fleet of attack helicopters, any of which could convey to any part of Sri Lanka anything ranging from a thermonuclear bomb to a consignment of parippu. There is, in addition, the dreadful attack capacity of the Navy, and a huge arsenal of medium range surface-to-air missiles (This is published information, but not ‘Wikileaks’, available to anyone.) As to whether such an attack lies within the bounds to reality, the most persuasive answer I have come across, which cannot be reproduced here, is found in last Sunday’s instalment of the review of Dr. DJ’s magnum opus by the veteran journalist HLD Mahindapala (The Nation, May 26: p. 11).

ƒÆ’-¡ It is mainly as a safeguard against this “worst case scenario” which, according to Dr. DJ, “Sri Lanka must make note of in its security environment and its strategic vulnerabilities”, that he advocates our proceeding with the ‘Thirteenth Amendment’ with the ‘pluses’ as demanded by the “international community”, its lackeys, India, and the remnants of the Eelam campaign, but not necessarily the ordinary people of Sri Lanka including the Tamils who appear to be quite content with their recently found freedom and even the post-war material advances, except when those in the local human rights industry persuade them that they ought not to be. That, of course, does not mean that the Tamil people in the north will readily abandon their primordial loyalties when it comes to voting. If it does not work in the way envisaged by Dr. DJ, well so what? He could always say with hindsight that the ‘plusses’ were inadequate or that timing was wrong, or the central government was provocative in its dealings with the NPC, or that Colombo was not pliant enough in its dealings with the West, or that the Rajapaksa regime has been too friendly with China, etc. etc.

Such explanation would, of course, be of little consolation if the suggested devolution becomes, not a compromise but an irretrievable give-away with no gains in security and internal stability, but permanent losses in respect of vulnerability to external threats. All indications both from past records as well as what could be discerned in the relevant geopolitical configurations are that, from the viewpoint of Sri Lanka’s security, it will inevitably be the latter rather than the former.

Boston Lanka Documentary: Story of Adele Balasingham

June 5th, 2013

In this edition:

The story of Adele Balasingham, who began her career as a nurse and later became a women military leader of LTTE. A story of a woman’s journey from Hospital to battlefield, from being a healing nurse to a killer Nurse.

http://youtu.be/wr8JP5-4lVA

For more up to date news Go to: www.bostonlanka.com

Do we need so many Casinos?

June 5th, 2013

Michelle Alexander

It has been reported that plans are currently underway to build a massiveƒÆ’-¡ Las Vegas-style Casino resort in Colombo, with an investment of US$ 350mn. While the Animal Welfare Bill is yet to be enacted, the Casino Business Regulation Act appears to be alive and kicking and already in use. ƒÆ’-¡ It is also noted that this investment will be exempted from the Corporate Income Tax for as much as ten years. It will be exempted from Betting and Gaming Levy and income tax. All project-related imports will also be exempt from Customs duty. We would only know within the coming days and weeks if this is true and if so, will it come to fruition.

Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam have prohibitions/restrictions on gambling, for many reasons.ƒÆ’-¡  Casinos bring much needed investments and create jobs, but it also leads to a plethora of social ills such as gambling addiction, crime and bankruptcy. As with alcohol and cigarettes, much if not most of the gambling industryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s revenue comes from addicts.ƒÆ’-¡ There are other negative factors to take into consideration when it comes to casinos, such as money laundering, prostitution and drug trafficking. Addicts not only waste money on gambling and time meant for their loved ones and professional lives, they inevitably have to spend more money on treating their addiction.ƒÆ’-¡ 

One could argue that when it comes to Sri Lanka an investment of US$ 350mn and the creation of jobs outweigh the costs in terms of crime, bankruptcy, and problem gambling. But those costs are real and, the evidence suggests, very large. Further, could we have not obtained similar investments and job opportunities without the addition of yet another casino?

Why the double standards

June 5th, 2013

Michelle Alexander

TheƒÆ’-¡ 23rd Commonwealth Heads of Government MeetingƒÆ’-¡ (CHOGM) will be held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, from 15 to 17 November 2013. However, this occasion is being marred by several International, Diaspora and Sri Lanka-based organizations calling the consideration of Sri Lanka as hostƒÆ’-¡ ‘grossly inappropriate’, with Sri Lanka standing accused of rights abuses, war crimes and even genocide.

While it pertinent for our leaders and us as a nation to honour all moral and legal obligations, the question arises as to why nations such as ours are held accountable to all International laws and conventions, when other nations get away with or have gotten away with far worse, facing little to no consequence. For instance:

The 2003 of Iraq

After the events of September 11, the USA, on totally fabricated reasoning launched an invasion Iraq, an independent and sovereign nation that in no way threatened US citizens. There were no weapons of mass destruction, no real connection to Al-Qaeda (although this may have all changed now) and none of the hijackers involved in the World Trade Center bombings were Iraqis. 15 of the 19 hijackers were Saudi, 2 were from UAE, 1 was from Egypt and the other was from Lebanon.ƒÆ’-¡  Osama Bin Laden, the mastermind of the attacks was a Saudi national. There are also allegations that the US used of depleted Uranium bombs and white phosphorus. The US has since dropped a further 2000-3000 more tons of depleted uranium (DU) which will mean a future generation of children from yet another country will be born with birth defects, the other being children from Vietnam being born with birth defects due to the use of Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. The use of white phosphorous as a weapon is prohibited under Protocol III of the 1980 Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons. White phosphorous can cause injuries and even death in three ways: by burning deep into tissue, by being inhaled as a smoke, and by being ingested. Extensive exposure by burning and ingestion is fatal.

ƒÆ’-¡ 

The United Kingdom and the coalition is accused is multiple rights abuses during the Iraq war.ƒÆ’-¡ 

As a consequence of the war Iraq is becoming destabilized and fragmented due to ensuing sectarian violence, and as of June 21, 2007, theƒÆ’-¡ UNHCRƒÆ’-¡ estimated that over 4.2 millionƒÆ’-¡ IraqisƒÆ’-¡ have been displaced, with 2 million within IraqƒÆ’-¡ and 2.2 million in neighboring countries. Most have ventured toƒÆ’-¡ JordanƒÆ’-¡ andƒÆ’-¡ Syria, creating demographic shifts that have worried both governments.

The only logical assumption one could make is that the only real reason for the current war in Iraq is the access to be gained to its vast oil reserves.

US involvement in regime changes

The USA has been involved in and assisted in theƒÆ’-¡ overthrow of foreign governmentsƒÆ’-¡ (more recently termed “regime change“) without the overt use of U.S. military force. Often, such operations are tasked to theƒÆ’-¡ Central Intelligence AgencyƒÆ’-¡ (CIA). Judging by the some of the countries noted in this list, it begs the question if these nations would have fared better if not for outside interference.

ƒÆ’-¡ 

  • March 1949 Syrian coup d’ƒÆ’†’©tat & 2012
  • 1953 Iranian coup d’ƒÆ’†’©tat & 2005 up to date
  • 1954 Guatemalan coup d’ƒÆ’†’©tat
  • Tibet 1955ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”70s
  • Indonesia 1958
  • Cuba 1959 (famously known as the Bay of Pigs invasion)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”65
  • Iraq 1960ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”63 & 2002/3 up to date
  • Dominican Republic 1961
  • South Vietnam 1963
  • Brazil 1964
  • Ghana 1966
  • Chile 1970ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”73
  • Afghanistan 1979ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”89 & 2001 up to date
  • Turkey 1980
  • Poland 1980ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”81
  • Nicaragua 1981ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”90
  • Cambodia 1980ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”95
  • Angola 1980s
  • Philippines 1986
  • Iraq 1992ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”96
  • Venezuela 2002
  • Gaza Strip 2006ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”present
  • Somalia 2006ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”07
  • Libya 2011

ƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka should not just bow down to the ongoing international pressure. Vague allegations and the one-off video by Channel four are meaningless if they are not backed with solid, undisputable proof. Our army succeeded in defeating one of the most ruthless terrorist outfits in the world, a boast which even the USA cannot make claim to in modern times. Those in the international community should first look to correcting the flaws of their own nations before pointing fingers at us.

Regarding a message to the Badu Bala Sena

June 5th, 2013

Mr. Bernard Wijeyasingha Clinton, Louisiana, USA

I would like to lend voice to your organization and address the issue of the proposed building of the Sita Temple and in that vein all Hindu and Muslim houses of worship. I would also like to share my opinion regarding the existing 13th amendment.

ƒÆ’-¡ Regarding the proposed Sita Temple. It would be advisable that if such a structure gets official support then that Hindu Temple including all Hindu temples are open to all Hindus regardless of caste. This is practiced in Hindu Temples built in Western Christian nations and I see no difference that in the world’s oldest Buddhist nation (outside of India) where the Buddha himself denounced the caste system and the UN considers the Caste system an “institutionalized human right violation” it is the duty of any Buddhist Sanga to demand the present government implement regulations that do away with any Caste practices in Sri Lanka. That proposed Sita temple should be not only opened to all Hindus but all people regardless of faith. This should also apply to Mosques which bar the entrance of non Muslims.

ƒÆ’-¡ Regarding the issue of the 13th amendment that must be removed from the new Constitution and in it’s place a new amendment that places the emphasis of the nation’s security and unity over that of the provinces. An amendment that places power in the center with an active role of the Buddhist Sanga would serve the national interest and protect it from any ideations of sessionism brought upon by inside or foreign forces.

ƒÆ’-¡ Thank you in advance for reading my suggestions. I am in full support of the philosophy of your Sanga and see that your order is much needed at this time when TESO has been resurrected in Tamil Nadu, Chief Minister Jayalalithaa is demanding a referendum on the formation of Eelam to New Delhi who is unusually silent on the issue, the new funding of LITE by the Tamil Diaspora and the demand by the Tamil National Association to devolve central power to the Tamil dominated provinces, which to me is a veiled threat towards the full formation of Eelam.

ƒÆ’-¡ Sincerely,

Mr. Bernard Wijeyasingha

Clinton, Louisiana, USA

UPFA MP discloses in parliament:EKNELIGODA ALIVE AND WELL IN FRANCE

June 5th, 2013

Courtesy The Daily News

* Moving in disguise

* Wife blames govt. for disappearance

Ekneligoda

UPFA MP Arundika Fernando yesterday disclosed in parliament that Prageeth Ekneligoda who is said to have disappeared, is living in France. He made this observation in parliament joining the debate on the regulations under the Sri Lanka Press Council Law. He said, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Ekneligoda is living in disguise in France though the UNP and opposition say that he has disappeared.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Several persons living in France told me that he is living in France,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ he said. Arundika Fernando said that he met several media personnel in France who are said to have disappeared. The wife of Prageeth is crying before media but he is living in France. Arundika Fernando further stated that these media personnel have gone abroad with the support of embassies. Their cases are heard in courts in Sri Lanka. Ekneligoda, a journalist cum cartoonist allegedly went missing since January 24, 2010.

His wife Sandya, was one of the anti-government campaigners at the recent UNHRC sessions in Geneva blaming the government for the disappearance of her husband.

Khalifa of Islam explains his recent tours to U.S.A. and Canada.

June 5th, 2013

by A. Abdul Aziz, Press Secretary, Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Sri Lanka.

ƒÆ’-¡ (Given below is an excerpt of the Friday Sermons of Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Supreme Head of the world-wide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Islam, delivered on 31st May 2013, at ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Baithul FuthuhƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, London, U.K. gave a discourse on his recent tours of U.S.A and Canada.

ƒÆ’-¡ Ahmadiyya Khalifa started his sermon by reciting Quran verse:

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”And as for the bounty of your Lord do relate it to othersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. (93:12) and said:

Bounties of God can be worldly, regarding faith as well as spiritual. Worldly bounties are granted to one and all, across the board. Those who have faith and consider God to be the source of all blessings are also grateful for worldly bounties. While their appreciation of gratefulness is on personal level, they also tell the world that blessings are only from God. Then there are bounties of faith and spiritual bounties. We Ahmadis are the servants of the true and ardent devotee of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him), the Promised Messiah (on whom be peace) and we have attained these bounties. It is obligatory on each Ahmadi to relate bounties and blessings of God. One way to do this is to abide by the commandments of God while another way is to announce it to the world, via Tabligh (Preaching) , that come and share this spiritual light that we have be given and become recipients of GodƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s blessings. It is this light of God alone that will facilitate to adorn everyoneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s worldly life as well as ending.

It is also a manifestation of GodƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s bounties when He graces our meagre efforts and blesses them manifold and beyond our expectations. This again draws our attention to Him. A true believer needs to have a real insight into this subject in order to continue to be a recipient of GodƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s grace. God sent the Promised Messiah (on whom be peace) in this age to spread the message of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him). God sent him with His support and corroborative signs which we are witnessing to this day. These corroborations are in accordance with Divine promises for God had foretold the Promised Messiah (on whom be peace) that he would not be able to encompass His bounties. It was revealed to him: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”If you count the favours of God, it will not be possible for you to do so.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ [Tadhkirah, pp. 120 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬"…" 121 2009 edition] Another revelation stated: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Keep proclaiming the bounty of your Lord.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢[Tadhkirah, pp. 557 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬"…" 558]

The Promised Messiah Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (on whom be peace) wrote: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Owing to the commandment ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”And as for the bounty of your Lord do relate it to othersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ this humble one sees nothing wrong in expressing that merely out of His grace and favour, the Noble and Merciful God has given this humble one a generous measure in all these matters. He did not send this useless one empty-handed and did not appoint him without any signs. On the contrary, all the signs were given which are now materialising and will continue to do so. Until God Almighty manifestly establishes the process of reasoning, He will continue to exhibit these signs. [Translated from ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…"Tafseerul QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an, Vol. VI, p. 649] The Promised Messiah (on whom be peace) also wrote: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Humility and meeknessƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦are essential conditions of Ubudiyyat (devotion of God/being His servant), however, owing to the commandment in the noble verse: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”And as for the bounty of your Lord do relate it to othersƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ it is also extremely necessary to relate Divine bounties.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ [Translated from ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…"Tafseerul QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an, Vol. VI, p. 649]

Whenever we experience grace and blessing of God, we recount and relate it by virtue of the commandment of this verse, as indeed we should. However, this is done with humility rather than as recounting any sense of self-importance.

Ahmadiyya Supreme Head has recently been on a tour of USA and Canada where different programmes were held with outside guests. God enabled to relay the real message of Islam and this message spread on such an extensive level that it proved beyond the expectations of the local JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at. This is a blessing among the blessings of God, and is not due to anyoneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s efforts.

The JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at was introduced in the West coast of USA by virtue of this tour where Hazrat Khalifatul Masih had not been before. He went to Los Angeles. The city, the area and its Hispanic population and the tasks the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at there has to undertake were mentioned in a previous Friday sermon. Today Huzoor recounted the introduction of the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at to outside guests. A reception was organised at a hotel in Los Angeles by the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at. Management thought that being worldly-minded, perhaps many people would not turn up and till the last day responses were coming in. [Generally speaking] such arrangements are made [in the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at]on the basis that an estimated number of people are expected to attend from all those who are sent invitations. However, here the response was so huge that it gave cause for concern to the management. In the end, the seating arrangement had to be increased and some friends who had said they would bring along their friends had to be apologised to. The reception was attended by notable section of society where Ahmadiyya Khalifa gave a discourse. He briefly expounded the Quranic term ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Lord of all the worldsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and with reference to it spoke about the love and affection of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) for mankind and explained that his blessed model is an example for us to emulate, how could Islam be an extremist religion? There was a specific impact on the guests as regards the blessed model. Everyone said such a teaching should be disseminated; the world is in need of it.

The reception took place on 11 May 2013 and people belonging to different walks of life attended it. The total number of guests was 251 who liked the teachings of Islam constituting peace, love, respect and justice in the world. Among the guests were 5 members of US Congress, 14 representatives of renowned media, , 27 elected and governmental officials, 37 professors, 13 diplomats, 26 NGO representatives , 29 inter-faith leaders, 20 members of law enforcement, 2 people belonging to think-tanks, 6 members of the armed forces and 36 professionals. Below are some views of the guests.

Barbara Goldberg, founder and director of Wells Bring Hope, said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”I am writing to express my deep appreciation for inviting us to be part of your welcome lunch for His Holiness. You created a very moving programme, which was not only an expression of respect but also one that conveyed a community that many of us didn’t know much about.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Robert Crockett, partner at a prestigious law firm of Latham & Watkins LLP said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”I thought His Holiness’ explanation of the Qur’an on the issue of war was pretty interesting. He’s willing to tackle the tough issue with non-believers.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ Pete Aguilar, Mayor of Redlands, CA said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”I wanted to personally thank you for the invitation to join you Saturday to hear His Holiness deliver the message of tolerance and peaceful relations within our world…I was very appreciative to hear the message from His Holiness about the separation of church and stateƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ we need to be aware that many others throughout the world are discriminated against because of their religious beliefsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦I agree with His Holiness that peace cannot be achieved without an end to oppressive viewpoints and cruelty to others. My hope is that through continued education of our young people we can open their eyes to a world of tolerance and appreciation for each other that will lead to a better and more tolerant world.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

On the one hand there is the USA where proclamations are made against Islam and on the other hand here, the teaching of Islam is being acclaimed.

Honourable Lee Baca, LA County Sheriff, who is very well-known said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”His Holiness Mirza Masroor Ahmad’s visit to Los Angeles resulted in the message of peace, love and justice to five hundred people of all faiths. The audience consisted of public safety leaders, members of congress, city councils and educators. His Holiness emphasized “Love for all- hatred for none” as the true teaching of the Prophet (peace and blessings be on him). World peace is a responsibility that all faiths can embrace was a common feeling by those in attendance.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

This indeed is the same country in which many erroneous things were said about Islam and the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) and now that the teaching of Islam was taken there, they could not but concur with what was said. May God also give sense to the Muslims that they may establish the beautiful teaching of Islam through their practice.

Honourable Grey Davis, former Governor of California, said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”I really enjoyed his message of peace, understanding, and respect for all of GodƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s childrenƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ You know, I think that we have to realize that we are all GodƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s children… There is one God, He made us all, and He wanted us to love him and to love our neighbours.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ He sat next to Huzoor and had a good conversation in which he showed great interest in MTA and took its channel frequency saying he will be watching it.

Honourable Eric Garcetti, a member of LA City Council and now LA Mayor Elect ,said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”His Holiness’ speech described a clear path of brotherly cooperation and respect as the foundation for peace and prosperity in the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦[we] wish him all the best in his mission to spread a message of love, empowerment, and tolerance throughout the world.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Dana Rohrabacher, US Congressman, said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”His Holiness today gave a set of remarks that were reaching out to all of us . . . His message of tolerance and love and of accepting one another is important to bind all of us here . . . This was the first time I met him, and I’m impressed by his very academic, thoughtful and logical approach to issues he presented as well as his analysis of the world. He has a message that can be accepted by people of various faiths . . . His message of peace bears listening to — he has a gravitas when he speaks about peace.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Rachel Moran, Dean, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Law, said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”It is an honour and a privilege to be part of such an event that promotes peace and tolerance. We took home an important ethical lesson today, that each of us has a responsibility to seek harmony and build bridges in our everyday lives and in every opportunity. What could be more inspiring than that? ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ His Holiness represents a sense of spirituality and idealism that provides us with an important message in a world that is rife with conflict. He reminds us that peace is a collective obligation and that there is a strong ecumenical part of his kind of thinking and his philosophy that is that regardless of religion we are all objects of love and we all have an obligation to love others.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Honourable Mohamed Samir, Consul General of Egypt, said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”He is a leader of wisdomƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ I was highly inspired but what he said todayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ his words are very inspiring and I encourage people to cooperate and coexist ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦we have to apply his every advice to coexistƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Sophia Pandya, Professor of Religious Studies, California State University Long Beach, said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”I particularly enjoyed His Holiness’ comments on world peace and love of all humanity. The world needs more humanitarian points of light such as the Ahmadiyya movement.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Aziza Hasan, a former Director of Government Relations of Muslim Public Affairs Council, a very prominent American Muslim organization, said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Congratulations on an incredible event this last Saturday. I walked away refreshed and energized as both an Inter-faith professional and Muslim community member. His Holiness was eloquent and relevant. I really appreciated that he tackled violence accusations against the Prophet Mohammad (peace and God’s blessings upon him). Many people try to avoid or dance around the issue. His remarks addressed them head on to a distinguished audience with a great number of followers.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

John McMahon, from San Bernardino County Sheriff’s Department, said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”The message was on point and we all agree that working together towards peace is the direction we need to travel.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Dr Frank Leivo, a distinguished physician, said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”His Holiness represents a denomination that I have had limited exposure to and yet his words fit my religious philosophy perfectly…every word emanating from his lips was truth. His goal of world peace and his timely warnings of nuclear war are words that our leaders need to hear and heed.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Revered Jan Chase said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”I’m grateful for this opportunity to meet His Holiness and to attend this grand gathering. I particularly liked that fact that he addressed the subject of terrorism so directly in his remarks.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Dana Rohrabacher is a Republican Congressman whose views are usually seen as anti-Islamic. He had remarked after the Boston bombing that Islam incites children to kill and it is a danger to the world today. His comments after attending the reception at LA have been cited above. Later, he sent a letter to our director of Public Affairs (external affairs) in US and wrote: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”His Holiness should enjoy a sense of accomplishment that his visit to Southern California planted some seeds that will reap goodness of heart for years to come.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ Thus was the change brought about to his viewpoint after Ahmadiyya HeadƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ƒÆ’-¡ tour!

Ahmadiyya Khalifa was interviewed by LA Times. Below is the published version of the interview:

Q: How do you spread the message of Islam as a religion of peace in the circumstances you find in the United States where, because of terrorist attacks by Muslim extremists, some people harbour misconceptions about the nature of Islam?

A: Muslims have been persecuted and attacked by their opponents throughout history, and have found themselves at war, compelled to retaliate for the mistreatment. But there is now no such religious war. Whenever any jihadist organization stands up in the name of Islam and misconstrues its true teachings, we have to stand up to this and speak out. Not only in the United States but everywhere in the world you see the name of Islam being defamed by opponents, those who donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t have a true understanding of Islam. These are militant groups, not followers of the true religion, and we always stand against them.

Here in the United States, we have a program of good works. For the past two years we have been conducting the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Muslims for LifeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ campaign. We organize the donation of blood. The first time this drive was conducted we collected 10,000 blood donations and distributed them to hospitals.

Q: Your community is committed to separation of church and state, which is a distinction from some Muslim-majority countries in the Middle East where political leaders are trying to establish Islamic governments in the place of the authoritarian regimes ousted in the Arab Spring revolutions. Would the region be more stable, in your opinion, if new secular governments were created instead?

A: In Egypt, what we have seen after having removed Hosni Mubarak is that nothing has changed. We have a government that still doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t discharge its duties to the public and isnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t respecting the rights of the people. In Libya, every tribe has its own government. The defence minister warned recently that some are attempting to overthrow the elected government and that unless some steps are taken there will be another disaster. In Tunisia, everyone says they are changing the country for the best and in the name of religion, but there is no peace. If there is going to be true democracy in the region it has to be practiced as in the West [without religious domination].

Q: How does the international community go about restoring peace in the region now racked by war and violent opposition?

A: A few months back, President Shimon Peres of Israel said the United Nations should send forces into these disrupted countries, but only forces comprised of Arab soldiers, not Western troops. It is the proper role of neighbours to get together and try to stop the conflicts in their region. ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s the duty of neighbouring countries to stop the atrocities in Syria.

Q: How do you imagine the fighting in Syria could be brought to an end?

A: The government of Syria is predominantly Alawite, while the majority of Syrians are Sunnis. The government mistreated Sunnis and created inequality. Now there are others with vested interests coming into the country, including extremists, to help the rebels. So there is now conflict among the rebels as well as with the government. The atrocities and persecution were started by the government, but now both parties are guilty. They wonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t resolve it themselves, so there should be some initiative to find a way out and bring an end to the fighting.

Q: You say it is the responsibility of neighbouring countries to help find a path to peace. Do you see the efforts recently announced by Russia and the United States to bring the Syrian parties together in negotiations as a desirable response by neighbours, or are these powers too far removed from the region?

A: The world is now a global village, so the idea of neighbourhood is broader. But there are still two blocs in the world, with Russia supporting the Syrian government and Western governments supporting the rebels. It will be a test of the goodwill of the United States and Russia to stop the violence there. It must be stopped, because if it continues it will draw in the whole world.

Q: The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community leadership has been driven from Pakistan into exile. What is at the root of your differences with other Muslims, and how does the rift affect the cohesion and unity of Islam’s message?

A: We believe that the Messiah has come as a subordinate, non-law-bearing prophet in the person of the founder of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community [in 1889]. Other Muslims disagree and believe after the Holy Prophet of Islam comes, there can be no other prophet, either one bearing a new law or not.

In Pakistan, the regime has passed a law against Ahmadis, saying we are not Muslims for the purposes of law and the constitution. The Ahmadis number in the millions, not only in Pakistan. But there you can see it was the fear of Pakistani mullahs that if they did not stop the Ahmadis from freely practicing their religion, the Ahmadis might attract every Pakistani Muslim into their fold.

Q: Where is the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community strongest in the world, and where is it growing fastest?

A: We have millions of followers in Asia, but the following is increasing fastest in West Africa. Pakistan used to be the biggest Ahmadi community, but now certain African countries have greater numbers. We are increasing day by day, every year by 100,000s.

Some people are afraid of Islam. Some people have become indifferent to all religions. They donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t believe in any God. But after a certain period they will come back and find religion. When they reach this state, we believe and we hope that we will help people fill this spiritual gap with the true teachings of our religion.

Hazrat Khalifatul Masih said most of the time a lot is not reported in interviews but LA Times published a good account of the interview. Huzoor had told the correspondent that if their current generation is not inclined to Ahmadiyyat, InshaAllah the next one will be and Ahmadiyyat will fill the spiritual vacuum that is felt by many.

Hazrat Khalifatul Masih was also interviewed by Wall Street Journal, a high-brow newspaper with an international circulation. The correspondent asked why Ahmadiyya Khalifa was visiting California? He responded by saying that the entire Earth is ours and we have to take our message everywhere. Besides, he was there to meet members of his JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at. Perhaps this question stemmed from a preconception based on politicians visiting USA to make worldly gains. Ahmadiyya HeadƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s response was that he was there neither to seek anything for himself nor for his JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at. He said: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”The only gain I want from [U.S. leaders] is to make some programme to create and develop peace in the world.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ He also warned against an impending world war if necessary steps were not taken and brought up the issue of drone strikes causing loss of innocent lives and said that these drone attacks are increasing anti-West sentiments!

Through the coverage of the tour by LA Times, Wall Street Journal, Chicago Tribune and few other newspapers in print media, the message reached 5.5 million people whereas it reached 5 million people via online sites and 1.5 million people through radio broadcasts. This could have never come to pass through our efforts. Indeed, all this was from God and was a brief glimpse of His omnipotence. Now, all these JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ats need to reap benefit from this and take the task onwards and upwards.

Next stop on the tour was Vancouver, Canada where Baitur Rahman mosque was inaugurated. Outside guests were invited and the event received good coverage by the media. On the whole, in Canada our message reached 8.5 million people through the mosque inauguration and through various interviews of Ahmadiyya Khalifa. CBC a national channel like the BBC here reported the mosque inauguration watched by an estimated 1 million viewers. Over 2 million viewers got the message via CTV, a news channel whereas 600,000 viewers received the message through Global TV. Eleven newspapers covered the event. Radio stations also broadcasted it and in particular the radio stations of the ethnic media relayed the message to 600,000 listeners.

Manmeet Singh is an old friend of the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at, he is a minister in the provisional assembly of Alberta. He said that he had prepared text for a speech on peace that he has to deliver in Geneva. However, after listening to the address of Ahmadiyya Khalifa, he said he would revise the text of his speech and include some points raised by Huzoor. A representative of a radio station called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Sher e PunjabƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ said that he found the address very courageous. Another comment praised HuzoorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s remark in his address that when we inaugurate a new mosque, we initiate a new chapter of religious freedom. CBC correspondent reported in news that Ahmadiyya Head replied satisfactorily to all the questions. A business man remarked that he had found out at the inauguration that peace is not only a teaching in Christianity. He said he would relate this to his children. A Muslim from Morocco said that he hoped this promotion of message of peace will help counter the misconceptions about Islam as an extremist religion. He said he was a Muslim but had learned many new things from the address. Another guest said that the address was extremely thought-provoking and encompassing wide range of matters. The highlight of the address was that it dealt with the fears of the ordinary person. It was extremely lucid and carried foresight. Another guest said that the message of Tawheed (Oneness of God) in the address was significant for the world.

Thus, different media outlets played a role in broadcasting this message. It reached about 4% of the population of USA, although in terms of West Coast population it reached 25%. In Canada the message reached 25% of total Canadian population. This was merely by the grace of God.

With the grace of God, according to a cautious estimate more than 20 million people received the message of Ahamdiyyat true Islam in this north American tour of Ahmadiyya Khalifa. To spread the message on such a scale and then to have positive, supportive responses cannot come to pass with human endeavour. This is from God.

The full English Translation of the Sermon ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the video link of which is as below:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8dtD0hOmLs&feature=youtu.be

Vesak Concert at UNESCO brings together Asian community

June 5th, 2013

Permanent Delegation of Sri Lanka to UNESCO Paris

The eve of Vesak was ushered in at UNESCO, with a colourful and vibrant concert of dance, song and music bringing together countries from across the Asian region and also including artistes from Europe, in an expression of unity as the true meaning of Vesak, the message of the Buddha and the relevance of such teachings were highlighted and conveyed.

ƒÆ’-¡ Commencing the evening, Sri Lankan dancers performed an exquisite ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”pooja danceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ invoking blessings and ushering in a whole host of dancers, singers, and musicians. Several other Sri Lankan dance items were also presented showcasing the different traditional dance forms found in the country.

unescoparis1

ƒÆ’-¡ The Permanent Delegations of India, China, Thailand and Indonesia joined the Permanent Delegation of Sri Lanka in making this evening possible with a duo from an Indian Dance School in Paris performing the legendary ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”bharatha natyamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ in two parts, while a Chinese dancer rendered a beautiful historic dance piece. From Thailand, dancers brought to life two dance routines known as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Ram Chern Pra KwanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Ra-bam Ma-Terng Mei JerngƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ while Indonesia provided the traditional Balinese ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Legong Kraton Lasem-Condong DanceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

unescoparis2

ƒÆ’-¡ Providing music, a special sitar performance was followed by the singing of traditional Vesak ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Bakthi GeethaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and other patriotic songs from Sri Lanka by Sri Lankans and also by a Swiss dental surgeon.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Queen of the ScreenƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and Member of Parliament, the Hon. Malani Fonseka, who was in Paris to attend the many events organized to commemorate Vesak, met with the artistes at the end of the concert and presented them with tokens of appreciation, in the company of the newly appointed Ambassador and Permanent Delegate of Sri Lanka, Prof. Karunaratne Hangawatte.

unescoparis3

ƒÆ’-¡ A large gathering of religious leaders, Ambassadors, diplomats, members of the Sri Lankan and other Asian communities in France filled the main hall of UNESCO for an evening of deeper understanding and appreciation of Sri Lankan and Asian artistic expressions.

 

 

Religious rituals conducted at the Embassy of Sri Lanka and at UNESCO in Paris for Vesak

June 5th, 2013

Permanent Delegation of Sri Lanka to UNESCO Paris

Events to mark Vesak in France commenced with a special ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”pirithƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ceremony at the Embassy of Sri Lanka in Paris which was attended by senior members of the Maha Sangha, including the Ven. Master Chin Kung, Head and Founder of Pureland College, Australia and Ven. Dr Bodagama Chandima Thero, International Affairs Advisor to His Excellency the President of Sri Lanka.

Pinkama at the Embassy_VEsak2013_small

Upon being received by the newly appointed Ambassador and Permanent Delegate to UNESCO, Professor Karunaratne Hangawatte, the senior Buddhist monks made offerings and conducted a special ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”pirithƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ceremony which was also attended by the Hon. Chamal Rajapaksa, Speaker of the Parliament, Hon. Malani Fonseka, Member of Parliament, Ambassador Katalin Bogyay, President of the General Conference of UNESCO and other Ambassadors and Permanent Delegates from UNESCO.

Blessings were given to the many events being organized in France, especially at UNESCO to mark the three fold manifestation in the life and times of the Buddha.

Offering Dana_VESAK_samll 2013

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”DanaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ was offered to large number of members of the Maha Sangha at UNESCO on both the day before Vesak and on Vesak day itself.

The Chief Sangha Nayake of France, Ven. Parawahera Chandraratne Thero,ƒÆ’-¡  Adikarana Sangha Nayake Ven. Murungasyaye Gnanissara Thero as well as the Ven. Kongasdeniye Ananda Thero were amongƒÆ’-¡  the senior members of the Maha Sangha who were joined by several other Buddhist monks who were visiting France from Sri Lanka, Asia and Europe.

Vesak at UNESCO_small

On Vesak day, events commenced with a special session of prayers for peace and harmony, which was conducted at UNESCO. A large number of members of the Maha Sangha representing the different sects of Buddhism chanted ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”pirithƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢.ƒÆ’-¡  These members of the clergy included Venerable monks from Sri Lanka, France and across Asia. The religious observances also included special prayers by Hindu, Christian and Islamic clerics.

 

 

 

If India remained Buddhist (the greatest ‘might have beens’ of history)

June 5th, 2013

SIR J. C. COYAJEE, B.A., LL.B. Department of History, Economics and Politics, Andhra University, India

In this account of the antecedents of the League of Nations it has not been found possible to take any account of the religious and philosophical influences which have always preached a world organization for peace and progress. Such a study would occupy a course of lectures by itself. On the West there was the teaching of Pierre Dubois, of Dante, of Erasmus and Kaait, of William Penn and Saint Pierre-* In the East a great effort had been made by Buddhism long ago to unite the world into a pacifist whole.

It is well known how the great Asoka pro- claimed all over his empire his inscriptions that ‘the chief conquest is the conquest of piety’. He also begged his descendants to rid themselves of the popular notion that conquest by arms is the duty of the kings; and even if they should find themselves engaged in warfare he reminds them they might still find pleasure in patience and gentleness, and should regard as the only true conquest that which is effected through the law of piety or Duty.

Less realised hitherto by the public has been the influence of Buddhism for peace when it left its native country and crossing the Himalayas established itself in Tibet and Mongolia.

Mongolia which had in former times sent forth one swarm of invaders after another, to plague the world from the Altais to the Atlantic Ocean, has been made into one of the most pacific countries in the world thanks to the pacifying-genius of Buddhism ; and if the Mongolians still retain some of the martial ardour of their ancestors it is expended in the harmless contests of the wrestling ring.

The aura of peace which radiates today from Geneva (1932) has flowed for centuries from centres like Lahasa and Nalanda; and as the missionaries of peace now go in crowds across the Alps to Geneva so they crowded once across the Himalayas.

It is a pleasure to find that at least one work on the League of Nations pays a tribute to Buddha as the greatest, ( *Ct Jones & Sherman, League of Nations, from Idea to Reality, pp. 4550), and, in some respects, the earliest forerunner of the cause of world peace; for it speaks of Buddhism as the greatest movement towards world-peace that the history of religion records.*

It is quite conceivable that the history of the world might have-been changed greatly for the better, and much of the present development might have been anticipated, had India chosen to remain as a country in the fold of the Buddha.

For then India could have been the nucleus and focus of a great religious and political system stretching not only over China, further India and Ceylon but over Central Asia and Ceylon. That would have formed a great system dominated by pacific ideals, and such ideas could have had a splendid chance of spreading over Western Asia and of permeating the entire world. We are face to face here with one of the greatest “might have beens” of history.

Nor when talking of religions would it be at all just not to mention that system of the founder of which the first dictum was “blessed are the peace-makers”. Nor should we forget the system of Zoroaster which boasted of being “the religion which makes men lay down their arms”.

Extracted from a paper entitled

‘INDIA AND THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS’

by

SIR J. C. COYAJEE, B.A., LL.B.
Department of History, Economics and Politics, Andhra University, India

DubaiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Fakih Group ups Sri Lanka intake

June 5th, 2013

PRESS COMMUNIQUE ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY & COMMERCE, SRI LANKA

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” JUNE 04, 2013

[Now shipping $200,000 of souvenirs monthly from Sri Lanka ƒÆ’-¡ 

  • ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Prime space for Lanka in new $85 Mn Dubai souvenir showpieceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢-Fakih
  • Made in Sri Lanka brand wows ME & Vietnamese buyers

sales2

N.P Fakih, the Managing Director of Dubai based $345 Mn (Y2012) Fakih Group, on 03 June at the

Ministry of Industry and Commerce, shows the layout of Sri Lanka stalls in his GroupƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s new

$85 Mn Dubai Showroom named as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Antique Museum HandicraftƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ scheduled to be completed

by end-2014.

ƒÆ’-¡ The Dubai based souvenirs and handicraft multinational Fakih Collection- a leading global souvenir firm-is increasing its direct sourcing from Sri Lanka. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Made in Sri Lanka handicrafts are beginning to make an impression among our buyers in DubaiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Jumeira Shopping mall and Karama Market, and also in several Qatari, Bahrain and Abudhabi malls. We have already expanded our Sri Lankan craft-making supply chain to 2000 householdsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ said N.P Fakih, the Managing Director of Dubai based $345 Mn ƒÆ’-¡ (Y2012) Fakih Group on 03 June in Colombo.

Fakih is in town to identify new handicraft supply sources from Sri Lanka as well as to inspect his firmƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s on-going souvenir and handicraft making in Kandy and Elpitiya. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-We are now hunting for additional other villages who can supply us. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Made in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ eco-friendly souvenirs are a hit in in DubaiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Jumeira Shopping mall, Karama Market, and also in several Qatar, Bahrain and Abudhabi malls. I am happy to say that on average, we are now buying almost $ 200,000 valued items from Sri Lanka on monthly basis. The two main international markets buying Lankan handicrafts are Vietnam and the Middle East. Middle Eastern shoppers snap up most souvenir types made in Sri Lanka including wood based items while Vietnam market mostly prefers paper and newspaper based items-such as our eco-friendly pencils made from newspapers. We have already expanded our Sri Lankan supply chain to 2000 craft-making households -200 are making paper products, 500 families in palm and similar grass based (or strong ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”IlukƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ leaves) products, 200 in bamboo products and 1100 families doing part assembly of eco-friendly handy crafts. Most households are earning around Rs 20000 per month by supplying to usƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ said Fakih, and added: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-In March 2013, Fakih Group was certified as Our Sri Lankan product line will a prime attraction in my up-coming $ 85 Mn showpiece to be constructed at Street 19 in the vicinity of Times Square in Dubai. This 175,000 Sqr Ft huge showroom to be completed by 2014 end, will showcase souvenirs coming to us from various international locations. The biggest three sections have been allocated to Thailand, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. We have already allocated sub-sections 29, 92 and 101 exclusively for Sri Lanka with a total area of 18,000 Sqr ft.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Fakih Group employs 6700 employees across 14 countries including Sri Lanka (considerable number of them being women in households on a self-employment basis) supplying to the growing demand volumes in their 28 international markets. The Group uses kiosk vending model and runs 28 kiosks in Dubai alone. Among the 6700 employees are 3850 handicraft creators (craftsmen). Among the countries supplying the more than 290,000 items strong Fakih Group multicultural gifts and souvenirs portfolio are Sri Lanka (722 items), UAE (467 items), Philippines (3600 items), Thailand (22467 items), Vietnam (11359 items), Turkey (1310 items), Morocco (12290 items), Nepal (2315 items), Cambodia (1310 items), African collection (3590 items), Indonesia (11274 items), India (55924 items), Egypt (1936 items), Yemen (3600 items) and China (160128 items).

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-My target is to increase current 722 items from Sri Lanka to 5000 items in the next three years. Our Group turnover has grown to $ 345 Mn (YƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢12) from $ 300 Mn in 2011ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Fakih added.

CONCLUDED

Media

Ministry of Industry & Commerce ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” 112435847 (Ext 246)

The Dangers Of The 13th Amendment Seems To Be Oblivious To Some Pundits.

June 4th, 2013

Insight By Sunil Kumar

JuneƒÆ’-¡ 5th 2013

There seems to be a sudden surge on the part of certain Sri Lankan policy makers to implement the 13th Amendment to the Constitution perhaps oblivious to the dangers it could entail and precipitate a complete reversal of roles in the aftermath of a decades long victorious battle with the Tamil TigerƒÆ’-¡ insurgent who long sought to destroy what Sri Lanka realistically stood for, the significance of how the Nation evolved through millenia and who controls its functioning on the pretext that the land belonged to those whom they saw fit which of course does not align with reality as justice prevailed in the end where the greater as well as more deserving were victorious. Let this not be compromised!

Neither India norƒÆ’-¡  disgruntled Tamil Tiger supportive diaspora and definitelty not forces who would like to interfere into the internal affairs of a Sovereign Democratic Majority Sinhala Nation have any right to do soƒÆ’-¡ simply to appease agendas of their own involving Sri Lanka’s adversaries who appear to be beneficial towards their own ends whose duplicitous and contentious presentationsƒÆ’-¡  provide the sensationalism intended to sway a myopic world on matters related to Sri Lanka.

At this stage of Sri Lanka’s progress in the aftermath of the victory over terrorism and insurgency the term Unitary State needs to be the foremost consideration firmly disassociated with the term Secession towards appeasing a miniscule minority and their supportives reluctant to toe the line with the Administration andƒÆ’-¡ now screaming for the 13th AmendmentƒÆ’-¡ where logically as well as rationally it is not the panacea Sri Lanka needs towards stability andƒÆ’-¡  development where to the contrary it could set in place dangerous precedents that were dismantled as a result of the downing of the insurgents and something a few blinkered pundits fail to see as they continue harping over the somewhat contentious merits of the 13th Amendment.

The following excerpt ofƒÆ’-¡  a presentation by SPUR the Human Rights Organization based in Australia does more than pellucidate the ramifications of the 13th AmendmentƒÆ’-¡  and a worthwhile warning towards its implementation where a truer statement would perhaps be never more applicable which hopefully will be picked up for its merit towards the Nation of Sri Lanka by her legislators and Administrators. It is a brilliant evaluation of what the Nation of Sri Lanka truly needs today.

with all due credits and acknowledgements to SPUR

Repeal the 13th Amendment to Sri Lanka Constitution

Protect Unitary Status ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Defuse Racism

The Society for peace Unity and Human Rights (SPUR) is a 16 year old human rights organisation operating in Australia, dedicated to protecting the unitary status and the territorial integrity of Sri Lanka.ƒÆ’-¡  We have been active in countering denigration of ƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka and challenging the spread of malicious misinformation. During the last 16 years, SPUR has been urging the Sri Lankan Government, including President RajapaksaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s government to repeal the 13th Amendment to Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s constitution. The 13th Amendment, rammed down Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s throat in 1987 by then unfriendly India:

  • Risks Balkanising unitary Sri Lanka providing a fertile ground for separatism parroted by political parties such as the TNA
  • Encourages racist, political activism similar to what is being practiced by the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress during the recently concluded Eastern Provincial Council elections
  • Provides opportunities for foreign funded NGOƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s such as the Centre for Policy Alternative to boldly challenge and obstruct the implementation of progressive government policy such as the Divineguma Bill, drafted to benefit the poor
  • Discourages the cultivation of a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-one Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ culture by encouraging provincial based, racist parochialism freely practiced by the likes of the TNA and the SLMC
  • Threatens national unity by giving minority political parties disproportionate power, allowing them to secure racial based programmes
  • Allows external interference in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s domestic governance evidenced by TNAƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s frequent visits to India, using Tamil Nadu as the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Trojan HorseƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ to follow their racist and divisive Eealm agenda.

All Sri Lankans paid a tremendous economic, social and environmental price for eradicating Tamil Tiger Terrorism from Sri Lanka. It is time to expunge the provincial council based on parochial racism from Sri Lanka. We urge President RajapksaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s government to:

  • Repeal the 13 Amendment.
  • Consider establishing village and district based, development centric institutional structure with elected representatives to empower decision making at grass-root level.
  • Get rid of the number of politicians populating a bloated four-tier governance arrangement in Sri Lanka, draining the public purse.

With the repealing of the 13th Amendment, Sri Lanka will prosper as a Unitary State where people will live as one enjoying the full gamut of human rights equitably. At present, the toxic 13th amendment provides a safe heaven and a camouflage for separatists, racists and international agents to freely prosecute their agenda to Balkanise Sri Lanka.

Its time to once and for all to extricate ourselves from the political handcuffs put on us by the Indians nearly 25 years ago.

LETƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢S CALL A SPADE A SPADE AND CALL DR. JAYALATH JAYAWARDENA A TRAITOR

June 4th, 2013

Malin Abeyatunge

ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s not the right thing to speak ill of a dead person. But with reluctance, I ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ll have to break those ethics and call deceasedƒÆ’-¡  Dr. Jayalath JayewardenaƒÆ’-¡  as aƒÆ’-¡  Traitor to Sinhala Buddhists and to Sri Lanka. I fully endorse Malith EkanayakaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s writing on Dr.JJ (Lankaweb) .There are some bunch of Sinhala political and media hypocrites who sang hosannas for JJ knowing well that he acted as a traitor to Sri Lanka. Some of them have completely forgotten how JJ appeased and mollycoddled LTTE and its Diaspora in every opportunity he got on his way. YesterdayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Island (3/6/13) carried a big Hosanna by one of the worst tigers livingƒÆ’-¡  Emanuel Pillai crying for Dr.JJ. That itself is enough to brand Dr.JJ ƒÆ’-¡ as a traitor. ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ As Sri Lankans who love their mother country will never forget his utterances against Sri Lanka and Sinhala Buddhists when he was in a foreign soil. He attended many LTTE organised political forums organised GTF and BTF in UK and didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t spare a wink in lambasting Sri Lanka and Sinhala Buddhists.ƒÆ’-¡  When the LTTE was murdering thousands of innocent Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims this guy was appeasing LTTE. Although Dr.JJ is now dead and gone, the harm he had done to Sinhala Buddhists and Sri Lanka will never be forgotten. I hope Mr. Malith ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Karunananyake will pardon me to reiterate a few instances from his article titled ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-What should I call himƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦A TraitorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in Lankaweb website:

quote ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¢ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Chennai, 14 November, (Asiantribune.com): Indian National Congress activists and anti-terrorism groups expressed shock at recent

utterances of the Sri Lankan politician Dr ƒÆ’-¡  Jayalath Jayawardana who urged Indian intervention to save the beleaguered Tamil Tigers in Kilinochchi. They said that Dr JayawardanaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Press Release issued in New

Delhi stating ƒÆ’-¡  that the Tamils in the north are starving and India should intervene to save them is contrary to the reports issued by UN bodies and various INGOs on the humanitarian situationƒÆ’-¡  (2008)

http://defencecolumn.blogspot.com/2008/11/indian-experts-challenge-jayalath.htmlƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¢ QuoteƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬The government will hand over a resolution to Speaker Chamal Rajapaksa on Monday to appoint a Select Committee of Parliament to probe

allegations that United ƒÆ’-¡  National Party (UNP) Member of Parliament Dr. Jayalath Jayawardena colluded with separatist pro-LTTE forces while in

London.

http://www.sundaytimes.lk/101205/News/nws_11.html

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¢ Mannar Bishop deprived of meeting LTTE suspects – 31 July 2012

Quote ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬UNP MP Dr. Jayalath Jayawardena yesterday alleged that the dictatorial Rajapaksa regime was denying even the basic right of people to visit those held over terrorismƒÆ’-¡  charges. An irate UNPer said that

Bishop of Mannar Rt. Rev Rayappu Joseph was refused permission last Friday (July 27) to meet 17 LTTE suspects transferred from the Vavuniya prison to Mahara recently following the STF quelling a riot there.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

 

AT LAST WE ARE MINUS OF ANOTHER SINHALA TRAITOR

WELL ON THE ROAD TO RECONCILIATION -DR CHRIS NONIS TELLS BBC WORLD NEWS

June 4th, 2013

PRESSƒÆ’-¡  RELEASE-The High Commission of Sri Lanka London

Sri Lanka’s post-conflict measures at reconciliation, rehabilitation, reintegration, and reconstruction were highlighted by High Commissioner Dr Chris Nonis during an interview on BBC World News today.

Asked by BBC presenter Mishal Husain what positive developments have occurred in the last four years since the end of the 26 year conflict, Dr Nonis said 297,000 people rescued from the clutches of the LTTE have been rehabilitated, in perhaps the largest hostage rescue operation in global history.

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-After a 28 year bitter and internecine conflict with the terrorists we finally achieved peace in the country under the leadership of President Mahinda Rajapaksa. There is a billion dollar programme going into the North and East, Negenahira Navodaya, and Uthura Vasanthaya which is building the lives and infrastructure of the people. Eleven thousand six hundred LTTE cadres are now being rehabilitated”, Dr Nonis told the BBC World News programme “Impact”.

“I have met these kids. They were cruelly snatched by Prabhakaran from their parents, and they were fighting but they didn’t know what they were fighting for. It is so wonderful to see them receiving vocational training, being rehabilitated and re-integrated into society,” the High Commissioner said.

On the question of an international independent process to assess progress as called for by the UN, the High Commissioner said that one needs to draw a distinction between an international process and an independent process.

He said ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-We respect the Sovereign rights of Britain, and of every other country, and we expect you to respect ours.ƒÆ’-¡  We are a sovereign and an independent state and naturally we expect the same courtesy that you would expect us to apply for your country.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-We do have an independent inquiry and many people who initially criticised the LLRC process changed their views when they actually saw the 388-paged document. It was modelled on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa. It was set within the Principle of International Humanitarian Law, incorporating the Principle of Distinction and the Principle of Proportionality. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The Commission is moving forward and there is significant progressƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

Questioned on refugees and persecution, Dr Nonis said ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-I would say there are many people who for various different reasons come and seek asylum, and I think what we have to separate, is those who seek asylum as economic refugees,ƒÆ’-¡  from those who seek asylum as political refugeesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” You must remember the demography of the country, the majority of Tamil people actually live in the Centre and South of Sri Lanka, if you look at Colombo, its roughly a 30-30-30 percent split between Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim. We have a huge dichotomy or disjuncture in perception between what is portrayed here and the reality of contemporary Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

Asked by Mishal Husain ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…- How many yearsƒÆ’-¡  would it take to say that we are now reconciledƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, Dr Nonis pointed to South Africa and the post-apartheid period where there are still substantial issues and to Northern Ireland where, despite the “Good Friday” Agreement, there are still issues.ƒÆ’-¡  “In comparison, I think we have done pretty well,” he said reiterating that it is only four years since the military defeat of the LTTE.

BBC Web Link ( Video ): http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-22754678

03 June 2013

Self Immolation by Bowatte Indraratana Thera – Will it be successful?

June 4th, 2013

Michelle Alexander

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-As he burned he never moved a muscle, never uttered a sound, his outward composure in sharp contrast to the wailing people around him.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Journalist David Halberstam describes the death of ThƒÆ’†’­ch QuƒÆ’†’ ng ƒÆ’-¾ƒÆ’†’ºc, the Vietnamese Buddhist monk who set himself on fire in Saigon in 1963.ƒÆ’-¡ ThƒÆ’†’­ch QuƒÆ’†’ ng ƒÆ’-¾ƒÆ’†’ºcƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s self-immolation triggered a massive response, which resulted in the toppling of the NgƒÆ’†’´ ƒÆ’-¾ƒÆ’†’¬nh Diem regime in South Vietnam.

Self-Immolation as a means of protest leaves a profound and compelling impact, yet it is wrong to assume that every act of self-immolation guarantees change.ƒÆ’-¡  Michael Biggs, one of the few sociologists who have studied this phenomenon estimates that from 1963, 800-3000 self-immolations may have taken place.ƒÆ’-¡  However, not all have been successful. For example, since 2009 fifty-one Tibetan Buddhist monks and nuns have committed self-immolation, yet they have not caused any significant political changes, nor have they brought Tibet any closer to being free of China. Self-immolation may become ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-successfulƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in a sense where it is not about the one who performs it, but about the community in which it occurs. In such a situation, this community recognizes itself in the predicament of the one committing self-immolation and is, for a lack of a better description, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-shamedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ by the event and is then compelled to act.

On May 24th, Bowatte Indraratana Thera committed self-immolation to protest the slaughter of cattle, to succumb to his injuries a few days later. The question arises is this, will it be successful? If the past is any indicator, there will be protests, lawmakers will contemplate implementing laws to abolish cattle slaughter (ex. The Animal Welfare Bill), etc. But, at the end of the day, this too runs the risk of being swept under the carpet and forgotten, much like every other unresolved issue facing our country. It will only work if the people continue to agitate the government to make the necessary changes.


Copyright © 2014 LankaWeb.com. All Rights Reserved. Powered by Wordpress