“One day we will win the hearts of people” – Head of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community

October 9th, 2016

By A. Abdul Aziz

 Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad interviewed by Canadian media at Ahmadiyya Convention (Jalsa Salana) Canada

On 7 October 2016, the World Head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, the Fifth Khalifa (Caliph), His Holiness, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad held a Press Conference with representatives of the Canadian print, broadcast and ethnic media. Media outlets present included CTV and the Toronto Star.

The Press Conference took place at the International Centre in Mississauga on the first day of the 40th Annual Convention (Jalsa Salana) of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Canada.  

During the 35 minute Press Conference, His Holiness was asked his views on establishing peace in the world, the continued threat of terrorism and extremism and the purpose of his visit to Canada. 

Speaking about his current tour of Canada, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad said: 

“This year the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Canada is celebrating its 50th anniversary and so the local Ahmadiyya Muslim Community requested me to come and address their Annual Convention.”

Upon being asked how the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is spreading peace in the world, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad said: 

“Islam prohibits all forms of extremism and terrorism and so suicide bombings, beheadings, the killing of innocent people are all opposed to Islam’s teachings. This is the message we are propagating and spreading far and wide.”

In response to a question about the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community’s slogan of ‘Love for All, Hatred for None’, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad said: 

“The importance and significance of this message is obvious in today’s world given that violence and disorder has spread to so many parts of the world. Hence, the message of ‘Love for All, Hatred for None’ is not only something for Muslims to follow but for all people. In today’s society we need to show kindness, compassion and must discharge the rights of one another.”    

During the Press Conference, His Holiness condemned the role of extremist Muslim clerics in the spread of extremism and the radicalisation of some Muslims. His Holiness said that such clerics had completely “misconstrued the true teachings of Islam” and he advised authorities to take firm measures against any cleric found to promote extremism.

Asked about his views on Canadian values, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad said:

“I am pleased that Canada is a multicultural society in which freedom of religion and freedom of expression exists. I enjoy visiting Canada whenever I have the opportunity to travel here.” 

Regarding the efforts of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community to curb extremism, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad said: 

“We have no worldly power and so all we can do is to continue to peacefully preach Islam’s true teachings. It is a slow process but one day we shall win the hearts of people and the brutalities witnessed in the world today will stop. We are very determined and so we will never give up our tasks.”  

ඒකාබද්ධ විපක්ෂයට සීවලී ක්‍රීඩාංගනයේ වේදිකා තහනම්! මෙන්න යහපාලන රෙදි ගැලවෙන ලිපිය.

October 9th, 2016

www.mahinda.info

[1]. රත්නපුර සීවලී ක්‍රීඩාංගනයේ වේදිකා කූඩාරම් ආදිය ඉදි කර රැස්වීම පැවැත්වීම සඳහා ඒකාබද්ධ විපක්ෂයට ලබා නොදෙන බව පවසමින් රත්නපුර මහ නගර සභාවෙන් නිකුත් කරන ලද ලිපිය පහත දැක්වේ.

යහපාලනය කියාගත්තද ජනතාවට ප්‍රජාතන්ත්‍රවාදීව රැස්වීමේ නිදහස පවා අවහිර කරන දරුණු පාලනයක් වර්තමානයේ පවතින බවට මීට වඩා උදාහරණ අවශ්‍ය නොවේ. එසේම ඒකාබද්ධ විපක්ශයට මොවුන් දක්වන බිය ඡන්ද කල් දැමීමෙන් නොනැවතී ජනතා රැස්වීම් පවා අවහිර කිරීමෙන් පෙනී යයි. බෙහෙත් පෙත්තට පවා වැට් බදු ඉහළ දමා, එක්ටා මගින් ඉන්දියානුවන්ට රැකියා දුන් පසුව මෙලෙස ජනමතය යටපත් කළ හැකි වේවිද?

 

[2]. පසුගිය දා ඩබ්ලිව් ඩී ජේ සෙනෙවිරත්න පැවසූයේ රත්නපුර සීවලී ක්‍රීඩාංගනය ඒකාබද්ධ විපක්ෂයෙන් ඉල්ලා නැති බවත්, ඉල්ලුවේ ලොරි ගාල බවත් ය. පවිත්‍රා වන්නිආරච්චි මහත්මිය බොරු කීවා කියූ ඔහුගේ කතාව මාධ්‍ය මගින් රටටම ප්‍රචාරය කෙරුණි. නමුත් ඉහත ලිපියෙන් ඩබ්ලිව් ඩී ජේ සෙනවිරත්නගේ බොරු අතේ මාට්ටු වී ඇත.

පහත දැක්වෙන්නේ ඩබ්ලිව් ඩී ජේ සෙනෙවිරත්න රටම ඉදිරියේ බොරු කියන අයුරුය. මාධ්‍ය මගින් ඔහුගේ කතාව ප්‍රචාරය කළ ආකාරයෙන්ම ඉහත දැක්වූ ලිපියෙන්මො හු ගහපු බොරුව මාට්ටු වුණ ආකාරයත් ප්‍රචාරය කරනු ඇතැයි අප බලාපොරොත්තු වන්නෙමු.

සීවලී ක්‍රීඩාංගනයට අමතරව ලොරි ගාලත් වෙන් කරගත් හේතුව පවිත්‍රා වන්නිආරච්චි මහත්මිය පැහැදිළි කළාය.

අනිත් අයටත් බලන්නට SHARE කරන්න.

JO to file action against denial of access to Public Ground in Rathnapura

October 9th, 2016

By Chamodi Gunawardana Courtesy Daily FT

The Joint Apposition plans to take legal action against the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) politician who had forced the Ratnapura Municipal Commissioner to refuse permission to hold their rally at the Seevali Ground in Ratnapura, MP Pavithra Wanniarachchi said.

Speaking to the media, Wanniarachchi said she would take legal action against that particular politician over his alleged attempts to hamper preparations for the rally. She also claimed the actions of this politician have violated fundamental rights of those who support Former President Mahinda Rajapaksa.

“On Thursday, some group had assaulted the young supporters of the Joint Opposition while they were decorating the Ratnapura town for the Rally. We will go courts to take legal action against these [injustices],” she said.

Wanniarachchi also said that Ratnapura Municipal Commissioner M. W. Kulathilaka had issued a letter preventing the Joint Opposition from using the Seevali ground to hold the rally.

The Commissioner had stated in the letter that the council had decided to not provide the ground for an event that would set up structures on the ground.

“Kulathilaka has informed us that we couldn’t use the Seevali Ground. Instead we are supposed to hold the rally in the Park for lorries which is adjacent to the Seevali Ground,” Wanniarachchi said.

Critical of the Commissioner’s decision, Wanniarachchi further said the Municipal Council did not have such reservations when President Maithripala Sirisena was using the Seevali Ground to celebrate World Environment day months ago.

“This decision indicates how much the Government fears the Joint Opposition and how they attempt to disturb our work,” she stressed.

Wanniarachchi added the rally would be led by former President Mahinda Rajapaksa, with the participation of leaders of the Joint Opposition.

Former Minister Basil Rajapaksa, widely speculated to be the leader of the new party to be formed by members of the JO had confirmed his participation in the rally. However Former President and current Member of Parliament Mahinda Rajapaksa has so far not spoken about his participation.

Some frightening numbers

October 9th, 2016

Editorial Courtesy The Island

Last week’s newspapers were crowded with reports on the mind-boggling penalties loss-loaded SriLankan Airlines will pay for the cancellation of the leases of four Airbus A350 aircraft. An AFP report we run today quoted official sources placing the figure at around US dollars 115 million. This obviously is not small beer by any consideration. The present management of the airline wishes to concentrate on its regional short haul destinations and discontinue several long haul flights to Europe. The popular London flights offering the convenience of a non-stop connection against cheaper fares offered by Middle Eastern competitors involving a stopover at their hubs will continue, presumably because they are viable.

There is no doubt that particularly Airlanka, the predecessor of the present national carrier, was largely responsible for bringing modern aircraft and airline technology into this country. The fact that we had our own airline when the July 1983 riots blackened our image internationally, and many foreign airlines flying here discontinued services, enabled us to ensure the survival of our tourist industry on which substantial investment had been made over a long period of time. While the decision of airlines that had long flown here to stop coming to Colombo was a heavy blow to tourism, the fact that we had our own airline prevented us from being totally isolated. Although five-star hotel rooms here became available for as little as 20 and 30 dollars in those dark days, tourism survived and is today demonstrating a growth momentum identifying it as among the biggest economic drivers of the times.

The technology that Airlanka brought into the country and the experience gained by thousands of Lankans privileged to work for the airline enabled the acquisition of skills and abilities that have enabled a very large number of our people to find jobs not only in this country but overseas. These ranged from stewards and stewardesses, aircraft engineers and mechanics, ticketing and catering staff and many more. From a backward airline boasting it was accident free in a small but well located country, we were able to take a great leap forward towards modernization thanks to the decision to set up that airline, utilizing the goodwill that the J.R. Jayewardene government was able to mobilize in Singapore. This enabled the harnessing of the proven expertise of Singapore Airlines to develop Airlanka and we were able to make remarkable progress. Obviously there was no free lunch and Singapore Airlines also wanted to take advantage of the relationship. Eventually there was a parting of the ways with an arrangement with Emirates that came in as an equity partner and manager to follow.

The former president did not do himself any good by appointing his brother-in-law, a former planter, as Chairman of SriLankan Airlines; likewise the setting up of Mihin Lanka, bearing a diminutive of his name, without any kind of commercial or financial rationale. The public perception, for valid reasons, was that an airline spending billion on re-fleeting was a hotbed of corruption. Buying aircraft involving the expenditure of the kind of bucks that were being spent for the purpose obviously opened doors for kickbacks and commissions and most people had no doubt that big money was being made on procurements. Tight controls that are necessary in these circumstances were nowhere in evidence. There were strong doubts on whether the country was getting the best deal for its money. Having sold a stake in the airline to Emirates, the inflated egos of the powers that were, aided and abetted by sycophants who only muttered ehei hamaduruwane whatever the royal desire however stupid, an arrangement that was profitable to both partners was terminated. Emirates obviously saw prospects in the company as it increased its stake, albeit modestly, by buying employee shares granted free, gratis and for nothing to the airline’s staff, from whoever was willing to sell. The end came after the Emirates appointed CEO was kicked out for refusing to bounce paid passengers to accommodate a royal retinue on a flight.

The new regime, typically, appointed the one man Weliamuna Committee to find out what has been going on in the airline. There was a lot of whistle blowing in response to its invitation for information and the committee, whose work was necessarily not as in-depth as the situation warranted on account of a tight timeline among other reasons, came up with a report. But even such a preliminary investigation surfaced a lot of material, some of it salacious, for further inquiry. But nothing seems to have been done since with no bloodhounds unleashed to get at the culprits. The government has sensibly come round to the viewpoint that no more public funds can be poured into a bottomless pit and is looking for a partner to take a 49 percent stake in the airline with the buyer given management control. This is similar to the previous arrangement with Emirates for the termination of which President Mahinda Rajapaksa has not been brought to account.

Any new arrangement will obviously necessitate the government (read taxpayer) assuming responsibility for the airline’s existing debt or a big chunk thereof. There was a Reuter report last week that about half a dozen parties are interested suggesting that despite the depressing figures that emerged last week the airline still offers some value. After a previous management downsized its payroll to reasonable proportions through an expensive voluntary retirement scheme, a new government merrily added more recruits to the airline bloating the numbers above the previous level! SriLankan can be properly run as has been previously demonstrated by a board headed by a respected and capable civil servant that included such personalities like the late Lal Jayasundera of Hayleys. But travel perks attract freeloaders appointed by political patrons to the board and it is unlikely that the political powers that are have the backbone to do away with such pernicious practices.

Federalism: Implications of international experiences and research findings for Sri Lanka

October 9th, 2016

by M.L.WICKRAMASINGHE Courtesy The Island

A dialogue on unitary and federal systems of government has already begun albeit among a woefully inadequate number of citizens. This article is an attempt at contributing to an informed dialogue on federalism by presenting the implications of international experiences and research findings on federalism for Sri Lanka.

It would be pertinent to begin by reviewing the pattern of physical spread of the two systems, among the world’s total of 195 sovereign countries. There are 169 (83.7%) unitary countries to 26 federated countries. (source: Wikipedia/ UN Statistical Division). In Asia 39 countries are unitary while only 06 countries (13%) are federal.

The population in federal countries is around 40 % and is due to the theoretical principle that federal systems are best for large countries. For example, of the 10 largest countries in the world, seven are federal.

In size, Sri Lanka is ranked as the 120th country out of 195. Of the 75 countries that are smaller than Sri Lanka, 68, or 90 % of countries are unitary. Of the 26 federal countries in the world, 85% are larger than Sri Lanka. Very many small countries follow the unitary model. Why should Sri Lanka choose to stray away?

Proponents of federalism, guided by western concepts, believe that countries with multiple ethnicities should, as a rule of the thumb, select federalism. But framers need to be more discerning; ask questions before committing to a model. Does federalism match with local reality, and ground situation in the country? Does it match with the existing socio-cultural, political, demographic, and geo-political circumstances? What are previous national experiences? What has international research shown, both on mainstream federalism, and ethno-federalism?

The oft made suggestion is that “if federalism is good enough for USA and India, why not for Sri Lanka?” We may begin by reflecting on the applicability of these to Sri Lanka.

This, very briefly, is how the USA constitution came into being. Around 1770s, the 13 separate colonies in America fighting the British for independence agreed to form a Union. However, after independence they realized that the central government lacked adequate executive authority to enforce legislation, raise revenue, and provide defense to the Union. The first agreement on the Confederation was a failure.

If the Union were to survive a new Constitution had to be developed. It was a kind of tight rope walk for the framers who had to balance the power of states already in existence with the power and authority needed by a central government to be effective as a Country in the emerging geo-political situation. This is why the Constitution of the USA is popularly called a ‘bringing- together’ Constitution. An independent Judiciary, Bill of Rights, and the separation of powers principle ensured that fundamental rights of citizens would be protected and abuse of government powers precluded.

As some Lankans think, the USA Constitution did not change a unitary country to a federal country. It sought to protect the integrity of the new Country built out of 13 disparate independently functioning states by judiciously strengthening the central government. Federalism was a pre-constitutional reality. But neither ethnicity nor language was the basis for demarcating states. It was pure and simple territorial federalism.

Sri Lanka certainly can learn from the constitution-making process in America. The key learning point is that the designing of the USA Constitution was mainly based on a critical analysis and a rational understanding of contextual issues, the locality-specific situation, historical developments, and the emerging geo-political situation facing the fledgling country. The concept of sovereignty of the people, the rights of the individual, separation of powers, and the stability of the Country were some overarching principles.

The lesson for Sri Lanka from USA, is not to import federalism. But to undertake a critical analysis and a rational understanding of the contextual situation and locality-specific issues facing the country, including an understanding of the implication of the size of the country, the continued need to forge amity among all communities, the geo-political implications, national security, and the need to strengthen the protection of fundamental rights of all citizens without discrimination, and the integrity of the State of Sri Lanka.

What can we learn from India? The Indian Constitution is called a ‘holding together’ Constitution.

There are 122 major languages and 1,599 other languages in use in India (2011 Census). Of the above, 22 are recognized as official languages. Hindi, the mother tongue of the largest number (41 %) of Indian people, is the main language in nine states (out of a total of 29 states). Bengali, the main language of two states is the second most widely (8%) spoken language. Telegu is the main language in two states. The other states have one main language each. With such a mosaic of heterogeneous population and far flung lands, the ground reality was to adopt federalism. The British colonial government advocated a federation in 1935, which failed to be activated. (Please also note that the British colonial government did not advocate federalism for Sri Lanka).

It is also revealing that during the early stages of framing of the Indian constitution, Pandit Nehru supported territorial federalism, but not ethnic or linguistic federalism.

Dr. S.D. Muni’s writing titled ‘Ethnic conflict, federalism, and democracy in India’ published in United Nations University web page confirms that Dr. Ambedkar was also of same opinion : ” …. Though the country and the people may be divided into different states for convenience of administration, the country is one integral whole, its people a single people living under a single imperium derived from a single source…” .

Later on, however, language based states were accepted. Nonetheless, the central government’s absolute power to annul any separatist push was maintained and further enhanced through new Acts as late as the mid-1970s.

Many wrote about the success of Indian federalism. But only a few attempted to identify causes for such success (and some setbacks). One such illuminating analysis was undertaken by Professor Ashutosh Varshney, Sol Goldman Professor of International Studies and the Social Sciences at Brown University, USA. In the 2013 article ‘How Has Indian Federalism Done?’ published in ‘Studies in Indian Politics’ Journal, Varshney identifies the vital factor for the success of Indian federalism: ” A major reason for the success of Indian federalism, if not the only one, has to do with the country’s ethnic configuration. Indian identities tend to crosscut, instead of cumulating”.

Varshney presents two concepts to describe the identity formation of the ethnic or linguistic majority group in the states. The first way is called ‘crosscutting cleavage’, and the second way is called ‘cumulating cleavage.’

When the majority ethnic group of the area is cross-cut considerably by other socio-cultural groups, such as those speaking a different language, belonging to a different religion or a tribe, that phenomenon is called a cross cutting cleavage. Consequently, the majority ethnic group would not be able to monopolize public opinion formation in that area. This reduces pathways for intense ethnic identity formation around that majority ethnic group. The absence of such a monolithic ethno-political identity prevents extremist politicians from mobilizing them for political brinkmanship against the centre. Varshney explains that intra-state issues are turned into a “more enduring form of politics than a confrontation with the Centre”.

The vast majority of Indian states are crosscutting cleavage states, and thus are immunized against separatism.

However, in a cumulating cleavage situation, the majority language group almost make-up the total population of the administrative unit; perchance if other seemingly different smaller groups are present they would invariably hold similar beliefs as that of the majority language group. There is nothing inherently wrong with such natural formations. But an opportunity is certainly presented to extremist ethnic politicians to exploit the situation and build up an intense ethno-political identity in the administrative unit and channel it against the central government.

India is proof of the empirical truth of this theory. Professor Varshney indicates that the separatist challenges in India exclusively occurred/ occurs in the few states where ethnic cleavages tend to cumulate. These are Jammu and Kashmir, and Northeastern tribal states such as Assam, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland , Tripura and the Punjab.

However, the might of the Indian central government, its economic strength, and the strongly ‘pro-India’ Indian diaspora spread throughout the world acts as a strong and pre-emptive strike force against separatist tendencies.

Sri Lanka however presents a completely different picture on both counts. Professor Varshney discussing Sri Lanka in the above mentioned article writes:”Sri Lanka is a classic case of cumulative cleavages. Tamils are not only religiously distinct from the Sinhalese, but also linguistically and racially”.

The lesson from India for Sri Lanka is very clear. Any federal approach would clearly subject Sri Lanka to high risks.

In recent times many researchers have joined in studying ethno federalism. One such researcher, Henry Hale of America, as Professor Ashutosh, has attempted to examine the underlying causes in regard to federal processes. He presents a concept called ‘core ethnic region’ and identifies it as the biggest risk factor for state collapse in ethno- federal countries. (Ref:- H.E.Hale, ‘Divided We Stand: Institutional Sources of Ethno-Federal State Survival and Collapse’, in ‘World Politics Journal’, 2004).

Hale defines a core ethnic region as “a single ethnic federal region that enjoys dramatic superiority in population”. As per this definition, if the northern province of Sri Lanka is accorded federal characteristics constitutionally, (irrespective of the given terminology) it becomes a core ethnic region.

Hale’s analysis shows that all ethno-federal countries that ultimately collapsed had at least one core ethnic region within it. These were Czechoslovakia, Mali Federation, Nigeria First Republic, Pakistan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Yugoslavia, and Serbia-Montenegro (the first federation).

Hale’s research indicates that in all these situations the “core ethnic regions are centrally involved in the collapses, producing dangerous situations of dual power …. that are frequently at the heart of state breakdown”, because core ethnic regions by its nature and power tend to retard the “capacity of the central government to credibly commit to the security” of core ethnic regions. This process according to Hale is set in motion by ethnic card playing politicians.

The above analysis clearly demonstrate that if federalism is invoked, Sri Lanka would be subjected to the presence of two high-risk disintegrative phenomena namely (i) cumulating ethnic cleavages and (ii) core ethnic regions.

It is proposed that policy-makers and framers take these concepts and the negative implications into view in deciding on the Constitution.

(The writer is an ex-journalist, communication researcher, and retired officer of the international civil service.)

Buddhist Animal Rights Conference adopts Resolution calling on Govt. of Sri Lanka to enact the Animal Welfare Bill

October 9th, 2016

The world’s first Buddhist animal rights conference

The first Asian Buddhist Animal Rights Conference co-hosted by Dharma Voices for Animals (DVA) and Coexistence of Animal Rights on Earth (CARE) was held successfully at Hotel Skypark Kingstown, Dongdaemun in Seoul, South Korea on Friday September 30, 2016 immediately after the conclusion of the 28th General Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists Conference in the same city.

It was a full day Conference.

One of the Resolutions adopted at the Conference called upon the Govt. of Sri Lanka to take immediate steps to have the Animal Welfare Bill enacted without delay. It said that it would be tantamount to an inexcusable lapse if Sri Lanka were to celebrate in year 2017 the UN Day of Vesak at an Inter – Governmental level, without extending appropriate legislative protection in line with Buddhist values and Sri Lanka’s historical animal friendly cultural heritage, and modern standards of care and treatment, to animals.

The keynote speaker was the well-known Buddhist monk and animal advocate Venerable Master Hai Tao from Taiwan. He spoke on Compassion for All Beings.

Master Hai Tao

Other speakers were

1) DVA President, Bob Isaacson who spoke on the Buddha’s Teachings on Sentient Beings and How We Can Live Kinder.

2) Dr. Chamith Nanayakkara (Veterinary Surgeon and Chapter leader of the Kandy Chapter of DVA in Sri Lanka ) who with his team have generously given free treatment to more than 50,000 animals

Dr. Nanayakkara raised the question, is it consistent with Buddhist teachings for humans to kill animals in response to overpopulation? Instead a method consistent with the Dhamma is readily available: the spraying and neutering of dogs, cats and other animals.

3) CARE Founder & President Ms. Soyoun Park ( a Leading Animal Rights Advocate in South Korea)

4) Professor Chang – gil, Park ( Ph.D.) of Sungkonhoe University, Seoul and President of Voices for Animals. He spoke on the topic ‘ What can Buddhist organisations do to protect world laboratory animals?”

5) Film Director Ms. Yun Hwang ( who has  made a documentary film on introspection of the modern livestock industry and its interaction with Animals). She spoke on the topic ‘ Mercy and Peace of Eating’.

The various speakers dealt with issues related to implementation of humane animal control methods, spraying and neutering of animals, animal experimentation, animal agriculture and plant-based nutrition.

There were two workshops  held at the conference: the first focused on Advancing the Cause of Animal Rights in the Buddhist Community and the other at the end of the Conference dealt with the moral issue of  Living Kinder and Eating Kinder – using what was learned at the Conference for the Welfare and Happiness of All Beings.

A delicious vegan Lunch which was entirely plant-based (no animal foods) and reflecting Korean cultural tradition and cooking was served to the delight of visitors from overseas.

Among the distinguished attendees at the Conference were Mr. Phallop Thaiarry ( Secretary – General of the World Fellowship of Buddhists), Mr. AJ Garcia ( President, CARE), Dato Ang Choo Hong (Malaysia), Ms. Loh Pai Ling (President, Buddhist Missionary Society, Malaysia), Mr. Lee, Tae – Ghill ( Director of Committee, Lay Buddhist Association of South Korea), Mr. Park, Sang – Kyu, Dr. Lee Chi -Ran,  Mr. Basumitra Barua (Bangladesh), Venerable Thich Phuoc Tan ( Australia), Mr. Senaka Weeraratna ( Chapter Leader , DVA Colombo, Sri Lanka), Mr. Lakshman Hettiaratchi( Sri Lanka), Mrs. Sandamali Hettiaratchi ( Sri Lanka), Major – General Sardha Abeyratne (Sri Lanka), Mr. Albert Mah ( DVA Chapter Leader, Perth, Western Australia), Mr. Ananda Mahinkanda (DVA, Los Angeles, USA), a Nepalese Buddhist leader, and Mr. Senarathna Liyanage (Sri Lanka).        

http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items/2016/10/06/first-asian-buddhist-animal-rights-conference-to-be-held-in-seoul-south-korea/

This conference was the world’s first Buddhist animal rights conference. It is indeed noteworthy that Buddhists in increasing numbers are now engaging  in animal advocacy and refraining from consuming animal foods because they want to go further with their practice of kindness and compassion which applies to all living beings and not just humans.

To them ethical and moral considerations in exploiting animals for food, skin, fur, experimentation and entertainment are equally important as Buddhist philosophy. Kill and Eat is not part of the Buddhist Tradition. The Buddhist First Precept which recognises the right to life of all living beings of all species without hierarchical discrimination, and Right Livelihood as a key component of the Noble Eightfold Path, were heavily emphasized at the Conference.

At the end of the Conference several Resolutions were adopted.

The conference ended with a Group Photograph being taken.

The organizers hope that this conference will be the starting point and they plan to hold more in the coming years in conjunction with the General Conferences of the WFB.

If you wish to support this conference and the work ahead, donations are welcomed:
https://donate.careanimalrights.org/seoul-south-korea/events/1st-asian-buddhist-animal-rights-conference/e92052

http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=6,12956,0,0,1,0#.V_XJgOV96Uk

The Dreadful Chronology of Gaddafi’s Murder

October 9th, 2016

By Chris Welzenbach Courtesy Information Clearing House

October 08, 2016 “Information Clearing House” – “Counterpunch” – Jean-Paul Pougala’s April 14, 2011 piece in Pambazuka Newstitled “The Lies Behind the West’s War on Libya” describes how Africa first developed its own transcontinental communications system by purchasing a telecommunications satellite on December 26, 2007: the African Development Bank ponied up $50 million toward the nearly $400 million cost of the orbiter and the West African Development Bank added $27 million more. Libya contributed $300 million, which made the purchase possible. Pougala writes that when it was up and running, the new system was “connecting the entire continent by telephone, television, radio broadcasting, and several other technological applications such as telemedicine and distance teaching.”

After 14 years of foot-dragging by the IMF and the World Bank, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi’s generosity allowed for this one-time purchase that spared the nations of Africa a $500 million annual lease payment for access to a telecom satellite and euchred Western banks out of potential billions in loans and interest. At this time, Gaddafi was also seeking to establish a trans-African banking system based on gold to free the continent from its financial bondage to the IMF and the World Bank—which would gravely harm both predatory entities.

Since 2003, Gaddafi had worked hard to repair his reputation for financing terrorism by renouncing any future support for terrorist organizations and by establishing a fund to compensate victims of Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA Flight 772, each destroyed by acts of terror believed to have been financed by Libya. On December 10, 2007 Gaddafi traveled to France for a pow-wow with then-President Nicolas Sarkozy.

During their December 11, 2007 meeting at the Elysee Palace, Gaddafi and Sarkozy signed some $15 billion worth of contracts for military hardware and a nuclear power station, but matters other than trade were also on the agenda. In a March 12, 2012 report, the French investigative journalism consortium Mediapart stated: “According to information contained in a confidential report prepared by a recognised French expert on terrorism and terrorist financing, President Nicolas Sarkozy’s 2007 election campaign received up to 50 million euros in secret funds from the regime of the late Libyan dictator Colonel Muammar Gaddafi.” Documents released by Mediapart on September 11, 2016 confirm that the financial relationship between Gaddafi and Sarkozy dates back to December 10, 2006.

(Upon the intial release of this information in 2012, Sarkozy denied he’d accepted Libyan money to finance his campaign—which is illegal in France and could well land him in prison—and attempted to sue Mediapart. However, an official investigation was launched into Sarkozy’s conduct and when portions of the resulting secret report surfaced at Mediapart’s website, the evidence pointed squarely to Sarkozy’s receipt of Gaddafi’s cash.)

Gaddafi recognized that because of his telecom satellite intiative and his as yet unpublicized Pan-African banking proposal (which no doubt the West was well aware of), his popularity with Western leaders was slipping and that he might soon be the target of “regime change” and likely hoped that by financing Sarkozy’s election he was buying insurance against his own untimely death. Meantime he did his best to be seen as a good pro-West statesman. In August 2008 Gaddafi signed agreements with the US formalizing compensation for victims of state terror, and in September 2008 Condoleezza Rice visited Libya and declared that relations had between the two nations had entered a “new phase”.

But in February 2009 Gaddafi was elected Chairman of the African Union and first made public mention of a “United States of Africa” and hinted at the possibility of a pan-African banking system.   (Ominously, on March 12, 2009 Sarkozy made France a part of NATO, breaking with a tradition that went back to de Gaulle.) Then, in August of 2009, Abdelbaset Ali al-Megrahi—convicted of participating in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing—was released from prison in Scotland and given a hero’s welcome upon his return to Libya, and later that same year Libya inked a deal with Russia to purchase $1.8 billion in weapons. These developments did not enhance Gaddafi’s profile in Western eyes.

Also, there was a lot of money at stake. Prior to the fall of Gaddafi, oil-rich Libya had cash reserves of $150 billion, and there were 143 tons of gold in Gaddafi’s vaults. As Pougala wrote in his Pambazuka News piece: “[A large portion of this money] had been earmarked as the Libyan contribution to three key projects which would add the finishing touches to the African federation—the African Investment Bank in Syrte, Libya, the establishment in 2011 of the African Monetary Fund and the Abuja-based African Central Bank in Nigeria which when it starts printing African money will ring the death knell for the CFA franc through which Paris has been able to maintain its hold on some African countries for the last fifty years.”

In a June 7, 2016 posting at Black Opinion, Bob Fitrakis wrote:

The real reasons for the attack have been dealt with most directly by America’s most famous reformed economic hitman, John Perkins.

Perkins points out that the attack on Libya, like the attack on Iraq, has to do with power and control of resources, not only oil, but gold. Libya has the highest standard of living in Africa. According to the IMF, Libya’s Central Bank is 100% state owned. The IMF estimates that the bank has nearly 144 tons of gold in its vaults, Perkins wrote.

NATO went there like modern Barbary Coast Pirates to loot Libya’s gold. The Russian media, in addition to Perkins, reported that the Pan-Africanist Qaddafi, the   former President of the African Union, had been advocating that Africa use the gold so plentiful in Libya and South Africa to create an African currency based on a gold dinar.

It is significant that in the months running up to the UN resolution that allowed the U.S. and its allies to send troops into Libya, Muammar al-Qaddafi was openly advocating the creation of a new currency that would rival the dollar and the euro. In fact, he called upon African and Muslim nations to join an alliance that would make this new currency, the gold dinar, their primary form of money and foreign exchange. They would sell oil and other resources to the US and the rest of the world only for gold dinars, Perkins explained.

In December 2010, a revolution in Tunisia brought down the Tunisian government. Subsequently in January 2011 came a series of events hailed in the Western press as the “Arab Spring”: civil uprisings in Oman, Yemen, Egypt, Syria and Morocco. While these uprisings led to substantive change in Tunisia, they were brutally suppressed in Egypt and led to civil wars in Syria and Yemen that still rage. Those in Oman and Morocco fizzled out.

In Libya things broke funny. Starting on February 15, 2011, a series of protests demanding Gaddafi’s ouster erupted across Libya. By February 20, 2011 it was reported that some 300 civilians had been killed in the resulting violence, and that Gaddafi had launched warplanes against opposition groups in Tripoli. Sarkozy saw his opportunity to defend French bankers and to cover up his own illegal financial arrangement with Gaddafi. On March 10, 2011 Sarkozy officially recognized the Libyan “National Transitional Council” (NTC), the umbrella under which the “rebels” operated, and demanded the establishment of a “no-fly zone” in the event Gaddafi used chemical weapons or airstrikes against his own people.

A report in The Guardian dated March 11, 2011 noted:

Sarkozy’s unilateral decision to recognise Libya’s transitional council as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people was seen as grossly premature. “Sarkozy is being irresponsible,” one EU diplomat said.

Mark Rutte, the Dutch prime minister, said: “I find it a crazy move by France. To jump ahead and say ‘I will recognise a transitional government’ in the face of any diplomatic practice, is not the solution for Libya.”

On March 19, 2011 Sarkozy had French warplanes fly missions against Libya and ordered the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle into Libyan waters. But the French were not alone. Earlier that week—on March 15, 201—a US F-15 crashed in Libya. On March 29, 2011 the US confirmed that A-10 Warthogs and A-130 gunships had been employed over Libya. On April 16, 2011 Journalist Jeremy Scahill was interviewed on The Ed Show (this from Medium Blue: The Politics of MSNBC by Michael Arria (CounterPunch 2014)).

Scahill: . . . CIA operatives on the ground there [Libya] are sort of engaged in an eHarmony dot com or sort of you know dating service relationship with the rebels for the clandestine world. I mean, this is, as Colonel Jacobs said, standard fare. What I think is of more concern is the fact that there are certainly US special operations forces units that are deployed already, secretly, inside of Libya that are painting targets for the air strikes. But Ed, I have to say that the scenario you’re laying out—when you talk about arming the quote unquote “freedom fighters”, it really evokes images of the disastrous dirty wars of the 1980’s, I mean, the United States getting involved in what is effectively a Libyan civil war, a thousand or so rebels . . . They don’t have much military training. I mean, what you’re advocating is that Americans are going to have to be totally invested in one side of the civil war.

In his June 7, 2016 Black Opinion posting, Fitrakis writes:

. . . an unclassified U.S. Department of State document emailed to Hillary on April 2, 2011, key Clinton aide Michael Blumenthal confirmed that Perkins was right and the attack on Libya had nothing to do with Qaddafi being a threat to the United States and NATO and everything to do with looting his gold.

Qaddafi’s government holds 143 tons of gold, and a similar amount in silver. During late March, 2011, these stocks were moved to Sabha (south west in the direction of the Libyan border with Niger and Chad); taken from the vaults of the Libyan Central    Bank in Tripoli, Blumenthal reported to Clinton.

Blumenthal pointed out the purpose of Qaddafi’s precious metal: This gold was accumulated prior to the current rebellion and was intended to be used to establish a pan- African currency based on the Libyan golden Dinar. This plan was designed to provide the Francophone African Countries with an alternative to the French franc (CFA).

Blumenthal spells out the reason for NATO’s attack and France’s imperial plunder, French intelligence officers discovered this plan shortly after the current rebellion began, and this was one of the factors that influenced President Nicholas Sarkozy’s decision to commit France to the attack on Libya.

There were five reasons for France’s illegal war with NATO against Libya. Sarkozy sought, according to Blumenthal, a. A desire to gain a greater share of Libyan oil production, b. Increase French influence in North Africa, c. Improve his internal situation in France, d. Provide the French military with an opportunity to assert its position in the world, e. Address the concern of his advisors over Qaddafi’s long term plans to supplant France as the dominant power in Francophone Africa.

It is obvious from this email that while Blumenthal understood Sarkozy’s need to protect French bankers from Gaddafi’s ambitious plan to launch a gold-based trans-African banking system, Blumenthal did not have a handle on Sarkozy’s ulterior motive—eliminating evidence of the French President’s own criminality. It should also be noted—and underscored—that none of the reasons for military action Blumenthal listed in his damning email could possibly justify an unprovoked attack on another sovereign state.

On March 30, 2011 the British government expelled five diplomats from the Libyan embassy as relations between Libya and the West continued to deteriorate. Over the ensuing months battles raged all across Libya. At one point a truce between the Libyan government and the NTC was brokered but did not hold and by August 2011 the nation was once again in a full-fledged civil war.

After March 31, 2011 the United States enforced the “no-fly” zone over Libya, ostensibly to aid a legitimate uprising and to evict from power a bloodthirsty dictator, but the resulting attacks went much further than simply bringing down Gaddafi. On July 18, 2011 NATO targeted the Great Man-Made River, a massive irrigation project that brought water to thousands of acres of arid land. The warplanes that perpetrated this heinous act not only destroyed a vital piece of Libya’s infrastructure but on July 22, 2011 also destroyed a factory that according to Ellen Brown in her March 14, 2016 account for The Ecologist produced the only pipes necessary to repair it. This vicious, wanton devastation served no practical purpose whatsoever save for collectively punishing the Libyan people.

Aided and abetted by the Western powers, the “rebels” closed in on Tripoli and on August 21, 2011 the city fell to the NTC. Gaddafi and his staff and immediate family fled to Syrte. A little after 8:00 p.m. on October 20, 2011, with the “rebels” again closing in, Gaddafi attempted to flee Syrte in a convoy of 75 vehicles but his escape was discovered by RAF aircraft. A US Predator drone operated by someone sitting at a computer screen outside Las Vegas fired the first missiles into the fleeing vehicles. RAF aircraft also fired into the convoy. Ten vehicles were destroyed. Gaddafi survived the attack but was captured soon afterwards by the NTC, who found him hiding in a large drainage pipe. Gaddafi was shot several times and had a bayonet driven into his rectum.

Prior to Gaffafi’s murder, Libya was a stable country if not a traditional nation-state. According to a report titled “Gaddafi’s Libya Was Africa’s Most Prosperous Democracy” by Garikai Chengu that appeared in the January 12, 2013 edition ofCountercurrents.org, “. . . Libya was divided into several small communities that were essentially “mini-autonomous States” within a State. These autonomous States had control over their districts and could make a range of decisions including how to allocate oil revenue and budgetary funds. Within these mini-autonomous States, the three main bodies of Libya’s democracy were Local Committees, People’s Congresses and Executive Revolutionary Councils.” Chengu details how Local Committees reported to People’s Congresses that in turn passed decisions up to the Executive Revolutionary councils, thus creating a broad consensus on those decisions affecting the entire population. “The Libyan direct democracy system utilized the word ‘elevation’ rather than ‘election’, and avoided the political campaigning that is a feature of traditional political parties and benefits only the bourgeoisie’s well-heeled and well-to-do,” Chengu writes. “Unlike the West, Libyans did not vote once every four years for a President and local parliamentarian who would then make all decisions for them. Ordinary Libyans made decisions regarding foreign, domestic and economic policy themselves.” Toppling Gaddafi erased a system of government that had functioned smoothly—and fairly—for nearly half a century.

Nicolas Sarkozy remains a free man. He has yet to be prosecuted for receiving illegal Libyan cash to finance his presidential campaign or for launching an illegal war to cover up his criminal relationship with Gaddafi.

Much has been written about the catastrophe visited upon Libya following the murderous attack by France and the US—400,000 people driven from their homes, an endless cycle of terror and reprisal, the creation of yet another failed state in the wake of a US foreign policy initiative. But the real damage was done to Africa itself, for had Gaddafi’s proposal for a trans-African banking system reached fruition, that unhappy continent for the first time in centuries would have had true freedom and real independence within its grasp, a circumstance the Western powers could not abide. Freedom and justice were never part of the West’s agenda.

On the evening of October 20, 2011 while being interviewed by CBS in the wake of breaking news that Gaddafi was dead, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton shared a joke with her staff between takes, declaring: “We came, we saw, he died.” She then clapped her hands and laughed triumphantly. This remains the vilest and most degraded utterance delivered by an official of the US Government ever.

Chris Welzenbach is a playwright (“Downsize”) who for many years was a member of Walkabout Theater in Chicago. He can be reached at incoming@chriswelzenbach.com

මුස්ලිම් නායකයින් පැමිණ මහින්ද මැතිඳුන්ට සහයෝගය පළ කරයි.

October 9th, 2016

අනිත් අයටත් බලන්නට SHARE කරන්න.

Geneva & You – Natasha Gunaratne – Introduction to UN Resolution

October 9th, 2016

Natasha Gunaratne gave an Introduction to the UNHRC Resolution

Sri Lanka Inc. organised “Geneva and You” – A full fledged discussion with expert panelists to inform Sri Lankan’s on how the Geneva Resolution will affect our country economically, socially and internationally.

Geneva & You – Dr. Palitha Kohona – UNHRC Implications and GOSL Response

October 9th, 2016

Dr. Palitha Kohona spoke on the topic “Implications of the UNHRC resolution and has Sri Lanka responded appropriately?”

Sri Lanka Inc. organised “Geneva and You” – A full fledged discussion with expert panelists to inform Sri Lankan’s on how the Geneva Resolution will affect our country economically, socially and internationally.

Dr Dayan Jayatilleka Says Ranil and Chandrika are Hypocrites

October 9th, 2016

Dr Dayan Jayatilleka Says Ranil and Chandrika are Hypocrites

Exam Phobia in School Children

October 9th, 2016

Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge 

A large number of school children undergo exam related fears. Sometimes these fears are overwhelming. It can cause low performance and failure in exams. As a matter of fact most of the children who are shattered by exam phobia have a good IQ and positive motivation. They show favorable performances in the classroom. But when they go to the exam these students become highly stressed, have fear and they are unable to face the exam with confidence.

Students with exam phobia feel extremely fearful and unsure. Following the increased fear they are unable to grasp theoretical material and find it difficult to remember. Exam phobia is a form of anxiety condition which is common among school children. In the verge of the examthe fear increases and some manifest psycho somatic ailments such as abdominal pains, vomiting,  headaches , dizziness, tremors, etc which have no apparent medical basis.  Some students with exam phobia manifest following anxiety related features during the exam period.

Unable to relax

Dizzy or light headed

Heart pounding or racing

Unsteadiness

Feelings of choking

Hands trembling

Fear of losing control

Difficulty breathing or chest pain

Indigestion or discomfort in the stomach

Feeling Faint

Feelings of unreality or disorientation

Amnesia or difficulty in remembering studied material

Self Revealed Story by Miss H 

When I was doing my O/L exam I had an unexplainable fear and anxiety. I was not a mediocre of course. I worked very hard at school and at home. I could understand the study material when the teacher was explaining. My teachers and parents thought that I was a bright student who would perform well in the exam. But one month before the exam I had headaches and loose motions. My memory was fading. I could not memorize the material that I had learned. I was extremely afraid of facing the exam. At nights I could not sleep. I was weeping and thinking of   giving a medical certificate without doing the exam.

Master L and his Fear

Two days before my A/L Chemistry paper I was confused. I could not recall the stuff that I had studied for the exam. I was frightened and helpless. The chemistry formulas were roaming inside my mind.  It was an unpleasant intrusion. I thought my life was over. Two years hard work and all the hopes my parents had about me would go for nothing if I had failed the exam.  I was blank, totally blank. I did not know what to do.

How Miss K Fought Her Fear

Miss K was a bright student who had lots of hopes for the AL exam. Her parents and the school teachers were so sure of her that she would enter the university at the first attempt. This premature hope on her became a big burden for her. Sometimes she had irrational feelings about her destiny. She often asked from her self what my parents and the teachers would say if I get a lower grade in the exam? This very feeling gave her fear and anxiety. Miss K had low appetite, suffered from headaches and experienced many sleepless nights. Sometimes she was unable to recall the studied material and write correct answers to the past papers.  Eventually her fear was liquidated via counseling and psychotherapy. Imagery techniques helped her to simulate the artificial examination room atmosphere and build more and more confidence. Relaxation therapies reduced her outpouring anxiety.  Miss K was able to pass the exam with excellent marks and today she is a Medical student.

 Treatment of Exam Phobia

Counseling and Psychotherapy are indicated in treating exam phobia. Counselors who work with children and adolescents who suffer fromexam phobia may be required to use effective counseling strategies to help them. These interventions may be required to allow the students to achieve a greater academic autonomous functioning ability and face the exam with confidence. Empathetic   listing to the student would ease his difficulties and create a growth promoting atmosphere. The client will begin to trust his abilities and challenge the fright.

In Psychotherapy it is necessary to establish a positive and functioning relationship with the therapist. The therapist should help the client to become consciously aware and able to express their anxiety and fear about exam and performance situations. The therapist should direct the client to fight his fear. Hence the student gets more confidence to face the exam. Simulating exam atmosphere in therapeutic sessions the fears and stresses can be reduced gradually. Implementation of positive self-talk to reduce or eliminate the anxiety is vital. Instead of negative coping skills (avoidance of the exam, expressing self directed anger, blaming others) healthy coping skills must be taught. While working with the student the therapist must increase client’s participation in educational activates, combating fear and building confidence. Appropriate relaxation and diversion activities would decrease anxiety levels. Therefore relaxation techniques (especially breathing techniques) are indicated in exam phobia. To enhance the therapeutic purpose parents/guardians and teachers support should be taken.

Some therapists perform Hypnotherapy to reduce the fear. Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness and heightened responsiveness to suggestions. During the hypnotic sessions positive suggestions are given to build confidence and illuminate the exam fear. The modern research indicates that EMDR or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is one of the effective modes of psychotherapy that can treat phobias successfully. These therapies should be performed by qualified and trained professionals.

Role of Medication

Some children who suffer from exam phobia go in to depression. Depression can cause negative self image, low motivation, difficulty in concentrating and remembering things that would affect the learning process. Therefore depression must be managed effectively. Sometimes depression and anxiety go hand in hand and students find difficult to cope.  If the anxiety level is high and difficult to control anti anxiolitic or anti depressants are prescribed by a qualified medical practitioner. These medications combined with psychological interventions accelerate the recovery process.

Conclusion

Exam phobia is a self damaging factor which negatively affects the students and their performances. The student is unable to give is maximum productivity and the end result would be critical.  Usually exam phobia is a slowly developing factor and sometimes early signs like physical and mental fatigue, irritability, difficulty in concentrating and negative self talk can be detected by the teachers and parents. School counselors can do a lot to help the students with exam phobia. Counseling and building confidence, educational therapy help the student to gather more strength and accomplish the exam.

ඒඩ්ස් සම්බන්ධව වෛද්‍යවරුන් ගේ හෙදියන් ගේ ආකල්ප

October 9th, 2016

 වෛද් රුවන් එම් ජයතුංග 

1993 දී අපට අධිකරණ වෛද්‍ය පුහුණුවක් තිබුණා කොලඹ ෆ්‍රැන්සිස් පාරේ මෘතශරීරාගාරේ. එහිදී අපට මිනී කැපීමටත් සිදු වුණා. වරක් පුද්ගලික බස් රථයක ගැටී මිය ගිය තරුණියකගේ මළ සිරුරක් ගෙනාවා. මමත් තව වෛද්‍යවරු දෙදෙනෙකුත් එම මිනිය කපමින් සිටින විට එක් ජේෂ්ඨ අධිකරණ වෛද්‍ය නිලධාරිනියක් පැමින සරදමට මෙන් “පරිස්සමෙන් මිනිය කපන්න මේ තරුණිය ගාමන්ට් කෙල්ලෙක් ඒඩ්ස් තියනවාද දන්නේ නෑ ” කියලා කිව්වා. ඇය ද්‍රවිඩ කාන්තාවක්. ඒවගේම ඒ කාලයේ ළමයෙකු ලැබීමටත් සිටියා. මේ වචන ඇය කියන්නේ ඉංග්‍රීසි භාෂාවෙන්. ඇයගේ ජාතිය මෙතනට අදාල නෑ. නමුත් ඇය දිස්ත්‍රික් කෝටාව මත පිටිසර ප්‍රදේශයකින් වෛද්‍ය විදුහලට ආ තැනැත්තියකුත් නොවේ. ඇය කතා කල ඉංග්‍රීසි අනුව ඇය කොලඹ ප්‍රදේශයේ උසස් පාසලක ඉගෙනුම ලැබූ අයෙකු බව මට තේරුණා. නමුත් මට අද වන තෙක් නොතේරෙන්නේ මළ මිනියකට එවැනි අපහාසාත්මක සරදම් විහිළුවක් පොශ් සමාජයකින් ආ තරුණ වෛද්‍යවරියකට කල හැකිද යන්න. එසේම ඒ කාලේ ඒඩ්ස් ගැන වෛද්‍යවරුන් අතර තිබූ අවිචාරක හැඟීමද මේ කතාවෙන් හෙලි වෙනවා.

ruwan09101601

තවත් වරක් 1998 දී පමණ මම මීගමුව රෝහලේදී තරුණ කාන්තාවක් සිසේරියන් සැත්කමකට ලක් කරන්න සූදානම් වූවා. ඒ වෙන කොට ඇයව සිහි නැති කරලයි තිබුනේ. මම සැත්කමට පෙර ග්ලවුස් දාන විට තරුණ හෙදියක් මට කිව්වා ඩොක්ටර් ඩබල් ගල්වුස් දාන්න මෙයා ගාමන්ට් කෙල්ලෙක් ඒඩ්ස් තියනවාද දන්නේ නෑ කියලා. ඒකත් කියන්නේ විහිළුවට වගේ. මේ හෙදිය කිරිමැටියාන ප්‍රදේශයෙන් පැමිනි තැනැත්තියක්. ඇයගේ පියා වඩුවෙක්. ඒත් එම කතාවෙන් පසුව මට හිතුනා කාන්තාවකට  තවත් කාන්තාවක් ගැන මෙසේ සහාසික ප්‍රකාශයක් කල හැකිද කියා. එසේම ඒඩ්ස් ගැන පන්ති බේධයකින් තොරව වෛද්‍යවරු / හෙදියන් අතර අනිසි බයක් මෙන්ම ප්‍රාග්විනිශ්චයන් තිබෙනවා නේද කියා.

එදා මෙදා අතර තුර ඒඩ්ස් සම්බන්ධව වෛද්‍යවරුන් ගේ හෙදියන් ගේ ආකල්ප වෙනස් වී ඇතැයි මා සිතනවා.

 වෛද් රුවන් එම් ජයතුංග 

එට්‌කා ගැන නොසිතන, නොදකින, නොඅසන දේ 

October 9th, 2016

වෛද්‍ය කේ.එම්. වසන්ත බණ්‌ඩාර

පසුගිය වසර 13ක කාලයක්‌ තිස්‌සේ අප රටේ රජයන් දෙකක්‌ යටතේ විවිධ විද්වත්හු ඉන්දියාව සහ ශ්‍රී ලංකාව අතර අත්සන් කිරීමට නියමිත සේවා ආශ්‍රිත වෙළෙඳ ගිවිසුමේ වැදගත්කම පිළිබඳ විවිධ තර්ක ඉදිරිපත් කරති. මහින්ද රාජපක්‍ෂ රජය යටතේ එම ගිවිසුම නම් කරනු ලැබුවේ ‘සීපා’ හෙවත් විස්‌තීර්ණ ආර්ථික සහයෝගීතා ගිවිසුම ලෙසයි. පසුව නව රජය විසින් සීපා ගිවිසුමට එරෙහිව දියත් වූ විරෝධතා සමනය කිරීමේ අරමුණින් ඊට ‘එට්‌කා’ යනුවෙන් නව ‘ලේබලයක්‌’ ඇලවීය. එහෙත් එම ගිවිසුම්වලට අදාළ ලේඛනවල අන්තර්ගතය තුළ ගිවිසුමේ කොන්දේසි හෝ ආවරණය වන විෂය පරාසයට අදාළව වෙනසක්‌ දක්‌නට නැත. එසේ අන්තර්ගතය වෙනස්‌ නොකර ලේබල් මාරු කිරීම තුළම අරමුණෙහි සද්භාවය ප්‍රශ්න කෙරේ. ගිවිසුමට පක්‍ෂපාතව බරපතළ මැදිහත්වීමක්‌ කරන විද්වතුන් සියලු දෙනාම ගිවිසුමට අදාළව විවිධ බැඳීම් ඇති පිරිසක්‌ බවට දිගින් දිගටම චෝදනා එල්ල වේ. යම් අය Rජුවම ලෝක වෙළෙඳ සංවිධානයේ උපදේශකයන් ලෙස කටයුතු කරති. තවත් අයට ඉන්දියාව සමඟ ගැඹුරු නෑකම් ඇති බව කියවේ. අනෙක්‌ පිරිස රජයෙන් වැටුප් ලබා එම කාර්යය ඉටුකරන පිරිසකි. එම නිසා ඔවුහු සියලු දෙනා කෙසේ හෝ ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කරන තැනට ආණ්‌ඩුව තල්ලු කිරීම සඳහා ඉන් ලැබෙන වාසි පිළිබඳව පමණක්‌ ඉතා පැතැලි සහ තර්ක කිහිපයක්‌ දිගින් දිගටම ඉදිරිපත් කරති. 

එම තර්ක අතුරින් පළමුවැන්න නිදහසේ වෙළෙ\ම ඊට දායකවන සියලු පාර්ශ්වවලට වාසිදායක බැවින් සැම විටම එය ප්‍රචලිත කළ යුතු බවයි. නමුත් දැනට පවතින නිදහසේ වෙළෙඳ ගිවිසුම යටතේ ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ අපනයනවලට දිගින් දිගටම කෝටා ක්‍රම සහ බදු නොවන බාධක හරහා සීමා පනවන්නේ කුමක්‌ නිසාද? යන ප්‍රශ්නයට ඔවුන් උත්තර සපයන්නේ නැත. එම තත්ත්වය තුළ රටවල් දෙක අතර වෙළෙඳ පරතරය ඉන්දියාවට වාසිදායක ලෙස දස ගුණයකින් වැඩිවන්නේ කෙසේදැයි ඔවුන් පැහැදිලි කරන්නේ නැත. විශාල වෙළෙඳ පොළක්‌ ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට විවෘත වන බවට පුන පුනා කියා සිටියත් එහි වාසිය ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට නොලැබෙන්නේ කුමක්‌ නිසා දැයි ඔවුන් පැහැදිලි කරන්නේ නැත.

ඔවුන්ගේ දෙවැනි තර්කය වන්නේ පාර්ශ්ව දෙක අතර පවතින අසමානතාවය සැලකිල්ලට ලක්‌කොට ඒවා ගිවිසුම තුළම සාධාරණව විසඳිය හැකි බවයි. එහෙත් ප්‍රායෝගිකව සිදු වන්නේ අසමානතාව දිගින් දිගටම වර්ධනය වීම නොවේද? තුන්වැනි තර්කය ලෙස ඔවුන් ඉදිරිපත් කරන්නේ මීට පෙර ගිවිසුම්වල ගැටලු නව ගිවිසුමක්‌ යටතේ විසඳිය යුතු බවයි. ඒ අනුව නිදහස්‌ ගිවිසුමේ ගැටලු එම ගිවිසුමේ පවතින ප්‍රතිපාදන යටතේ විසඳීම වෙනුවට ඒ සඳහා සීපා ගිවිසුම යොදාගත යුතු බවට තර්ක කෙරේ. ඊට අමතරව එම විද්වත්හු දෙරටේ නීතිමය රාමුවල වෙනස නිසා ඇතිවන බාධක නොසලකා ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කොට ඒවා ක්‍රමයෙන් විස¹ගත යුතු බවට හතරවැනි තර්කයක්‌ද ඉදිරිපත් කරති. එහිම දිගුවක්‌ ලෙස ඉන්දියානුවන්ගේ අභියෝගවලට මුහුණ දීම සඳහා තම රටේ නීති පද්ධතියේ සිදුකළ යුතු වෙනස්‌කම් පූර්ව කොන්දේසියක්‌ බවට පත්කරගෙන ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කිරීම පමා නොකළ යුතු බවට පස්‌වැනි තර්කයක්‌ද ඔවුහු ඉදිරිපත් කරති. 

ගිවිසුමට පක්‌ෂපාත ඊනියා විද්වතුන් සියලු ප්‍රශ්නවලට පිළිතුරු ලෙස ඉදිරිපත් කරන එම ”රෙඩිමේඩ්” තර්කවලින් දිගින් දිගටම යෑපෙනවා මිස විරුද්ධ පාර්ශ්ව විසින් මතු කරන ගැටලු පිළිබඳ ගැඹුරු අධ්‍යයනයක්‌ කිරීමට වෙහෙසෙන්නේ නැත. පසුගිය දිනවල එට්‌කා විරෝධී විද්වතුන් පිරිසක්‌ විසින් ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ නීති පද්ධතියේ පවතින දුර්වලතා සහ ඉන්දියාවේ යම් නීති මගින් පනවන බාධක නිසා ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කළහොත් ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට සිදුවන අගතිය පැහැදිලි කරමින් දීර්ඝ ලේඛනයක්‌ ඉදිරිපත් කරන්නට යෙදුණි. එම කරුණු පිළිබඳව එට්‌කා හිතවාදී විද්වතුන්ට කිසිදු අවබෝධයක්‌ නොතිබූ අතර ඔවුන් කටවල් ඇරගෙන බලා සිටියා මිස ඒවා පිළිබඳව අදහසක්‌ පළ කිරීමටවත් දැනුවත් වී සිටියේ නැත. එම තත්ත්වය තුළ මෙම ඊනියා විද්වතුන් සහ ඇමැතිවරයා ඇතුළු අමාත්‍යාංශ නිලධාරීන්ගේ අපරික්‍ෂාකාරී හැසිරීම කිසිසේත්ම පිළිගත නොහැකි තත්ත්වයක ඇත. කෙසේ හෝ ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කිරීම සඳහා ඉන්දියාවට දුන් පොරොන්දුව පසු පස හඹායාම නවතා කූට ඉන්දියානුවන් මෙන් තම රටට සිදුවිය හැකි යහපත සහ අයහපත ගැන ගැඹුරු අධ්‍යයනයකට ඔවුන් යොමුවිය යුතුය. අමාත්‍යාංශය විසින් මුදල් ගෙවා සේවය ලබාගන්නා සියලු විද්වතුන් සහ නිලධාරීන් ඒ සඳහා බැඳී දසිටියි. ඔවුන් එට්‌කා විරෝධින්ගේ සියලු ප්‍රශ්න සහ අභියෝගවලට පිළිතුරු දීමට බැඳී සිටිති. එසේම රටේ ව්‍යවස්‌ථාව අනුව කටයුතු කිරීමට ද ඔවුහු බැඳී සිටිති. වෙළෙඳ ගිවිසුමක්‌ මගින් වෙනත් රටක පුරවැසියන්ට විශේෂ 
රැකවරණ සහ වරප්‍රසාද ලබාදීමේදී එම ගිවිසුම පාර්ලිමේන්තුවේ විශේෂ බහුතරයකින් සම්මතවිය යුතු බවට ව්‍යවස්‌ථාවේ 157 වැනි වගන්තිය මගින් ප්‍රතිපාදනයක්‌ පනවා ඇත්තේ විශේෂයෙන්ම සේවා ගිවිසුමක්‌ හරහා සිදුවන පුද්ගල ආගමනයේ බලපෑම සැලකිල්ලට ගනිමිනි. නමුත් එම ව්‍යවස්‌ථා ප්‍රතිපාදනය නොසලකා කටයුතු කිරීමේ පැහැදිලි ප්‍රවණතාවක්‌ දක්‌නට ඇත. 

මීට ඉහත 1994 දී ලෝක වෙළෙඳ සංවිධානයේ ”ගැට්‌ස්‌’ ගිවිසුමට අත්සන් තැබීමේදී අප රටේ වාණිජ දෙපාර්තමේන්තුව සහ ඊට අදාළ අමාත්‍යාංශයේ නිලධාරීන් සහ විද්වතුන් කටයුතු කර ඇති හදිසි සහ වගකීම් විරහිත ආකාරය නිසා අද අප රට බරපතළ ආර්ථික සහ වෙළෙඳ උගුලකට කොටුවී ඇත. එම ගිවිසුමට අදාළව අප රටේ විද්වතුන් බලවත් තාක්‌ෂණික වරදක්‌ සිදුකොට ඇත. ඔවුන් එක්‌ පැත්තකින් ආරම්භයේදී ක්‍ෂේත්‍ර හතරක්‌ පමණක්‌ සේවා සඳහා විවෘත කරන බවට ධනාත්මක ලැයිස්‌තුවක්‌ යොමුකොට ඇත. ඒ සමඟ විවෘත කිරීමට එකඟ නොවන අංශ ලෙස තවත් ක්‍ෂේත්‍ර 5ක්‌ අඩංගු ලැයිස්‌තුවක්‌ ගිවිසුම් ගතකොට ඇත. එම නිසා අප රට එසේ සීමා නොකරන සියලු අංශ විවෘත කරන බවට බැඳීමක්‌ ඇතිවේ. අප රටේ විද්වතුන්ගේ එම දුප්පත් ක්‍රියාව දෙස බලන විට පෙනී යන්නේ ඒ වන විට අයෝජන මණ්‌ඩලය විසින් අයෝජන සඳහා සකස්‌ කොට තිබූ නිර්ණායක ලැයිස්‌තුවක්‌ කිසිදු සොයා බැලීමකින් තොරව එසේ ”ගැට්‌ස්‌” ගිවිසුමට යොමුකොට ඇති බවය. ඊට අමතරව ගැට්‌ස්‌ ගිවිසුමේ සේවා වෙළෙඳාමේ හතරවැනි ක්‍රමවේදය අනුව ”ක්‍ෂේත්‍රවලට විශේෂිත” සහ ”තිරස්‌ බැඳීම්” ලබාදීමේදී ශ්‍රී ලංකාව පනවා ඇත්තේ ඉතා සරල කොන්දේසියකි. එනම් පවතින නීතිය යටතේ වෘත්තිකයන්ට හෝ සේවා සපයන්නන්ට ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට ඇතුළත් විය හැකි බවයි. නමුත් ඉන්දියාව ඊට අදාළ දිර්ඝ කොන්දේසි ප්‍රමාණයක්‌ පනවා ඇත. ඒ අනුව ඉන්දියානු ශ්‍රමිකයන්ට ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට ඉතා පහසුවෙන් පැමිණිය හැකි වුවත් ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ වෘත්තිකයන්ට හෝ ඉන්දියාවට එසේ පහසුවෙන් ඇතුළුවිය නොහැක දැන් අප රට ලෝක වෙළෙඳ සංවිධානයේ ගැට්‌ස්‌ ගිවිසුමට වලංගුභාවයක්‌ ලබාදී ඇති බැවින් අප ඉන් පසුව ලෝකයේ කුමන රටක්‌ සමඟ සේවා ගිවිසුම් අත්සන් කළත් වලංගු වන්නේ අප රට ගැට්‌ස්‌ ගිවිසුමට ලබාදී ඇති එම අවම බැඳීමය. එම තත්ත්වය නිසා අපට එම ගැට්‌ස්‌ බැඳීම්වලට පිටුපාමින් සීපා හෝ එට්‌කා ගිවිසුම්වලට සීමා පැනවිය නොහැක එසේ පැනවිය හැකි බවට නිලධාරීන් සහ විද්වතුන් කියන්නේ පට්‌ටපල් බොරුවකි. 

එම තත්ත්වය තුළ අප රටේ වෙළෙඳ ගිවිසුම් ඉතිහාසය තුළ අප රටේ විද්වතුන් සහ නිලධාරීන් කටයුතුකොට ඇති දුප්පත් ආකාරය දෙස බලන විට ඔවුන්ගේ අරමුණු සැබෑ හෙවත් සැඟවුණු පරීක්‍ෂාකර බැලීමට මහජනතාවට අයිsතියක්‌ ඇත. ඒ අනුව ඒ සඳහා වන පරීක්‍ෂාවක්‌ ලෙස එට්‌කා හිතවාදී විද්වතුන්ට සහ නිලධාරීන්ට ප්‍රශ්න මාලාවක්‌ මෙසේ ඉදිරිපත් කෙරේ. එහි පළමුවැන්න මෙසේය ”ගැට්‌ස්‌” ගිවිසුමට අදාළව තාක්‌ෂණිකව වැරදි ආකාරයට ලබාදී ඇති බැඳීම් සංශෝධනය නොකර එට්‌කා ගිවිසුමට අදාළව පමණක්‌ පුද්ගලයන්ගේ ආගමනය පාලනය කළ හැකි බව පැවසීම පට්‌ටපල් බොරුවක්‌ නොවේද? උදාහරණයක්‌ ලෙස අප රට ගැට්‌ස්‌ ගිවිසුමට අදාළව සේවා වෙළෙඳාමේ හතරවැනි ක්‍රමවේදය හෙවත් පුද්ගල ආගමනයට එක`ග වී ඇති තත්ත්වයක්‌ තුළ එට්‌කා ගිවිසුමට එම ක්‍රමවේදය ඇතුළත් නොකරන බව පැවසීම පට්‌ටපල් බොරුවක්‌ නොවේද? අප රටේ විද්වතුන් එම වරද හෙවත් පළමු ප්‍රශ්නය පිළිගන්නවානම් ඔවුන්ගෙන් ඇසිය යුතු අතුරු ප්‍රශ්නය වන්නේ එට්‌කා ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කිරීමට පෙර ගැට්‌ස්‌ ගිවිසුමේ වරද නිවැරදි කිරීම සඳහා අයෑදුම් කළ යුතු නොවේද? යන්නයි. එය අප රටේ නිදහස්‌ අධ්‍යාපනයෙන් ලැබූ විද්වතුන්ගේ හා නිලධාරීන් මෙන්ම මහජන ඡන්දයෙන් බලයට පත් වූ ඇමැතිවරයා විසින් ද ඉටුකළ යුතු අවම යුතුකම නොවේද? එවැනි නිවැරැදි කිරීමක්‌ කිරීමට තාක්‌ෂණික ඉඩක්‌ තිබිය දී ඒ සඳහා ඉල්ලුම් නොකිරීම බරපතළ ලෙස රට පාවාදීමක්‌ නොවේද? එසේ නොකර ඒ මගින් බලපෑමක්‌ සිදුනොවන බවට බොරු කීම කුමන විද්වත්භාවයක්‌ද? 

දෙවන ප්‍රශ්නය වන්නේ විද්වත් ක්‍ෂේත්‍රවල ඉන්දියානු වෘත්තිකයන්ගේ පැමිණීමට ඉඩ සැලසීමේදී දෙරටේ එම වෘත්තික ක්‍ෂේත්‍ර නියාමනය කරන ආයතන අතර අෙන්‍යාaන්‍ය හඳුනාගැනීමේ එක`ගතාව ඇතිකර ගැනීමේදී පැන නඟින ගැටලු ගැඹුරින් හැදැරීමට ලක්‌කොට ඇත්ද? යන්නයි. උදාහරණයක්‌ ලෙස අප රටේ වාස්‌තු විද්‍යාඥයන් ලියාපදිංචි කිරීම සඳහා නීතිමය රාමුවකින් ආවරණය සපයන විශේෂිත ආයතනයක්‌ නොමැත. ඊට අදාළ ඉන්දියාවේ ආයතනය නියාමනය කරන පනත අනුව විදේශිකයන්ට ලියාපදිංචිය ලබාගත නොහැක එවැනි තත්ත්වයක්‌ තුළ එම වෘත්තික ක්‍ෂේත්‍ර විවෘත කිරීමට පෙර අප රටේ නව නීතියක්‌ සම්මත කිරීම සහ ඉන්දියාවේ නීතිය සංශෝධනය කිරීම පූර්ව කොන්දේසියක්‌ නොවේද? එසේ නොකර ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කළ විට එම ක්‍ෂේත්‍රයේ ඉන්දියානුවන්ට ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට පැමිණිය හැකි වුවත් ශ්‍රී ලාංකිකයන්ට ඉන්දියාවට ඇතුළුවී එම ක්‍ෂේත්‍රයේ රැකියාවක්‌ ලබාගත නොහැක. 

මෙම ගැටලු ගැඹුරින් අධ්‍යයනය නොකර සහ ඒවා නිවැරදි කිරීමට නිර්දේශ ඉදිරිපත් නොකර ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කිරීමට උපදෙස්‌ දෙන විද්වතුන් රටට එරෙහිව වගකීමෙන් තොරව කටයුතු කරන පිරිසක්‌ ලෙස නීතිය ඉදිරියට පැමිණවිය යුතු නොවේද? එම දෙවැනි ප්‍රශ්නයට අදාළ තවත් උදාහරණයක්‌ වන්නේ අප රටේ වෛද්‍ය සභාවේ විශේෂඥයන් ලියාපදිංචි කරන ”රෙජිස්‌ටරයක්‌” නීතිය මගින් පිහිටුවා නොමැති නිසා අප රටේ විශේෂඥ වෛද්‍යවරුන්ට ගිවිසුම් අත්සන් කිරීමෙන් පසුව ඉන්දියාවේදී විශේෂඥයකු ලෙස රැකියාව කිරීම සඳහා ලියාපදිංචිය ලබාගැනීමේ ගැටලුවක්‌ මතුවේ. එහෙත් ඉන්දියානුවන්ට ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේදී එවැනි තත්ත්වයක්‌ මතු නොවේ. එසේනම් එට්‌කා ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කිරීමට පෙර ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ වෛද්‍ය සභා පනත සංශෝධනය කොට විශේෂඥ වෛද්‍ය රෙජිස්‌ටරයක්‌ ආරම්භකළ යුතු නොවේද? ඉන්දියානු හොර දොස්‌තරලා රටට පැමිණීම වැළැක්‌වීම සඳහා ද එය වැදගත්වේ. එට්‌කාවාදී විද්වතුන් ඊට දෙන පිළිතුර කුමක්‌ද? 

තුන්වැනි ප්‍රශ්නය වන්නේ ගිවිසුමේ ජාතික සත්කාරය නැමැති ප්‍රතිපාදන අනුව ඉන්දියානුවකුට සහ ශ්‍රී ලාංකිකයකුට වෙනස්‌ ආකාරයට සැලකීමේදී ඉඩක්‌ නොමැති බැවින් අසමානයන් දෙදෙනකුට සමානව සැලකීමෙන් සිදුවන අසාධරණය වළක්‌වන්නේ කෙසේද? යන්නයි. ‘ගැට්‌ස්‌’ ගිවිසුමේ ජාතික සත්කාරය නැමති මූලධර්මය එට්‌කා ගිවිසුමටද අදාළ වන බැවින් අනෙක්‌ රටේ පුරවැසියාට තම රටේ පුරවැසියාට මෙන් සැලකීමට පාර්ශ්ව දෙකම බැඳී සිටියි. ඒ අනුව උදාහරණයක්‌ ලෙස ඉන්දියාවේ වෛද්‍ය විද්‍යාලයක එකම පන්තියේ ඉගෙනගත් ඉන්දියානුවකු සහ ශ්‍රී ලාංකිකයකු උපාධි ලබාගැනීමෙන් පසුව ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට පැමිණිය හොත් සිදුවන්නේ කුමක්‌ද? එවිට ඉන්දියානු වෛද්‍ය සභාවේ ලියාපදිංචි ඉන්දියානුවාට ගිවිසුම අනුව ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ වෛද්‍ය සභාවේ ලියාපදිංචිය ලැබුණත් ශ්‍රී ලාංකිකයාට ඒ සඳහා විශේෂ විභාගයකට හෙවත් පරීක්‍ෂණයකට පෙනී සිටීමට සිදුවේ. එසේ වෙනස්‌ ලෙස සැලකීම බේරා ගැනීමට සිදුවන්නේ අධිකරණයෙන්ද? එසේ නැතහොත් ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කිරීමට පෙර නිවැරදි කළ යුතු නොවේද?

හතර වැනි ප්‍රශ්නය වන්නේ වසර 16ක්‌ ක්‍රියාත්මක වූ නිදහස්‌ වෙළෙඳ ගිවිසුම සමාලෝචනයකට ලක්‌කොට එහි පවතින ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට අවාසිදායක තත්ත්වයක්‌ නිවැරදි කරගැනීමට නොහැකි වී ඇත්තේ කාගේ වරදින්ද? යන්නයි. විශේෂයෙන්ම කෝටා ක්‍රම සහ බදු නොවන බාධක මගින් ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ අපනයනවලට බාධා එල්ල කිරීමේ ගැටලු විසඳා ගැනීමට අප රටේ විද්වතුන්ට සහ නිලධාරීන්ට නොහැකි වූයේ කුමක්‌ නිසාද? දැන් ඊට වඩා සංකීර්ණ සේවා ගිවිසුමක්‌ යටතේ අනිවාර්යයෙන්ම පැන නඟින ගැටලු විසඳීම සඳහා එම පිරිසට හැකියාවක්‌ සහ විභවයක්‌ තිබේද?මෙම ප්‍රශ්න කිරීමෙන් ගැලවීම සඳහා ඔවුන් ”අස්‌වනු කලින් නෙළා ගැනීම” නමින් වගන්තියක්‌ එට්‌කා ගිවිමුසට ඇතුළුකොට ඒ මගින් නිදහස්‌ වෙළෙඳ ගිවිසුමේ ගැටලු කඩිනමින් විසඳන බවට ව්‍යාජ පොරොන්දුවක්‌ ලබාදේ. වසර 16 ක්‌ නොකළ දේ කිරීමට හදිසියේ ඔවුන්ට ලැබෙන හැකියාව කුමක්‌ද? එම නිසා එම විද්වතුන් සහ නිලධාරීන් මහජන විශ්වාසය දිනාගැනීම සඳහා එට්‌කා අත්සන් කිරීමට පෙර නිදහස්‌ වෙළෙඳ ගිවිසුමේ නම්කළ ගැටලු ප්‍රමාණයක්‌ විසඳා පෙන්විය යුතු නොවේද?

පස්‌වැනි ප්‍රශ්නය වන්නේ සේවා ආශ්‍රිත වෙළෙ\මේ හතරවැනි ක්‍රමවේදය අනුව පුද්ගලයන් දේශසීමා හරහා පැමිණ සේවා සැපයීමට ඉඩ සැලසීම මගින් ඉන්දියානු කම්කරුවන් සමූහ වශයෙන් ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට ඇතුළු වීම නිසා පැන නැඟිය හැකි සමාජ, සංස්‌කෘතික ආරක්‍ෂක සහ සෞඛ්‍ය ගැටලු පිළිබඳ එට්‌කා හිතවාදී විද්වතුන් පූර්ව අධ්‍යයනයක්‌ සිදුකොට ඇත්ද? යන්නයි. ශ්‍රම වෙළෙඳපොළ විශේෂඥයයන්ගේ අධ්‍යනයන්ට අනුව එසේ කෙටි කලකින් ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට කඩා වදින ඉන්දියානු ශ්‍රමිකයන්ගේ ප්‍රමාණය ලක්‍ෂ 6 ක්‌ පමණ විය හැක. ඒ මගින් ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ ශ්‍රම වෙළෙඳපොළ තුළ වැටුප් මට්‌ටම බරපතළ ලෙස පහත වැටීම මගින් ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ ශ්‍රමිකයන්ගේ ජීවන තත්ත්වය කඩාවැටීමේ ප්‍රශ්නය මෙම විද්වතුන් අධ්‍යයනය කොට ඇත්ද? එදා වතු ආර්ථිකය සඳහා අධිරාජ්‍යවාදීන් විසින් ඉන්දියානු කම්කරුවන් යොදාගත් ආකාරයට මෙදා ලාභ ශ්‍රමය මත පදනම්වන විදේශ ආයෝජන දිරිගැන්වීම සඳහා එට්‌කා ගිවිසුම යොදාගන්නා බව සැඟවිය හැකිද?

හත්වැනි ප්‍රශ්නය වන්නේ රජයේ වෛද්‍ය නිලධාරීන්ගේ සංගමය විසින් ඉතා සාධාරණ බව පෙනෙන ආකාරයට පුන පුනා ඉල්ලා සිටින ඉල්ලීම් දෙකක්‌ ඉටුකිරීමට මැළිවන්නේ කුමක්‌ නිසාද යන්නයි. ඔවුන්ගේ පළමු ඉල්ලීම වන්නේ වෙළෙඳ ගිවිසුමට අදාළ ප්‍රතිපත්තිමය තීන්දු ගන්නා පරිපාලන ක්‍රියාවලියේ පියවර මොනවාද එහි වගකීම් දරන නිලතල මොනවාද සහ ඊට නීතිමය ආවරණය සපයන නීතිමය රාමුවේ ප්‍රතිපාදන මොනවාද යන්න එළිදරව් කිරීමයි. එය ඉතා පහසුවෙන් කළ හැකි දෙයක්‌ වුවත් අද වනතුරු එය ඉටු නොවන්නේ සැඟවීමට බොහෝ දේ තිබෙන නිසාද? එසේ රටේ අනාගතයට බලපාන බරපතළ තීන්දු ගැනීමේදී යම් විනිවිදභාවයක්‌ පෙන්වීමට අකමැති විද්වතුන්, නිලධාරීන් සහ ඇමැතිවරුන් පිළිබඳ විශ්වාසය තැබිය හැකිද?

රජයේ වෛද්‍ය නිලධාරීන්ගේ සංගමයේ දෙවැනි ඉල්ලීම වන්නේ මහජනයාට සහ ස්‌වාධීන විද්වතුන්ට අදහස්‌ සහ යෝජනා ඉදිරිපත් කළ හැකි ආකාරයට ස්‌වාධීන කොමිසමක්‌ පත්කොට වෙළෙඳ ගිවිසුම ආවරණය කෙරෙන ජාතික ප්‍රතිපත්තියක්‌ සකස්‌ කිරීමයි. ඒ සඳහා දැනටමත් නීතිමය ප්‍රතිපාදන තිබියදී එසේ නොකර හොර රහසේ හොරාගේ අම්මාගෙන් පේන අසන්නා සේ එට්‌කා හිතවාදී පක්‍ෂපාතී විද්වතුන් පිරිසකට එම කටයුත්ත බාර දීම මගින් ඊට වගකිව යුතු පිරිස්‌ මහජනයාට පෙන්වන ගුණය කුමක්‌ද? වෙළෙඳ ගිවිසුමක්‌ කළමනාකරණය කිරීමේදී නිලධාරීන්ට වැදගත් වන තාක්‌ෂණික කරුණු මහජනයාට එතරම් වැදගත් නැත. මහජනයාට තේරුම්ගත හැක්‌කේ සහ ඔවුන් දැනගත යුත්තේ උපාය මාර්ගිකව වැදගත් වන ප්‍රතිපත්තිමය කාරණාය. කුමන වෙළෙඳ ගිවිසුමක්‌ අත්සන් කළත් ඕනෑම රටක්‌ තම රටේ ආර්ථිකය ආරක්‌ෂා කරන ක්‍ෂේත්‍ර පිළිබඳව ජාතික එකඟතාවකට පැමිණිය යුතුය. ඒ අනුව අප රටේ ආණ්‌ඩුව ආරක්‍ෂා කරන්නේ අප රටේ ආර්ථිකයේ, පරිසරයේ, සංස්‌කෘතියේ සහ ජන ජීවිතයේ කුමන ක්‍ෂේත්‍රද, කුමන අංගද යන්න මහජනයා දැනගත යුතුය. අවසාන ප්‍රශ්නය හෙවත් අටවැනි ප්‍රශ්නය ලෙස එට්‌කා හිතවාදීන්ට ඉදිරිපත් කළ යුත්තේ එසේ ආරක්‍ෂා කරන්නේ මොනවාදැයි සහ කුමන ක්‍ෂේත්‍ර දැයි ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කිරීමට පෙර එළිදරව් කරනවාද යන්නයි. 

Chris Dharmakirthi at Geneva & You

October 9th, 2016

 

Dr Dayan Jayatilleka on Victory Day

October 9th, 2016

Dr Dayan Jayatilleka on Victory Day

චන්ද්‍රිකා චර්යාව

October 9th, 2016

චන්ද්‍රිකා චර්යාව

අර්ජුන් ගේ කථාව ‘අතුරුගිරියේ පොලිස් පාතලයේ‘ වැඩක්

October 9th, 2016

කීර්ති තෙන්නකෝන් විධායක අධ්‍යක්ෂ/ශ්‍රී ලංකා මානව හිමිකම් කේන්ද්‍රය

 ප්‍රේම සම්බන්ධයක් මත පුද්ගලික පළිගැනීමක් – බෝම්බ කථාව පට්ටපල් බොරුවක්.    

අතුරුගිරියේ පොලීසිය විසින් අර්ජුන් ගමගේ නැමැත්තා අත්අඩංගුවට ගැනීමට යාම හා එහි දී ඇති වූ වෙඩි තැබීම පිළිබද ජනමාධ්‍යය වෙත ඉදිරිපත් කොට ඇති තොරුතුරු බහුතරයක් සත්‍යයන් තොර බව කැෆේ සහ ශ්‍රී ලංකා මානව හිමිකම් කේන්ද්‍රයේ විධායක අධ්‍යක්ෂ කීර්ති තෙන්නකෝන් මහතා නිවේදනයක් නිකුත් කරමින් පවසයි.

අතුරුගිය පොලීසිය කරුණු වාර්තා කොට ඇති අන්දමට සහ ජනමාධ්‍ය වෙත ලබා දී ඇති තොරතුරු අනුව ද අර්ජුන් නැමැත්තා අත්අඩංගුව ගැනීමට යාමේ දී පොලීසියට අත් බෝම්බ ප්‍රහාරයක් එල්ල කිරීමට තැත් කර ඇත.  එහි දී පොලීසිය විසින් වෙඩි තැබීමක් සිදු කොට ඇත.  අතුරුගිරිය පොලීසියට ජනමාධ්‍ය වෙත ලබා දී ඇති තොරතුරු අනුව මොහු පාතාල සාමාජිකයෙකි.  වරෙන්තුකරුවෙකි.  සැගවී සිටින පුද්ගලයෙකි.

නමුත් මෙම කතාවේ පතාලයට සම්බන්ධ බව, අත්බෝම්බ ප්‍රහාරය ඇතුළු කරුණු අතිශයින් සාවද්‍ය වේ.   අතුරුගිරිය පොලීසිය විසින් තොරතුරු ගොතා ඉදිරිපත් කරන බවත් ඒ පිළිබද විමර්ශනයක් සිදු කරන ලෙසත් අප ගේ සංවිධාන උසස් පොලිස් නිලධාරීන් වෙත කරුණු ඉදිරිපත් කොට ඇත.   නීතිඥ අජිත් ප්‍රසන්න මහතා විසින් ද මේ පිළිබද තොරුතුරු උසස් පොලිස් නිලධාරීන් වෙත මෙවැනිම කරුණු දැක්වීමක් සිදු කොට ඇත.   

අප වෙත ලැබී ඇති තොරතුරු අනුව, වසය අවුරුදු 21 ක් වන මෙම තරුණයා කුඩා කළ (අවු 13-14 දී) ‘පරිවාස නිවාස‘ ගත කොට සිටි නමුත් ඉන් පසුව සාමාන්‍ය ජීවිතයක් ගත කොට ඇත.  මෙම තරුණයා ගේ ප්‍රේම සම්බන්ධතාවයක් හේතුවෙන් බෝම්බ ප්‍රහාරයක් හා සම්බන්ධ කථාව ගොඩ නගා ඇත. 

මේ වන විට වෙඩි ප්‍රහාරයෙන් තුවාල ලැබූ අර්ජන් ගමගේ තුවාල සදහා ප්‍රතිකාර ලබයි.   

මේ පිළිබද පොලිස් දෙපාර්තමේන්තුවේ ඉහළ නිලධාරීන් වෙත පැමිණිලි කිරීමෙන් මේ වන විට විධිමත්  විමර්ශනයක් මිරිහාන පොලීස් ඒකකය විසින් සිදු කරනු ලබයි. අද පෙරවරුවේ නීතිඥ අජිත් ප්‍රසන්න (0773373418) අතුළු කණ්ඩායමක් එයට සහභාගි විය.  කීර්ති තෙන්නකෝන් මහතා විසින් සිදු කරන ලද පැමිණිල්ලට අදාළ සිදුවීමට විමර්ශනය සදහා ක්ෂණිකව මැදිහත්වීම පිළිබද  ශ්‍රී ලංකා මානව හිමිකම් කේන්ද්‍රෙය් සහ කැෆේ සංවිධානය මේ පිළිබද අපගේ ස්තුතිය පොලිස් දෙපාර්තමේන්තුව වෙත පල කරයි.   

පොලිස් සේවයේ බලය අයථා පරිහරණයන් සම්බන්ධයෙන් කටයුතු කිරීමට ඉහළ නිලධාරීන් දක්වන මැදිහත්වීම ලංකා පොලිස් සේවය ප්‍රතිසංස්කරණය කිරීමට පිටුවහලක් වනු ඇති බව  අපගේ විශ්වාසයයි.  

 

කීර්ති තෙන්නකෝන්

විධායක අධ්‍යක්ෂ/ශ්‍රී ලංකා මානව හිමිකම් කේන්ද්‍රය

2016 ඔක්තෝබර් මස 08 වැනිදා සෙනසුරාදා

600 police officers were killed instantly by LTTE during the UNP regime

October 9th, 2016

600 police officers were killed instantly by LTTE during the UNP regime

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The Combat Related PTSD among the Sri Lankan Army Soldiers who Participated in the Eelam War in Sri Lanka   

October 9th, 2016

Panduwawala, S,   Jayatunge, R.M

  Abstract: This study investigates the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of soldiers of the Sri Lanka Army. The study was conducted from August 2002 to March 2006.  Eight hundred and twenty four (824) Sri Lankan Army servicemen of the infantry and services units who were referred to the Psychiatric ward Military Hospital Colombo were screened for combat related PTSD. The DSM- 4 was used to diagnose and determine the probable prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress symptoms. According to the results 56 combatants were found with full symptoms of PTSD and 6 combatants with partial PTSD.

Key Words: PTSD, Sri Lankan Combatants, Eelam War, Combat Trauma

Objectives:  To examine the combat related PTSD symptoms of the soldiers who fought in the armed conflict in Sri Lanka.

 Introduction: Sri Lanka, a country that was seen at the time of independence from Britain in 1948 as a first potential case of development success in the third world, surprisingly transformed subsequently into a state of political conflict and consequent armed struggles (Abeyratne, 2002). The armed conflict in Sri Lanka had many root causes. It was a conflict between the state security forces and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam (LTTE).

The Sri Lanka Army engaged in prolonged military conflict against the armed separatists of the Northern Sri Lanka. The conflict started in 1981 with the killing of two members of the Sri Lanka Army by the rebels. In the early stages the conflict emerged as guerrilla attacks and later evolved into a proxy war. The armed conflict which continued until 2009 came to be known as the Eelam War. Following the armed conflict nearly 26, 0000 soldiers died and a large numbers became physically and psychologically disabled.

When the militants intensified their attacks on military and civil targets, the Sri Lanka Army deployed its entire bayonet strength for more than 25 years. During the critical period of the Eelam War the Sri Lankan military launched nearly 20 major military operations against the rebels starting from 1987 to 2009. Over 100, 000 members of the Sri Lanka Army had been directly or indirectly exposed to combat events during the Eelam War.  They were exposed to hostile battle conditions and many soldiers underwent traumatic combat events outside the range of usual human experience.

In 2009 May the Sri Lankan government declared that the country had won the war against the armed militants. Although the armed forces were able to gain a decisive victory it came with a huge social cost. The Eelam war affected the psychosocial health of the combatants and civilians. Significant numbers are still impacted by combat trauma.

Methodology: This study was conducted by the Visiting Psychiatrist of the Sri Lanka Army with the permission of the Medical Advisor of the Sri Lanka Army Medical Corps. From August 2002 to March 2006, eight hundred and twenty four (824) Sri Lankan Army servicemen of the infantry and services units who were referred to the Psychiatric ward Military Hospital Colombo were screened for combat related PTSD. This study was done while the soldiers were still on active duty.

The study sample consisted of servicemen referred to the Psychiatric Unit Military Hospital Colombo. Mainly the referrals were done by the medical officers of the OPD, Consultants in the Medical and Surgical units, Palaly Military Hospital, Victory Army Hospital Anuradhapura and other military treatment centers. The affected combatants had behavioral problems, psychosomatic ailments, depression and anxiety related symptoms, self-harm, attempted suicides, alcohol and substance abuse, and misconduct stress behaviors. The sample consisted of 824 (male = 806, female = 18) combatants of the Sri Lanka Army.

Client safety guidelines were observed during the study and informed consent was obtained and the methods used ensured participants’ anonymity. These soldiers were administered the PTSD Check List based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) with a structured face to face interview. This schedule was designed from similar trauma questionnaires used elsewhere in the world to detect PTSD.

Results

Study results among the Sri Lanka Army soldiers and officers were as follows:

PTSD rate was 6.7% following analysis of questionnaire from 824 combatants.

 

PTSD

No  
Full criteria 56
Partial 6

Exposure to combat was significantly greater among those who were deployed in the North and East of Sri Lanka. The percentage of study subjects whose responses met the screening criteria for major depression, generalized anxiety, or PTSD was significantly higher after serving in the above mentioned areas.

Among the 824 Sri Lankan combatants 135 (16.38%) were diagnosed with Adjustment Disorder,   129 (15.65%) were diagnosed with Depressive Disorder, 78 (9.46%) were diagnosed with Psychiatric illnesses such as Schizophrenia, Bipolar Affective Disorder and Acute Transient Psychotic Disorder, 65 (7.88%) were with Somatoform Disorder, 89 (10.8%) with Dissociative Disorder, 27 (3.27%) with Traumatic Brain Injury and 29 (3.51%) with Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and Substance Abuse Disorder.

The combatants with full-blown symptoms of PTSD were found with following associations:

Those who have served in the operational areas (for more than 3 years)     45
Sustained grievous injuries –     15
Sustained none grievous injuries –     22
Witnessed Killing-     49
Past attempted suicides-     17
Experienced childhood trauma     30

Results suggest that exposure to active combat may be responsible for stress reactions such as PTSD among the combatants.

Discussion:

Posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) was recognised as an unique diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM-III) following the recognition of the clinical picture in Vietnamese war veterans (Dadic-Hero et al., 2009). Although the Sri Lankan armed conflict began in early 1980s for a long period PTSD was not recognized as a debilitating disorder that could affect soldiers (Jayatunge, 2014).

This is the first combat related PTSD study in Sri Lanka and it provides an initial overview of the existing psychosocial problems among the combatants who participated in the Eelam War. The significance of this study is that it was done when most of the combatants were still on active duty.

During the study structured interviews were conducted in Sinhalese language and every combatant’s military deployment history was assessed. In some cases their commanding officers were contacted and family members too interviewed. In addition cultural aspects of trauma were taken in to consideration.

PTSD is widely prevalent in the military community because of the frequency and type of trauma seen in the combat zone (Romanoff, 2006). Clancy et al (2006) found that age, greater combat exposure, and pre-military and post-military traumas are associated with increased PTSD symptomatology. The Sri Lankan combatants had prolonged combat exposure longer than the World War 2, Vietnam, Korean and Gulf War veterans. Following prolonged traumatic combat exposure a large number of soldiers sustained   PTSD and other trauma-related mental health ailments. Some of the PTSD conditions are still undiagnosed.

Combat exposure can change the psychological makeup of soldiers. Military personnel exposed to war-zone trauma are at risk for developing PTSD (Friedman et al., 1994). Collie and colleagues (2006) assume that approximately 30% of people who have been in war zones develop PTSD.  Combatants struggle with depression, PTSD, traumatic brain injury, and substance abuse (Kane et al., 2013).   As indicated by Gaylord (2006) combat veterans are at risk for experiencing the negative effects of deployment.  The findings of the current study specify that among the combatants with PTSD 80.35% had served in the combat zone for more than three years. The duration of combat exposure had been a risk factor.

Ehring and colleagues (2014) indicate that Posttraumatic stress disorder is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. Early childhood adversities such as physical and sexual abuse, emotional neglect, parental loss, etc., are major risk factors for the development of a range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood, including posttraumatic stress disorder (Anda et al., 2006; Burri et al., 2013). According to the current study 53.57 % of soldiers with PTSD had experienced adverse childhood traumas such as physical and sexual abuse, neglect and maternal and paternal deprivation.

The National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study, conducted 1986-88 found that lifetime prevalence of PTSD among Vietnam veterans was 31% for men and 27% for women. Current prevalence was 15% and 9% respectively. (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2007).The rates of PTSD among veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan are conservatively estimated to be 11% and 18%, respectively, and suspected to be underreported (Hoge et al., 2004 ; Nacasch et al., 2010).

The current PTSD study among the Sri Lankan combatants shows a low PTSD prevalence rate (6.7%) compared to Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. There could be several factors including cultural and religious factors which acted as buffers and protected the combatants from the development of PTSD. However this sample was not randomly selected and it was a presented sample that was refereed for treatment and psychological evaluations. Therefore this study may not reflect the actual picture of combat trauma in the Sri Lanka Army. The actual PTSD numbers may be high. According to rough assumptions PTSD rate among the soldiers of the Sri Lanka Army could be 12 % – 16 %.

In this study six soldiers were found with partial PTSD. Within the literature on PTSD, individuals who fail to satisfy diagnostic criteria yet report notable symptomatology have been termed as experiencing partial PTSD ( Kulka, Schlenger, & Fairbank, 1990; Gudmundsdottir &  Beck , 2004). According to Stein and colleagues (1997) patients with partial PTSD lack one or two of the three required avoidance or numbing symptoms, and/or one of two required hyperarousal symptoms. Breslau, Lucia and Davis (2004) state that PTSD identifies the most severe trauma victims, who are markedly distinguishable from victims with subthreshold PTSD. However Dickstein et al (2013) highlight that subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology is associated with increased risk for psychological and functional impairment, including increased risk for suicidal ideation. Six of the Sri Lankan soldiers with partial PTSD had significant functional impairments such as marital and parenting problems and impairments in quality of life and functioning.

The war affected Sri Lankan soldiers face a number of psychosocial problems. Pearrow and Cosgrove (2009) indicated that veterans’ exposure to heightened levels of stress resulting from combat and associated threatening and catastrophic events can markedly disrupt their functioning, not only while on the front lines but also upon their reentry into civilian life. With regard to Sri Lankan soldiers with PTSD the investigators found the same outcome. The Sri Lankan combatants with PTSD were found to be affected by numerous work related and other psycho social dysfunctions. Domestic violence, Alcohol and substance abuse, attempted suicides and self harms, disciplinary infractions were found among them.  Combat trauma symptoms impacted their marital, vocational, and social function.

The individuals with PTSD frequently suffer from other comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression, other anxiety disorders, and alcohol or substance abuse/dependence (Friedman et al., 1994). Comorbid disorders have an adverse impact on the prognosis and treatment of individuals with PTSD (Abram et al., 2013).  Data from epidemiologic surveys indicate that the vast majority of individuals with PTSD meet criteria for at least one other psychiatric disorder, and a substantial percentage have 3 or more other psychiatric diagnoses (Brady, 2000). Sri Lankan combatants with PTSD were found have other comorbid psychiatric disorders such as Depression, Substance Abuse Disorder and sometimes Psychosis.  

The main treatments for PTSD are psychotherapy and medication. Recent guidelines suggest that psychotherapy should be initiated as a first-line treatment for PTSD ((National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, 2005). The most commonly used medications have been antidepressants, and specifically SSRIs (Davidson, 2000; Davidson & Connor, 1999; Cukor et al., 2009). Spinazzola, Blaustein and van der Kolk (2005) identify prolonged exposure (PE), cognitive processing therapy, cognitive restructuring, and eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as some of the leading interventions for PTSD.

In Sri Lanka the combatants with PTSD are treated with drug therapy (anti depressants, mood stabilizers, anti psychotics, pain killers etc.) psychotherapy (CBT, EMDR, Rogerian therapy) and traditional healing methods. Drug therapy helps to minimize acute PTSD symptoms and normalize sleep. Rogerian Person Centred Therapy allows the combatants to release their bottled up negative emotions.  Cognitive Behavior Therapy has helped the combatants to improve their social functioning. In 2005 eighteen Sri Lankan combatants were treated with EMDR and twelve of them showed significant clinical improvement after 5-6 sessions of EMDR.

Among the traditional therapies Thovilaya has been identified as a conventional healing method. It is a form of psychodrama geared to heal the patient as well as his environment. Spiritual therapy also plays a vital role in treating soldiers with combat trauma. Spiritual therapy especially Buddhist psychotherapy helps the war victims to find meaning and achieve post traumatic growth.

In Sri Lanka a large number of ex combatants transited to civil society without any prier screening process. Many of them have readjustment problems. Psychosocial rehabilitation of the war veterans have been recognized as a crucial component in Sri Lanka. A range of social, educational, occupational, behavioral and cognitive interventions would be needed to address the needs of the combatants who were affected by the war.

Conclusion 

This study investigated the extent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the soldiers of the Sri Lanka Army who fought in the Eelam War. The findings indicate that combat related PTSD is becoming one of the critical mental health problems among soldiers in Sri Lanka. The affected combatants with war trauma experience problems in their living, working, learning, and social environments. War trauma has drastically impacted their mental health and long-term functioning. Effective measures have to be implemented to heal combat trauma in Sri Lanka. In addition further studies are needed to systematically assess the magnitude of combat trauma among the combatants and provide them appropriate psychosocial treatment.

Acknowledgments

1)      Dr. Neil Fernando -The former Consultant Psychiatrist of the Sri Lanka Army

2)      Gen (Dr) Dudley Perera – The former Medical Advisor -Sri Lanka Army Medical Corps

3)      Gen (Dr) Sanjeewa Munasinghe – Colonel Commandant of Sri Lanka Army Medical Corps

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‘දහම් කොලූවට මදනය නැගලා.. ක්ලබ් එකක් කුඩු කරලා..’ – විමල් පට්ටන්තරේම දිගඅරී.. [Video]

October 9th, 2016

ලංකා සී නිවුස්

මේ රටේ බහුතරයකට ඕනෙ වුණේ නයිට් ක්ල්බ් යන, ගහමරා ගන්නා පුතකුගේ තාත්තා කෙනෙකු ජනපති කරවන වෙනසක්ද?

– ජානිපෙ නායක, විමල් වීරවංශ

කල්බ් එකට ගැහුව පිරිසේ ප‍්‍රබලම පුතා හිටියා.. පොලීසියට ඇසින් දුටු දෙදෙනෙක් ප‍්‍රකාශ දෙයි.. තවම නීතිය නවා නෑ..

2015 ජනවාරි 08 වැනිදා මේ රටේ බහුතරයකට උවමනා වූයේ ‘නයිට් කල්බ් යන, ගහ මරා ගන්නා පුතකුගේ තාත්තා කෙනෙකු’ ජනපති කරවන වෙනසක්ද? යනුවෙන් ජාතික නිදහස් පෙරමුණේ නායක, පාර්ලිමේන්තු මන්ත්‍රී විමල් වීරවංශ මහතා ප්‍රශ්නකර සිටියේය.

කල්බ් එකට ගැහුව පිරිසේ ප‍්‍රබලම පුතා හිටියා.. පොලීසියට ඇසින් දුටු දෙදෙනෙක් ප‍්‍රකාශ දෙයි.. තවම නීතිය නවා නෑ..

 ලංකා සී නිවුස්

ඊයේ අළුයම දෙකට පමණ කොම්පඤ්ඤවීදියේ සමාජ ශාලාවකට කඩා පැන පහර දීම සම්බන්ධයෙන් පොලීසිය වෙත කට උත්තර දෙකක් ලැබී.

එසේ පහර දුන් පිරිස අතර මෙරට ප‍්‍රබලම දේශපාලන පුතාද සිටි බව අදාල කට උත්තරවල සදහන් බවද වාර්තා වෙයි.

මෙසේ කට උත්තර ලබා දී ඇත්තේ සමාජ ශාලාවේ හිමිකරු හා පහර කෑමට ලක් වූ ආරක්ෂකයායි.

කෙසේ වෙතත් මේ දක්වා විත්තිකරුවන්ගෙන් ප‍්‍රකාශයක් ලබා ගත් බවක් වාර්තා නොවෙයි.

ඊයේ (08) රත්නපුර නගරයේදී ‘අරගලයට පණ පොවන නව ජනතා බලවේගය’ යන තේමාව යටතේ පැවැති මහා ජනතා රැලිය අමතමින් ඒ මහතා මෙසේ පැවසීය.

එහිදී වැඩි දුරටත් අදහස් දැක්වූ වීරවංශ මහතා මෙසේ ද සඳහන් කර සිටියේය.

“එදා 2015 පෙබරවාරි 18 වැනිදා ආරම්භ කරපු ‘මහින්ද සුළඟ’ තුන්වැනි වතාවට පැවැති ස්ථානය තමයි මේ රත්නපුරය. අද දෙවැනි වතාවටත් ලක්‍ෂ සංඛ්‍යාත ජනතාවක් මේ රත්නපුරයේ රොද බැඳගෙන සිටිනවා, ‘සිරිසේන-වික්‍රමසිංහ හවුල දැන් ඉතිං ගෙදර පලයල්ලා’ කියන පණිවිඩය ලබා දීමට. මෙතැන සිටින පොලිස් නිලධාරිනුත් සියලු වැඩ නවත්තලා රැස්වීමේ කතාවලට සවන් දෙන බවයි පෙනෙන්නේ. ඔවුන්ට මේ හවුල බලයට ආවාම මෝටර් සයිකල් නොමිලේ දෙනවා කිව්වා. කලින් ආණ්ඩුව අය කළ රු.50,000.00 ආයෙත් දෙනවා කිව්වා. උසස්වීම් නිසි ආකාරයට දෙනවා කිව්වා. නමුත් අද ඒ එකක්වත් මේ හවුල ඉටුකර නැහැ. ඒ නිසා අද පොලිස් නිලධාරී මහත්වරුන්ටත් තිබෙන්නේ මේ ආණ්ඩුව ගෙදර යවන සටනට එක්වීම පමණයි.

1815 උඩරට ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කරලා සුද්දාට රට පාවා දුන්නාම ජාතිය ඉදිරියේ නිර්මාණය වූ සටනම තමයි 2015 ජනවාරි 08 වැනිදා මේ පරගැති හවුල බලයට ආවාම නිර්මාණය වූයේත්. අද ‘ජාඩියට – මූඩිය’වගේ පරගැති පාලකයෝ දෙන්නෙක් මේ රටේ ඉන්නවා. එක්කෙනෙක් හිටං. අනෙක් කෙනා හුටං. මේ ජෝඩුව අපේ ජාතිය මහදවල් විනාශ කරමින් යනවා. බටහිර න්‍යාය පත්‍රයක් කරේ තියාගෙන අද වික්‍රමසිංහ අගමැතිතුමා රට පාලනය කරනවා, සිරිසේන ජනාධිපතිතුමා පත්තරයක් බලලා කලබල වෙනවා
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මේකෙත් නැහැ – ඒකෙත් නැහැ

ඒත් මෙහේ පත්තරවල හැම දෙයක්ම පළ වෙන්නේ නැහැනේ. ජනාධිපති සිරිසේන මහත්තයා, කෘෂිකර්ම අමාත්‍යවරයා ලෙස සිටියදී ‘ගහපු ගැහිල්ලක්’ ඕස්ටේ්‍රලියාවේ ජාතික පුවත්පත්වල පමණක් නොවෙයි, රූපවාහිනී නාලිකා ගණනාවක විකාශය වුණා. මේ රටේ නම් කිසිම රූපවාහිනී නාලිකාවක ඒ ප්‍රවෘත්තිය විකාශය වුණේ නැහැ.(රූපවාහිනී චැනල් ලෝගෝ පෙනවමින් පවසයි) බැරි වෙලාවත් මේ ‘ඕරලියානු ගැහිල්ල’ ඇතුලේ මහින්ද රාජපක්‍ෂ මැතිතුමාගේ හෝ රාජපක්ෂ කෙනෙකුගේ නමක් තිබුණානම් ඒ ප්‍රවෘත්තිය මේ නාලිකා සියල්ලේම විකාශය වෙනවා.

‘දහම් කොලුවාට මදනයා නැඟපු හැටි’

මේ රටේ ඇතැම් මාධ්‍ය නාමල් රාජපක්‍ෂලාට විරුද්ධව නොයෙකුත් චෝදනා වරගන්වා ඉදිරිපත් කළා. විවිධ තර්ක ඔස්සේ විවිධ චෝදනා ගෙන ආවා. ‘එහෙම නම් පුළුවන් නම්, මේකත් දාන්න’ කියලා මම මේ රටේ මාධ්‍යවලට අභියෝග කරනවා එහෙම කළාට දාන්නේ නම් නැහැ. නමුත් සමාජ ඡාලා මාධ්‍යවලවත් යාවිනේ අනේ හාමුදුරුවනේ සමාවෙලා. මේ දහම් කොලුවාගේ නම වෙනස් කරලා සංඝ ආඥාවක් නිකුත් කරන්න. බුදුන්, දහම්, සඟුන් තමයි අපට තිබෙන තෙරුවන. මේයා නිසා ඒකත් වැනසෙනවා. දහම් ගිහින් තිබෙනවා ටවුන්හෝල්වල තිබෙන ‘ක්ලික්’ නැමති නයිට් ක්ලබ් එකට, ජනාධිපති ආරක්‍ෂක අංශයේ ආරක්‍ෂාව සහිතව. ජනාධිපති ලේකම් කාර්යාලයට අයත් ජිප් රථයක තමයි ගිහින් තිබුණේ. පළමු වතාවේ ගිහින් ඇතුළු වෙන්න ඇහුවා. ‘පොඞ්ඩක් ඉන්න කියා’ පිළිතුරක් ලැබී තිබුණා. ‘පස්සේ එන්නම්’ කියලා ඒ වතාවේ ගිහින් ආපසු ඇවිත් ක්ලබ් එකේ සියලු වීදුරු බින්දා. එක සේවකයකුට පහර දී තිබෙනවා. ඒ සේවකයා කොළඹ මහ රෝහලේ හදිසි අනතුරු වාට්ටුවේ ප්‍රතිකාර ලබනවා. ඒ පහර කෑමෙන් රෝගී වූ ඒ නයිට් ක්ල්බ් සේවකයාට දැන් ජනාධිපති ආරක්‍ෂක අංශයෙන් ආරක්‍ෂාව ලබාදී තිබෙනවා. බලාපොරොත්තු වූණේ මේ වෙනස නේද? නාමල් රාජපක්‍ෂලා, නයිට් ක්ලබ් ගිහින් මරා ගත්තේ නැහැ. මේ රටේ බහුතරයකට ‘නයිට් ක්ල්බ් යන, ගහගන්න, මරා ගන්න පුතකුගේ තාත්තා කෙනෙක් ජනාධිපති කරවන වෙනසක් ඕනෙ වුණා. ඒ වෙනස 2015 ජනවාරි 08 වැනිදා සිදු වුණා.

‘මාස 16ක ගුවන් ගමන් වියදම කෝටි 16ක්’

දවසින් දවස මේ පාලකයෝ දෙන්නා රට අගාධයට අරගෙන යනවා. 7%කට පැවැති ආර්ථික වර්ධන වේගය අද 2.5%ක් දක්වා පල්ලම් බස්සලා තිබෙන්නේ. මේ රට මේ විදියට වැටෙන්න ඕනෙ රටක් නොවෙයි. මේ පොළොව 65,000ක් දිවි පුදලා, අතපය අහිමිකර ගෙන රැකගත්තු පොළොවක්. ඒ නිසා මේ කාලකන්නි පාලකයන්ට මේ පොළවත් එක්ක සෙල්ලම් කරන්න ඉඩ දෙන්න අපි කාටවත් අයිතියක් නැහැ. අපේ උදය ගම්මන්පිල මන්ත්‍රීතුමා අගමැතිවරයාගෙන් විමසා තිබුණා ‘මේ ආණ්ඩුවේ මැති ඇමතිවරුන්ගේ ගුවන් ගමන් වියදම් පිළිබඳ ප්‍රශ්නයක්. මේ ප්‍රශ්නයට පිළිතුරු නොදී මඟ හැරපු මේ ආණ්ඩුව පසුගිය පාර්ලිමේන්තු සතියේදි බැරිම තැන ඊට පිළිතුරු දුන්නා. ඒ අනුව ගෙවී ගිය මාස 16ක කාලයට මේ ආණ්ඩුවේ මැති ඇමතිවරුන්ගේ ගුවන් ගමන් වියදම හෙළිදරව් වුණා. ඒ මුදල කොමපමණද? රුපියල් විසි කෝටි දාහතර ලක්‍ෂයයි. මාස 16ට ඒ ගණන නම්, මාසයකට කීයද? එක්කෝටි විසිපන්ලක්‍ෂ අසූහත්දහස් පන්සියයයි. දවසකට හාරලක්‍ෂ දාහතරදහස් හත්සිය අසූතුනයි. කොයි වෙලාවේ බැලුවත් මේ උන්දැලා ටික උඩ ඉන්නේ. ‘ඇමති උඩ – මහජන ධනයෙන් ගෙවනු ලැබේ මිල’ ඒකයි සිද්ධ වුණු වෙනස.

පුතා නයිට් ක්ල්බ් ගිහිල් වීදුරු බිඳින කොට ජනාධිපති තාත්තා හැට හැත්තෑවක් අරන් එක්සත් ජාතින්ගේ මහා මණ්ඩලයට යනවා. ‘හිටං ඒ ගණන ගෙන ගියාට ‘හුටං’ ඉන්දියාවට ගෙන ගියපු ගණන නම් මම දන්නේ නැහැ. අගමැතිතුමා ඉන්දියාවට ගිහින් කියන දේවල්වලට මට ‘විලි ලැජ්ජාවේ – සන්තෝෂේ’ බැහැ. මේ අවුරුද්ද අවසන් වෙන්න කලින් එට්කා ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කරනවා. දකුණු ඉන්දියාවත් එක්ක එකතු වෙලා මේ රට ස්විට්සර්ලන්තය වගේ එකක් කරනවා’ කියලයි හුටං කීවේ. එහෙනම් ‘ස්විස්ටර්ලන්තය’ කියන එකේ සිංහල තේරුම ‘සුඩානය’ කියන එකද? රනිල් වික්‍රමසිංහ මහත්තයා ඉන්දියාවට ගිහින් මෝඩි අගමැතිතුමාට පොරොන්දු වෙලා එතුමාගේ නම තමන්ට දමා ගන්න. (සභාවේ සිනා)

‘මව් පොළව බිලිගන්න එට්කා එනවා’

එට්කා කියන්නේ මේ රටේ ආර්ථිකයේ ඉතිරි වෙලා තියෙන ‘හුස්ම ටිකත්, මරලා දමන වැඩක්. ඉන්දියාවෙන් අපි ඓතිහාසිකව වෙන් වුණු හින්දා තමයි වෙනම ජාතියක්, වෙනම අනන්‍යතාවයක් සහිතව මේ පොළොව හැමදාම නැගිට්ටේ. මේ හදන්නේ සියවස් ගණනාවක් රැකගත්තු ඒ අනන්‍යතාව බිලිදෙන්න. එක පැත්තකින් දනුෂ්කොඩිවල සිට මන්නාරමට ‘හනුමන් පාලම’ හදන්න සූදානම් වෙනවා. පසුගියදා ඉන්දියාවට ගියපු වෙලාවේ අගමැති රනිල් වික්‍රමසිංහ මහත්තයා ඉන්දියානු ප්‍රවාහන ඇමතිවරයා මුණ ගැහිලා තිබෙනවා. ඔහු එහිදී පවසා තිබෙනවා ‘අපි මන්නාරමේ ඉදලා කුරුණෑගලට, අනුරාධපුරයට හා කොළඹට එන්න තිබෙන පාරවල් ටික හදලා දෙන්නම්’ කියලා. දකුණු ඉන්දියාව සහ උතුරු – නැගෙනහිර භෞතිකව යා කරන්නයි මේ අය හදන්නේ. ඒ සමඟම එට්කා ගිවිසුම ගහපුවාම ඉන්දියානුවන්ට මේ රටේ රස්සාවලට, ව්‍යාපාරවලට එන්න අවසරය ලැබෙනවා. ඉන්දියාවේ කල්ලතෝනි ඔක්කොම ඇවිත් ඒ සමඟම මෙහි පදිංචි වෙනවා. මේ සිදුවන්නේ උතුරු – නැගෙනහිරත් එකතු කරලා ‘Greater Tamil Nadu’ හදන එකයි. ඒකයි මෙතැන ක්‍රියාත්මක වන්නේ. එදා මුණ්මුඩ චෝල මණ්ඩලම් තමයි ‘Greater Tamil Nadu’ ලෙස පැමිණෙන්නේ . එට්කා ගිවිසුම ගහන අපරාධයට ඉඩ දීලා අපි ජාතියක් ලෙස අතපය බැඳගෙන බලා හිටියොත් අපට ඒ සාපයෙන් මිදෙන්න කවදාවත් ඉඩ ලැබෙන්නේ නැහැ.

‘රනිල් හාමු අනුර මල්ලට කිවේ කුමක්ද?’

මම දැක්කා ‘එයාර් පෝට්’ එකේ මුහුණ හෝදන්න තියෙන සින්ක් එකකින් ඉන්දියානුවෙක් තමන්ගේ කකුල් හෝදනවා. පාර් මළපහ කරන, බස් රථයේ යන විට අනෙක් වැඬේ කරන, මේ රැකියා විරහිත ඉන්දියානුවන්ට මේ රටට එන්න ඉඩ දුන්නොත් අපට ඉන්න හිටින්න වෙන රටක් හොයාගන්න වෙනවා. මේ සිදුවෙමින් තිබෙන්නේ අපේ ඓතිහාසික අනන්‍යතාවය උදුරාගනිමින් ඉන්දියානු ව්‍යාප්තවාදයේ හිස එසවීමයි. අද තියෙන්නේ ‘ඒකට ඉඩ දෙනවාද, නැද්ද?‘ කියන සටන. කෝ අද රෝහණ විජේවීර සහෝදරයාගේ ‘ඉන්දියානු ව්‍යාප්තවාදය’ පංතිය උගන්වපු මගේ පරණ පක්‍ෂයේ අලුත් නායකයෝ ටික? මේක ඉන්දියානු ව්‍යාප්තවාදය මහදවල් සිදුවන වෙලාවක්. පුංචි අම්මාපල්ලා කෝ අද මේ ජවිපෙ නායකයෝ ටික? රනිල් ‘හාමු’ අනුර ‘මල්ලිට’ නිශ්ශබ්දව ඉන්න කියලා. අද ඒ මහා පාවාදීම සිදු වෙමින් පවතිනවා.

අනෙක් පැත්තෙන් අද මේ ආණ්ඩුව බටහිර කොන්ත්‍රාත්තුව ඉටු කරමින් ඉන්නවා. රණවිරුවන් බිල්ලට ගන්නවා. අල්ලස් කොමිසමේ ‘රනිල්ගේ සුරතලිය’ හිටපු ආරක්‍ෂක ලේකම් ගෝඨාභය රාජපක්‍ෂ ඇතුළු හිටපු නාවික හමුදාපතිවරුන් තිදෙනකුට එරෙහිව නඩු දමලා උසාවියට ගෙන්වනවා. මේ රට බේරාගත් වීරයන්හිරේ දාන්නයි කුරුමානම් අල්ලන්නේ. ඒ විදියට රණවිරුවන්, මහා සඟරුවන. හිරේට දානවා. එතැනින් නතර නොවී අද කතරගම දේවාලේ අලියත් හිරේට දානවා. මේ අයට මේ කරන අපරාධවලට වස් වදිනවා. අපි මේ ආණ්ඩුවට කියනවා. ‘සත්ව හිංසාව ගැන ඔය තරම්ම දුකනම් ගෙවල්වල බල්ලෝ හදන එකටත් විරුද්ධ වෙන්න’ කියලා. මේ දේවල් ගැඹුරෙන් තේරුම් ගන්න. මේ ගහන්නේ මේ රටේ ඓතිහාසික පදනමට. සුද්දාවත් එදා මේ ඓතිහාසික පදනමට මේ විදියට ගැහුවේ නැහැ. ගැහුවා නම් ගැහුවේ හෙමිහිට. මේ ‘සිරිසේන – වික්‍රමසිංහ ද්‍රෝහී රැල’ අද මේ විදියට තදින් ගහන්නේ මේ රටේ ඓතිහාසික පදනමට බව ඉතා හොඳන් තේරුම් ගන්න.

‘සිරිසේන හිතලා හිතලා හිතලා කියපු ඇත්ත’

සිරිසේන ජනාධිපතිතුමා හිතලා හිතලා බොහොම අමාරුවෙන් කීවා ‘ඇත්තක්’ නෙළුම් පොකුණ හදන්න මුල්ගල් තැබුවේ චබකු නෝනය ඒ මුල්ගල මහින්ද රාජපක්‍ෂ මහත්තයාගේ කාලයේ ගැලෙව්වාය’ කියලා. බලපුවාම නෙළුම් පොකුණේ චන්ද්‍රිකා නෝනා තැබූ මුග්ල එසේම ඇත. කවුරුන් හෝ සිරිසේන ජනාධිපතිතුමා අන්දා ඇත. නැත්තම් එයා ඇඳගෙන ඇත. මේවා අපි කිව්වාට මාධ්‍යවල යන්නේ නැහැ. ඒක තමයි අද තිබෙන ‘තරු පහේ’ මාධ්‍ය නිදහස. මේ විදියට පච වපුරලා, වෛරය වපුරලා,දේශපාලන දඩයමෙන් මේ රට ඉදිරියට ගෙන යන්න බැහැ.
‘අපේ සටන නවත්තන්න බැහැ’

දැන් කොයි වෙලාවේ බැලුවත් ඒකාබද්ධ විපක්‍ෂයේ නායකයන් සහ ඔවුන්ගේ පවුල්වල අය හිරේ ඉන්නවා. මේ වන කොට අපේ පක්‍ෂයේ නියෝජ්‍ය නායක, පාර්ලිමේන්තු මන්ත්‍රී ජයන්ත සමරවීර සහෝදරයා, ලොහාන් මන්ත්‍රීතුමාගේ සහෝදරයා වගේම මගේ සහෝදරයාත් ඉන්නේ හිරගෙදර. මේ විදියට දේශපාලන දඩයමෙන් අපේ සටන නතර කරන්න බැහැ. 1815 සුද්දාට යටත් වුණාට පසුව නැගිටපු මහජනයාගේ සටන පරද්දන්න බැරි වුණා වගේ, ‘ජාතියේ නූතන නිදහස් අරගලය නුඹලාගේ ඔය දඩයමෙන් නතර කරන්න බැහැ’ කියලා. අපි මේ රත්නපුර ඓතිහාසික වේදිකාවේ සිට සඵථ කරනවා. මහින්ද රාජපක්‍ෂ මැතිතුමාට ගහන්න, ගහන්න, එතමා තවතවත් සුවඳවත් වෙනවා. ‘බටලන්දේ වධකයින්ගේ හවුල පරාජය කරන දිනය වැඩි ඈතක නොවෙයි කියන එකත් අපි මේ මොහොතේදි කියා සිටිනවා.

උතුරේ දෙමළ ජනතාව ඇති වූ සාමාකාමී වටපිටාව ඇතුළේ අන්තවාදය පිටු දැකලා හෙමිහිට නැගිටින්න පටන් ගත්තා නමුත් 2015 ජනවාරි 08 වැනිදා සිරිසෙන – වික්‍රමසිංහ හවුල බලයට ආවාට පසුව යළි අන්තවාදී කල්ලිවලට ඉඩකඩ හදලා දුන්නා දෙමළ ජන සමාජය තුළ අන්තවාදය වපුරන්න. දෙමළ අන්තවාදයට බැහැ උතුරේ දෙමළ සමාජයට සැබෑ සහජීවනය දෙන්න. සිංහල, දෙමළ, මුස්ලිම් සකල සහජීවනය හැදෙන්නේ එක අන්තවාදයකට උදව් කිරීමෙන් නොවෙයි. මේ ආණ්ඩුව කරන්නේ දෙමළ අන්තවාදයට උඩගෙඩි දීලා උතුරේ දෙමළ සමාජයේ ප්‍රජාතන්ත්‍රවාදී බලවේගත් පොඩිපට්ටම් කරලා මහ සඟරුවනට පය තැබීමට බැරි, බුදු පිළිම පැවැති බවට වූ ඓතිහාසික සටහන් මකා දමන පොළොවක් බවට උතුර පත් කරන්නයි. එතැනටයි අද මේ රට ඇදගෙන යන්නේ.

ඒ නිසා මේ මව් පොළොව ඔබේ හදවත වැළදගෙන ඉල්ලා සිටිනවා ‘මේ රට වෙනුවෙන් පෙරමුණ ගන්න. මේ ද්‍රෝහී ආණ්ඩුව පන්නන සටනට පාරට බහින්න. එට්කා ගිවිසුම අත්සන් කිරීමට එරෙහි සටනට එකතු වෙන්න’ කියලා.

ඒ අතරේ ‘ඒකීය ලේබල් ටික’ එහෙමම තියෙද්දි දෙමළ බෙදුම්වාදීන්ට ඕනෙ කරන ‘මදය’සහිත ෆෙඩරල් ව්‍යවස්ථාවක් ගෙන ඒමට මේ ආණ්ඩුව සැරසෙනවා. දෙමළ බෙදුම්වාදයට අවශ්‍ය කරන ප්‍රාන්ත පාලනයට, ස්වයං පාලනයට ඉඩ කඩ හදලා දෙන ව්‍යවස්ථාවකටයි මේ විදියට පාර කැපෙන්නේ. මේ සියලු සටන්වලට ඔබ සැමගේ තීරණාත්මක මැදිහත්වීම මේ මොහොතේ අවශ්‍යයි. මේ හොර හවුල දැන් ඡන්ද තියන්නේ නැහැ. සමුපකාර ඡන්ද ප්‍රතිඵලය දැකලා මේ අයගේ බඩ බුරුල් වෙලා. ජනමත විචාරණය, පළාත් පාලන ඡන්දය ආවොත් එතැනින් හරි, ඡන්ද නොආවොත් පාරට බැහැලා හරි මේ හොරිකඩ හවුල ගෙදර යැවීමට පෙරමුණ ගනිමු! රොද බැඳ ගනිමු”

අනුරුද්ධ බණ්ඩාර රණවාරණ
මාධ්‍ය ලේකම්,
ජාතික නිදහස් පෙරමුණ

75,111 Viewers

මහින්ද සුළග Ratnapura – Live Broadcasting

October 9th, 2016

Pavithra  Vanniarchchi

Vimal Weerawans

Public proposals for Budget 2017 and Plans beyond 2017

October 8th, 2016

DR.C. ANTON BALASURIYA

Prior to providing my thoughts, I need to define the parameters within which these recommendations are made.

  1. The proposals target the anticipated government revenues and expenditure for the financial year 2017 and planned programs beyond 2017.
  2. Government revenues derived would normally be from personal income taxes, corporate taxes, sales taxes, value added taxes, capital gains taxes, exercise taxes, license taxes, inheritance taxes and government borrowings among others.

3.The expenses would include government expenditures on current goods and services (consumption) and investment expenditures (infrastructure) and transfer payments(unemployment and retirement benefits) and debt servicing among others.

  1. The type of budget to be a deficit budget (anticipated expenditures being greater than revenue)
  2. Some of the proposals and areas identified cannot be included in the 2017 budget due to the time needed for feasibility study and evaluation and development of an activity plan. However if they are worthy of consideration they can be included as policy initiatives of the future.

Contents Page

Foreword                                                                                                        1

Principles of the Budgeting Process                                                               1

(1) How do you raise Finance and use it intelligently                                    3

(2) Other Policy Avenues to raise income and reduce spending                    6

(3) Policy on Small and Medium Business                                                     9

(4)  Social Welfare Policies                                                                             17

(5) Health Sector Policies                                                                               17

(6) Education Sector Policies                                                                          18

(7) Management of the Public Sector                                                             21

(8) Infrastructure Development                                                                      23

(9) Policy Improvements in Trade and Industry                                             27

(10) Food security & Environment Friendly Initiatives                                 28

(11) Housing                                                                                                   29

(12) Foreign Exchange inputs                                                                        34

 

Foreword

Prior to providing my thoughts, I need to define the parameters within which these recommendations are made.

  1. The proposals target the anticipated government revenues and expenditure for the financial year 2017 and planned programs beyond 2017.
  2. Government revenues derived would normally be from personal income taxes, corporate taxes, sales taxes, value added taxes, capital gains taxes, exercise taxes, license taxes, inheritance taxes and government borrowings among others.

3.The expenses would include government expenditures on current goods and services (consumption) and investment expenditures (infrastructure) and transfer payments(unemployment and retirement benefits) and debt servicing among others.

  1. The type of budget to be a deficit budget (anticipated expenditures being greater than revenue)
  2. Some of the proposals and areas identified cannot be included in the 2017 budget due to the time needed for feasibility study and evaluation and development of an activity plan. However if they are worthy of consideration they can be included as policy initiatives of the future.

The principles of the budgeting process(I presume present budget planners are using a similar framework)

(a)  Need to identify broad goals of development strategy for the country. For this to take place it is imperative that all parties in government, especially the two premier parties (UNP and  SLFP) agree on a common policy platform, on programs  and strategies for the core areas, notwithstanding which party  is in control at any one time .

These sectors are Health, Education, Social Services, Agriculture, Industry, infrastructure and State and Private business. No matter what party comes into power the core areas need to be the same to avoid all the failures and disasters of the last 60 years

(b At the outset, in developing a free budget estimate devoid of financial limitations, the principle Rule of three need to be followed i.e., Essential, Desirable and Dispensable(EDD).

(c) Thereafter, initially develop a free budget estimate encompassing all the development goals of the Government  under  each ministry including those already in progress, following the rule of three(EDD).

(d) Once the free budget estimates are made, identify the monies available and trim the activities to meet with expected income using EDD.

(e) Under each heading specify activities to achieve the required goals

(f)  Establish a time line in weeks, months and years to complete each activity.

(g) Identify the manpower and man days needed to each activity area and costs of same

(h) Estimate total costs of each activity area

(i) Identify final outputs, goals and ripple effect of each activity

(j) Identify the linkages between Ministries on each activity to prevent repetition and similarity so as  not to waste resources

(k) Identify against each activity the finances needed and how they are to be met i.e.,  finances already available from previous funds, the portion the government will provide, loans and grants which could be garnered, aid money etc., among others.

(l) Prepare a performance appraisal grid for each activity (bar charts), showing level of completion, financial resources used, manpower and raw material usage to show weekly, monthly and quarterly progress as per original estimates  based on above, adjustments could be made to keep the projects on track

NOTE: I am sure all of these planning tools may already be in use or something similar. However I encourage the professionals who are involved in the budgetary process to refer a manual termed “A framework for improved state and local budgeting” written by the National Advisory Council on State and Local budgeting of USA (available on the internet)

(1) How do you find the finance and spend  it?

There are three  aspects to this question  (a) the methods of finding the finances (b) control of the expenditure (especially waste and leakages) and (c)cost benefit analysis of existing structure so as to either eliminate or reduce waste and inefficiency

(a) The method of finding the finances

One main source that all governments resort to is the tax avenue

Tax revenue in a country serves as life blood for the government. For example, in developing countries the tax revenue ratio (the ratio between average revenue and gross domestic product)  fall far below   that of  developed countries.  While currently, that ratio in developed countries is over 35%.  In developing countries,  this ratio is below  15% and in Sri Lanka below 12%.

Development aid and tax income provides financial resources to a country to finance the Public Sector expenditure.  However, plans based on tax income are undermined due to tax avoidance and tax evasion.

Tax avoidance which is a tax reduction by legal means can be defined as the activity of tax payers

who find different ways to lessen or eliminate their tax liability so as to reduce their actual  legal income,  without violating the law.

 

Tax evasion on the other hand is the nonpayment of tax liabilities. This  is the activity of taxpayers, a premeditated infringement of law for the purpose of escaping tax payments that has been introduced legally by the tax authority. This is criminal in nature. Tax evasion is present in Sri Lanka on a large scale by individuals, corporations and trusts and by those in the informal economy of small and medium businesses, trade establishments, tourist trade, professionals, individual income earners, as well as, thousands of suppliers of professional services. The problem is further compounded by the absence of tax files among the majority of citizens in Sri  Lanka.

 

Every citizen in Sri Lanka s should strive to strengthen one’s society. It is their public duty to make tax payment,  as taxes are the major source of income for government and the  government uses this money to provide services to  the general public, in areas, such as, defense and security  services, public utilities, healthcare, education, social welfare, poor relief,  transportation, roads etc.

According to official records less than 2 % of the population  are tax payers out of a total population of 22 million people.  Obviously, there must be several reasons for non-payment of tax. The main issue is not alone tax avoidance but the inability to bring all citizens under a tax umbrella.

(b)Recommendations on ways to increase tax revenue

Issues

  • Every citizen must have a tax file notwithstanding whether they presently pay tax ( single or as a family unit)
  • All companies from limited liability, partnerships, to proprietorships must have a tax file

Target groups

  1. All members of the national Government
  2. All provincial Government elected members
  3. All companies from limited liability to proprietorships
  4. All employed citizens in government sector*  and the private sector
  5. All professional consultants in the fields of medicine and health care, engineering, architecture, accountants, tax advisors, advertising, shipping, medical specialists, lecturers, tuition teachers dance teachers, economists all consultants in every field, among others
  6. All citizens of voting age (18) to 70 years

( * though government sector salaries are tax exempt their private wealth which include lands, houses, rents and other income such as, gifts, dowries, windfall wins need to be taxed.

It does not matter whether they are presently non tax payers but like the national Identity Card they need to have a tax number and as they increase their income will qualify for taxes.

The fact that they have to declare every year on a computerized tax return or by mail makes them answerable in a legal sense as well as in a psychological sense to refrain from  tax  avoidance. If proved contrary, to their non taxable income answer, they will have to face legal strictures.

How can you bring individuals under the tax umbrella?

1.Obtain from the Registrar of Companies   all company registrations and make it obligatory for all new companies registered to obtain a tax file.

  1. Keep tab of all the weddings, receptions, birthday galas at hotels and wedding halls in Colombo and the suburbs to identify the spenders.

3.Keep a tab on the political parties and their spending on processions, meetings, transport  for protests and meetings etc.

  1. Get all hospitals and other medical establishments and private consulting places to report back on consultants’ charges*

(* at present many consultants /specialists/GPs demand cash and give no valid  receipts. Make it obligatory for all specialists, consultants to give a valid receipt that can be filed by the customer as a valid tax off every year)

  1. Repeat the above exercise with all other consultants, such as, engineers, private tax consultants, accountants, architects, surveyors, occult readers, masseurs, tuition establishments,  private education institutes,  economists, lawyers, attorneys,  investment analysts, service agents, ship chandlers etc., among others. *

( make them give valid receipts which can be filed by individuals for percentage exemption* from their individual tax returns. which will necessitate all individuals or corporate entities who pay for services from these professionals to provide receipts. This will create an instant back up check to tax authorities)

  1. Get all other supplier of services, such as funeral parlors, musical bands , tent suppliers , caterers, food suppliers for almsgivings, funerals, birthday parties, weddings and other ‘tamashas’ to give valid receipts which can be produced as  expenses to tax  authorities to qualify for relief on individual incomes

(* Possible future tax exemptions are a possible double edged sword as this will pressurize all service suppliers to give a valid receipt for receiving income and for all those who pay for such service to insist on a receipt as they would get a tax benefit)

  1. All organizers of political meetings, sports festivals, musical extravaganzas, for cost of platforms, tents, music, dancers, and electronic equipment , transport .refreshments etc.  etc.,
  2. Organizers of training programs, management, sports, religious festivals among others

I am certain that this scenario will increase the tax base by circa 500%. Today with computerization creating 20 million tax files is no big deal nor is it a big deal to have software to monitor same. I am not aware how the tax department is organized countrywide but recommend that that tax offices should be established in every district if it is not the case now.

(2)Other policy avenues that will create income/reduce expenditure to the government and/ or save wasteful expenditure

(a)Import Restrictions.

 All these suggestions cannot be done in the 2017 budget but mention  could be made based on a time frame as  plans for the future.

Import restrictions   and import substitution  would be key factors. At present considerable amount of non-essential items are imported  to the country. First the need is there to identify goods into three  categories,  i.e. essential , partly essential and non- essential (the definitions are time bound)

  • ( a survey needs to be done  on all current imports  based on the three factors above)

(b) Repositioning  Industrial and Agricultural Base

(i)Heavy industry  : At present not much of heavy industry remain ( Companies such as Colombo Commercial company,  Walker and Sons, Walker and Grieg, Bonars,  Browns group,  comes to mind)

An example of utter waste in heavy industry area is the vehicle import policy. The administration does not consider the long term repercussions  of bringing in various models of vehicles for which they have to import millions of items  as spare parts.

Solution is in the long term, e.g.,  identifying like  India did, to assemble one make and model of  a small car ( already being done), a medium size car and a larger saloon.  Two long and short wheel base  Vans  Strive  for  joint investment with foreign participation to establish  assembling factories.  Excess over the Sri Lanka market can be exported to other third world countries. Several novel permutations and combinations could make the vehicles look different so as to satisfy customer choice, though the basic structure such as the chassis frame, differential, engine block etc would be the same,

The upshot of such a decision would be that you could over period trim imports of spares  for older cars and the locally assembled cars would function with a much lesser stock  holding of spares ( A project proposal can be submitted)and considerable amount of spares for  the locally assembled vehicles could be manufactured locally. The ripple effect is that feeder industries will be set up by  small firms to supply components over time (such a model can be seen in South Korea with Hyundai and other car manufactures)

Initially a moratorium on new  and old car imports for 10 years to be introduced in the budget to initiate above proposal. Savings will be in millions while income generation among local assemblers and component manufacturers will create income redistribution in the country.

(ii) Light Engineering :

Our country needs  a light engineering base from basic tools and machines to sophisticated  technology. Basic would be for example, carpenter/mason  tools, locks etc., a sophisticated would be for example medical and dental instruments .  A survey and evaluations to be carried out on likely areas

Initial entry would be technology transfer of total industrial units based on relocation from foreign countries together with buy back guarantees of manufactured items, like China has done over the last two decades( see also section on foreign investment ).

  • To be mentioned as a sign post of the future in the budget.

This would eliminate the need to import selected goods and the benefit would be finding new markets  after feeding the local demand. New markets will open  with the establishment of new trade pacts with India ,Singapore, Pakistan, New Zealand and other selected countries

(iii)Intelligence industry

Both electronics and information technology industry is the need of the hour. Initially it would be for example, assembly of  selected  electronic goods such as computers  with  buy back arrangements of supply  over Lankan needs. In case of information technology a whole gamut of possibilities are open. Initially systems to cater to generation Z* Scientific knowledge, technology knowhow  and innovation  need to be the key drivers in the new education system which will cater to the new generation  and bring in  an  educated work force.

The result here would be import substitution of many items that are imported presently and the distinct possibility of exporting  goods to other third world countries and export of software ( presently done in a small scale).

  • It is important for the government to show the way forward in the budget.

Such industrial expansion with core industrial complexes in the South, East, North and West will  create an economic expansion, income redistribution,  employment creation,  export oriented economy, an intelligent work force and political and economic stability in all parts of the country.

(* please refer to Dr Chandra  Embuldeniya “Fourth Industrial Revolution, Sunday  Business Times  September 18th 2016)

(iv)Value added Agriculture

Background:  At present the there is considerable waste in the field of Agriculture both in absence of planned agricultural pursuits, not utilizing examples from other counties . not having a solid comprehensive plan for agriculture, paucity of directed education facilities, and the absence of awareness supported by intensive encouragement by the government . One such case is in paddy farming. Hence the example given below:-

  • Paddy lands: Paddy farming has not changed much over the years. The concept of inheritance and decimation of land into minute blocks is totally uneconomical, leading to waste in land, labor, water ,fertilizer, apart from poor methodology of land use.

A possible way forward is Block farming. Basically amalgamating paddy lands into 100 acre blocks. With a large stakeholder providing the management and administration and having a certain portion of shares in the company for their financial  investment, while every small holder farmer/ owner who subscribes,  pledging their land to the company to be issued  shares on land value. The benefit to the farmer is many fold, (i) holds ownership of land as shareholder of the company (ii) receives share of the  profit(iii)obtains permanent employment in the paddy estate with a daily wage for their r labor.

The overall benefits  will be, (i) intelligent use of mechanized agriculture,(ii)water conservation,(iii) efficient harvesting ( iv) intelligent use and control of  fertilizer and pest control (v) prevention of vermin attack and spoilage  (vi) efficient  storage,(vii)the up gradation of farmer livelihoods(viii)improved scientific agriculture, (ix)  income generating short crops  during the two  off season),      (x) benefit to the farmer through elimination  of lost time due to ill health, paucity of cash  in finding funds for seed paddy, fertilizer, storage, water and farm implements etc., (xi) growing of better varieties for export, among others

  • study to be carried through a pilot project.

Refer also to  existing  studies  available at the Central Bank and other Agriculture Research units  and the Department of Agriculture on wastage in harvesting and transport, vermin/rodent attacks on harvested paddy etc. The perennial loss of cultivable best paddy lands .According to Dr A. Tennekoon’s research ( Central Bank),  around 33% of the best  land  is not cultivated due to the ‘Thatumaru’ system which waste cultivable land on ownership  boundaries (Niyaras)

In addition numerous studies are available on other added value agriculture such as fruits, lentils,  vegetable and flower seeds for export, cut flowers, spices  among others,  Refer especially a study carried out by Arthur D little of USA and the Sri  Lanka Government in 1984.

  • Another related subject to agriculture is import of fertilizer. We are importing triple super phosphate (TSP) when we have phosphate deposits at  Eppawela that will meet our agricultural needs for the next 100 years, Our phosphate deposits  are superior   in quality to that   available in Jordan.
  • we need to establish a joint venture with a foreign firm to convert same into tsp. This will provide our local needs as well as

(3) Small and Medium Business strategy model*

There is no definitive policy and plan for small and medium industry development in the country. a comprehensive policy  has never been designed and  implemented . A policy with legal teeth should be introduced after a evaluation of the following needs areas. They are, Access to:  Physical Infrastructure, Financial services, Technology and Technical services, Raw materials, Business information and advice, Markets  and  a Solid legal base

The following concept presented is applicable  to all would be entrepreneurs in any district in Sri Lanka . It can also be specially directed to displaced youth in the North and the east

Background

Assumptions (applicable to the North and East only)

The target group we are considering at present, probably,

  • Feel alienated from the rest of society
  • Have low self esteem due to the vacuum created on their ideological goals of a separate state, loss of power and authority
  • suffer from loss of loved ones such as parents, relatives, siblings and friends
  • are depressed due to loss of career goals, disruption of education, etc
  • feel the absence of social and cultural cohesion
  • feel left behind in comparison to their peers who did not participate as active members of the LTTE fighting cadres

Options available to uplift the target group to become useful and contributory citizens to society

  • Provide government employment
  • Create avenues for private sector to absorb them
  • Formulate a program/s to create self employment and participate in income generating activities

Where (a) is concerned the process will be slow and no acceleration is possible as it concerns the whole country where there is considerable under employment and un-employment. Therefore job vacancies will occur only when development of the North and East progresses. However we need to conduct career training before they become employable

In the case of option (b) there may perhaps be more acceleration of job prospects for some as the private sector opens up more manufacturing and sales areas in these regions. This again will take considerable time as target group members require basic training before being employed

The most viable option therefore is, (c) as most of the target group have low levels of skills training, low levels of basic education, low exposure into the world of business.

However, the  above deficiencies could be overcome as there are successful programs from Asia and rest of the world in the fields of motivation, awareness creation and exposure to rapid learning methods in skills training and entrepreneurship.

Such programs need to be well integrated with all the stakeholders playing symmetrical roles.     That is the  government sector( GS), the private sector( PS) and  the local and international establishments   (L &I), They in unison need to work together to  create a stable  environment by sharing roles that are necessary to make the ongoing program  a part of a national effort of reintegration, reconstruction and development . This would consist of, for example ,   creating a level playing field ( GS) , access to,  business services( PS)),  information networks(GS,PS, L&I) , industrial and agricultural extension,( GS, PS L&I)  establishment of manufacturing and production demonstration centers, ( GS<PS<L&I) hands on training and instruction centers (GS,PS,L&I), raw material banks (GS,PS) marketing , distribution and sales  outlets( GS,PS, L&I)  and of course funding to undertake these programs

It is necessary to reiterate before we go further that such a program needs

  • Hands on experienced experts who can guide and direct the various inputs.
  • Careful selection of  the different target groups of beneficiaries
  • A pilot program to test the waters
  • A well documented monitoring and evaluation procedure in place.

Items C and D are self explanatory

With regard to (a) there are Sri Lankan experts available with both local and international experience.

In the case of (b) a glance at the following view of target participants may be pertinent so as to select aspirants from the group into specific training programmers.

It must be borne in mind that humans have different capabilities and therefore there need to be programs to cater to different types. A few examples are given here for clarification of types of humans and suitable programs

Types of Humans (categorization done based on my own observations and therefore not exclusive)

  1. Safety seekers are those that obtain a skill and sell this skill practically for 8 hours a day or more to some establishment either in the government or the private sector.

For them the program needs to offer skills trainings in specific fields such as administration, clerical and technical fields etc. For this group Entrepreneur development could be offered in the future

  1. Risk Takers are those who identify a prospective business and establish an income generating activity like small manufacturing unit, or an agriculture processing unit, trading, distribution or other service, employs others and manages the venture. These belong to our target group and entrepreneur development should be a must for this group.
  2. Lone rangers are those who acquire a skill or knowledge .Do not like to work for others and ply his/her trade e.gs. are masons, welders, electricians, plumbers ,surveyors, architects, musicians medical practitioners, lawyers etc. They too fall into our target group as they could move into a business venture at a later date. Entrepreneur development after skills training is a must

4, Survival artistes are those who are less educated and less endowed in skills and knowledge and find no choice other than to employ themselves in some micro business to survive.egs are street vendors, street entertainers, and micro food processors. They too fall into our target group and entrepreneur training is a must and will make them ply their micro businesses more efficiently.

  1. Family Inheritors are those whose parents are engaged in a trade, business or service and are already tuned into the world of business and will either join their parents or branch out to a new business or do neither. They too fall into our target group and will benefit from entrepreneur training.

FACETS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Entrepreneur training programs create, awareness among the aspirants about themselves, the external world they operate their business, their internal strengths through self analysis, enthusiasm build up, task orientation, knowledge building and self motivation.

It is pertinent to note at the beginning that Entrepreneurship is not a fallback position when no other job prospects are available but it is a career by itself, second to none

The reason why there is a high failure rate is due to the false assumption of development personal  who assumed that if a person is trained for 15 to 20 days in all aspects of management, production, finance and marketing and selling that they will venture into successful enterprise. This is far from the truth and is a menu for disaster .

The training really provides a sense of direction and creates awareness provides guidelines on every aspect of business. The real test comes when they try to commence their business and thereafter.  Therefore the critical factor for success is to sustain their initial enthusiasm through a process of continuous support services, this is called industrial and agricultural and service extension.

These support services comprise of

(a) Access to physical infrastructure: such as, access to land, buildings, warehousing, roads, sales outlets, utilities etc through the form of industrial estates, business hives, business cocoons etc.

(b) Access to financial services: such as advice, financial feasibility studies, cash flow management, tax benefits, bridging loans, leasing finance, hire purchase finance, short and long term loans etc

© Access to technology and technical services: such as, processing techniques, environment friendly production, appropriate machinery, production processors, quality manufacture, design, shape and color, etc

(d) Access to raw materials, such as raw material banks, special imports, reservations, bulk buying etc.,

(e)   Access to business information and advice: such as, information on markets, pricing, raw materials, design, packaging, quality, government rules and regulations, business laws, taxes etc

(f) Access to Markets: such as, schemes of twining big business with micro and small business, foster parenting, easy entry into government supply, entry to government tenders, subcontracting exchanges etc

(g) Access to Training: such as, financial management, production management, sales, quality control, packaging ,product design, market research , reverse engineering, stores management, among others

(h) Access to a solid Legal base: such as, special law  that define Micro,  Small, Medium and Large companies, laws on tender break up so that small firms can compete, laws on special purchase of small business products by the Government, Laws on location ,special tax benefits, pay back periods on loans, special interest rates among others

Selection of trainees

They are tested selection methodologies based on ones’ orientation and entrepreneur ability

Some examples of selection parameters:   select groups from similar backgrounds, knowledge levels, age groups, educational levels, skill levels. These are done through one to one and group interviews, observation and visit to family backgrounds and environment, intelligent and skills tests etc.

Examples of group orientations for selection are,

  • Graduates, technical diploma holders, agricultural diploma holders, those with business experience and specific skills experience
  • Family backgrounds like farming, trading, technical, Industrial etc
  • Skilled, e.gs. are electricians, welders, plumbers, carpenters, hair dresses, dental mechanics, animal husbandry, apiary, among others
  • Service orientation such as repairers of bicycles, tractors, motor cycles, cars and vans, wedding entertainers, funeral organizers, electric and electronic item repairers, music suppliers, among others
  • Food processors such as pastry makers, bread /bakery trade, sweet meats, beverages, fast food suppliers, among others

Training models

There are many training models to choose from. Most of them have been pilot tested in Sri Lanka and abroad.  Whatever the model, a key factor to look for is that the training is done using andragogical or adult teaching methods which comprise of, role play, interactive group work, simulation methods, competitive groups, case study etc which simulate real life situations.

The process of training itself is well documented. It begins with expectation indexes, leveling, brain storms, micro and macro screening, interactive games on  market research, production, financial management ,costing ,raw material sourcing, reverse engineering, packaging, negotiating, setting prices, market research, marketing , advertising, development of  project  profiles  and presentation of business plans to a final panel, using the techniques learned through this sequential training program and requesting the financial intermediary  for seed capital based on this business plan.

Post training support.

Already discussed above such as government policy support in the form of incentives, simplified legal and regulatory frameworks, and others mentioned above

The Future

Provided a decision is made that what is described is a probable path to follow, a project proposal will have to be developed for Government, private sector and donor funding

Funding could be sourced from

  • International donors who have funded such programs around the world are

The world bank, USAID (USA) GTZ,  (Germany) , British aid (UK) ,SIDA  ( Sweden) DANIDA ,(Denmark) NORAD  (Norway)  Dutch Aid, CIDA,IDRC {Canada)and many foundations, among others

  • At National level

Government rehabilitation and development funds, Commercial and development banks who deals with small business and micro finance

Large private sector corporations

Chambers and Associations

Foundations and trusts

Individual benefactors

Sample Project proposal

The Objective:

 Creating income generation and employment opportunities for youth, unemployed and under employed, retirees form employment  and returnees from the middle east,  displaced people around the country rehabilitated EX LTTE cadres

Activities to achieve objective

  1. selection of training groups in batches of 25
  2. Training programs for specific target groups
  • Setting up extension services
  1. Setting up business hives and cocoons
  2. Establishing demonstration centers
  3. Developing a data bank of expert cadres for mentoring in specific fields.
  • Establishing a central information centre with a nodal network around the country
  • Establishing financial intermediaries
  1. Establishing raw material and tool banks
  2. Creating distribution networks, sales and marketing centers
  3. Setting up a monitoring and evaluation process

Costs

To be calculated based on detail needs for activities including manpower needs

Manpower requirements

To be calculated depending on the sequence of activities

Time frames

To be decided upon

Outputs:

Creation of new business units, self employed people, group production and processing, creation of wealth in the countryside and redistribution of income.

OUTCOMES

Ripple effect of new income generation in depressed areas resulting in

  • Better housing and living conditions in the villages.
  • Growing of market demand for other goods.
  • Lesser burden on government funds and facilities and administration.
  • Better living conditions for entrepreneur families.
  • Successful demonstration by the Government on handling of IDPs and rehabilitation.
  • Preventione., weaning away displaced youth from drug and alcoholic abuse and petty thievery.
  • Reduction in migration to cities for work and fringe living (slums).
  • Elimination of frustration of youth and preventing them going back to militant ways
  • Creation of micro capitalists (successful entrepreneurs) who will not join reactionary or revolutionary politics nor undertake protests or create destabilization
  • Increase in goods and services to the general economy.
  • Increase in income generation and redistribution of income in depressed and less developed areas
  • Increased in market demand and purchasing power for goods and services produced by others in the country.
  • Better index of loan recovery by the banks and other financial intermediaries
  • Less burden for the government in food aid, health facilities, samurdhi, etc
  • More income for the government by reduction of handouts and new taxes  if any,  and the saved funds to be used in other needy areas.

Monitoring and evaluation

Objectively verifiable indicators to be established with time sequences for verification and control

————————————————————————————————————————–

,    *The writer as Chief Advisor with a team of multi skilled South African specialists developed the model for Small and Medium Industry development   for South Africa under The Mandela Government.   The findings were given a legal base through Parliament, institutionalized and activated on the ground. It became a model to be followed in other African countries  as well as some other countries in Asia. The report, findings and activities are available with the author

(4) Social Welfare

(i)Free Education See   under assisted education (Page 9 )

(ii)Free  Health see under  Health care initiatives( Page 9)

(iii)Samurdhi.

This program as presently run  needs improvement. The selection of the beneficiaries by Samurdhi officers (both men and women) nominated from the area alone is bound to cause favoritism. The need is to devise a system where the real needy benefits. Perhaps appointing religious leaders in the districts to select the beneficiaries may reduce corruption.

  • It is also important that the beneficiaries provide some benefit / return,  to the society and government.  For example,   a number of hours of their  labor to be given to the government in the areas where they live, such as, helping at schools, hospices ,environment cleaning,  helping at crèches and child care centers, among others

(iv) Free transport  see under infrastructure initiatives( Page 16)

 

(5) Health Care  Policy

(a)  Healthcare vs. Assisted health care

Comparative costs:  Today a pound of bread is Rs.54, a cigaretteRs.35,Malupaan’ is Rs.40, yoghurt Rs.30 ice-cream tub Rs.40,  apple is Rs.50, orange is Rs. 45, a packet of rice from  Rs.100 to  Rs.150.(all consumed by lower and middle income earners)

  • So is it preposterous? if  a proposal is made that in every  government hospital  outpatients pay for example  a minimum fee of RS 50.for consultations , Rs 100 to 300 for  usage of any machine such as an x-ray , ECG ultra sound scan , CT scan MRI scan etc. Rs 25 for any intravenous  injection and  Rs 25 for medicines etc ..

With such a payments structure,   the health budget  to the State  will be reduced considerably . The  practice of making patients pay for  medication in Government Hospitals    is already  in existent, though informally done at present,  where patients are requested  to bring injection syringes, antiseptic creams and lotions  etc from outside pharmacies.

(b) Private medical schools to be endorsed as long as all regulations are met. This will ease government spending on medical education and additional spending on free medical education

(6)Education  Policy

(a)Free Education vs. Assisted Education.

Free education has been in existent over  the last 70 years. Let us take a serious view on this issue.  University education( degree)  in humanities costs on average around  Rs.400,000 and medicine over Rs. 600,000.

One initiative is to provide free education up to A level. All university entrants to qualify for assisted education where a graduate in any discipline is  made to pay 50% of the cost of education over a 15 year period. Payment only to commence  once they are gainfully  employed. This is practiced in most countries. Payment to be staggered over a 15 year period.  Another option  Initially is that  the first 25% of students who scores highest will have bursaries to cover 50% of the cost.

Part of the savings will be for university upkeep, upgrades  and as higher salaries to university professors and Lecturers.

(b) A concept to change the whole educational infrastructure

Background: The total educational structure needs to be reviewed. The school and university locations have been over the years established on an ad hoc basis. It is time now to develop a national comprehensive plan to reorganize and upgrade the system, based on population( student) patterns. For example,  when Singapore  re planned the  system in 1991,   they carried out a comprehensive survey on systems elsewhere  in 12 leading countries .

Proposal

  • Identify 9 universities to be termed Provincial Universities, Students from the Province who qualify for university education to get placement in the Provincial This eliminates the present frustration of displacement from their families, home environment , additional payments for food and lodging  and psychological issues of being away from family and the safe environment etc.
  • The facilities to be upgraded in all 9 Universities , with specialized subject areas and skilled and experienced professors and Lectures and top specialists with experience from the private and public sector to be invited as visiting lecturers
  • identify 9 Technical Colleges/Schools as well for the 9 Provinces

Students who do not obtain the grades to qualify for university  education or  prefer a technical      education option could apply to these colleges.  They too can study in their home environment.

  • the technical colleges to have state of the art facilities that prepare the students for the future technology world .
  • Establish 9 Gymnasiums (German model) where 120 job areas are catered to, with both practicum and theory. This system is the best in the world. The selection to be  based on aptitude tests. Students who prefer to train and qualify in a specific skilled craft can study to be Master (Meister) in the specific trade . One hundred and twenty  options are available in varied fields  such  as carpentry, masonry, welding, electrical, electronics, animal husbandry, hairdressing, weaving, bookkeeping, draugtmanship

,apothecary, computers,  among others

  • Select/elevate nine top Central Schools  as nine model schools for the nine provinces. The 9 schools to be equivalent to the Colombo Royal school model with additional emphasis on Science and technology curriculum. Staff them with first grade teachers who will be paid additional allowances for housing and travel, relocation expenses etc being  an incentive for them to relocate themselves .install State of the art Science and Technology laboratories, and other necessary learning tools, computers etc

Students who excel from other schools grade 5 exam  in the provinces to be given placement in the Provincial “Royal Colleges” ( to be named after benefactor*)

How do you find the Finances

(i) Billionaires, Millionaires, Philanthropists, Family Foundations, like their names to be written in perpetuity. Develop an enticement program where a contribution of over a specific figure will permit  them to endow , their family  name to the institute they financially sponsor, such as,  the nine Provincial Technical colleges and the  top nine Provincial schools apart from a family member being elected to the Board of the school.

Possible /Probable candidates to source funds(.Names taken from the Sri Lanka Millionaire List)

Messes : Dammika Perera, Sohli and Rusi Captain ,Harry Jayewardene, Ashok Pathirage, M Wegapitiya,  Ali Yaseen, HiranCooray, Abbas Akberally, Manik Pereira, H KDharmadasa, Osman Kassim, A R Pandithge,  Ken Balendra , P wickremasinghe, Ishara Silva, J C and M M Page, SenaYaddehige, RM Nanayakkara, G C Wickremasinghe, Ajith Devasundera, SumalPerera Amaleen Brothers, among another 50 or so likely benefactors

(ii)obtain  German aid( GTZ) for the Gymnasiums

(iii) obtain aid from Denmark( DANIDA)  Canada (CIDA), Sweden (SIDA) Norway (NORAD), Finland (FINNIDA) for the 9 technical colleges again they can have their country name  as the name of the technical college  as they all  support technical education

(iv) obtain aid from UK (British aid), USA (USAID)  for the  Nine Provincial schools up gradation system and the English learning initiative

(v) There are over 1000 foundations in the USA and Europe  who have in their Mission and goals  to upgrade social and  educational welfare  in developing countries. A concerted effort to be made to tap such avenues.

(vi) There are other foundations and philanthropists in Europe, Japan ( Sasakawa foundation comes to mind) where aid and grants can be tapped if a concerted team effort from a task force is set in place.

(c)Concept to bring English as a language  of  education countrywide

Background : India at the time of independence kept English as the medium of education initially for a period of 15 years with the proviso Hindi to be introduced as the language of learning. However 60 years and over since independence, English still reigns as the language of learning in India.  South Africa has 11 ethnic languages but kept English as the language of learning . The Sinhala only policy left most of the Sinhalese population in the countryside bereft of  an English education while their town cousins in the middle and upper middle class got the opportunity to learn English. Thus the same class structure of good English speaking, broken English speaking and non English speaking  remains to date.  Sri Lanka needs to strategize on what should be the best alternative as a medium of learning in educational institutes

The points to ponder are

  • The population of Sri Lanka is around 22 million. Most text books, journals reference articles in every field are in English. Today internet access to web sites of learning, such as, sites in humanities, science, technology, engineering, arts, music, literature, architecture and social sciences are available in the English medium. So is access to libraries, knowledge sites on politics, country information, economic and trade data news , specific skills etc

If this is the case why go against the grain and become backward in knowledge access.

  • English can be brought back as the main language of learning, ( not in 24 hours but over a period of ten years) while Sinhalese and Tamil remain as National languages. People may question why a ten year period?  The reason is if a child born 5 years ago commences  learning English in the first school year, in ten years time ( around the average time they sit for the GCE o level) he/she will be fluent in English
  • What about their mother tongues?

Sinhalese and Tamil are already classed as National languages they should continue to remain so and students still could study subjects such as history, civics, religion in either Sinhalese or Tamil if they wish to do so.

However for the future of our country’s youth, living in a global village the subjects mainly in the technical and engineering areas, medicine, science etc should be in English.

  • It has also been proved in many small countries (e.g. Sweden) that young children are taught 3 languages. Their own language (mother tongue) and two others. This could be conveniently introduced here with Sinhala and Tamil and English as the 3 preferred languages.
  • This will make all future Sri Lankans access to each other, bonding at a very early age like we did in the fifties where a class room consisted of Sinhalese, Tamils, Moors, Malays, Burghers, Eurasians’ , Chinese and others, all learning in harmony and bonding for life.
  • Thus in a period of ten years every youth under the age of 15 will have access to English which will open out the whole world to them.
  • How do we achieve same?

(i)We begin with a survey of needs to achieve this goal. First the teachers, then the facilities countrywide, finances required and time span for completion ,

(ii)Once a plan has been drawn, we will be able access aid in terms of teachers from the executive service corps of UK, USA, American field services, retired executives and civil servants, expatriate retirees, social service organizations, other likeminded English speaking citizens

  • prepare a basic step by step curriculum.
  • Establish language labs in every district,
  • Organize TV and Radio programs and distance learning programs
  • Create a English learning culture in the country
  • Dispense with “cockeyed” schemes of learning” Singlish” English, which will automatically create a second class of English speakers, as compared to more middle class children learning in the correct way to speak, write and read English.

( 7)Management of the Public Sector

(i) All State Corporations.

No business anywhere in the world continues year after year on government grants except in very special cases  a few  strategic industries  .

  • Background

It is important to delve back to recent history why the corporations were established.

In 1946 on the eve of the dissolution of the state council the executive committee presented a review of industrial policy.

This report laid down some practical lines of policy for the future, It outlined the framework for an industrial policy to deal with the post war situation Industries  were demarcated as  Basic industrial sector under state ownership and a non basic industrial sector under private ownership. Basic industries were to be those of strategic importance for development requiring large capital outlay such as iron and steel, cement ,power, heavy  chemicals ,textiles and pharmaceuticals. Their final proposal was that the factories established by the government should be formed into corporations with both government and private capital.

In 1952 a commission was appointed to examine the usefulness of a number of commercial undertakings run exclusively with state funds. This report recommended that state undertakings especially in the field of industry, if they were to be commercially viable should be transferred to corporate bodies, joint stock companies or to cooperative establishments ( Gunesekera-De Zoysa report Sessional paper XIX of 1953).

After  63years we are at the same juncture, i.e,  looking for options on State Sector Corporations i.e., what to do with the loss making Corporations ?We have to, in providing solutions to wastage of government funds, take due cognizance that Corporations have become a Political issue. Since they became fiefdoms of individual ministers as fund raisers for political campaigns, employment exchanges for their relatives and friends and job banks for their supporters.

Option one  is to convert them into joint stock companies. Government sector assets converted to shares and private sector participation with shareholder funding through the stock exchange .The current  employees being given stock options so that malingering of employees is eliminated.( (no government assets are privatized.)

The CEO to be a professional with management, planning, administrative, financial and human resource  skills. To be contractual on a 3 year basis with automatic three year extensions based on performance. No more  appointments by the Minister but by a professional  Recruiting Board specially appointed .Age to be between 45 to 60 years( This age factor will eliminate old retired people put to pasture as Corporation heads  to while away their sunshine years doing very little).

All future  staff to be recruited on their experience, qualifications. The present staff to be evaluated on job specifications and those who are unsuitable to be either retained ,given golden handshakes, or put into a excess pool and found alternative employment for example , in their home districts with the introduction of industrial complexes and zones

 

The Board  of Directors to comprise of professionals . depending on the corporate mission of the Corporation. Eminent persons such as, retired corporate specialists , accountants ,economists  business leaders, architects, engineers educators, HR specialists. medical professionals,  and Senior  government officials from the Treasury, Central Bank, Commercial banks, and the Administrative service

  • The budget to signpost that initially a professional team will evaluate each cooperation, do a comprehensive management and strategic plan with emphasis  on its viability. Thereafter activate option one above

Option two would be  that all assets and shares belong to the government but the Corporation is managed by professional staff as in option  one.

Option three would be to convert them into Cooperative establishments similar to those in Scandinavian countries

  • Option one is the preferred way to go . Prior to a  decision being made it is important to class all cooperation under headings such  as strategic, public utility, custodial, welfare, commercial etc

Option four to be those that are a burden and cannot be remodeled  to either be divested or liquidated

Example:  (i)Airline industry

Mihin Air to be liquidated. It was a loss making fiasco from the beginning and as the proverbial” dead turkey hanging onto the high flying  Eagle”( Srllankan”) bringing it further down.

  • A study to be carried out prior to liquidation, on displacement of staff, assets and obligations of Mihin Air.

Sri Lankan thereafter to be restructured and offered as a joint venture to likely investors( presently being considered).

(8)  Infrastructure Development.

(a)  Toll Roads, Parking high-rises and new traffic systems and possible  revenue earning proposals

Background :Almost all the vehicle owners have spent anything from a million rupees to 40 million  in purchasing vehicles. Additionally they spend on  , car detailing, accessories etc.  The government is struggling and spending billions in skyways ,access roads etc . The point is if the import of vehicles continue these road also will be clogged. It is like the ” tail chasing the head”. The issue here is  wastage of fuel, loss of professional man-hours due to blocked traffic, pollution, road rage and stress and road accident all of which  cost money and  considerable waste of resources

Solutions

  • (i) Toll gates .The budgetary planning in the transport area could begin with introducing Toll gates on all major roads. The Toll Gates to be administered by the RDA, private sector organizations such as Chambers of Commerce or private sector companies  . The collector will be responsible  for maintenance and upkeep .For example 75 % of the toll could be used for road maintenance, while the balance  25% would include administrative costs, salaries for toll keepers and profit to the organization managing the toll.
  • (ii) Slot parking .Sri Lanka was the first country to introduce parking meters in Asia around 1960s and now we have none.. The issue is free parking on all roads thereby avoiding fees, blocking roads obstructing pedestrians .The  previous Singapore model of punched cards to be introduced for  parking in all the cities and towns. It will bring order, more will find parking as parking will be on a time basis. Employment will be created for parking attendants ( at present numerous self appointed parking attendants with bogus yellow jackets and printed tickets with the municipal logo on the tickets are raking in money.)

 

  • (iii) High rise car parks There is also an urgent need to build high rise car parks in Colombo such as, in Fort, Pettah, Borella, Bambalpitiya,  and also in every major City/ town in the country ( Kandy already boasts of one)..All cars to be parked in these parks  apart from limited street parking to be charged by the hour. With fees generated as parking fees, recovery of  the capital spent on car parks will be guaranteed.
  • (iv) Gantry gates to record and monitor and charge all vehicles entering the city between 7am in the morning to7pm
  • (v) Peak hour traffic a law to be enacted that every car that enters the city during peak hours should contain at least 4 passengers, otherwise a penalty to be paid. This will create pooling of car owners on a weekly basis . Another alternative is to charge every vehicle entering the city  at peak hours  an additional Rs. 100 or more
  • (vi) Speed cameras to be introduced on every highway and if 12 infringements are made in an year the license to be suspended for a year
  • (vii)Road works all road work to be done from 8 pm in the evening under lights( this refers to digging, painting, tree lopping, road signs and light repairs, painting of lines and crossings, surfacing among others). There will be considerable saving in blocked traffic and cooler for road units to work at night. the only extra cost would be lighting
  • (viii) New congestion law to lessen traffic  congestion , save time and fuel.   All container vehicles , goods lorries, construction material equipment carriers, cement, logs ,sand and mettle carriers  and many more heavy transport to be assigned special hours ,i.e.  only to take place in cities  towns between the hours of 8  pm to 5AM(9 hours )

(b) Relocation of Bus Terminals

Background: At present busses in cities at all hours careening on the roads create considerable chaos and hazards to commuters, pedestrians and other forms of transport.

The issues are(i) that the busses are too big for city roads and lock other vehicles  (ii) race with each other ( being from different companies) to pick passengers.(iii)  stop at their will to pick and drop passengers(iv) do not follow any road rules (v) delay other road users’, (vi)  cause many accidents (vii) and have become a menace to all despite them doing a yeoman service to all bus commuters

Solution:

Plan long term to relocate  all bus terminals in the centre of the city to the outskirts of every major’ in- road’ to the city and relocate them at places like Kelaniya .wattala,  Homagama, kotte  Ratmalana etc ( at all major inroads),  All passengers travelling/coming from outstations to disembark and board specially established    Town Bus shuttle Service plying to  all sectors of the city. This shuttle bus company to be run by the CTB. All shuttle buses to be mini Buses(  J 11) They will be All standee buses with only seating for pregnant mothers, mothers with infants, differently-able  people, feeble senior citizens and clergy.

Such a relocation will  eliminate all irregularities mentioned above.

  • How to raise Capital, The land thus vacated to be sold at commercial rates to fund this transformation e.g. .these monies be utilized for the bus terminals in the periphery and for setting up the shuttle mini bus service
  • The outputs The above proposals will have a ripple effect of earning large sums of money to the government, Municipalities and local councils, create more orderly traffic systems while at the same time savings in fuel and man-hours among others

(c)  Triple/Dual carriageways Vs. Super Highways

  • Background: A cost comparison needs to be done between these two alternatives. The question needs to be asked whether dual carriage ways will perform the same function as super highways.

The Government is planning a number of super highways similar to the Southern highway.

 Is it necessary? Could an alternative suffice?

Consider options of a  triple lane highway (either side) or dual lane highway (either side). There is also another option where a double lane either way  expands into  triple lane every 10 kilometers  ( the extra lane only extends 1 to 2 km in distance for overtaking purposes)) ( examples found in South Africa and Malaysia))

I firmly believe that the cost of such a venture will be far less to that of a super highway. This proposed triple lane highways could partly use existing stretches of highway as well with ring roads to avoid towns .The triple /dual lane highway including  a centre grass verge  of around 3meters width, where trees will be planted. Each stretch of road to be say 30 kilometers and Toll to be charged. Restriction placed on shops, homesteads on either side.

  • This proposal will accelerate the road system as it is less time consuming to build and will save enormous amounts of money to the exchequer.

 (d) Economic and Social Facility Centers(ESFC)

Background: All  Humans(Homo Sapiens) have a herd instinct and mentality. Hence  they prefer to live in communities that support their core wants in the area of Basic. Secondary ,Social and Physiological needs. The Basic would be Food ,clothing and shelter. Secondary would be sense of security, peace of mind, and a good environment with schools, religious, and recreation facilities  for their family. Social needs would be  camaraderie, good communication, understanding, and belonging .Physiological needs would be  Recognition, appreciation, love and respect.

The reason why ? Many government executives in the specific fields such as legal, police, medical, administrative officers ,teachers among others    are reluctant to work outside the main cities due to the non fulfillment of the above needs. For e.g. housing is poor ,live in single rooms or tenements, absence of  social intercourse, poor hygiene and utilities, and infrastructure. Absence of proper educational and recreational facilities for their children among others. Hence many  of them maintain two residences, one in the city so as to educate their children. and the other a room near  the work place in the countryside.

The outcome  is that most travel down to the city on Fridays and return Sunday night which takes away two working days (Friday and Monday) Hence work efficiency  is reduced to three days of the week. This creates  stress and frustration in their lives.

The Solution: There is scant attention paid so far for  planned growth of ESFCs. This would comprise of,  processing factories( for adding value to agricultural products) Government administrative complex, housing for management and staff(  both in the government and privatesector),recreationafacilities(clubhouse,gym,bastetball,volleyball swimming) , primary and secondary schools, daycare centre ,health centre , post office and police post etc. These to be located  close to a major city or town in each district ( perhaps excluding western province)

The advantage of the ESFC scheme is multifaceted

(a) Farm produce can be converted into added value products . For e.g.  Aseptic packaging centre in the complex can extract  juices and hygienically pack same  from fruits such as mangoes ,passion fruit,  tomatoes ,wood apple, pineapple, oranges, among others which would bring an immediate income to the farmer devoid of fruit spoilage, middleman, low prices etc.

(b) Drying processor in the complex  would enable farmers and growers to get their fruits dried  models of such facilities are available in countries like  Thailand,  and Philippines  This adds value to dried fruits, such as, papaya ,guava ,banana .tamarind, mangoes ,pineapple among others

(c) the combinations  of added value benefits are many, such as, jams and cordials manufacture, milling different types of grains, processing by products from animal husbandry, among many others. The facility would sell processing time to farmers to process their goods(products)

(d) Due to availability of pleasant livable facilities as described above management and staff will not hesitate  to be transferred to these locations nor will they need to keep two places of residences.

(e) In each Province, an  ESFC coupled with a Top University, Technical College, Gymnasium career training and a Top School ( as mentioned under Education Policy) will  create an enabling environment  for both administrative staff as well as the farmers and producers in each district.

 

(9) Policy improvements in the area of trade and Investments

(i) Relocation of manufacturing units from foreign countries to Sri Lanka

Background:

Planners have been over the years have been trying hard to attract direct foreign investment (DFI)but has not been very successful. What many planners do not realize is that over 150 countries in the world are simultaneously competing with us to attract FDI s. There are certain ground rules that likely investors look for in moving their capital to a third country. Normally this is depicted in a format called the’ competitive diamonds’. What is fed into the model are, data such as, stable environment,  economic stability, political stability, absence of internal wars, legal protection of investment , ease of doing business, international banks, friendly  investment climate, existing foreign investments, forward and backward linkages in industry, non-political labor unions, among others,.

 

On the social side, they look for good housing, good restaurants, good healthcare and hospitals, good schools, among others. After the ethnic war ended the position of Sri Lanka has improved but still there is a long way to go. Investors look at the safety of their investment in the long term because any investment to reach their payback  period take a couple of years .

 

  • AN Alternative to FDI While attempts are made to improve on the competitive diamonds. One can consider  other alternatives where unlike FDI the risk to the investor is minimal. This is the concept  of Transfer of Technology and Knowhow  lock stock and barrel. Many countries look for relocation of manufacturing units to third countries due to higher costs, shortage of labor etc. The best example of success in this sphere is China and few other third world countries  where American and European firms relocated manufacturing processes which meant they transferred their technology and knowhow as well.

The risk was minimal to the  foreign investor, in terms of capital and the product according to their standards much cheaper to be produced in China or elsewhere. There was no risk as capital invested  in the third country was minimal by the US or European  relocation company.  For example , The Chinese entrepreneurs   raised finances through  local banks  based on the 10 to 15 year buy back guarantees of the finished  product  given by the US and European manufacturers.

 

(10) Food security and enriched environment

Background: Sri lanka is blessed with an ideal climate all year round in comparison to many arid and cold countries.  However no formal attempt has been planned by the government to maximize this advantage.

The concept has been carried out informally and on special occasions like the world Tree planting day

The concept as a Government Policy initiative. to inculcate  appreciation of the environment, soil conservation, attracting rain, improving air quality, recreation, food security, commercial timber, community harmony,  among others

 

We have over 4000 kilometers of type A and Type B roads A directive to be given to every provincial government to organize tree planting on either side of the road at 10 meter intervals and at least 1 to 2 meters away from the edge of the road  for road widening etc  .It would amount to 800.000 trees. The trees to be chosen based on the premise that they provide a future benefit , e.g Food –  such as ,Jack, Breadfruit, Coconut, Palmyra.  Tamarind, Mango.  Hardwoods-   such as, Mahogany, Teak, Kumbuk. Ebony etc., Fuel and timber woods-  such as, cypress, eucalyptus.  Soft woods-  such as, loonumidella, albizia  for wood boxes and ceilings and  Medicinal – such  as ,Aralu Bulu  Nelly, Khohomba ( neem)etc  for  preparation of  auyrvedha medicines.

  • The process

All schools in the country to be geared to first  open plant nurseries ( albeit with the help of government agencies) for chosen plants. Every child be given a  tree to plant and nurture during its growing years .Each school to be given 10 kilometers of road on either side of their school to be responsible. Outside this limit (the extra mileage of roads)  to be taken up by, members of Temples ,Churches, Kovils, Mosques, and other civil  society organizations which  are to be requested to come forward

  • The cost will be minimal as plants will be donations maintenance by interested communities

 

  • The Impact would be
  1. Improve food security as the plants that bear fruits will be available to the needy community
  2. All hard woods and soft woods have a value to the community as timber ,
  3. All medicinal trees will help the input to ayurveda drugs
  4. Fuel wood help to fire generators
  5. Common course will improve ethnic harmony
  6. Beautify the environment and the eco system
  7. Encourage fauna and flora, a target of the Smithsonian foundation for improvement of the environment
  8. Pride and involvement of the citizens in nurturing the environment
  9. Create wind belts and contribute to attracting rain

 

The same concept could be extended around every  water reservoir (Tanks,) irrigation channels, rivers,   among others.

 

(11) Housing options

NOT SO temporary HOUSING FOR THE homeless, depilated villages and displaced people

 

Background: In Sri Lanka and elsewhere housing to the poor and displaced has become a critical and perennial issue. This is especially true in the Sri Lankan situation due to natural disasters such as the Tsunami, the floods, landslides and perennial poverty and displaced people after the ethnic war.  .

For example the efforts to provide houses after the Tsunami ran into many problems, such as cost escalations, houses built which were unfit for human habitation, financial scandals, etc.

The concept presented here is a permanent solution that is not only at a lesser cost but could be implemented  speedily (almost immediately) and even building a million houses in a year will not be impossible

It is proposed this concept be tested by building one model village so that time efficiencies, cost benefits, time targets could be evaluated

It is scandalous to allow foreign firms to build low cost houses when we have a well established construction industry. The disadvantages are, that large sums of money will leave the country. Based on the economic maxim of ‘circulation of money’ , the local contractors will spend the monies in this country thereby creating a wave of  spreading  wealth within the country.

For example , in South Africa and some Latin American countries large tenders say 1000 units of  low cost houses  were  broken up  into 100 house units so that 10 local firms could be contracted based on a tender system. While the Government can provide the specification based on a model house

The Concept

If one is to ask the question how many American citizens live in temporary housing or trailer homes? The probable answer is anything between 10 to 15%. If you therefore examine a trailer home it is not much different to a converted 40 foot container converted into a home by opening out windows and doors cut and framed with extruded aluminum doors and windows

 

Container to a House

The concept given below is to utilize 40ft containers (used and to be discarded) converted into homes to overcome delays in construction and to reduce costs in building regular homes of bricks and mortar. Further while the proposed container home is 880sq ft in extent a regular home is around 500 sq ft.

A 40 ft container has dimensions of 40 ft (l)) x 8ft (b) x 10 ft (h). The floor area is 320 sqft (40 x 8)

Add a slanting roof with an overhang of 8ft on either side with coconut or Palmyra rafters This gives an additional sq footage of ( 560sq fat ( 7 x40 x 2) Therefore the total  floor area increases to 880 sq ft.

The roof is to be thatched with woven coconut or Palmyra fronds. To prevent them from decomposing early the thatch is treated, first by immersing in a bath of wood preservative and thereafter dried and sprayed with a varnish. This will give a life span of over 15 to 20 years

House Facilities

  1. The front space, an area of (40 x 7 x 280sqft)  can be separated into two sections each of (18 x 7 = 126 sqft )  with a centre aisle of 4ft  4 x7 = 28 sqft . One section to be used as a sitting area and the other part a dining area. A total area of 280 sqft
  2. The core container area to be converted into two bed rooms of dimensions of 18 x 8ft =144 sqft) with a centre aisle of 4ft (4 x8 =32sq ft) making a total area of 320 sqft
  • The rear space which is of dimension ( 40 x 7 = 280 sqft ) is to be divided as follows: (a) toilet of dimension 7 x4 = 28 sqft, (b) a kitchen and eating area  of (10 x7 = 70 sqft, (c) a bath/shower room of 7 x4 = 28sq ft, (d)   a store room of 8 x7 = 56 sqft(g) additional bed room of 10 x7 = 70 sqft, (h) a back corridor space of 28 sqft(4 x7) making a total area of 280 sq ft.

The total physical area inclusive of roof awnings amount a total of 1008 sqft of which the house dimensions are 880 sq ft. Ideally the total plot could be 2000 to 4000 sq ft with the area around the house for vegetable and poultry/beehive and other income generation pursuits

The village

A village could be for example anything between 15 to 40 houses ( or any combination)

For example a village of 20 houses could be arranged with a street in the centre with 10 houses on each side of the street. This cuts cost as it facilitates water pipelines, waste water and rain water collection and effluent disposal in specific central tanks/pits.

Village communal facilities

  • One 40 ft house will be made into a Crèche/nursery with milk feeding centre, preschool and day care center
  • Another 40 ft house will be an infirmary( hospice) with a permanent nurse, midwife and a weekly visit by a doctor
  • Another 40 ft house will be a library cum reading room and cultural centre
  • Another(40ft) house will be a Government administration center with a” gramasevaka”, Sanitary inspector,  police post and sub post office or any other administration facility
  • Another (40 ft) house will be common facilities centre to be used on social occasions such as weddings and other festivals as well as a recreation centre with board games, with a TV where educational films and social films can be viewed etc.

Village shops

  • One 20 ft house will be a dry goods, condiments and food stores
  • Another( 20ft) house  will be café and eating house
  • Another( 20ft) house will be vegetables and fruits shops etc
  • Another (20ft) house will be clothes and seamstress/tailor shop
  • Another ( 20ft) house will be stationary/ school books  ,
  • Another (20ft) house will be fish, poultry and meats
  • Another (20ft) house will be a haberdashery cum miscellaneous goods

 

There could be any number of    20 ft. combinations of goods stores

Village services and facilities

(I)One 20 ft container will house an iron monger/black smith

(ii)Another (20 ft) will be a repair shop for bicycles, tractors

(iii)Another (40ft) will be a cool room to store village produce before being taken to the market (store to be on a payment basis for use of cubicles inside)

  • Another( 40 ft) will be a paddy/rice storage facility
  • Depending on religious preferences and requirements a Temple , Kovil ,Mosque and Church could also be added
  • all effluent into one containment tank which would produce bio gas for cooking or lighting purposes ­( house and street lights)
  • Common deep water well for water to be pumped into a central tank piped to individual houses on meter
  • Rainwater harvesting in every household for agricultural purposes
  • wastewater or grey water (bath, washing etc to be pumped into holding tanks, neutralized and reused for home gardens
  • All green waste, household waste to be converted into fertilizer

 

Issues/ Questions

  • Where would you get such a lot of used /discarded containers?

Most containers I believe has an ordinary life span of say 10 years after which they are disposed of. If the President of the country appeals to the world shipping lines to donate old containers from all the shipping lines I firmly believe that we will acquire enough containers

 

  • Another frequent response /question, will it not be hot?

There are many factors that will create a comfortable ambience. First there will be cadjan /Palmyra leaf roof over the container. The container section will have 8 windows and 5 doors if necessary. At the top end of the container there will ventilation holes to displace hot air . If need be the walls can be insulated with paddy straw between a wooden facing and the metal of the container

 

  • What about the costs? I have been informed that to build a 500 sq ft cottage/house with brick/cement blocks and mortar and asbestos roof will cost around a million rupees. The cost here will be approximately 50% less for a 880 sq ft. house

 

The costs of course will have to be calculated.

Projected cost areas

  • Conversion of container to cut windows and doors and frame it with aluminum sashes, hinges and locks.

(ii)  Roof rafters of coconut ,Palmira or wild wood

(iii)  Thatching and preservatives

(iv)  Flooring of brick or clay tiles or mud and wattle  for the front and back areas

(v)  Sanitary fittings and water pipes

(vi)   Electrical fittings and wiring

(vii)  Ply wood/chip board separators for rooms and outer perimeter walls

(viii)  8 posts treated  of wild wood, coconut or palmyrah trunks to hold the roof with 4 posts in the back and 4 in front

Ix) Paint and other

(x) Concrete blocks to rest the container above ground

(xi) mud bricks for external walls

 

Advantages in comparison to a normal brick and mortar house

 

  • Cost factor :Costs will be much lower and savings in brick, cement and asbestos use
  • Location: The villages can be located anywhere in the country
  • Mobility : the container shells can be converted (doors windows and ventilation holes)one central facility and transported to any location
  • Life span: It will have a lifespan more than a wattle and daub house
  • Space factor: More space and facilities than a normal cottage of 500 sqft dimension
  • Speed: speed of construction will be a terrific advantage as each house will be completed with a maximum of 10 days( especially using labor of those who qualify for each house)
  • Environment friendly :as no asbestos is used
  • Placement: as they can be placed in symmetrical forms to suit any environment such as hilly, undulating or flat land
  • Orderliness: They could be self sustaining model villages. with all facilities and services.
  • Efficiency : all the external environment facilities provided at a lesser cost

 

(12). Foreign exchange inputs

(Need a study to be done by a task force of professionals)

Background : Over the last 60 years if independence one perennial problem was how to harness floating foreign exchange outside the legal system.

  • The new system

Open up secured duty  free/ duty reduced, complexes in about 4 to 5 cities around the country. All goods demarcated as luxury or non essentials ,this would include all that is available presently in airport duty to free shops as well to be made available ,

 

A novel concept is all  vehicles ( vans, cars motorcycles ,water scooters, luxury  boats , outboard motors, fishing trawlers , to mention only a few)  be imported by these shop owners or by their local agents  and paid in foreign currency . Likely buyers can place orders for goods through these shops on payment in foreign currency.

  • This will stop the foreign exchange drain on imports as the import costs will be recovered in foreign exchange.
  • All goods to be sold for US Dollars, Sterling or Euros and or any other freely exchangeable currency thus enhancing our reserves
  • No questions to be asked where you obtained your foreign currency. This proposal is not a novelty as It is presently in practice( unwittingly) in the duty free shops where you are not questioned where you obtained  the exchange. Further one  can pay by Visa card as well, at the duty free shop  and the transaction is converted into rupees at the bank.
  • Such a system will bring in foreign currency from the black economy, as well as local hidden money which can be converted  into foreign currency.
  • Most Sri Lankan foreign travelers , middle eastern workers will prefer to buy the goods in Sri Lanka instead of paying for freight and insurance, local clearance ,paying duties and collecting in Colombo .

The Cost

  • If you carry out a cost benefit analysis, the cost will be minimum to the government ( except income loss on reducing the duty) but greater income on higher turnover of goods sold
  • More’ black economy money’ will come into the formal market
  • less money will be smuggled abroad
  • All imported (paid in foreign exchange) goods will recover the foreign exchange component locally in foreign exchange

 

Author

Dr. Anton Balasuriya is a Development Economist with extensive development  experience in the Asia Pacific Region, Africa and Latin America. He  has worked on several development projects in many related fields in 34 countries. A noteworthy sojourn was in South Africa where as Senior advisor to the Mandela Government  he was responsible for  developing the small micro medium enterprise template for the country, as well as  establishing Government Capital budgeting templates and monitoring and evaluation systems,.  In Uganda, he was Chief of Party for a project titled COMPETE which was designed to address Poverty Alleviation via competitiveness mechanisms for the Fisheries, Coffee & Cotton sectors.

Dr. Balasuriya worked  as, a Senior Economist of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka , a  Senior Manager of Unilever, Founding  CEO of the Sri Lanka Business development Centre, before venturing overseas as CEO of Technonet Asia, Singapore, an international network of 13 Asian Pacific countries and thereafter  participated and led several assignments principally in the Development Economics genre.

Dr. Balasuriya earned a BA Economics from Peradeniya, MSc in Economic Planning from  the University of Stockholm and DBA and  PhD from  Edinburgh University with  his  thesis on Financial issues of small and medium  firms.

He has served as a consultant to innumerable projects both in Sri Lanka & overseas and helped establish several development  programs for local & foreign institutions and Governments.

DR.C. ANTON BALASURIYA

Contact details:   Tel.  +94 11 2584945Mobile: +94 779526530

E-mail: cabsmt@hotmail.com

 

 

 

මහින්දගේ රත්නපුර ජනරැළියේ සජීව විකාශණය මෙන්න…

October 8th, 2016

ලංකා සී නිවුස්

හිටපු ජනාධිපති මහින්ද රාජපක්‍ෂ මහතාගේ ප‍්‍රධානත්වයෙන් අද දිනයේ රත්නපුරයේදී පැවැත්වෙන ඒකාබද්ද විපක්‍ෂයේ ජන රැළියේ සජීව විකාශණය මෙතනින්…

We have a problem – Can the same ethnic group demand Homeland/Self-determination in 2 different countries?

October 7th, 2016

Shenali D Waduge

 There are 72million Tamils living in Tamil Nadu, India. There are less than 2million Tamils living in Sri Lanka. Self-determination for Tamils started first in Tamil Nadu demanding a separate homeland and secession when the British were about to give independence to British created India and then the pillow of secessionism was passed on to Sri Lanka. Those demanding separatism using all types of words in circulation have been the Tamil political parties, LTTE, LTTE Diaspora in Sri Lanka while in India it originally started as a Dravidian movement then went on to We Tamil Movement for secession until it was passed on to Sri Lanka by the Indira Gandhi government. The question is can the same ethnic group using virtually the same demands claim 2 Homelands in two different countries? Isnt this creating an ugly precedence and likely to create chaos when the same ethnic groups in other parts of the world start demanding homelands citing they have been historically living in an area?

Let’s first look at the definition

Homeland

  • Cambridge dictionary  – the country you were born in
  • Oxford dictionary : A person or a people’s native land.
  • Wikipedia :  country of origin, native land, country in which a particular national identity began.

In short we shall connote Homeland to mean the country of one’s birth and from where one originates.

Self-determination

Self-determination originated during decolonization. Let us not forget that people and territories were divided or created by former colonial invaders/occupiers who with a pen created new territories and divided people as they deemed fit. If people were divided by tribes, culture, religion and ethnicity it was by the Western Christian colonials and it is these same nations who are now politically using the term to further carve out nations. Today the word has become a battering ram for political correctness and phony liberal experiments riding on people’s sentiments for geopolitical profits and political mileage. The plethora of opinions and notions have thrown the word into an open

Starting initially with demands for a Dravidian Federation by T M Parthasarathy combining Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, the quest for self-determination became Tamil Nadu for Tamils in 1939 after the other states chose not to separate. Yet in 1940 Dravida Nadu Independence Movement was launched with a resolution and a map of the proposed Dravida Nadu. DM Dravidar Kazhagam was launched in 1944 promising to fight for a separate Tamil Nadu for which both Jinnah and Gandhi disagreed in 1947.

It was in 1949 December that the ITAK was formed in Ceylon calling for separate Tamil Nation in Sri Lanka.

In 1962 DMK went from house to house calling for a separate Tamil Homeland. However, separatism in Tamil Nadu was quelled with the 16th amendment in 1963. That did not stop the Tamil Nadu Liberation Army forming in the 1980s. It was in the late 1970s that the Indira Gandhi Government trained Sri Lankan Tamil youth clandestinely in Tamil Nadu and sent them under tutelage of Indian intelligence to carry out a guerilla warfare on ethnic lines against the Sri Lankan government. Prabakaran formed Tamil New Tigers in 1972 the same year that the Vaddukoddai Resolution calling for separatism in Sri Lanka. In 1975 Prabakaran killed a Tamil Mayor Alfred Duraiappah and then in 1976 May 5 Prabakaran re-named TNT as the LTTE.

Take a good look at the demands of the Tamil political parties, the LTTE, the other LTTE militant groups, the LTTE fronts operating from overseas and their demands are identical calling for separatism. The same separatism that Tamil Nadu was calling for – but in two different countries.

The similarities in the separatist chants by Tamil Nadu Tamils against Hindi India and Sri Lankan Tamils against Sinhalese in Sri Lanka is also noteworthy.

While Tamils opposed post-independent Hindi rule and Hindi domination, Ceylon Tamils opposed Sinhala rule as it reversed all the preferential treatment Tamils had been enjoying pre-independence as part of British divide and rule strategy.

While Tamil Nadu opposed the 16th amendment prohibiting separatism by the Indian Government the Tamil political parties also objected to the 6th amendment introduced by the Sri Lankan Government. Racist parties in both India and Sri Lanka won with landslide victories with the Sri Lankan Tamil party even becoming the Main Opposition Party.

The main difference in the two separatist calls is that Tamil Nadu separatism stems from the fact that there was no India until the British cobbled together independent territories and princely kingdoms to make one administrative unit called British occupied India and this is the basis of Tamil Nadu demand for separatism. In Sri Lanka’s case we are an island nation and it was under Sinhale kings until the advent of colonial invasion and occupation.

Tamil leaders in both countries claim they wish to look after ‘their people’ – however Dalits in Tamil Nadu are treated worse than slaves while the Tamil Northern province does not even spend the money they request to look after their province and instead enjoys going round the world complaining.

The other difference is that pre-independence Tamils were the bulk of indentured labor transported to all corners of the world to work on the plantations and were treated like shit by the British, however the minority Tamils in Sri Lanka later known as Ceylon Tamils since 1911 were given preferential treatment as part of British divide and rule policy.

Now we come to the problem

  • How can the same ethnic group use the same slogans to demand self-determination in two countries?
  • Tamil language, Tamil heritage, Tamil culture, Tamil traditions, Tamil physical appearance etc are COMMON to Tamils in both Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu.
  • How can the SAME ETHNIC GROUP claim to EVOLVE in TWO COUNTRIES to use criteria of language, culture, native land to demand for a separate state (or any of the other terms now being used)?
  • If Sri Lankan Tamils instead of referring to themselves as Tamils claimed self-determination in view of living in the north for a long period, that argument could have been at least debated, however when Tamils in Tamil Nadu and Tamils in Sri Lanka are demanding homelands using the same criteria – we are a bit confused.
  • Tamils cannot have evolved in two different countries. A race evolves in one country and then by migration spreads. This is why we continue to say that Tamils in Sri Lanka came from South India and that is why South India has over 70million Tamils and Sri Lanka less than 2million Tamils.
  • The Sinhalese evolved in Sri Lanka – there are no Sinhalese anywhere else in the world except those who migrated from Sri Lanka. Sinhalese language is spoken only in Sri Lanka. There are enough of proof to show a civilization existed in North Sri Lanka and despite 17 invasions from South India who destroyed most of the Buddhist architecture, when Cyril Mathew compiled the report to UNESCE in 1983 there were significant remains still – all these highlights that the Sinhalese have every right to claim self-determination themselves using the same criteria that is being used afterall Sri Lanka was also colonized, the majority were marginalized and divide and rule policies affected the majority Sinhalese which demands reverse discrimination.

The crux of the problem is this – the same ethnic group cannot use terminologies in vogue and in the UN system to claim homeland for the same reason in two different countries. We are not saying that Tamils cannot demand a homeland what we are saying is that a Tamil homeland is where the original Tamils were born and it is certainly not in Sri Lanka’s North. The original quest for a Tamil Homeland began in Tamil Nadu, using the same demands it began later in Sri Lanka.

This will be the first time the same ethnic group is calling for homelands in two different countries for the same reasons. We wait to see the theories the UN and other local lackeys will come up with to get away with this lie. The same ethnic group cannot evolve in two different countries. This is no laughing matter. If allowed it will only create a precedence where the same ethnic groups will start demanding homelands in all parts of the world as well. The same ethnic group cannot have homelands in all parts of the world citing the same reasons!

Therefore, the Tamil homeland in Sri Lanka quest does not have historical basis in Sri Lanka it has no real argument either. To overcome this we now see the demands of a Greater Eelam comprising entire Tamil Nadu and North and Eastern parts of Sri Lanka. Is this the gameplan riding on lies?

shenali07101601

 

Shenali D Waduge

Demand for Dravida Nadu – http://tamilnation.co/heritage/aryan_dravidian/dravidanadu.htm

SLAF makes a killing flying politicians Peace-time operations

October 7th, 2016

Parliament was informed yesterday that the Prime Minister’s office had hired helicopters and other aircraft from January 10, 2015 to April 30 2016 at a cost of Rs. 123 million.

This was revealed by a statement tabled by the state Minister of Defence Ruwan Wijewardene in answer to a question raised by Joint Opposition MP Udaya Gammanpila.

The answer further revealed that the Prime Minister’s office had hired helicopters 35 times, during the aforementioned period, at a cost of Rs 123 million, which was paid to the Air Force by the Prime Minister’s office.

In addition, the Secretary to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, too, had hired helicopters 16 times at a cost of Rs 12.9 million while Minister of Industry and Commerce Rishad Bathiudeen had hired helicopters 13 times for a fee of Rs 6.1 million.

Former President Mahinda Rajapaksa had hired helicopters 11 times paying Rs 5.2 million, while former President Chandrika Kumaranatunga had hired a helicopter once.

Ministers Vajira Abeywardana, Sagala Ratnayake and MP Wijeyakala Maheswarana had each hired helicopters once.

In total helicopters were hired 169 times by the state, private institutions, politicians and individuals during the specified period.

යහපාලනය සම්බන්ධයෙන්

October 7th, 2016

Kanthar Balanathan DipEE(UK), GradCert(RelEng-Monash),DipBus&Adm(Finance-Massey), C.Eng., MIEE (Retired) Former Director of Power Engineering Solutions Pty Ltd, Consulting Electrical Engineers Cromwell Drive, Rowville Melbourne, VIC 3178, Australia

His Excellency Mr. Maithripala Sirisena
Executive President of the DSR of SriLanka
Presidential Secretariat
Galle Face,
Colombo 1,
Sri Lanka

Dear HE the President of the DSR of SriLanka

යහපාලනය සම්බන්ධයෙන්

This letter comes to you as a letter of appeal, for you to save and protect our beautiful mother Lanka from invaders. I am taking the liberty as a son of the soil of SriLanka to bring out to light, the truths and myth of the past and current events, by unpatriotic scrupulous politicians and leaders, of the past, and present. Politicians cannot hide truths forever, if not corrected, it may blast off with a mass revolution, which is what the west and India wants. The main problem of the SriLankan Sinhala sons of the soil is to look upwards and not downwards. They always obey and bow down to Tamils and Suththas (known as Pākehās in NZ), not knowing their strengths. There is no reason for Pakiasothy, Mahendran and Paskaralingham to be advisors to the government. Does this mean that there is no one from the Sinhala community to guide and provide direction to GOSL?

Your Excellency, a leader needs IQ>120, diplomacy, and ingenious originality talent, to protect and govern, and administer the nation. Sorry to state this Sir, our politicians are full of fervent to accumulate wealth and take vengeance against their opponents, which may throw some light, that they do not fit into a democratic stream of politics. What is happening now in SL is, holding the former regime to Ransome by the theme: “Obey our orders and keep silent and do not enter for political leadership, if not FCID & JAIL, will embrace you”. Sir, it is a democratic country, everyone has the right to enter politics. Do you consider SriLanka, as a democratic country OR is it been driven using, megalomaniac, power-crazyManipulative Democracy”.

The election in 2015 results are as follows:

United People’s Freedom Alliance(UPFA) 144
United National Party (UNP) 60
Ilankai Tamil Arasu Kadchi (ITAK) 14
Democratic National Alliance (DNA) 7

ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදය උල්ලංඝනය Violation of democracy

  1. UPFA has the majority. Still the PM was appointed from the minor party, which is UNP. It is crystal clear that the appointment has been directed by a foreign body for their advantage, and not for SL. This also is a clear statement, and act by yourself that there are none in the majority party, who is competent to be the PM of SriLanka. Following the formation of the government there may be parasites who would have joined the UNP for their own benefits, and collaterals. And that’s third world politics, which the west is fully aware of to activate “manipulative democracy”.
  2. Some members from the UPFA crossed over to the governing group, to be eligible for the collateral, which is the Minister, Deputy Minister, State Minister position. Do they think that they are better personnel to offer their services as Ministers? Can we consider them as unpatriotic and untrustworthy politicians who are only interested in accumulating wealth? Can anyone deny that all politicians are honest in SL?
  3. The Tamils were determined to throw crackers to the Sinhala mass right from 1948. Initially through hypothetical non-violence, slowly transforming into armed struggle, and subsequently terrorism. How can someone prove that LTTE is not a terrorist group? Definition of terrorism is: “The United States Department of Defence defines terrorism as the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. Within this definition, there are three key elements, violence, fear, and intimidation and each element produces terror in its victims”, Ref: http://www.terrorism-research.com/). What types of argument could the Tamils put forward for a separate country? Right from independence the country did not practice discrimination or oppression. If the country did, then how come CV Wigneswaran did not practice as a lawyer, but quickly rose up to the judiciary sector and ended up as the Chief Justice. Is CVW so superior in legal matters? How is it possible that he is not aware of the significant amount of educated Tamils loafing around the globe, having forums, congress, associations, being doctors, engineers, lawyers, accountants etc.? These Tamils received free education in SL, or got free education in the UK to receive a PhD. Jaffna was never a separate kingdom, but paid taxes to the Rajarata, or the Chakravarty. CVW demands for basic human rights. What does he want? Cannot Tamils run a media, speak in public, join the forces, or marry anyone in SL, or run a business. Can CVW come forward and state what the Tamils are denied of in SL? Can CVW define and categorise the basic human rights? It is a school of thought that CVW does not understand the concept, meaning of Basic Human Rights. Tamils are bluffing, and the Sinhalese do not understand the Tamils medieval, barbaric lies, complaining, that does not prevail in SL. Tamils say they lived for centuries, however, most of the imbecile clan does not want to give up their Tamil Eelam demand. If they were that clever they should have satisfied their economic sustenance. They could not even build a reservoir to catch the rain water. Their only fervent is to do easy work, menial work and sell mustards or Dosa. Have any of the Tamil politicians contributed to the legal system of SL except a few. Tomorrow if SL appoints CVW as the PM, it is definite that CVW will shut up and carry out his duties supporting the countries policies. The very same SJV Chelvanayagam agreed to allow his MP(s) to serve the cabinet anyway.

Recently Admiral Dr. Sarath Weerasekara’s case was dismissed on grounds of the following section of the constitution:

Ministers and their subjects and functions.

  1. (1) The Prime Minister shall determine the number of Ministers and Ministries and the assignment of subjects and functions to Ministers.

(2) The President shall, on the advice of the Prime Minister, appoint from among the Members of Parliament, Ministers to be in charge of the Ministries so determined, and the Prime Minister shall, in tendering such advice, have regard to the need to ensure the representation of all the major communities in the Cabinet of Ministers.

(3) The Prime Minister may, at any time, change the assignment of subjects and functions and recommend to the President changes in the composition of the Cabinet of Ministers and such changes shall not affect the continuity of the Cabinet of Ministers, including the continuity of its responsibility to Parliament.

Just to refresh your memory, I wish to draw your election manifesto of the 100 day work program. Your promise was: Sunday January 11, A Cabinet of not more than 25 members, including members of all political parties represented in Parliament, will be appointed with Leader of the Opposition Ranil Wickremasinghe as Prime Minister.

 

Firstly, the PM should have been appointed from the majority party in the house, secondly, the promise was violated to go beyond 25 ministers and appoint discreetly a large number of ministers. The

Parliament now can be compared to a large Indian Dosa Kade with large number of waitpersons and chiefs.

https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/maithripala-sirisenas-100-day-work-programme-detailed-diary-description/

With due respect, being in the developed world, we feel that the parliament is like a Dosa Kade within a fish market (මාළු වෙළෙඳපොළ තුළ තියන තොස කඩේ වගේ). The rest is self-explanatory. This is what is called “Discrete Manipulative Democracy”.

You as the President, have violated several promises given to the people. The country belongs to the people of SriLanka, not you, or Ranil Wickremasinghe. You have been appointed by the people to administer and run the government, for the people to have a better, sustainable, peaceful living. What does Buddha Dharma teaches Sir? Lord Buddha gave up his throne to serve the people, however, in SriLanka, people cling on to power to accumulate wealth. When we think of SriLankan parliament and the people, it is a laughing matter. For 39 years the GOSL was playing a drama with the LTTE, however, when Mahinda Rajapaksa eradicated LTTE, now you have joined with the fervent west to fix our military of war crimes. Isn’t that a joke Sir? Tony Blair and Bush should be charged of war crimes.

The poor people have been driven to the edge to make them shut their mouth, not raise any protest, not to talk against the government etc. Do you consider the country is in a state of absolute democracy with human rights? People have been shut in a cell like animals.

ජාතික ආන්ඩුව – National Government

You are aware that some of the congenitally imbecile Tamils drove a wedge between the Sinhalas and Tamils in 1948, just after independence. The wedge and the propaganda was driven by the incompetent lawyer SJV Chelvanayagam for reasons of jealousy of GG Ponnambalam being given a portfolio. Just his megalomaniac ego drove him to gather the Tamils on false propaganda against the Sinhalas. It is pertinent to ask a question. Why SJVC, and what have the Sinhalese done to the Tamils in 1948. Nothing. SJVC’s egoistic propaganda drove youngsters to take up arms, while majority of Tamils had free education and qualified as professionals. It is a mindset within the minds of the Vellala caste from the Ponnambalam circle. They found out that the Sinhala government did not hate any lower caste Tamils, but the lower caste Tamils were able to come up in life, which the Vellalas could not endure, because the Vellalas always wanted the lower caste Tamils to be under their thumb. This is the main reason why Elite Vellala Pandarams want separate administration.

The election gave 16 seats to Tamil National Alliance. In terms of national government constitution the majority and the opposite minor party should join hands to govern the country. It would have been appropriate if your SLFP/UPFA party invited Sambanthar & Co, to join and form a government, with RW become the leader of Opposition. That would have been quite diplomatic, politically effective, and would have paved the way for a reconciliation process. A couple of portfolios to TNA would have been effective. However, the parasites who live on collateral did not allow you to do that, presumably, which drove the wedge further deep. What you have now is not a NATIONAL GOVERNMENT, still an ethnically constituted government, in terms of your definition of “National Government”. However, do not you think that a SLFP + TNA government would have been more effective, politically, than the present one? I am relating this concept in the context of the current situation of RW’s federalism.

Sir, please remember one thing; Tamils are an egoistic ethnic group constituted of different races. Even if you give 13++ or Federalism, they will not be satisfied. They will want their Tamil Eelam. After that they will try to swallow SriLanka with the help of Tamil Nadu. It is up to your government to strengthen the defense forces and place them in the North and East to protect the border and avoid the Federal structure.

දෙමල ජනයා අතර කුල ක්රමය-Caste System among Tamils

The caste system in North and East is considered the major human rights violation in human race. Such human rights violation does not exists anywhere in the world. Historically the Tamil people have been oppressed by the so called Vellalas, who are nothing but Farmers.  Subsequently they changed the history, stating that Vellalas are land owners, which is nothing but cattle excreta. Did they pay for the land? They just come, invade and acquire, on invasion. The people in the North & East, historically were Sinhalas and natives. They were displaced and made low caste by these invaders. Same act was conducted in India. Who are the Brahmana? Are they natives of India? NO.

After Independence, the low caste people were able to acquire knowledge, get good education in a school, had freedom of expression and all what a human being can have, through the Sinhala government. There were instances, when people talk against Vellalas, they were intimidated by the Federal Party goons. The low caste were not allowed to enter politics, they were man handled. Most of government jobs were given to FP supporters. FP members have a cunning system of saying one thing in the N&E, however, when in Colombo, in parliament they seem to deliberate a different thing, because they want jobs for their relations and supporters. The so called Vellalas are historically not Tamils, but Pallavars, from Karnataka. They were originally known as “Gadambas”.

Within a federalism form of government, the Tamils are going to be treated like animals. The Vellalas will determine what jobs they have to do, whether they need education, knowledge etc. The extent of “Human Rights Violation” will increase, and the state will enter another phase of instability, which will be a burden to the Center. There will be N&E to    Sinhala state drift. The issues and problems will proliferate and explode within the N&E. The elites will say that it is democracy in the state. However, the Tamils will state that within SL, it is not democracy but oppression and discrimination. It is to be stated that most Tamils lag in certain human qualities, such as in the social sector, they lack courtesy, customer focus, customer satisfaction, pleasantness, openness, and good manners, however, they generally are rude to customers, in an office or in the trade sector. CVW is an example.proliferation escalation escalation escalation escalation escalation

It is up to the Sinhala to protect, and ensure that the Tamil low caste people are being treated with dignity, to which the answer is, NOT FEDERALISM, but as before, have one central government with the GAs.

ආර්ථික හා තාක්ෂණ සහයෝගිතා ගිවිසුමEconomic and Technology Cooperative Agreement

In this context, I wish to refer Kumari Jayawardhane’s book, titled, “Ethnic and class conflicts in SriLanka. Section 2 para 2. Excerpts from the book:

kantha07101601kantha07101602

kantha07101603

At one period before and after the independence, no Sinhalas were able to walk into the Pettah market or have any trading outlet in Colombo area. Isn’t that HR violation? When sons of the soil (Sinhale) have been excluded, migrants from India and Sind’s have trade outlets, with one foot in SL and the other in India. It is a crime that the government encourage ETCA to allow Indians to walk in and conquer the trade sources with sub-standard value products and work practice. The government is there to protect the බූමිපුත්රයෝ, not eliminate their living standards and the race. When almost a million were brought from India by the British to work on the central highlands, no Sinhala leader raised his hand to object. Are there any Sinhale in India?

People can try to tell the government up to a point only. The government should not use its authority and power to override, and dance to the tune of the west to bring SriLanka to the knees of the west.  ETCA (CEPA). Ref: https://www.yamu.lk/blog/ectacepa-faq. Government can give flimsy excuses and reasons, why it should carry on to implement the agreement.

The PM in 2002, did not seek people’s verdict to sign the CFA and the ISGA. The ISGA was a dam threat to the nation, and if it did proceed, it was an open approval for LTTE to establish their mushroom “Tamil Eelam”, resulting SL to divide.

Further, if a federal form of government is setup in SL, it is paving the way for the N&E to establish “Tamil Eelam”, and subsequently the whole of SL to be swallowed by the neighbor, you know who. Let the people in SL know the risks and threats of, “Federalism” form of government in SL. It is a high threat to a small nation: economically, socially, technically, and the sovereignty held for several centuries will be buried under the carpet.

බටහිර උනන්දුව දක්වන ක්ෂෙත්ර-West Interest

Excellency, you have to study the events in the past as to what USA and UN did to small nations in Europe, South America, Africa and Asia. Today several countries have become beggars and their life on this planet has been destroyed, giving birth to new war, and struggles. What is the state of Libya, South Sudan and so on? Sir, please get your specialists to study and give you a report on global politics, west’s interest, and how they have destroyed small countries for them to control economically and politically. SriLanka having attained self-sufficient, economically and politically, solving the terrorist problem, will be absorbed into this stream of multi-directional oppressive platform, if not realized soon.

The Bond scam was another issue, and a major blow to SL.

Excellency, it is up to you to study, analyze, and realize the reality of the threat and risks prevailing as a result of PM’s move on unwarranted decisions, which will drive the country to lose its sovereignty.

There are Sinhala experts in SriLanka and Australia, who could provide you with top information for you to make a decision and propagate driver for the people to oppose PM’s moves please.

Tamils are congenitally imbecile to understand what will happen to them if USA moves into Trincomalee. Only reality will educate them.

It is an opinion that the Non-Vellalas will never ever agree for Federal form of government, and power vested in CVW or Sambanthar & Co, in SL.

Thank you

Kind regards,

I remain,

Yours Obediently

කන්තර් පි බාලනාතන්

‍ශ්‍රීලංකන් පුත්‍රයා

දකුණු ඉන්දීය කම්කරු පිළිලය 2

October 7th, 2016

ධර්මසිරි සෙනෙවිරත්න

සිංහලයන් කම්මැලියන් වීමනිසා වතු වගාකටයුතු සඳහා ඉන්දියානුවන් ගෙන්වීමට සිදුවීයය් යනකියමන තවදුරටත් විමසා බැලියයුතු කරුණකි .සිංහලයන් වැවිලිකටයුතු සඳහාඅවශ් තරම් සොයාගත නොහැකිබවට බොහෝ වැවිලිකරුවන් හා නිලධාරීන් මැසිවිලිකියා ඇතත් සිංහලයන්ගේ නේවාසික ශ්රමබලකායක් ඇතිකිරීමට වතු හිමියෝඋත්සාහ දරානැත. . තමන්ට නිවාස ඇති, අනුන්ගෙන් බෙහෙත්හේත් හෝ ආහාරඅවශ්යනැති වතුඅවට පදිංචිවූ සිංහලයන් අවශ්යකාලයට පමණක් ගෙන්වා ගෙනවැඩ ගැනීම වතු හිමියන්ට වාසිදායකවිය . එහෙයින්එලෙසලාභය වැඩිකර ගැනීමට ඔවුහු උත්සාහ කළහ. . මෙහි තවත් පැත්තක් මර්සන් ටෙනන්ට් විසින්පෙන්වාදීඇත. .සේව්යයෙකු හෙවත් ස්වාමියෙකු තුල තිබියයුතු හොඳහිත වැවිලි කරුවන් තුල නොතිබීමත් කම්කරු ගිවිසුම් කඩකිරීමත් නිසි පරිදි වැටුප් නොගේවීමත් ශ්රමිකයන් වෙත කුරිරු වීමත් යනකරුණුද සිංහලයන් වතුවදට අකමැති වීමට හේතු සාධක වූ බව ටෙනන්ට් පෙන්වා දීඇත.
සමහර වැවිවිලිකරුවන් විසින් මෙය දකින ලද්දේ සිංහලයන්ගේ සම්ප්රදායික වටිනාකම් හා බැඳුනක් ලෙසය .”ලංකාවේ කෝපි වගාව” —සී ආර් රීග් පවසන්නේ මෙසේය. ”පාරම්පරික ඉඩම් ගැන උඩරැටියා තුල ඇත්තේ ඉමහත් බැඳීමකි. ගව්රවයකි. එනිසා තමආදායම සිව් ගුණයකින් වැඩි කර ගැනීමට හැකි වුවත් ඔහු සිය සංස්කෘතිය පාවානොදෙය් .එමෙන්ම ඔහුගේ ජාතිකාභිමානය ඉදිරියේ කුලී වැඩකිරීම ප්රතික්ෂේප වෙනවා පමණක් නොව එය වහල් කමක් ලෙසද සැලකෙය්. ආඥාවන්ට යටත් වීමත් බලකිරීම් වලට යටත්ව වැඩ කිරීමත් ඔවුන්ට කල් කදුරු මෙන් තිත්තය .”””(මෙය කේ.එම්. සිල්වා විසින් උපුටා දක්වාඇත.)
1866
නොවැම්බර් 26 දින කලම්බු ඔබ්සවර් හි පලවූ, හෙන්රි වෝඩ් ආණ්ඩුකාරයා විසින් බ්රතාන්යය යවන ලද ලිපියක මේ පිළිබඳව තවත් අදහස් දැක්වේ .”’ස්වදේශිකයන් එදිනෙදා සිය කාර්ය පටිපාටියෙන් බැහැර කරවා ස්ථිර කුලීකාරයන් කරවීමට නොහැක………..””” වී සහ පෝල් වගාකටයුතු වල ඔවුහු නිරත වෙති . කොන්ත්රාත් පදනමින් කැලෑ එලිකිරීමට ඔවුහු සුදානම්ය. එහෙත් වතුවල කුලීකරුවන් වීමට කැමති නැත..
1848
දී එක වැවිලි කරුවෙක් මෙම උඩරටසිංහලයන් ගැන බ්රතාන්යයට මෙසේ ලියායවාඇත . රැල්ෆ් පීරිස් එයඋපුටාදක්වාඇත ””’මොවුන්ගේ ජීවන ක්රමයේ ඇති අති විශේෂ නිදහස් භාවය ගැන ඔබ පුදුම වනු ඇත . මේ ජන ගහනයෙන් අඩු වශයෙන් තුනෙන් දෙකක් වත් ඉංග්රීසින්ව තුට්ටුවකට වත් ගණන් නොගන්නා බව මම තරයේ විශ්වාසකරන අතර එය ඔබටසහතික කර කියමි..””’
1908
දී සිංහලයෙකුගේ දිනක වැටුප ශත 33-75අතරවුවත් ඉන්දියානුවෙකුගෙන් ශත 33-37 ටවැඩගතහැකිවිය. උඩරටසිංහලයන් තුට්ටුදෙකට තම ශ්රමය පාවාදීමට කැමති නොවුහ. එහෙත්ඉන්දියාවෙ යනඑන මං නැතිවුද බ්රාහ්මණයන්ගේ වදහිංසාවට ලක්වුද
කම්කරුවන්ට සිංහලේ රටත් එහි දේශ ගුණයත් ලැබෙනමුදලත් දෙව්ලොව සැපසම්පත් හා සමානවිය.
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එදා සිංහලයෝ කුලීකාරයන්වීමට අකමැති ඉංග්රීසින්තුට්ටුවකටමායිම් නොකරන ජාතිකාභිමනනයෙන් යුතුයබව ඉහත දක්වාඇත.. එහෙත්අද සමහරු රට විනාශකරන NGO වක වුවත් කුලීකාරයන් වීමට පසුබට වන්නේ නැත. වර්තමාන ජාතිද්රෝහී සිංහලයිනි, විශේෂයෙන් රනිල්ප්රමුඛ එජාප යට චන්දයදුන් මිනිසුනි එදා ඔබේ මුතුමිත්තෝ හිතු පැතු හැටි මෙයින් වත් කියවාඉගෙනගන්න.. ඔවුන්වත්පාවාදී රටත් පාවානොදෙන්න හිතට ගන්න.
මතු සබැඳේ

Latest study finds glyphosate not cancer-causing

October 7th, 2016

by

The group of 16 scientists, from Canada, the United States, Denmark, Brazil and the United Kingdom and other countries, decisively concluded that “glyphosate is unlikely to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans.”

The authors bluntly rejected the findings of an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) panel, which decided in March 2015 that glyphosate is probably carcinogenic to humans.

IARC is a division of the World Health Organization and its report had massive implications for public policy around glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide.

This spring, the European Union came close to banning glyphosate. Several countries, such as France and the Netherlands, refused to support an extension of glyphosate’s registration in Europe.

Yet another study is refuting the idea that glyphosate causes cancer.

After months of bickering, the European Commission granted an 18-month, temporary approval for the herbicide.

In North America, the IARC decision energized environmental groups and organic advocates, which lobbied the U.S. government to test foods for glyphosate residues.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which had not previously tested for glyphosate, relented in February and promised to monitor residues in corn, soybeans, milk, eggs and other food.

In response to the IARC report, Monsanto asked Intertek Scientific & Regulatory Consultancy to assemble four expert panels in the areas of exposure, epidemiology, cancer in experimental animals and genotoxicity, which is the study of cellular changes.

In the paper, which Monsanto funded but did not review before publication, the experts said:

  • “Even when using worst-case assumptions, systemic exposures to applicators, bystanders and the general public are very small…. There is an extremely large margin of safety from exposure to glyphosate via normal uses:” exposure experts
  • “Glyphosate epidemiologic literature does not indicate a causal relationship between glyphosate exposure and NHL (non Hodgkin’s lymphoma):” the epidemiology panel
  • Contrary to the IARC report, there is not sufficient evidence that glyphosate is carcinogenic for lab animals such as mice and rats.
  • “Extensive reviews of the genotoxicity … all support a conclusion that glyphosate is inherently not genotoxic:” genotoxicity experts

The conclusions of the 16 member panel support the findings of agencies around the world. Health Canada, the European Food Safety Authority and a joint WHO and United Nations Food and Agriculture panel published similar scientific reviews in 2015 and 2016. All of the organizations reported that glyphosate is not carcinogenic for humans.

The Eurasian Century Is Now Unstoppable

October 7th, 2016

By F. William Engdah Courtesy Information Clearing House

The transfer of the geopolitical center of gravity to Eurasia is something the West will have to get used to

October 07, 2016 “Information Clearing House” – “NEO” –  I recently returned from a fascinating two week speaking tour in China. The occasion was the international premier of my newest book, One Belt, One Road–China and the New Eurasian Century. In the course of my visit I was invited by China’s Northwest University in Xi’an to give a lecture and seminar on the present global political and economic situation in the context of China’s New Economic Silk Road as the One Belt, One Road project is often called. What I’ve seen in my many visits to China, and have studied about the entirety of this enormously impressive international infrastructure project convinces me that a Eurasian Century at this point is unstoppable.

The idiotic wars of the Washington war-hawks and their military industry–in Syria, in Ukraine, Libya, Iraq and now the South China Sea provocations against China–are not going to stop what is now clearly the most impressive and economically altering project in more than a century.

The term “American Century” was triumphantly proclaimed in a famous editorial in Life magazine in 1941 in the early phase of World War II, before the United States had even entered the war, to describe the system publisher Henry Luce saw dominating the postwar world after the fall of the rival British Empire.

The American Century has lasted a mere seven decades if we date from the end of the war. Its record has been one of dismal failure on balance. The industrial base of the United States, the predominant leading industrial nation and leading scientific innovator, today is a hollowed, rotted shell with once-booming cities like Detroit or Philadelphia or Los Angeles now burned-out ghettos of unemployed and homeless.

The Federal Debt of the United States, owing to the endless wars its Presidents engage in, as well as the fruitless bailouts of Wall Street banks and Government Sponsored Enterprises like Fannie Mae, is well over 103% of GDP at an astonishing $19.5 trillion, or more than $163,000 per taxpaying American and Washington is adding to the debt this year at near $600 billion. Countries like China and Russia are moving away from subsidizing that debt at a record pace.

America’s economic basic infrastructure–bridges, sewer and water treatment plants, electric grid, railways, highways–have been neglected for more than four decades for a variety of reasons. The American Society of Civil Engineers recently estimated that gross domestic product will be reduced by $4 trillion between 2016 and 2025 because of lost business sales, rising costs and reduced incomes if the country continues to underinvest in its infrastructure. That is on top of the fact that they estimate the country at present urgently requires new infrastructure investment of $3.3 trillion by the coming decade just to renew.

Yet US states and cities are not able to finance such an investment in the future in the present debt situation, nor is the debt-choked Federal Government, so long as a cartel of corrupt brain-dead Wall Street banks and financial funds hold America to ransom. This is the sunset for the American Century, a poorly disguised imperial experiment in hubris and arrogance by a gaggle of boring old patriarchs like David Rockefeller and his friends on Wall Street and in the military industry. It is the starkest contrast to what is going on to the east, across all Eurasia today.

Flowing the Thought to Transform

The Eurasian Century is the name I give to the economic emergence of the countries contiguous from China across Central Asia, Russia, Belarus, Iran and potentially Turkey. They are being integrally linked through the largest public infrastructure projects in modern history, in fact the most ambitious ever, largely concentrated on the 2013 initiative by Chinese President Xi Jinping called the One Belt, One Road initiative or OBOR. The project and its implications for Europe and the rest of the world economy have been so far greeted in the west with a stone silence that defies explanation.

It’s been now three years that have transpired since then-new Chinese President Xi Jinping made one of his first foreign visits to Kazakhstan where he discussed the idea of building a vast, modern network of high-speed train lines crossing the vast Eurasian land space from the Pacific coast of China and Russia through Central Asia into Iran, into the states of the Eurasian Economic Union, principally Russia and potentially on to the select states of the European Union. That initial proposal was unveiled in detail last year by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), China’s economic planning organization, and the ministries of Foreign Affairs and Commerce.

It’s a useful point to look now more closely at what has transpired to date. It reveals most impressive developments, more because the development process is creative and organic. The great project is no simple blueprint made by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and then simply imposed, top down, across the so-far 60 countries of Eurasia and South East Asia.

An international conference was recently held in Xi’an, origin of the ancient version of One Belt, One Road, namely the Silk Road. The purpose of the international gathering was to review what has so far taken place. It’s fascinating, notably, in the care that’s being taken by China to do it in a different way, as indications so far are, different from the way American Robber Barons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, E.H. Harriman, Jay Gould or Russell Sage built rail monopolies and deluded and defrauded investors with railroad monopolies more than a century ago.

The seminar, titled the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI): Shared Memory and Common Development, on September 26th, brought together over 400 participants from more than 30 countries including government officials, universities, corporations, think tanks and media.

A key role is being played by Renmin University of China’s Chongyang Institute for Financial Studies to identify progress and problems of the OBOR project. Their report in Xi’an presented principles underlying the OBOR international project: It adheres to the principles of the UN Charter; it is completely open for new participant nations to cooperate; it will follow market rules and seek mutual benefit of participating countries.

Those are noble words. What’s more interesting is the flow process underway to realize such words and to build the mammoth game-changing infrastructure.

Notably, China’s Xi Jinping decided to encourage input from sources other than the state central planning agency or the Communist Party for the complex OBOR. He encouraged creation of private and independent think-tanks to become a source of new creative ideas and approaches. Today there is a Chinese Think Tank Cooperation Alliance group coordinating efforts around OBOR headed by the dean of the Renmin University. In turn they partner with think tanks along the OBOR route including think tanks in Iran, Turkey, India, Nepal, Kazakhstan and other countries.

There will be two main routes of the OBOR. On land there are several routes or corridors in work. The Initiative will focus on jointly building what is being called a new Eurasian Land Bridge from China via Kazakhstan on to Rotterdam. Other OBOR land rail corridors include developing China-Mongolia-Russia, China-Central Asia-West Asia, China-Pakistan, Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar, and China-Indochina Peninsula economic corridors.v This is huge.

It will build on international transport routes, relying on core cities along the OBOR route and using key economic industrial parks as “cooperation platforms.” At sea, the Initiative will focus on jointly building smooth, secure and efficient transport routes connecting major sea ports along the “Belt and Road” including modern upgraded super port construction that will link present China ports at Haikou and Fujian with Kuala Lumpur’s port in Malaysia at the Malacca Strait passage, Calcutta in India, Nairobi in Kenya and via the Suez Canal to Athens and beyond. Crucial is that land and sea parts of OBOR are seen as one whole circulatory system or flow of trade.

The OBOR Initiative will link key Eurasian ports with interior rail and pipeline infrastructure in a way not before seen

To date China has signed memoranda of understanding with 56 countries and regional organizations regarding OBOR. Since his initial proposal in 2013, President Xi Jinping has personally visited 37 countries to discuss implementation of OBOR. China Railway Group and China Communications Construction Company have signed contracts for key routes and ports in 26 countries. Power plants, electricity transmission facilities and oil and gas pipelines, covering 19 countries along the “Belt and Road” in some 40 energy projects have begun. China Unicom, China Telecom and China Mobile are speeding up cross-border transmission projects in countries along the “Belt and Road” to expand international telecommunication infrastructure.

Already, taking the full sea and land routes of OBOR, some $3 trillion of China trade since June 2013 has flowed over the route, more than a quarter of China’s total trade volume. To date China has also invested more than $51 billion in the countries along the present OBOR route. The new land rail routes will greatly reduce transportation costs across Eurasia, enable formerly isolated regions to connect efficiently to sea and land markets and ignite tremendous new economic growth across Eurasia.

The effects of the OBOR are already beginning to appear. Earlier this year an Iranian container ship arrived at Qinzhou Port in China with 978 containers from several countries along the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road opening the first shipping route linking the Middle East and the Beibu Gulf or Gulf of Tonkin in Vietnamese. In February 2016 a container train with Chinese goods took only 14 days to complete the 5,900 mile (9,500km) journey from China’s eastern Zhejiang province through Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. That was 30 days shorter than the sea voyage from Shanghai to the Iranian port of Bandar Abbas, according to the head of the Iranian railway company. China and Iran, now formally part of the OBOR, have targeted bilateral trade, none in US dollars by the way, to exceed $600 billion in the coming decade.

China is presently in negotiations with 28 countries China is in talks with 28 countries including Russia, on high-speed rail projects, China’s train maker, China CNR reports.

It includes a major joint China-Russia $15 billion high-speed Kazan to Moscow line. The 770 kilometers of track between Moscow and Russia’s Tatarstan capital, Kazan, will cut time for the journey from 12 hours now to just 3.5 hours. China has agreed to invest $6 billion in the project which would become a part of a $100 billion high-speed railway between Moscow and Beijing.

Notably, for the new high-speed track being laid, China is developing a new generation of trains capable of reaching speeds of 400 kilometers per hour. And the new trains will solve the costly rail gauge switching problem between China rails and Russian. Trains in Russia run on a 1520mm track, compared to the narrower 1435mm track used in Europe and China. Jia Limin, the head of China’s high-speed rail innovation program told China Daily that, “The train… will have wheels that can be adjusted to fit various gauges on other countries’ tracks, compared with trains now that need to have their wheels changed before entering foreignsystems.” Given its strategy of building thousands of kilometers of high-speed railways and developing its domestic Chinese rail sock manufacture as well as other rail technology, China today is the world’s leading producer of rail technology.

Financing the moving

Impressive is that China has secured capital commitment for the OBOR from various sources including the China Development Bank, Export-Import Bank of China, the China-initiated Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the BRICS New Development Bank and other sources including its Silk Road Fund to finance the huge undertaking. The Silk Road Fund has posted $40 billion to fund the OBOR projects. So far close to a quarter trillion US dollars of ready money and another half trillion in supranational institutional working capital is reasonably within reach.

The Western doomsday reports of China’s economy going down the tubes are simply either self-serving propaganda of hedge funds or speculators or fed by lack of understanding of the profound transformation in the entire structure of not only China’s but all Eurasia’s economy through the One Belt One Road initiative. China is undergoing a major transformation from a cheap-labor screwdriver assembly nation to a high-value-added high-tech manufacturer.

Geopolitical transformation

The One Belt, One Road initiative of Xi Jinping and the Eurasian partners, especially Russia, also has strategic dimensions of major import. The construction of new infrastructure corridors spanning across the Eurasian landmass in the form of highways, railways, industrial parks, and oil and gas pipelines, OBOR is connecting for the first time in the modern era landlocked regions of hinterland China and Russia and Central Asia republics with the sea ports. Linking key Eurasian industrial hubs to ports with efficient transportation will revolutionize connectivity of hinterland industrial products and raw materials of every kind. The Russian and Eurasian lands, including China, contain perhaps the richest untapped concentration of every raw material known.

The One Belt, One Road also includes oil and gas pipeline transportation corridors. In January 2015 the Myanmar-China Pipeline project, 2400 km long, was completed, linking Myanmar’s deep-water port of Kyaukphyu on Maday Island in the Bay of Bengal with Kunming in Yunnan province in southeast China near Myanmar’s border. It’s a joint project of the China Development Bank and Myanmar Foreign Investment Bank. The new pipeline allows China to import up to 400,000 barrels a day of Middle East oil over a route 1100 km shorter than the previous Malacca Strait sea route, reducing time to reach the large industrial hub city of Kunming by 30%, major economic gains, and avoiding the strategic chokepoint of the Malacca Strait where the US Navy’s Sixth Fleet dominates.

Previously, 80% of Chinese oil and gas imports crossed the Malacca straits and were subject to US controls. Were the present escalating tensions between Washington and China over the South China Sea or other issues to escalate, China would be brought to her knees much like Japan prior to declaring war in 1941, when the USA embargoed her oil. A second pipeline brings natural gas from Qatar and Myanmar gas fields to China.

The OBOR includes oil and gas pipelines that reduce time and distance to imports of Middle East oil and gas

China will pay $53 billion to Myanmar in pipeline royalties over 30 years. They will also invest $25 million in schooling and other social development projects along the pipeline and 10% of the gas will stay in Burma.

Mackinder Outflanked?

The totality of the strategy behind Xi Jinping’s Eurasian One belt, One Road rail, sea and pipeline initiative, which is moving quietly and impressively forward, is transforming the world geopolitical map. In 1904 a British geographer, Sir Halford Mackinder, a fervid champion of the British Empire, unveiled a brilliant concept in a speech to the London Royal Geographical Society titled the Geographical Pivot of History. That essay has shaped both British and American global strategy of hegemony and domination to the present. It was complemented by US Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan’s 1890 work, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, which advocated “sea power,” stating that nations with domination of the seas, as the British Empire or later the USA, would dominate the world.

The One Belt, One Road, by linking all the contiguous land areas of Eurasia to the related network of strategic new or enlarged deep-water ports of OBOR’s Maritime Silk Road, has rendered US geopolitical strategy a devastating blow at a time the hegemony of America is failing as never in its short history. The Eurasian Century today is inevitable and unstoppable. Built on different principles of cooperation rather than domination, it just might offer a model for the bankrupt United States and the soon-bankrupt European Union, to build up true prosperity not based on looting and debt slavery.

F. William Engdahl is strategic risk consultant and lecturer, he holds a degree in politics from Princeton University and is a best-selling author on oil and geopolitics, exclusively for the online magazine “New Eastern Outlook.”

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