Spare a thought

May 30th, 2013

Ms. Michelle Alexander

In Sri Lanka the laws pertaining to the welfare of animals are antiquated, and lag behind other nations which have incorporated higher ethical and scientific standards into their legislation.

The current bill on Animal Welfare has already been sanctioned in 2006, but is yet to be enacted. ƒÆ’-¡ The governing ordinance is the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Ordinance, No. 13 of 1907, which is an outdated statute and does not apply to all animals. For instance, the ordinance interprets ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-animalsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ as any domestic or captured animal and includes any bird, fish or reptile in captivity. In other words, protection is only limited to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-captiveƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ or ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-domesticƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ animals, thereby leaving animals outside these categories from the protective arm of the law. For example, stray dogs and other street animals.

Little is reported on the account of abuse meted out to stray/owned dogs and other street animals. They are abandoned, abused, starved or kept confined in enclosures too small for them. One of the most recent stories is where 38 dogs were given poisoned meat and killed in Buttala during Vesak season. ƒÆ’-¡ Some of these poor souls were pets and had owners, whom are surely cursing the heartless killers who committed these evil acts.

Just like the bad, there is the good as well. There are many organizations and private individuals devoted to the welfare of these animals. Two that come to mind are Animal SOS Sri Lanka and Adopt-a-dog. Animal SOS Sri Lanka is a UK registered charity, and they run a unique facility for street animals. Adopt a Dog in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ is a non-profit organization that mainly focuses on finding good homes for homeless animals. People can help in sponsoring dogs, donating, volunteering and fundraising. ƒÆ’-¡ You can learn more about the work they do from their websites:ƒÆ’-¡ http://www.animalsos-sl.com/ƒÆ’-¡ &ƒÆ’-¡ www.adoptadoginsrilanka.com. You can also follow them on facebook atƒÆ’-¡ http://www.facebook.com/adoptadoginsrilankaƒÆ’-¡ &ƒÆ’-¡ http://www.facebook.com/pages/Animal-SOS-Sri-Lanka/165576613502654?fref=ts

INTERNATIONAL VESAK COMMEMORATIONS AT UNESCO IN PARIS

May 30th, 2013

Media Release-Permanent Delegation of Sri Lanka to UNESCO Paris

The Permanent Delegation of Sri Lanka to UNESCO coordinated Vesak commemorations at UNESCO in Paris under the theme of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Buddhism and Inter-Faith Dialogue: Reconciliation through EducationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

A series of events were held on 23rd and 24th May 2013 under the patronage of the President of the General Conference of UNESCO, Ambassador Katalin Bogyay and Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka, Hon. Chamal Rajapaksa. Also in attendance was the Hon. Malani Fonseka, Member of Parliament of Sri Lanka.

VESAK Commemorations_UNESCO1

ƒÆ’-¡ Newly appointed Ambassador/ Permanent Delegate-designate of Sri Lanka to UNESCO, Prof. Karunaratne Hangawatte delivering the welcome address at inaugural session of the main symposium stated that the events to commemorate Vesak were not only a timely realization, but also conveyed a special message whereby crucial factors were expressed and focused upon, on the most important day for followers of Buddhism. He added that in keeping with the ingrained teachings of Buddhism, and under the leadership President Mahinda Rajapaksa, Sri Lanka had rehabilitated, reformed and reintegrated those who had taken arms against Sri Lanka and its citizens. This was in itself, Buddhism in practice.

Speaking at the main symposium, which was attended by a large number of members of the Maha Sangha and other religious leaders and delegates from around the world, the Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka, Hon. Chamal Rajapaksa stressed the significance of the day and its importance to Buddhists the world over. He further stated that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Our fervent hope and wish this year is that the message of inter faith dialogue and the essence it brings to bear, is a bridge towards reconciliation and narrows the divide that exists owing to ignorance, intolerance and hatred.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

VESAK Commemorations_UNESCO4

 

Delivering a special message, the President of the General Conference of UNESCO, Ambassador Katalin Bogyay noted that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-by celebrating the teachings of Buddha we are celebrating the incredible diversity of the faiths and religions of the world. We are promoting tolerance, understanding and mutual respect among all peoples and cultures.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Issuing a special message to mark Vesak at UNESCO, the Secretary General of the United Nations, Ban Ki Moon commended Sri Lanka for its role in making the events possible at UNESCO and noted the importance of drawing ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-on spiritual ideals to strengthen our resolve to improve our world.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ 

Expressing his best wishes for the events being organized in Paris, President Mahinda Rajapaksa in a video message stated that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-my country, which emerged from three decades of conflict, is today at peace. Meaningful and determined steps are being taken to strengthen this peace and ensure reconciliation, one to another, through education and dialogue.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’-¡ 

The keynote address was delivered by Ven. Master Chin Kung, Head and Founder of Pureland College in Australia while the symposium also brought together leaders of Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity and Islam for a discourse of the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Contributions of religious teachings towards reconciliationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.ƒÆ’-¡ 

A special session on meditation was conducted by the Ven. Parawahera Chandraratana Thero, Chief Priest of France and a Special Lecture titled ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-When hearts become corrupt and chaos spreads, what can we do to save humanityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ was delivered by Ven. Master Chin Kung, Head and Founder of Pureland College, Australia.ƒÆ’-¡ 

VESAK Commemorations_UNESCO3

A special Vesak concert on 23rd May 2013 brought together artistes from the Sri Lankan, Chinese, India, Thai and Indonesian communities to spread the message of peace and cooperation.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ In addition a series of panel discussions took place on 24th May 2013 with eminent personalities intervening on topics of relevance to UNESCOƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s mandate in promoting a Culture of Peace as well as the over ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”arching theme of interfaith dialogue and reconciliation.

ƒÆ’-¡ Permanent Delegation of Sri Lanka to UNESCO
Paris

 

GO FOR A REFERENDUM WITHOUT WASTING TIME

May 29th, 2013

ByƒÆ’-¡  Gomin Dayasri

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Parliamentary Select Committee only can change the ConstitutionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ Minister Anura Yapa quotes the President.

ƒÆ’-¡ Parliament Select Committee on Constitution Reform is a perennial non-starter in a blufferƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s paradise – a procrastinatorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s dreamboat. A condemned vehicle incapable of hopping on to it for the needed passengers or if shoved in, on persuasion or twisted arm [by India or USA]- will jump off it taking the exit route or sabotage from within.

ƒÆ’-¡  TNA and UNP – the wistful fellow travellers who will not undertake an arduous and hazardous trip to help the Government- when they are accomplished stone throwers from outside. If similarly positioned would SLFP or UPFA buy a one -way ticket to oblivion? There are no takers on both sides of the divide who think of doing the best for the sake of the country.

ƒÆ’-¡  A Parliamentary Select Committee [PSC] can do much if the intentions of its members are honest and sincere as when the Parliament converted itself to a Constituent Assembly to usher the first Republican Constitution of 1972. That was in a different realm of politics with a different breed of politicians. – 40 years is a long time with a generation gone! After ending of the war ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”three years ago- people gave a near 2/3 majority to enable the Constitution to be revised- it was not to extend the term of the President or arrogate more power with the 18th Amendment. People voted in gratitude for winning the war and to ensure the country remains undivided after the blood and sweat. Feeling remains the same but conviction has gone away.

ƒÆ’-¡ Next round of elections could hear again the belated cry of seeking the PeoplesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ support to obtain a 2/3 majority to change the constitution. A shriek heard before to which the people responded favorably but are unlikely to repeat because the trust and confidence once reposed in the government cannot be rekindled without any genuine ignition towards a constitutional change.

ƒÆ’-¡  ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s a rallying cry that can still restore the government to power but not with the desired majority-back to main square but with many minuses:ƒÆ’-¡  not one step forward but rather two or more steps backward. It would have been a flight of steps down a spiral if there were a meaningful opposition to cash in on the situation.

ƒÆ’-¡ In a waiting game is Mahinda Rajapakse gambling with a timer in hand to release the germ as an election gambit? Or is there sheer laziness to be positive or incapacity to strategize or not having a capable helmsman to deliver a draft? Otherwise, if the intentions were serious, the road show and the road map could have been unfurled and a distance traversed instead of being anchored at base camp in favorable weather.

ƒÆ’-¡ Mahinda Rajapakse is capable of master plans in his head that can succeed or flop but his antecedents show success is achieved more often as the conductor in his own one-man band. A helping hand from the UNP or TNA will never be forthcoming. Possibly he is craftily trying to fix the UNP and TNA in the same carriage and place the dual compartment on the parliamentary parade ground as the bogey cart. UNP and TNA, in no love match, will try to delay and defer constitutional changes till the term draws to an end to show the President has let down his faithful flock and to make them lose faith in him in pleading for another term to reach the magic number; which sure will elude him in the present circumstances.

ƒÆ’-¡ Are all the prime political parties trying to travel on a PSC multi visa?ƒÆ’-¡  In the premise of the PSC, it is easy to delay than achieve, with slick coordination between the UNP, TNA, Muslim Congress and the ancient Left trying to take Mahinda Rajapakse on a right royal ride? Time is running out for the President! Or will the President if constructive proposals are not forthcoming on a given time frame, place his own formula Bill before the PSC and have it sanctioned by the friendly parties in parliament in his fold? Then take the Bill before the People at a referendum on a question framed asking for a response on an ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-in or outƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ basis on the 13thAmendment. It is to be a PSC with an in-built purpose? That may be the catch that cannot be matched.

ƒÆ’-¡ Supreme Court cannot deem a 2/3 majority is required where the people have already sanctioned the Bill at a referendum for it becomes the law. If the referendum is free and fair no force on earth can wait without giving effect to the Peoples desire. Cabinet of Ministers can refer such a Bill to a referendum.

ƒÆ’-¡  In our Constitution, it is no legal fiction that supreme power is vested with people which makes the Supreme Court in name only supreme, compared to sovereignty that is vested in the People and which cannot be alienated: makes it on interpretation, more supreme. So says the Constitution in black and white.

ƒÆ’-¡ Sovereign People in exercising their cherished franchise-there is no better route to determine the will of the people- do so by a majority vote. A majority vote is a vote won by more than one vote.

ƒÆ’-¡ ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s a case of amending the constitution by going to the People for a Decision. J.R.Jayewardane once called for a referendum to disenfranchise the people by denying them their right to exercise their franchise at a general election. What did the Supreme Court do when democracy was in such peril? They said ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢we agreeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ to such a Referendum by a narrow vote. Such is the Supreme Court.

ƒÆ’-¡ Instead, this time, make it totally hygienic and anti-septic to keep to the last letter of democracy- to avoid any comeback! JRJƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s referendum was not free and fair because the contortionist feared the Peoples Verdict. ƒÆ’-¡ On the 13th Amendment seek an open verdict. Go first to the People and seek their Opinion. People are best judges on the 13th amendment. Daily MirrorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s opinion poll provided a genuine straw poll in a hostile environ. If so, the ultimate result is foreknown.

ƒÆ’-¡ Lets play a game named Democracy according to the rules extolled by those who preach and complain we foul it; boldly access the People. Lets exploit it at the point we are strongest by reaching for the People in the name of democracy. Ask the People a straight question and act according to the PeopleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s direction. No man- white or brown – can bark bow-wow to that result. Of course, there will be a few like Jayalalitha and local NGO boys and girls (worthless names) that make a fast buck and will make a greedy noise for the buck. Who cares? Let the dogs bark, the caravans will move on.

 

Active alteration of demography of North is the need of the hour!

May 29th, 2013

Asada M Erpini

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The government is trying to alter the demography of the NorthƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. This accusation seems to have reached a crescendo since the reconstruction phase of the government of Sri Lanka had commenced following the liberation of the North from the grips of the LTTE terrorists. The Tamil National Alliance (TNA) is in the forefront among the accusers, with the bankrupt politicians of Tamil Nadu vying to outdo one another as the latter has discovered that shedding buckets of tears on behalf of Sri Lanka Tamils is a convenient and low-cost strategy to steal the limelight.

TNA was the mouthpiece of the LTTE when the latter held sway over vast swathes of land that it had illegally occupied. One cannot expect the TNA leader and its parliamentarians to even hint that they have abandoned the separatist ideology of the LTTE, as they would then become non-entities and pass into oblivion.

The Minister of Economic Development had announced just a few days back that 85% of the aid that Sri Lanka receives and the loans it has obtained is being spent on rebuilding and developing the infrastructure in the North.ƒÆ’-¡  Whatever basic infrastructure facilities that existed in the North were destroyed by the LTTE: two classic examples are the water supply tower in Kilinochchi that the terrorists blasted when they opted to speed towards Nandikadal lagoons for their doom as hoards of lemmings committing suicide, and the removal of the sleepers of the Northern railway track to build bunkers and to reinforce their hideouts.

When the government spends a vast and disproportionate amount of borrowings, aid and tax revenue on developing roads, water supply schemes, hospitals, factories, etc. in the North, it cannot afford to restrict the benefits to a mere 4% of the Sri Lanka population that the TNA probably can claim to represent. The fruits of the exercise should be enjoyed by all Sri Lankans irrespective of their ethnic or religious affiliations.

It is time that the government commences a vigourous colonisation scheme of the North by non-terrorist Tamils, Sinhalese and Moors who live in provinces outside the North, just as past governments did with the Gal Oya, Kandalama, Padaviya, Elahera and other such projects. People who are ready to move north should be given land and financial incentives to encourage them to do so. The Sinhalese would naturally be the largest ethnic group among them as they constitute 75% of the population of the country. But more importantly, it is the Sinhalese that sacrificed in the highest numbers ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” giving the lives of their sons, daughters, fathers and mothers ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” to liberate the country from the terrorist plague.

While the government-sponsored colonisation is in progress, there should also be an increase in the presence of the armed forces in the North. It is only then that it would be possible to nip in the bud any resurgence or resurrection of the LTTE armed challenge. There are reports that the UK is considering the encouragement of citizens to spy on their neighbours, following the death of a single soldier at the hands of a fanatic who was chanting religious invocations. If peace-loving Sri Lankans who love their country of birth reside in the North, they may even be ready to help the armed forces and their intelligence wings by giving information about suspicious characters engaged in not-so-legal activities.

One should not forget the days, a few decades back, when ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Kotiyas are comingƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ was almost a joke. Kotiyas (Tigers) ceased to be a funny story when the LTTE started massacring innocent civilians, blasting economic and communication nerve centres and temples, and took on the armed forces of the legally constituted government of the country. No one wants a repetition of those events.

Thai PM visit Sri Lanka – a platform to align the Buddhist Nations of Asia

May 29th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

The Thai Prime Minister Ms. Shinawatra is due to visit Buddhist Sri Lanka during the month of Wesak. The bond that Sri Lanka and former Siam (Thailand) share needs to go beyond diplomatic niceties. The people of present and future need to know the exact nature of what ties Buddhist nations together. In addition to seriously considering forming a League of Buddhist Nations it is suggested that a film be produced in co-partnership about the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Fascinating Journey from Sri Lanka to SiamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ based on the narration of Wilbagedera who wrote the original narration of his journey to the Thai capital of Ayuthiya and the magnificent welcome accorded to the Sri Lankan delegation by the Thai King.

Let all those preparing to welcome the Thai PM remember that she arrives not to talk about multiculturalism but to mark the special Buddhist bond that exists between Buddhists and Buddhist nations. Therefore, it is essential that the agenda is solely on Buddhism and those involved in discussions are capable of giving genuine voice to Buddhists this translated means that all those mouthing opposing views should be left out.

It was in 1752 that Ven. Upali Thera of Siam was assigned by the Siamese monarch to visit Sri Lanka to restore the Buddhist Sangha Order in Sri Lanka. The backdrop to this was the request made by King Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe who sent a convoy of monks initiated by Ven. Weliwita Saranankara to Siam.

The Siam Nikaya is located around the city of Kandy and is named so because of its origins in Thailand. The two main divisions of the Siyam Nikaya are the Malwatta and Asgiriya. Together both Nikayas have over 6000 temples and close to 20,000 Buddhist monks. It is this bond that brings the Thai PM to Sri Lanka bringing a special message from Thailand.

The hospitality shown by Siam continues unabated to this day and Sri Lanka acknowledges with pride the warmth with which a fellow Theravada nation continues to uphold traditions.

The Sri Lankan delegation headed by Wilbagedera was a journey that took 3 months passing Cambodia to reach Siam in 1750. The detailed and picturesque account of the respect and honor given to the Sri Lankan 60 member delegation by the Siamese King is enchanting to any reader.ƒÆ’-¡ 

We are told that a retinue of 32 boats formed in procession to carry the Sri Lankan envoys with music in accompaniment. Outdoing even the diplomatic chivalry of the present the protocol procedures followed at the Royal Thai palace cannot be left to a book for selected reading only. Ayuththa was 60km inland and described as a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-glorious capitalƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and far more practical than the present floodprone capital of Bangkok.

The narrative of Wilbagedera and others being taken on horse-drawn carriages to the Palace, given a Guard of Honor consisting of Regiments with thousands of troops in attendance needs to be visually made available to the entire world in film jointly sponsored by both nations and filmed in both Sri Lanka and Thailand.

It would be a great opportunity to forge and strengthen people to people contact between Thailand and Sri Lanka to enhance cultures between the two nations.

Everything that the Sri Lankan envoys saw from white elephants in the Thai place, the precious stones, gold, figures of lions and elephants, the golden Lion throne on which the King sat like a God Sakra radiating the place from the gemstones, being served on gold and silver trays, visiting holy temples is something that should definitely not escape the attention of the present and future generation of Buddhists.

It was after this visit that Sri Lanka saw a revitalization of Buddhism and within 3 years 3000 samaneras had joined the Sasana.

Sri Lanka also has the honour of initiating the discovery of Footprint of Buddha in Siam in the year 1628 A.D.ƒÆ’-¡ 

Thus the meticulous account kept by Wilbegedera, Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s envoy to Siam from the time the delegation departed from Trincomalee port aboard the Dutch ship Weltryg on 1st August 1750 to sail back to Sri Lanka on 30th May 1753 on board the VOC ship Oost Kapelle after 2 ƒÆ’-¡½ years needs to be put into a film a joint effort by the Governments of both Sri Lanka and Thailand.

The heroes of the Buddhist world need to now gain the publicity it is denied by the English press, in order to bring these to the open a League of Buddhist nations would ensure that forgotten histories are revitalized and forgotten heroes are once more remembered. AsiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s heroes and AsiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s fetes are exclusive and awesome too.

A film on WilbegederaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s journey to Siam is certainly one agenda item that cannot be omitted. This will provide the basis to formƒÆ’-¡ better ties not only amongst the clergy but amongst lay Buddhists as well throughout the Buddhist world.

Asgiriya and Malwatte chapters must back the initiative to form a League of Buddhist nations as well as the film that would link the people of Sri Lanka and Thailand closer.

ƒÆ’-¡ 

 

How Canada became the odd man out in Sri Lanka

May 29th, 2013

Asoka Weerasinghe Kings Grove Crescent . Gloucester . Ontario . Canada

29 May 2013

Hon. John Baird, PC., MP

CanadaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Minister of Foreign Affairs, House of Commons, Ottawa

Dear John:

WhatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s all thisƒÆ’-¡  that I read in Colombo Page, the news item reprinted from the National Post ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” How Canada became the odd man out in Sri Lanka ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” bylined Martin Collacott, the former High Commissioner to Sri Lanka.

After reading all of it my conclusion was ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-What a sad bunch you Conservatives are.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  I am ashamed to be one of youƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” a Conservative. ThatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s what happens when you start flirting andƒÆ’-¡  embracing the friends of the Tamil Tiger terrorists in Canada.ƒÆ’-¡  The Liberals learnt their lesson when theƒÆ’-¡  GTA Tamils abandoned them at the last Federal election not wanting to touch themƒÆ’-¡  even with a barge pole. So Maria Minnia, Robert Oliphant, Andrew Karnia and crowd were dropped like PEI hot potatoes.ƒÆ’-¡  That is how the cookie crumbles when you deal with blood soaked dollar notes filtering into your election funds, and dropping your honesty-guard for theƒÆ’-¡  want of Tamil bloc votes in the Greater Toronto Area to give you all 10 ridings on a platter.

The news item said, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Canadian Foreign Minister John Baird has announced that he will not attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  WhoopeeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦do, John!

You are not going to Colombo not because it is aƒÆ’-¡  Canadian protest, but it does seem that you do not have that thick-skin that you tell the outside world that you have cloaking your pit-bull persona, but it is that you cannot face the snickering of the other Commonwealth nations delegates saying under their breathƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-O, no, here comes the Canadian who thought he and his Prime Minister Stephen Harper would act like Pied Pipers and we would be a bunch of stupid lemmings following them just because they are after the Tamil votes back home.ƒÆ’-¡  They got that one wrong, havenƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t they? Stupid fools!ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

John, you and your Conservatives think that you have got the Tamil Tiger by its tail and can squeeze every Tamil vote at the next federal election.ƒÆ’-¡  How wrong you all are.ƒÆ’-¡  The Tamil Tiger is spinning you and your buddies like Jason Kenney, around and around and aroundƒÆ’-¡  with its tailƒÆ’-¡  that you are holding on to, and will release you all suddenly mid-air until you all will go flying out of control andƒÆ’-¡  crash like brainless jelly-fish, spattering all over the floor.ƒÆ’-¡  ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s a matter of time John, all you Conservatives will come to that finality for sure one day.

If Sri Lanka has ignored your call on correcting theƒÆ’-¡  alleged poor human rights record, the reason is simple and is clear as the sound of the SundayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Nepean church bell.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ As they know that you are full of it, when the Canadian Aboriginal communities are struggling for decades with unsafe water, failing sanitation systems, schooling systems for their kids who are dying inhaling gasoline. All what the Sri Lankans will say is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-get your house in order ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”white manƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ before you come down to preach to us about human rights.ƒÆ’-¡  We know all about your forefathers who killed all of the Beothuk Indians to take over their land.ƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

And John, here is the litmus test for you and Jason who had the gall to go to Colombo on January 7thƒÆ’-¡  to preach about human rights when on that very same day the Attawapiskat First Nation Peoples were demonstrating, not too far from his parliamentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s office for the violation ofƒÆ’-¡  their human rights by the Canadian Government.ƒÆ’-¡  Jason Kenney was lucky.ƒÆ’-¡  Diplomatic protocol saved him by politeness by government officials.ƒÆ’-¡  If they were outside the precinct of diplomacy and someone with the John BairdƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s pity-bull persona would have told him: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Why donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t you bugger-offƒÆ’-¡  to where you came from and clean up your act at home before you try your ignoramus stunt on Sri Lankan soil again.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡  JasonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s stupidity was embarrassing.

I bet John, this First Nation community people will move heaven and earth to exchange places with the 295,873 Tamils who were liberated on 19 May 2009, by the Sri Lankan Government soldiers from the clutches of the Tamil Tigers who were using them as a human shield. These Tamils were housed, fed and given seed money to start their lives again, provided clean drinking water and gave back their right-to-life and their dignity.ƒÆ’-¡  They were ƒÆ’-¡ hundred times betterƒÆ’-¡  off than our First Nation peoples.ƒÆ’-¡  Right, John?ƒÆ’-¡  I donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t think you can stomach that fact, can you?

John, when these 295, 873 Tamils were herded like cattle from the west coast to the east coast for 30 months as a human shield I noticed that the then Conservative Foreign Minister Lawrence Cannon obviously had a bout of laryngitis as we didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t hear a pip squeak of a protest from Canada.ƒÆ’-¡  And when the Tamil Tigers were wiped out on 19 May 2009 who haemorrhaged that island nation for 27 years with the killing of over 100,000 innocent people, Canada had difficulty to pat Sri Lanka on her back and say ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Way to go Sri Lanka, good for you to have eliminated the most ruthless of terrorists in the world,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  while other western nations did. The Press Release that your Foreign Ministry had put out was down right pathetic.

So these are the Sri Lankans that you want to teach how to suck eggs.ƒÆ’-¡  Come on John, be real!

I bet your not going to the Summit in Colombo, wouldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t make much of a difference, and I am certain that morning the sun will still rise as it always did for eons from the east andƒÆ’-¡  will set in the evenings in the west.

However, to answer Martin CollacottƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s query ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-How Canada became the odd man out in Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ is easy.ƒÆ’-¡  The Tamil vote rules the roost in Canada laced with parliamentarianƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s stupidity.ƒÆ’-¡  And the thought of 30,000 Tamils descending on OttawaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Sussex Drive makes Canadian parliamentarians tremble under their pants like autumn leaves in a gust of wind.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  We witnessed it in March, April and May of 2009, when 20,000 Tamils demonstrated under a sea of red Tamil Tiger flags and we could do sweet nothing about it.ƒÆ’-¡  And when the demonstrations ended you and I contributed to the million dollars as tax payers to clean the mess that these Tamils left behind.ƒÆ’-¡  Remember, John?ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  That is the ground reality.ƒÆ’-¡  And we Canadians are a bunch of losers boycotting the Colombo Summit.ƒÆ’-¡  Phew! What a bunch of Do-dos!

Sincerely,

Asoka Weerasinghe (Mr.)

An Open letter to David Cameron ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the Prime Minister of England- Pave the way for genuine reconciliation and peaceful co-existence, or face international isolation.

May 29th, 2013

ƒÆ’-¡ Ranjith Soysa

The recent wanton killing of an English soldier has brought to surface the ugly racist manures prevalent in the English society for last 75 years since the Empire ceased to exist. The people from earlier colonies arrived in England, some seeking greener pastures, some like the Indians and PakistanisƒÆ’-¡  who were forced to leave from the African countries. Ever since the waves of migrants chose toƒÆ’-¡  live in the UK and engage in menial vocations the overt and covertƒÆ’-¡  racism in England was a an ugly force operating in the background.

ƒÆ’-¡ The racism was manifest in open discrimination in the job market as well as residences where the vast majority of the migrants were forced to lead a life of hand to mouth existence, huddled in ghettos, while working as cleaners, waiters, drivers etc.

ƒÆ’-¡ Discrimination practised by the English and the suffering experienced by the migrants on many occasions led to open riots. The first racial riots took place in Aug 1958 when a private dispute between a Jamican and a sex worker flared onto a full scale riot led by 300-400 white people. The riots caused tension between the Metropolitan Police and the British African community which claimed that the police had not taken reports of racial attacks seriously. Since then racial riots emerged regularly; in 1958 Nottingham Hill, 1980 St Pauls, 1981 Chapel town, Moss Side, Toxeth, and Brixton, 1985 Handsworth,ƒÆ’-¡  1989 Dewsbury, 2001 Bradford and Oldham, 2005 Birmingham, 2011 all over London.

ƒÆ’-¡ According to the BBC ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-the racial tensions were also to blame for transferring Brixton in South London into something resembling a battlefieldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ in 1981. InƒÆ’-¡  the investigation that followed the Brixton riots Lord Scarman said that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-RACIAL DISDAVANTAGE IS A FACT OF CURRENT BRITISH LIFE. It was, I am equally sure, a significant factor in the causation of the Brixton disorderƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

ƒÆ’-¡ The extreme right wing neo- Nazi organizations active for last 100 years in England too have directly contributed towards racial hatred in England specially through preaching of white racial superiority, hate speech and hate-mongering movements. White Nationalist Party, England First Party, Nationalist Alliance, New Nationalist Party and the English Defence League are right wing racists organizations which are ever-ready to indulge in race based agitations.ƒÆ’-¡  In the book ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Voting to ViolenceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬,ƒÆ’-¡  Nick LowlesƒÆ’-¡  outlines trends in the racial politics: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-One of the most worrying aspect of research is the attitude of the BNP and the English Defence league sympathizers to violence. There is a widespread belief that the conflict between ethnic, racist, religious communities is inevitable and frighteningly large ..and willing to engage in violence to protect the group from threats. Half of the BNP supporters said that preparing for conflict was always or sometimes justifiable and 21% saying that it was always preferableƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ The British parliamentary select committee reported that it was graphically highlighted that the centralƒÆ’-¡  dominance of immigration and fear of Islam to support both the BNP and the UK Independent Party.

ƒÆ’-¡ After the recent killing of an English soldier the frenzied activities of the extreme right wing organizations have seen an expected growth. There were public demonstrations with visible racist placards, slogans and flags. Within a week the Muslim community were subjected to nearly 400 incidents of racial hatred such as abuse, vilification, hate speech etc.ƒÆ’-¡ 

At the same time the militant Muslims are talking of Sharia Law and introduction of Islamic religious practices among the English Islamic community which provides fodder to the English right wing organizations such as EDL. The divide between the Muslims and the English middle class is growing with the increased number of professionals joining the EDL The race riots which brought death and destructions to the people in England continue to simmer racial tensions forcing the issue on to the political agenda.

ƒÆ’-¡ England should take urgent steps to appoint a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to explore ways to douse and eliminate the racial hatred and hate speech so that the ordinary civilians can live in peace and harmony. While the English politicians prefer to profess reconciliation and conflict resolution to other countries in Asia and Africa, the acute situation prevailing in England needs to be cured and attended to.

ƒÆ’-¡ The Commonwealth and other international organisations should take immediate action to ensure England addresses the concerns and aspirations of all of its citizens. If progress is not made, member countries should consider excluding England from future CHOGM summits.

 

 

 

Response to Sridaran on comment on ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Castigation of Sri Lanka by the Affluent WestƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

May 29th, 2013

Asada M Erpini

A person named Sridaran talks of the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-confusionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ that Asada has suffered when the latter wrote his piece titled ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Castigation of Sri Lanka by the Affluent WestƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. He continues that the Tamils go for greener pastures just as the Sinhalese do.

Asada has just the following to state:

Most, if not all, Sinhalese went and settled in Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA after going through the legal channels of immigration. On the other hand, many of SridaranƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s (I assume Sridaran is a Tamil of Sri Lankan origin) blood brothers claimed bogus refugee status to travel to far, far lands, especially Canada, and settle in those countries.

 

 

 

Energy saving problems and style of cooking in apartments.

May 29th, 2013

Dr Hector PereraƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  London

Now the life style of living in Sri Lanka also changes gradually or in some case quite rapidly. My parents were government servants, dad was a doctor of medicine and mum was a school headmistress but none of them lived in high rise buildings unlike most of the present generation. I have visited lots of my relatives who were living in villages but none of them lived in high rise buildings. Now when I looked around in little towns such as in Gampaha, Jaela, Dehiwala and Nugegoda, you donƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t have to look too far to see plenty of high rise apartments. Need not to mention any other towns such as Battramulla and Borella where there is sea of high rise building everywhere, who knows they soon turn into little Manhattans?

One of the points I am trying to get is how do these people cook in high rise dwellings? In villages they always used fire wood stoves for cooking but when they live in such high rise apartments, certainly they need to change the style of cooking or just depend on takeaways. Our servants in the past cooked anything on firewood stoves where the fire spreads from the base of the cooking pot to the top of it. I cannot describe exactly how the situation inside a firewood kitchen is. Most of the time smoke, dust and little pieces of ash flying all over, generally the kitchens are fairly hot due to the wastage of radiating energy from the burning firewood. Unlike in high rise buildings there are plenty of space in country side houses because generally they are large houses. Most of the times, the kitchen is at the far end of the house so that no smoke, dust or heat is felt to the main house. The servants spent a great deal of time in the kitchen doing so many things. The master and the lady of the house hardly visit the kitchen to see how cooking was done but in some cases ladies always cooked side by side with the servants.

In apartments, the space is limited, the kitchen is almost next to the sitting room and the bedrooms are not too far away. They cannot afford to use firewood stoves in apartments so they have to use gas or electric cookers but majority of the people use gas cookers. What I have observed is that their habit of cooking has not changed even if they used gas or electric cookers. When rice is boiling usually it froths and likely to over flow then immediately they take the lid off and stir it until it settles. Then check water, sometimes add some water as well. In doing so very likely it goes wrong and forms burnt rice. The cloud of steam escapes and likely to condense on the walls or kitchen cupboards or might go a little further. When ladies come to cook with lots of face make ups, have I got to say what would happen to them with hot steam? Sometimes they repeat this process a couple of times when they check the water in the rice pot.

That is just cooking rice what about cooking other things such as chicken, meat or vegetable curries or frying dry chillies, sprats, dry fish, sardines and papa dams? They cooked all these things in firewood stoves even in villages but unlikely to get the curry smell or frying smell of dry chillies or dry fish to the main house. In limited space of living in apartments, these smells cannot easily dissipate unlike in villagesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ country kitchens. It is just not the smell but the invisible volatile chemicals come and deposit on your valuable in your house. If you live in country houses, there are no such problems because there are lots of spaces but the problem is with these limited spaces of living dwellings or in apartments. Some people get away the problem of cooking rice and over flowing rice pots by using rice cookers but how would they escape of the problems of cooking curries? One might ask what problems, yes there are plenty of problems. To me one of the main problems is the cooking smell or the curry smells when cooking chicken or vegetable curries. You mean a quick solution is to, depend on takeaways? ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s good occasionally.

When I came to England, I had to live in a room only basis where I have do everything including cooking. I was really worried about this smell because how would I wear clothes to the University with curry smell all over? Fortunately due to careful thinking in the right direction, I modified my type of cooking and reduced this smell. That is where my scientific energy saving cooking initiated.

Recently I was on holiday in Sri Lanka, I had a chance to visit a few apartments somewhere in Mt Lavinia, Dehiwala area and I observed the kitchen area. The extractor was covered with oil deposits, felt very sticky and smelly. The walls surrounding the cooker were covered with the same kind of sticky oil deposits. When I answered the intercom, I realised it was very sticky then I realised that some of those oily volatile gases have deposited on it then on the surrounding area as well. There were nice curtains near the kitchen diner area but have I got to say itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s deposited with these volatile chemicals? I didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t say a word, just observed for my facts finding mission. In some apartments daily visiting servants did the cooking. Would you say they have any idea of wasting gas and escaping curry smells? I have my doubts.

In these apartments, the rooms were not too far away from the kitchen area and the sitting and dinning area then very likely some of these gases might have deposited on these places as well. In a way they have ruined or ruining their valuables but there was no option. Please tell me who would like to purposely ruin your hard earned valuables? The expensive flat screen television seemed to have a microscopic film of oil and I have my doubts how to remove it carefully. Without their knowledge they are ruining plenty of valuables in your compact apartment. Why not try and fry some prawns, believe me, the smell is so unbearable when it deposits on clothes but the fried prawns are tasty.

The lady in the house cooked some chicken curry while I was chatting with some friends in the sitting room. I could see how it was done because the place is quite small, compared to countryside houses. She kept on adding a few ingredients from time to time while it is boiling then waited for few minutes and opened to check something. A stream of steam along with other volatile ingredients gushed out every time she opened it. According to science when any cold object was on the path of the hot volatile gases, some of it is likely to get deposited. I assumed some of these curry smell might have deposited on her face, hair, clothes and also on the jewellery such as bangles and the gold necklace. That was a newly married couple and I was one of the guests invited for dinner.

There were lots of different curries and dishes for dinner, in fact a very nice dinner. Honestly no one cannot stop over eating in such instances. When I said good bye after the dinner, I realised that I was right because I felt some of the curry smell on the lovely ladyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s face but I never said a word. This is one of the most important issues to be addressed in the style of cooking in apartments.

When I cooked these kinds of simple dishes such as fish, chicken or vegetable curries at home, we also get this kind of problem but it can be controlled if cooked scientifically, carefully. One of the ways is to limit the number of times of opening the boiling curries or try and not to open while it is piping hot. The vapours must be controlled and try to keep them inside the cooking pot than allowing to escape. The more heat we put, faster the rate of volatility of these vapours but do not increase the temperature of the liquid. One other important point is, once a curry comes to boiling, must reduce the fire because one cannot increase the temperature with increase of fire. It will not raise itself until all the liquid evaporates, this is according to science. Once the liquid evaporates then temperatures rises and even get roasted or burn. This principle is used in fractional distillation as well. Wait until it reaches to the state of equilibrium then reduce the temperature in order to avoid drying out the liquid quickly. Let it recycle then the volatile liquid might fall back into the cooking pot and keep on going in circles so most of the ingredients get absorbed into the food than escaping. If the lid was opened while in this state, no wonder the whole cycle breaks and some of it escapes to the surrounding, may be some get deposited on the person who cooks the food.

Make use of these simple scientific rules and methods to avoid wasting gas, polluting the air by burning gas wastefully. One might say this is impossible, I agree to some extent. There were two opportunities to demonstrate how to cook in the scientific way. Later on some people came to me and congratulated me. After few days as well, a few ladies and gentlemen mentioned they practiced my scientific cooking technique and they told it really worked. I thought, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Mission accomplishedƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. The method saves energy, save money spent on valuable energy and there are other lots of other advantages as well. So far not a single energy saving expert came forward to challenge my energy saving scientific cooking even when I put Rs two million on the challenge, so what am I suppose to do? I could not get hold of some energy authorities due to Wesak holiday season. They must give me an opportunity to demonstrate my energy saving scientific cooking then I will disclose practically so that the general public as well save energy and money spent on energy. Once they see my kind of cooking, these people living in high rise apartments would change the attitude towards cooking. I am sure cooking would never be the same again. Please remember, I am here to help and give you a practical help to cut down this problem, not a total solution.

If you wish to walk down with Asian cologne and Chicken cologne smell on your clothes then on your body you may do so, itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s your choice. No wonder some people spray the houses with loads of chemicals to cover up these smells and spray themselves with expensive scents and colognes but need to think whether these chemicals are really good for breathing even though they smell nice.

I cannot understand why these energy saving experts or authorities who are concerned with saving energy are not taking my challenge seriously? If I could not save energy by using my scientific cooking, I am happy to hand over my challenged Rs Two Million but what would I get if I proved my technique? Let me reiterate that according to science, every action must have an equal and opposite reaction. Your comments are welcomed perera6@hotmail.co.uk

 

A new Canadian law may be introduced soon that will severely impact commercial email marketing in Canada – for the WORSE.

May 29th, 2013

Canada Stop FISA Now Movement

The law (known as the Fighting Internet And Wirless Spam Act or FISA) severely restricts ANY Canadian business’ ability to use Email Marketing by requiring each business to ONLY email market to prospects who have given that business EXPLICIT WRITTEN PERMISSION to send that prospect marketing emails.

FISA means Canadian Businesses can no longer email market to prospective customers such as:

– contacts from your business card collection

– business cards you or your company collected at trade shows, networking events, or any other business or personal events you’ve ever attended where you’ve made contacts

– email databases of targeted prospects you’ve acquired from ANY source

– prospective customers you’ve found on popular online classifieds sites like Craig’s List or Kijiji or any other place on the internet where your prospective customers are present

Violating FISA can result in fines of upto $10 million for Canadian businesses.

If FISA is allowed to become an enforceable law, it will greatly restrict E-Commerce in Canada by limiting Canadian businesses’ Email Marketing capabilities greatly.

Worse yet, we predict FISA will make Canadian businesses reluctant to use Email Marketing at all for fear of incurring the extremely heavy fines associated with violating FISA.

As FISA stands, it DOES NOTHING for furthering the law’s stated goal: increasing Canadian consumer confidence in using E-Commerce as a means of conducting business transactions.ƒÆ’-¡  It will NOT help reduce Phishing, Identity Theft or any other types of illegal activity regularly propagated through email.ƒÆ’-¡  In fact, FISA is detrimental to this goal because it will discourage Canadian businesses from using Commercial Email Marketing.

What If FISA Becomes Enforceable Law in Canada?

Under FISA, Canadian consumers will be more likely to buy from American or International businesses who are relatively unrestricted in their Email Marketing practices.

THE SOLUTION

The United States has had the CAN-SPAM act in place since 2003.ƒÆ’-¡  The CAN-SPAM act does not require American businesses to have EXPLICIT WRITTEN PERMISSION to send them marketing emails.ƒÆ’-¡  We maintain the CAN-SPAM act is a just law for that should be mirrored in any Canadian law governing Commercial Email Marketing.

Repealing and/or Amending FISA to match the US’s CAN-SPAM Act will allow Canadian businesses to much more freely use Email Marketing for reaching prospective customers as US businesses currently can.ƒÆ’-¡  It will also encourage more Canadian consumers to do business with Canadian businesses.

FISA should resemble the US’s CAN-SPAM act regulating commercial email.

FISA is already law but will not be enforced until estimated mid 2013.ƒÆ’-¡  Help us fight this law now by signing our petition before it’s too late!ƒÆ’-¡  Visit http://stopfisanow.com to get involved.ƒÆ’-¡  All comments posted by Canadian businesses and concerned citizens on our online petition will be automatically forwarded via email to several key politicians in Canada including Federal Minister of Industry Christian Paradis.ƒÆ’-¡  Make Your Voice Heard Today!

ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»

May 29th, 2013

ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ 

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¢ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶® ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶° ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶», ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·= ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ 20 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘

May 29th, 2013

ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ 09 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¹ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º; ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶· ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» 2015 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶±, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”- ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º;

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ . ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶© ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ . ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º.

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾.

 

 

 

LLRC Recommendations Not Met by 13A

May 29th, 2013

by Neville Ladduwahetty Courtesy TheƒÆ’-¡  Island

ƒÆ’-¡ The recommendations of the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) have come to be accepted by the International Community judging from the repeated references to it both nationally and internationally, in complete disregard to the GovernmentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s National Plan of Action that was developed by incorporating selected recommendations in the LLRC Report. In the meantime, India while supporting International Resolutions to implement LLRC Recommendations is also insistent that Sri Lanka implement the 13th Amendment evidently unaware of significant incompatibilities between the two.

ƒÆ’-¡ Despite the fact that the 13th Amendment was made part of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s constitution since 1987 at the insistence of India, the LLRC did not endorse it as the political arrangement that would suit Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s particularities. Instead, the LLRC made recommendations that are in fact incompatible with certain key provisions in the 13th Amendment. The Government is thus faced with a dilemma; whether to implement the 13th Amendment as provided in the Constitution and ignore the recommendations of the LLRC, or to modify the 13th Amendment in a manner that reflects the recommendations of the LLRC. Adopting the latter approach would require serious constitutional amendments and even revisions to the main body of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Constitution.

ƒÆ’-¡ The LLRC RECOMMENDATIONS deal with the following key provisions:

ƒÆ’-¡ 1. THREATS TO TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY AND DISCOURAGING SECESSIONIST TENDENCIES

ƒÆ’-¡ Paragraph 9.231 (d) of the LLRC Report states: “In addressing the question of devolution two matters require the attention of the government. Firstly, empowering the Local Government institutions to ensure greater peoplesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ participation at the grass roots level. Secondly, it is also imperative that the lessons learnt from the shortcomings in the functioning of the Provincial Councils system be taken into account in devising an appropriate system of devolution that addresses the needs of the people. It should at the same time provide for safeguarding the territorial integrity and unity of Sri Lanka whilst fostering its rich diversity”.

ƒÆ’-¡ Paragraph 9.235 states “ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦It is also important to ensure that any power sharing arrangement has inbuilt mechanisms that would effectively address and discourage secessionist tendencies and safeguard the sovereignty and integrity of the State.

ƒÆ’-¡ 2. DEVOLUTION TO THE PERIPHERY AND POWER SHARING AT THE CENTER.

ƒÆ’-¡ Paragraph 9.236 states: “The Commission wishes to underline the critical importance of making visible progress on the devolution issue, in order to ensure the success of any process of lasting and sustainable reconciliation. The Commission therefore recommends that the present opportunity be utilized to launch a good-faith effort to develop a consensus on devolution, building on what exists ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” both, for maximum possible devolution to the periphery especially at the grass roots level, as well as power sharing at the centre. This consensus should be one that will enable peoplesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ participation in governance decisions affecting them and avoid costly and unnecessary duplication of political, bureaucratic and other institutional structures that hamper efficient, cost-effective and transparent governance.

ƒÆ’-¡ 13th AMENDMENT WITH PROVINCE AS DEVOLVED UNIT IS A THREAT TO SRI LANKAƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢S TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY.

ƒÆ’-¡ The 13th Amendment recognizes the Province as the devolved unit. A three decade long war was waged to create a separate state consisting of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. Taken together, the two provinces amount to 1/3 of Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s land mass and 2/3 of its coastline. Thus, both in terms of land mass and length of coastline, together with access to the natural resources such as Trincomalee Harbour, in the background of geostrategic importance of the Indian Ocean, this presents prospects that are too tempting to discourage secession. Such a process could start with the Northern Province and later engulf the Eastern Province as well.

ƒÆ’-¡ It is not devolution that threatens the integrity of states. It is devolution to large sized territorial units with ethnic concentrations that threaten the territorial integrity of states. This is amply demonstrated in the most recent developments wherein Scotland is attempting to seek independence from the United Kingdom and Catalonia is seeking independence from Spain. Similar tendencies are inevitable in Sri Lanka too with the Northern Province wanting to secede from the rest of Sri Lanka with the full support and backing of Tamil Nadu.

ƒÆ’-¡ 13th AMENDMENT DOES NOT DEVOLVE POWER TO GRASS ROOTS LEVELS

ƒÆ’-¡ The 13th Amendment has no provision for devolution to grass roots levels as recommended by the LLRC since all powers are devolved ONLY to the Province. According to Article 154G (1) “Every Provincial Council may, subject to the provisions of the Constitution make statutes applicable to the Province for which it is established with respect to any matter set out in List I of the Ninth Schedule”. Since every Provincial Council MAY make statutes the task of maximum devolution especially to the grass roots levels is left entirely to the discretion of each Provincial Council; an arrangement that is totally unsatisfactory and would inevitably lead to devolved powers being asymmetric among the Provinces.

ƒÆ’-¡ Power devolved constitutionally beyond the Province would result in 4 levels of devolution; i.e., Province, District, Pradeshiya Sabha and the Gramaraja. Such an arrangement would be an administrative nightmare because of the overlapping of devolved powers among these 4 levels.

ƒÆ’-¡ In addition, devolving power to grass roots levels amounts to diluting powers granted under the 13th Amendment to the Provincial Councils and would be strenuously resisted by them. Under these circumstances, the only way to overcome such resistance would be via measures using a 2/3 majority similar to the recently passed Divi Neguma Bill. The support of a 2/3 majority needed to pass such legislation is not an assured guarantee.

ƒÆ’-¡ 13th AMENDMENT DOES NOT INCLUDE SHARING POWER AT THE CENTER

ƒÆ’-¡ The 13th Amendment has no provision to share power at the Center. Consequently, the peripheral units are excluded from participating in the Executive branch of the Government. Whatever representation there is for the periphery at the Center, is only in Parliament. The reference in the LLRC report to a Second Chamber is a feeble and a superfluous attempt for the provinces to be represented at the Center to engage in Legislative action since Parliament is already representative of the provinces. A more meaningful measure would be to accommodate the major communities in the Executive. This is not provided for in the 13th Amendment.

ƒÆ’-¡ AN ARRANGEMENT THAT WOULD MEET LLRC RECOMMENDATIONS

ƒÆ’-¡ A peripheral unit that would offer a greater guarantee of territorial integrity, dissuade secession and foster diversity would be the District, with the provision that two or more Districts are NOT permitted to merge, as in the Constitutions of the USA and Switzerland; a precaution that is not provided for in the 13th Amendment. Powers devolved to the Districts, Pradeshiya Sabhas and Gramarajas based on the principle of subsidiarity would meet the recommendation in the LLRC Report of maximum devolution to the grass roots levels. This would also result in 3 (and NOT 4) levels to which power would be devolved, similar to arrangements working well in other countries where power has been devolved (viz., State, County and township). Under this arrangement all existing Provincial Council Members would be accommodated in the District Councils since election to the Provincial Councils are on the basis of the Districts.

ƒÆ’-¡ Since Parliament is already representative of communities and territories, the need is to provide for the major communities to share Executive power at the Center in order to foster inclusion of all communities in executive decision-making processes on an equitable basis. Such an arrangement should be constitutionally provided for and could be based on the ratio of ethnic representation in Parliament at any given time, or any other rational basis. The rationale is that since powers devolved to a unit smaller than the Province must necessarily be less, there is a need to compensate by sharing power at the Center, chiefly in the Executive, thereby also fostering inclusiveness in national decision making processes.

ƒÆ’-¡ CONCLUSION

ƒÆ’-¡ The strident call by the International Community steered by the US is for the implementation of the LLRC recommendations. On the other hand, India while supporting US efforts in Geneva for the implementation of LLRC recommendations, insists that Sri Lanka implement the 13th Amendment, apparently not being cognizant of the incompatibilities that exist between them. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the Government of Sri Lanka to bring to the attention of the International Community, and the US as well as India, the incompatibilities that exist between the LLRC recommendations and the 13th Amendment and draw attention to the discrepancy .

ƒÆ’-¡ The Government of Sri Lanka proceeding further into consolidating the Provincial Council system under the 13th Amendment amounts to ignoring key recommendations of the LLRC; a prospect that is bound to bring serious condemnations in future sessions at Geneva possibly followed by measures to punish Sri Lanka for ignoring international dictates. Therefore, the Government of Sri Lanka is duty bound to bring to the attention of the International Community, the US and India that accommodating the key recommendations of the LLRC would entail revisions to existing provisions of the 13th Amendment since no provisions currently exist in it to accommodate the key recommendations in the LLRC Report : discouraging secessionist tendencies, devolution to grass roots levels, and power sharing at the Center.

ƒÆ’-¡ Secessionist tendencies could be discouraged by making the District the devolved unit instead of the Province. The smaller unit ensures territorial integrity by discouraging secessionist tendencies. Devolving power to grass roots levels would require diluting powers already devolved to Provinces under the 13th Amendment; an attempt that would be resisted strenuously by the Provincial Councils. Power sharing at the Center entails revisions that go beyond the 13th Amendment and involves revisions to the Constitution of the Republic of Sri Lanka. These complexities should have been brought to the attention of the International Community, the US and to India. By not doing so and by proceeding to implement provisions in the 13th Amendment, modified or not, would make the task of incorporating the recommendations of the LLRC recommendations at a later date an impossible task. What the Government of Sri Lanka should do is to explain the complexities involved and propose the need to temporarily suspend the implementation of the 13th Amendment until the required constitutional revisions needed to accommodate the LLRC recommendations are completed by the appointed Parliamentary Select Committee. Such a measure would induce all political parties to actively participate in reaching consensus on an acceptable political arrangement because it would be in the interests of all concerned.

The whole Nation should salute Jatika Hela Urumaya for beginning its Historic Role by the Nation in Parliament

May 28th, 2013

Dr Sudath Gunasekara SLAS. Retired Ministry Secretary and President Senior Citizens Movement Mahanuwara ƒÆ’-¡ 25. 5. 2013.

While congratulating the Jatika Hela Urumaya on behalf of the whole Nation as a founder member of this movement on the patriotic and historic steps that will be taken in Parliament during this week to abolish the 13th Amendment, the Indian imposed curse on modern Sri Lanka, and free Mother Lanka from its disastrous and deadly clutches, though belated, I would suggest that they also move for the following actions concurrently to be taken along with the move to abolish the 13th A.

1 Move for the Abolition of the illegitimate JR-Rajeev Pact 1987 imposed by India under duress amidst Island wide curfew and protests by the whole nation as well, along with this, since that is the vicious modern Indian conspiracy ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” that laid the foundation for the disastrous 13th A to completely destroy this Nation and which virtually made the 1978 Sri Lankan Constitution a big joke and converted it to a Constitution made in India

2 Move to declare null and void all actions taken in pursuance of the 13th AƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

Eg 1. Abolish the cancerous and wasteful Provincial Councils that were set up to divide, destabilize and destroy this countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s governance, economic development and peace and harmony (since they have made an utter mess of our administration- an Augean mess for that matter), together with the Provinces invented in 1833 by the British to divide this country on an ethnic basis and destroy the Sinhala Nation.

2. Declare null and void declaration of Tamil also as an Official Language and make it a regional language only

3. Scrap citizenship given to 500,000 Estate Tamils on affidavits unless and until they are prepared to abide by the terms and conditions in the Nehru- Kotalawala Agreement of 1953. All estate Tamils should abide by those terms and conditions if they want to remain in Sri Lanka and to be full citizens of this country. Those who do not should go back to their country.

ƒÆ’-¡ 3 Move to declare and treat all those MPP in Parliament who oppose the abolition of the 13 A as traitors and people who commit high treason whether they are Sinhalese, Tamils or Muslims and declare them disqualified as MPP and also disfranchise them for life so that they could never contest elections in future since the 13th A violates the 6th Amendment of the 1978 Constitution and as governance of this country should never be left in the dirty hands of such traitorous and treacherous men and women in future.

4 Organize countrywide protest meetings at all levels, District, Divisional and Village against the 13th A to mobilize mass support to force the Government to agree to these amendments and ancillary actions.

5 Enlist the support of following national leaders and people to convince and persuade the President to agree to these moves and avoid political suicide for himself and the Government. He should be told by these leaders that people have elected him twice only to implement the aspirations of the majority in keeping with Mahasammata traditions and not to do what India and the West wants to destroy this country.

Mahanayaka Theros of the Three Nikayas and the other Sects (Kelaniya, Dambulla and Ruhunu etc), Revs; Maduluwave Sobhita, Bellavila. Galabodawatte Ghanasara (Bodubala sena), Elle Gunawansa, Meetyagoda (Jatika Sangha Sabhava) and all other Prominent Monks to cover the whole Island.

Gothabhaya Rajapaksa, BAsil Rajapaksa, Dinseh Gunawardhana, Gunadasa Amarasekara, S L Gunasekara, Nalin de Silva, Harischandara Wijetunga, Wimal Weerawansa, Champika and any other prominent and respectable men of standing and few Tamil and Muslim leaders ƒÆ’-¡ who could mobilize and influence the people in support of this historic and patriotic move.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

6 Get the people of this country to command the President and all MPP in the House in one voice that they want the JR-Rajeev Pact and the 13th A immediately abolished and action to be taken to declare null and void all legislative and administrative actions taken in pursuance of the said Pact and the 13th A.

In spite of the dark clouds hovering over Sri Lanka and the prevailing political uncertainties I still think, Mahindra Rajapaksa is the only National leader who could do this.

Because

First, He has all the power as the Executive President under the Constitution and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”He is the GovernmentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ at the moment. If he says the JR-Rajeev Pact and the 13thA should go there is no one within the Government, including Vasideva, who will have the guts to say no.

Second He still has public support and he has the 2/3 majority in Parliament

Third, He being a man from Magama, the land of the Greatest warrior King of Lanka, I believe has the courage to do this as well just as he defeated Prabhakaran and his terrorist outfit

Fourth, UNP the main opposition under Ranil is already dead and buried and there is no other worthy opposition within or outside Parliament that could offer a challenge to the present regime.

Fifth, MR surely will not like to commit political suicide at this moment having come so far and so near to his future political dreams

Sixth, all the leaders and people who supported him both in 2005 and 2010 support the JHU move and he knows that he cannot survive politically without them.

Seventh, both his brothers Basil and Gotha (especially Gotha) are against the13th A. MR also cannot achieve his goals without these two men.

Eighth, MR knows more than anybody else that he was elected by the people of this country and not by voters of India or the West. I hope, he also remembers that he was also in the fore front of demonstrations with the people along with Sirima Bandaranaike and Dinesh Gunawardhana against these Amendments etc in 1987. So without the people of this country he will be just a fish out of water.

Ninth, He also knows better than anyone else that if he does not listen to those people who have elected him and gets succumbed to Indian and Western pressure he will not only lose the Presidency of this wonderful country but he will also lose all the laurels he has won by defeating the LTTE and all other good work and his name then will be written in the Mahawansa as a man who offered a 1/3 of this country with 2/3 of its coastal line on a platter to the Tamils extremist lead by Sambandan and Co, the true proxies of ƒÆ’-¡ Prabhakaran and his ancestors like Sena Guttika(2nd C BC), Elara (2nd C.BC), Magha 12th C. AD, Chelvanayagam and Amirthalingam etc which could not be achieved by war for25 centuries.

Finally, On the other hand, He also knows, that if he agrees to these historic changes moved by Helaurumaya, his name will go down in the annals of history and Mahawansa as the 2nd Dutugemunu and the Greatest Leader of Modern Lanka who liberated this Dharmadweepa- the Land of the Buddha in the 21st Century from the most cruel, savage and ruthless terrorist outfit in the world once described as the most powerful and undefeatable terrorist organization in the world and protected the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”HelaurumayaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and furthermore his name will be indelibly written in Mahawansa as the Leader who created a new and glorious chapter in modern history of this Island Nation.

(It also must be remembered by everybody that in the past too, even hereditary and mighty Kings have been removed from the throne and power by the people who were dissatisfied with the Kings rule, though they did not have the power of the vote to elect or remove them as we do have it today).

Finally, may I also request the JHU to,

1 Tell India and the West to first sweep their own yards before they try to clean otherƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s and refrain from interfering with internal affairs of this country that stands on equal status with them as an independent and free sovereign country.

2 Also to tell them not to pull MR, who has created history by defeating the LTTE in spite of their shameless interfering, training, giving all logistic and moral support to them, by his leg, ƒÆ’-¡ and not to try to destroy his Government elected by the people of this country.

3 Ask them to extradite Tigers of the Trance National Govt of EElam (USA), Tigress Adele Balasingham creator, recruiter and organizer of LTTE Child soldiers (UK) and not to get involved in anti-Sri Lankan activities by providing asylum and resources for these terrorists to destabilize this Island Nation. Also tell them that if they continue to be engaged in this kind of anti-Sri Lankan activities we have no alternative but to treat them as enemies of this country and sever from all diplomatic ties with them.

May all patriotic Sri Lankans rally round this patriotic and historic move as one voice to save Mother Lanka from Indian and all other International conspiracies and invasions and once again take this Island Nation to the pristine glory that was there before the 12th Century!

I think there will be many more Bowatte Indaratanas in the days ahead if the MPP oppose the JHU move

No MP in Parliament or Politician in his country if he /she is a true Son or Daughter of Mother Lanka can oppose this move.

May wisdom dawn in the heads of those who do not have it!

Ill-digested science and garbled Buddhist metaphysics

May 28th, 2013

R Chandrasoma

In the world of physical knowledge an overarching law is that called the Second Law of Thermodynamics (The Law of Increasing Entropy) which says that in a closed physical system, disorder or chaoticity alone can increase with the passage of time. Any overall initial organization can only weaken as the system ages. Note the important caveat – given by the words ‘overall’ and ‘closed’. Within a closed system there can be subsystems that are anti-entropic – in which order increases at the expense of the general trend of disorder in the system as a whole. Life – and living systems – are oases of ant-entropic complexity in a physical universe that is running down. Indeed, this is the striking fact – that life (and complexity in general) has prevailed in a universe governed by physical laws that do not give any hint of this potential. The rise of complexity and organization in a universe governed by physical laws that predict the very opposite is the central mystery of the universe as we know it. To suggest (as does Prof. Suwanda H J Sugunasiri in a recent contribution to LankaWeb) that perishibility and decay constitute the essence that unites science and religion is a misdirection in both areas of knowledge. Let us note, first, that religion and science are ‘non-overlapping magisteriaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and the concepts of the one are not readily transferable to the other. Thus, the three cardinal attributes of all that exists are anicca, anatta and dukkha according to the grounding metaphysics of Buddhism. Of these, the first (anicca – the process or fluxional nature of all aspects of nature) and the second (anatta – the denial of enduring essences) can link with basic notions of science such as system dynamicity and integration – but dukkha is a purely religious term and hinges upon the metaphysical reaction of a conscious agent to the inexorably fluxional nature of things and events. When the Buddha reflected sadly on the fact that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”all component things are subject to decayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ he did not have in mind the Law of Increasing Entropy ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” he alluded to the fact that the Eternal must be Unchanging and final ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”releaseƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ of a karmic being comes with the total cessation of the Birth-Death cycle that enslaves us. (Nirvana). This vision goes well beyond science and its understanding of the dynamics of change. The numinous is categorically different from the mundane.

Let me conclude with a few words about the metaphysics of decay that is hugely over-emphasized in ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”popularƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ versions of Buddhism. It is true that we are finite beings living briefly and, perhaps, dying ingloriously. Yet there is burgeoning and beauty in nature that briefly defies the universal law of decay. A beautiful flower, a young prancing animal or a haunting melody bespeak of an aspect of nature that rises above the ugly reality of time and decay. Its brevity and transience does not diminish its importance as a glorious aspect of the puzzling reality in which we are trapped as mortal beings. This must be celebrated even when the metaphysics of sorrow seem to overwhelm us.

Gota-Sambanthan and why Nationalists say NO to the 13th amendment

May 28th, 2013

Shenali Waduge

If ever the nation of Sri Lanka stood united wherein all factions of society whatever their opposing views came together to say NO ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” that was when India forced Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s then President J R Jayawardena to sign the Indo-Lanka Accord on 29 July 1987 threatening to invade Sri Lanka if it did not do so. The SLFP, key members of the UNP, the nationalists, the JVP and even Prabakaran opposed it so much so that the signing of the Accord was done under emergency with curfew and a gag on media and eventually led to the deaths of 70,000 JVP youth who rose against it. Now, 25 years later the ground is being prepared for a similar scenario.

When Gotabaya Rajapakse says that Sri Lanka should not sign anything to please India and that the threat to national security is a concern ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the entire nation must pay heed. Unlike most he is a man who has delivered and a man who commands our respect because he has earned it by his actions and deeds. Sambathan may say he does not want to talk to Gotabaya Rajapakse because he is not the Government but this same Sambanthan had no qualms about taking orders from the terrorist leader Prabakaran and even went so far as to quote from PrabakaranƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Mahavir Speech inside Parliament which was opposed by JHU Ratana Thero. If our memories are not short we may well come up with numerous other instances of LTTE-TNA links that beckons Sambathan to respond to what makes Gotabaya repulsive and why Prabakaran is not! As a politician living off taxpayers money we demand him to answer. In our eyes we continue to equate the TNA with the LTTE and they have done or said nothing to change our opinion.

The 13th amendment was signed under duress, the concerns of the Supreme Court were ignored, there was no peopleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s mandate. The first provincial council election in the merged North-East held in 1988 voted the EPRLF into power in which Varatharaja Perumal became the Chief Minister and Dayan Jayatillake was its ONLY Sinhala (Christian) member. It did not take 2 years for Perumal to declare unilateral declaration of independence going so far as to even print letterheads to the effect. Then President Premadasa had to dissolve the Provincial Council and Perumal fled to India.

Solutions for WHOM?

The 13th amendment was said to be a solution to the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ethnic problemƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” that it provided no solution reveals the lack of any ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ethnicƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ problem as well as the fact that it was never meant to solve anything for anyone in Sri Lanka. Politicians have put the interests of the nation aside for political and personal gain and failed to do what is right by the desire of the people vis a vis the 13th amendment. The Rajapakse Government seems to be towing a similar line dangling on to straws thinking it can continue to dilly dally with a topic that needs to now be addressed without delay and shredded to bits. It will decide the future of the President.

All politicians wake up to numbers therefore they must now decide on whether pleasing foreign Governments will keep them in power or whether the wishes of the people that vote them into power should matter. People are now losing their patience because the war is now over, soldiers sacrificed their life, the next phase of securing the integrity of the nation lay in the hands of the politicians ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the country does not expect them to sacrifice that hard won victory for their selfish ways.

Where is this ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ethnicƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ problem?

If there was a historical problem can we have evidence of such prior to arrival of the colonials? Even Elara the Tamil King followed the doctrines of the Dasa Raja Dharma and punished his own son for harming a cattle! Genetically the Sri Lankan Tamils are the same as the Tamil Nadu Tamils and have NO similarities with the Sinhalese.

Yet the Tamils who lived through history NEVER demanded a separate area to live separate from the Sinhalese! Let it also be known that the local Tamils teamed up with the Sinhalese kings during invasions by Tamils from Tamil Nadu.

The civilization that developed of the Sinhalese is indigenous as shown in the new archaeological findings whereas the DNA of the Tamils are clearly matching with those Tamil invaders from Tamil Nadu which nullifies claims of any Tamil Homeland.

There was no animosity between the Sinhalese and the Tamils and much of the hype that revolves around 2-3 incidents were mostly planted and created and nothing that proportionately permits people to generalize. Again we say that the 1983 riots had no involvement of the Sinhalese public except organized goons of the UNP Government possibly with the involvement of Indian intelligence turning a situation from bad to worse for it met their agenda. It is time the Tamils come out and say how many Sinhalese saved them and kept and fed them in their homes.

When we say we do not trust the TNA parliamentarians there are valid reasons to say so. It was the TNA that claimed the LTTE was the sole representative of the Tamil people. The Tamil people did not come out and deny this? Always, the fear of the LTTE was used to maintain their silence. Now that the LTTE is no more why do the Tamils remain silent and why do they continue to vote the TNA if the TNA was always voicing what the LTTE wanted and aligned itself with the LTTE. There are enough of evidence in TNA manifestos to prove that they are working towards the separation of the country. When they specifically demand land and police powers are we so childish to think that they may not do what Varatharaja Perumal did in 1990 by declaring the North as independent. Our worries are far more than 1990 because we are well aware that the TNA, the Tamil Diaspora and other institutions funded from abroad and advised by envoys of foreign governments are all using the Northern election to carve out a pan-Christian satellite state and that state dear Tamils is not for Hindu Tamils ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” so it is time Hindus in both Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka realize that they are being taken for a good jolly ride. If we do not trust Sinhalese politicians our message to the Tamils is not to trust the TNA either.

The country has come to such an impasse where we are faced with a situation where we are beginning to question every person who attempts to trade off the country for personal gain be they in government or otherwise.

Top on that list are those who played a key role as architects of various federal solution packages and if memories are not short our foreign minister played a decisive role in each ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Neelan-GL regional councils, PTOMs, ISGA, 2002 Cease Fire Agreement are just a handful of the detrimental agreements for which the likes of GL, Jayantha Dhanapala, Lakshman Marasinghe all played key roles and there are many in Government who aligned their views towards this but now they chirp something else. In our eyes their credibility is questionable and will always be so.

We now have foreign mission heads directly dealing with the provincial councils and striking MOUs ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” these are all dangerous scenarios. Whilst, President Premadasa packed of British envoy Gladstone, our foreign ministry is too diplomatic even to call for an explanation! If this be the case we can well imagine what other MOUs may come to our knowledge after the damage has been done and all we will end up doing is nothing. Is this the way Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s hard fought victory is heading? What is now clear is that the politicians are undoing all the victory that the soldiers sacrificed their lives for.

These ground realities are what moves us to be alert at all times ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the very people presently bringing packages called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-solutionsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ were instrumental in drafting packages that were craftily linked to dividing and separating Sri Lanka.

We do not accept the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-reconciliationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ gimmick. There can be no time bar scenario. Reconciliation must cover every bit of crime that took place and not a period suitable to the West. Ideally it has to start from 1505 when the country was invaded.

We do not accept traditional homeland theme because there is no archeological or historical evidence to prove so. Moreover when more than 1/3 of the Tamil population as a whole live outside of the area being demarcated as exclusively Tamils it also ignores that these areas were populated by Sinhalese and Muslims too and moreover, there cannot be a federal system based on ethnicity when more Tamils live outside that enclave and have no desire to go and live North. Therefore, the Government is perhaps being naively led to develop the North and bring it to such a level that it would facilitate the separate state using money of the Southern taxpayers.

We would also like to ask of Tamils who now complain about the quality of the facilities and the slow progress of the roads etc whether they would have made the same complaints to the LTTE and how far they enjoyed any luxury during the 30 years they lived under the LTTE. Therefore, let the Tamil people not forget that the North was left in such a decrepit condition not by the Sri Lankan Government or the Sinhalese but because the LTTE did not do anything to develop the North or areas they controlled and destroyed whatever state infrastructure was in place ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” transformers and even railway tracks. Therefore, the Tamils need to show far more appreciation than they do currently which only a handful do. How many LTTE members went so far as to build homes with their own hands as the Sri Lankan military personnel are now doing? The Sri Lanka military deserve far more accolades than they are getting for the tireless work they do.

Be that as it may the point in question is that whatever the TNA says, whatever links the TNA has had with the LTTE or continues to have with the LTTE representatives in the Tamil Diaspora ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the Tamils would not vote for the Government even if elections were held in the North. ƒÆ’-¡ 

The Defense Secretary leads the calls for the repeal of the 13th amendment ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” it is based on solid evidence of the likely outcome and the nationalists of Sri Lanka who have all the while been alert to destabilizing operations taking place have placed their reservations clearly and objectively to the Government. The question of 13th amendment is something the Government cannot slide away from and has itself to blame for not dealing with the issue at the time it could have but didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t.

Politicians tend to undermine the power of the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s forces that be. Such instances of undermining led to the collapse of Governments that thought they were immovable. The power of the Sangha should never be underestimated or ridiculed. Whatever said and done they have always played a key role in protecting the nation. Sir John Kotelawala retired from politics after his embarrassing defeat when he undermined the power of the nationalists in 1956, J R JayawardenaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ never expected 70000 Sinhalese youth to give up their lives for a cause, Chandrika Bandaranaike professed to do everything in her power to pass the regional councils but that fell flat on her face, the CFA was drafted to slowly carve out the WestƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Eelaam but that too crumbled into oblivionƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦.. the dreams are kept alive through the 13th amendment which is not IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s baby anymore because IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s future lies in the hands of a foreigner.

Therefore, the Rajapakse Government may like to look back at instances that have been decisive periods of history to decide what he should do in the best interest of the COUNTRY and not the politicians and never to undermine the nationalists when they sincerely come out to warn the Government because of their love for the nation.

The self immolation of the Venerable Bowatte Indarathana Thera and its consequences.

May 27th, 2013

Mario Perera, Kadawata

The act of self immolation of the venerable monk and the immediate motive ascribed to it are only the tip of an iceberg. The immediate motive brings up the specter of Muslim ambitions. They are even attempting to subvert history to suit their hegemonic purposes (see Dilrook Kannangara: Jilani Never Visited Lanka, No Mention of Kuragala by Ibn Battuta). The immediate motive is mentioned as the issue of cattle slaughter and meat consumption in a Buddhist country. The immediate context was the festival of Wesak with its accent on ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ahimsaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. The place of the immolation was the precinct of the Temple of the most sacred Tooth Relic of the Lord Buddha, the scene of the some of the most historic events of the country.

As regards cattle slaughter and meat consumption, the issue is more complicated than it would appear to be at first sight. Sri Lanka comprises around 75 percent Buddhists which makes Buddhists the preponderant majority. If this vast majority desists from consuming meat, the problem would literally be solved. In India restaurants are divided into three categories VEG and NON-VEG. while some restaurant are both VEG and NON VEG The first category outnumbers by far the second and third. The net result is that cattle wander around untouched.

In Sri Lanka, especially after the act of self immolation of the monk, a compromise formula will have to be found. One such measure could be the declaration of Buddhist temple areas as meat free areas. Considering the overwhelming number of Buddhist temples in the country, and also the fact that the majority of Hindus are vegetarians, such a measure could act initially as a forceful deterrent to the slaughter of cattle and the consumption of their flesh.

The principal problem that assails Buddhism is the lack of a central hierarchy whose word is law or nearly so. The MahanayakeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s are pure figure-heads who cannot impose their dictates even on the rest of the Sangha. Buddhism does not have a system of laws applicable to its adherents. The principal weapon of the monks is bana preaching but as many exalted monks had said: we cannot mold the country by preaching bana only. The clearest example is parliament composed preponderantly of Buddhists. The presence of monks has not even superficially scratched the varnish coating of parliamentarian immoralities.

Buddhist leaders and institutions do not influence the conduct of individuals as seen among other religious communities. We must remember how great monks of our life time envied the Muslim community for their abstinence from alcohol. The leadership and community structure among Buddhists have no hold on the individual conscience which is the seat of Buddhism. They therefore expect the State to intervene to achieve their goals. Indeed this has been the duty and the obligation of the rulers since the kings. The State government more eager to hold on to the votes of minorities generally turns a deaf ear to the pleadings of the Buddhist leadership.

But the self immolation of the venerable monk goes far beyond that principle motive. It embodies the resistance of the majority community to efforts by ethnic and religious minorities to usurp its land and spiritual inheritance. The issues raised by the self immolated monk are those of security, morality, and gains by minorities at the expense of the majority community. These are times when Buddhist extra parliamentary political formations are engaged in an endeavour to remind the State government of its commitments to Buddhism enshrined, in general terms, in the constitution. The particularities of those commitments are those dictated by particular historical situations and circumstances that should draw the attention of the ministry concerned which is however nothing but a big yawn.

From all appearances, the government has drifted away from its obligation to Buddhism and to the majority community. It has made itself vulnerable to international pressures and got caged in traps laid by adverse outside forces. Fearful of international reprisals the government has turned a complete blind eye to domestic issues be it security or other. From all appearances we are heading towards a 1956 situation where the Sangha is taking the lead to voice the grievances of the Buddhist Sinhala majority and to stir the government awake from its dogmatic slumber. The conflict is sharpening and if left to snowball could eventually be the undoing of the MR regime.

This is the wider context within which the self immolation of the venerable monk took place and hence should not be taken lightly nor viewed as an isolated incident. It is a first in our history, but could very well not be the last. Once the trend is set the pattern will continue. One need not be reminded that the Sangha has made governments and brought down others to their knees. No government is that strong, whatever be its strength, to resist major upheavals unleashed by the Sangha. The self immolation of the venerable monk cannot be considered as being any other but one such major upheaval.

A recent commentator asked a pertinent question. Is MR a politician or a statesman? A politician is a con man, a yes man, who engages himself by saying ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”yesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”moreƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ for his purposes and then tries to wriggle out of the embarrassing situations of his creation. Such are the games that MR has played with India and the Whites. As regards 13A he said he will even make it 13+. Now the TNA like Shylock will not compromise on its pound of flesh and is relying on India and the Whites to see the deal through.

The present government is caught on the wrong foot as regards several issues. As long as 13A remains in the statue books, the Tamil problem has not been solved at all. The end of the war was the end of the military chapter and not the end of the Tamil struggle for self rule, being another name for separatism. It is 13A that keeps that story alive and kicking with vehemence. The government has compromised itself on all these issues, so much so that the writing would now appear to be on the wall. The hand that is writing is the ominous hand of the Sangha. The self immolation of the monk has now turned that ink into blood. When the Sangha writes with its blood the writings stay like hewn on rock. The images of members of the Sangha confronting the police on the streets are not good omens and can well be interpreted as signs of things to come. That one of them paid the supreme price for his convictions is a stronger galvanizing power than any other. A potent nationalistic Sinhala Buddhist volcano is in the process of irruption and is emitting yellow flames.

The martyred Venerable Bowatte Indarathana Thera could therefore well become the rallying point of the Sinhala Buddhist nation against a regime of proven Indian and white back scratchers. His blood shed on the sacred precinct of the Sri Dalada Temple is supremely more potent than all the coconuts cracked open before shrines of imported Indian Hindu gods.

Mario Perera, Kadawata

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Gotabaya is not govtƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬: Sampanthan is no leader of a major Tamil political party

May 27th, 2013

Asada M Erpini

ƒÆ’-¡ Media reports on 27 May quote R. Sampanthan as having said, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Defence Secretary Gotabhaya Rajapakse ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬¦ is not the governmentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬. What the gentleman has ignored is that although media correspondents keep on referring to the Tamil National Alliance (TNA) as the major Tamil party, the group cannot claim to represent even 4% of the population of Sri Lanka. TNA is, thus, not a major political party under any definition.

ƒÆ’-¡ If Sampanthan wants to say that Gotabhaya Rajapakse is not the government, let it be so. But the fact remains that it is the Defence Secretary who provided the military leadership that vanquished the LTTE leader and his terrorist outfit. Sri Lanka has returned to its former peaceful days after a curse that plagued the nation for three decades, and Sampanthan is among the individuals who benefits from the normalcy that exist today. Therefore, the Defence Secretary has every right to pronounce that police and land powers would not be given to the Northern Province, as such a measure is certain to be stepping stone to the mono-ethnic Eelam for which Pirabhaharan sacrificed thousands of innocent Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims.

ƒÆ’-¡ Peace-loving Sri Lankans are tired of the incessant calls for solutions to the ethnic issue or to the ethnic problem that keep on coming ad nauseum from Samapanthan and his colleagues such as Sumanthiran, Premachandran and others. The reader is yet to see a clear enunciation of these problems that are specific to the Tamil community. Additionally, it is difficult to find any reference to statements made by the TNA leader or his partners that clearly indicate that they want to be nationals of a unitary Sri Lanka: all that we see is demands for greater powers to the provinces, which, as far as they are concerned, means to the Tamils of the North (and the East) to manage their affairs as a virtually separate nation.

ƒÆ’-¡ The UK government is moving to prevent the media such as BBC giving free air time and undue prominence to the UK-based hate preachers, after extremists have started attacking innocent people. It is time that the Sri Lanka government moves in the same direction and bans electronic as well as print media providing a platform to parties such as TNA to spread their anti-Sri Lanka campaigns. If this not done, the divisive moves, which are only verbal at the moment, will ultimately undermine the unitary and sovereign state that is Sri Lanka.

 

A Voice From British Peerage With Unblinkered Vision, Just And Unfetterd Speaks Out Confounding Sri Lanka’s Accusers And Refuting Their Claims!

May 27th, 2013

Insight By Sunil Kumar

May 26th 2013
ƒÆ’-¡ 
InƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ a world full of connivers, blinkered idealogues and a plethora of personalities who express opinions and draw wrong conclusions to suit agendas, in response to offered incentives as well as aimlessly becoming
partisan on the urging of others at times without a smidgen of evidence linked to tangibility there sometimes surfaces stoically accurate observers whose sense of justice and fairplay stand outƒÆ’-¡ with largesse and accuracy which is a tremendous shot in the arm for the Government of Sri Lanka
ƒÆ’-¡ 
One such personality is British Peer Lord Naseby who has recently delivered a speech which not only confounds Sri Lanka’s accusers of human rights violations but puts to shame the tolerance of the British authorities of individuals such as Adele Balasingham who had the affront to be personally involved with the attrocities committed by the
Tamil Tigers and was the wife of fomer LTTE idealogue Anton Balasingham now deceased.She however was not apprehended by the Sri Lankan authorities for provable crimes against innocent civilians, theƒÆ’-¡ recruitment andƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ training of child soldiers and fled to Britain where she now lives in a safe haven in the UK.
ƒÆ’-¡ 
From a SriƒÆ’-¡ Lanka Government perspective taking into consideration all the unsubstantiableƒÆ’-¡  lies, innuendo and cooked up material falsely accusing the Government of attrocities and violations of human rights, finally ( and its about timeƒÆ’-¡  too!) it has become evident
that a reputed and highly respectedƒÆ’-¡ British Peer Wih Vision That’s Unbiased, Unblinkered, Just And Unfettered Over The Realities Surrounding Sri Lanka’s Succesful War Over Tamil Tiger Terrorism has finally surfaced.

Lord Naseby the representativeƒÆ’-¡ for Sri Lankan Affairs to the British Government is quoted as saying to the British Media
ƒÆ’-¡ that “the creator, recruiter and organizer of Tamil child soldiers in Sri Lanka, Mrs. Adele Balasingham lives comfortably in Southern England.
“It was the Tamil Tigers who created, recruited several thousand child soldiers and put them in the frontline so they died first”,ƒÆ’-¡  which is damning towards all accusations presently given so much publicity where the accusing nations should ~ while getting their acts together in their own backyardsƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ firstƒÆ’-¡  re-think what thay are throwing at the Sri Lanka Administration ahead of the CHOGM and ponder upon the veracity as well as seriousness of their direction whichƒÆ’-¡ appears to be not onlyƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ devious but on an erratic path also.
ƒÆ’-¡ 
It has also been reported that in a letter to British Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg, Lord Naseby hasƒÆ’-¡  stated unequivocally
based on conclusions drawn by him which of course are irrefutable
relative to theirƒÆ’-¡ track record and the tangible evidence against them known pretty much in almost every quarter of the world today aware
of their infamy thatƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ quoteƒÆ’-¡ “ƒÆ’-¡ the Tamil Tigers were a terrorist organization seeking an independent state Eelam. They followed no rules of war using suicide bombers with no warning, killing two Presidents, a Tamil Foreign Secretary and thousands of innocent civilians. Tamil civilians who tried to escape were shot in the back by the Tamil Tigers. It was the same Tamil Tigers who refused to allow food and medicine convoys from the UN and the government to enter by road and then tried to sink the relief ships. Finally, they refused to surrender preferring to plant their heavy artillery next to the Field Hospitals”,ƒÆ’-¡  whichƒÆ’-¡ Lord Naseby noted rowards which there can be no disputing as they attest to the salient truth

Lord Naseby has furtherƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ said,ƒÆ’-¡  quite scathingly and perhaps to the chagrin of some of hisƒÆ’-¡ audience in the British Parliament that “the allegedƒÆ’-¡ despicable government attrocities – presumably based on films like Channel 4 are undefined whose filming is challenged by many and we know the claim ofƒÆ’-¡  being killed in the last days is a total exaggeration.” refering to the accusastions against the GOSL.
ƒÆ’-¡ 
This in all probabilities surely coincidesƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ with the eyewitness reports that it was the Armed Forces that rescued many fleeing unarmed Civilians being pursued by the Tamil terrorists who were the guilty party using them as human shields against the Forces where there is documented evidence as well as photographs to attest to this. Once again a delivered body blow to Sri Lanka’s antagonists coming from someone as credible and respected as Lord Naseby which once again confounds many accusations against the Government of Sri Lanka and favourable towards the Govermment’s stand that all these allegations are cooked up and falsified.
ƒÆ’-¡ 
In a response to a UN Team investigativeƒÆ’-¡ analysis from the recent census and missing persons investigation Lord Naseby has said as quoted that “Your answer was not objective, not balanced, not accurate and appears to be aimed to give succor to those Tamil Diaspora, formerly LTTE supporters, who now campaign to blacken everything the democratically elected government of Sri Lanka does in an attempt to achieve Eelam by stealth. Frankly, you should be thoroughly ashamed of yourself” which brings on a whole new perspective towards why so many discerning world powers have chosen to stand by Sri Lanka despite the odd stragglers rumbling about a change in venue.
ƒÆ’-¡ 
In the overall scheme of things the observations of Lord Naseby is indeed favourable to the credibility of SriƒÆ’-¡ Lanka where there are bound to be ramifications against many of Sri Lanka’s Adversaries where there needs to be more observations in like manner towards alleviating Sri Lanka’s reputation as a Resplendent Isle where in a manner of speaking “only a certain type of man is vile!!”
Draw your conclusions!
ƒÆ’-¡ 

British soldier murdered by two Black men opens a PandoraƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Box

May 27th, 2013

Shenali D Waduge

The cold blooded killing of an Englishman in British army uniform in broad day light in Woolwich, London by two black men a few days ago was a heinous crime that shocked the public in both England and overseas, but it has nevertheless opened a PandoraƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s box related to accountability for crimes committed by people in British army uniform on black and Muslim people in Africa and Middle East over a considerable length of time, and the role of the criminal justice system in Britain, British colonies and the international criminal court in failing to bring to book perpetrators of such crimes in British Army uniform.

The killing of Drummer Rigby byƒÆ’-¡ Michael Adebolajo, 28, and Michael Adebowale, 22 is generally seen as an act of terrorism.ƒÆ’-¡ Michael Adebolajo says on tape that the killing was to avenge the killings of Muslims.

Righteous indignation

Is righteous indignation an admissible defense in a criminal court?

The purpose of this article is not about arguing whether it was morally right and legally permissible to avenge a killing by another killing but for the world to realize that we are now stepping into a very volatile future because of the double standards that are taking root in the international legal system ever since colonial expansionism in the world led to racism, unlawful demarcation of territory of native lands, planned and systematic plunder of lands, destruction of native environments, divisions and dissent created in a policy called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-divide and ruleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, transporting natives and colonizing them in different parts of the world, the scores of murder, inhumane treatment, massacres by foreign men in uniform upon natives who were merely trying to protect their ancestral lands, and lack of investigation of such conductƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ and lack of commitment on the part of the international community to raise accountability issues concerning these massive crimes against humanity.

Drummer Rigby was an unfortunate death because he was in uniform. Elsewhere men in uniform have blood on their hands for scores of civilian deaths. The world may like to recall series of civilian killings – 1999 Bombing of Aleksinac, Grdelica train bombing, targeting civilians walking in a column, NATO cluster bomb on a hospital in Serbia by NATO, the countless bombing raids on Iraq, the unlawful Atom Bombs used in the Nagasaki and Hiroshima bombing that killed 140,000 civilians are just a handful of notorious crimes against humanity that have been committed and the perpetrators continue to remain unindicted and without expression of any remorse.

A key word is ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-remorseƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ because there is no remorse by these same perpetrators whether it was during colonial times or post-colonial the manner in which they selfishly target Third World nations on concocted charges or by creating false flag events to facilitate their invasion and intervention and then engage in the same acts of crimes that are allegedly being committed by the people in the home (invaded) country.

The natives in Africa and other parts of the world during colonial times did not have proper arms or ammunition to fight back ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” they were forced to sacrifice their lives in an unequal armed contest. The memory of such lop sided armed conflict in the past leading to oppression of third world people by the whites is nowƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ driving people likeƒÆ’-¡ Michael Adebolajo andƒÆ’-¡ MichaelƒÆ’-¡ Michael Adebowale to take the law unto their own hands as we see another similar copy cat incident of an uniformed soldier in Paris being stabbed. France was a major colonial power in Africa.

It would not be possible to accept the West claiming victim status because it is their planned and staged atrocities that are bringing calamities thereby contributing to the killing of innocents. Today people are well read and in spite of them being bombarded with a barrage of distorted news and twisted commentary favouring the stand of western countries by the pro-Western media both locally and internationally and have got their citizens mesmerized into believing all that their governments do and say is correct there is a large and increasing gathering of observant and independent people that are now uniting on the side of righteousness to say ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-enough is enoughƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the playing field must be made level.

Slave Trade

MichaelƒÆ’-¡ Adebolajo may well be a descendant of one of the generations of Nigerians who were originally enslaved and then taken all over the world and forced to work on British plantations as black slaves.ƒÆ’-¡ If these past crimes have been pushed into the background in an unprecedented move to make up for the crimes done by helping these now poor Third World nations to rise up from what their nations became ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” but it is the exact opposite of what should be happening that is now making people stand up and be counted.

The murder of Drummer Rigby is something far more than the present euphoria associated with anti-Muslim sentiment. What we need to extract from the murder is the fact that no longer can we continue to have a biased world wherein killing of a white becomes defined as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-terrorismƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ while whites commit killings on civilians elsewhere round the world wholesale and with impunity. It happened during colonial times and it is still happening now in a world that is supposed to be civilized and doing civilized things under the umbrella of terminologies that supposedly promotes human rights, transparency, democracy and the very tenacious term now being thrown freely called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-reconciliationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬.

Crimes against humanity

There is no time bar on reconciliation nor human rights violations such as crimes against humanity which demands that for reconciliation to be seriously addressed it needs to cover ALL atrocities and by all atrocities reconciliation cannot omit the crimes against humanity that all the colonial rulers unleashed on the people of the nations they conquered and governed.

We are likely to see more ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-eye for an eyeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ avenging type incidents if the West does not come down from its high pedestal of bullying and arm twisting third world people. But so long as there are people like Gen. James Cartwright and Sen. Lindsey Graham who believe that the US has the right to kill its ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-enemiesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ even when they are ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-asleepƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, there is likely to be more tension. Not many in the US or UK were shocked and aggrieved when scores of Iraqi civilians ended up victims of US sanctions, children died due to lack of food and as long as there are people like Madeleine Albright who says ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-it was worth itƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ the hatred that the West is daily generating will not fade. We at times wonder whether the hate is actually intentional ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”Michael Adebolajo was approached by MI5 to do a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-jobƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ on their behalf. We now question what exactly that job was meant to be.

Scramble for Africa

Africa was divided into 50 nations in 1884-85 at the Berlin Conference.ƒÆ’-¡ TheƒÆ’-¡ Berlin ConferenceƒÆ’-¡ regulatedƒÆ’-¡ European colonizationƒÆ’-¡ and trade inƒÆ’-¡ AfricaƒÆ’-¡ during theƒÆ’-¡ New ImperialismƒÆ’-¡ period, and its outcome, theƒÆ’-¡ General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalization of theƒÆ’-¡ Scramble for Africa. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, while simultaneously eliminating most existing forms of AfricanƒÆ’-¡ autonomyƒÆ’-¡ and self-governance.

Africa is in a state of ruin and relative poverty because of what the West did and what the West is continuing to do. But there are magnanimous gestures ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Brazil has written off US$ 900m of African debt.

We do not justify the killing of Drummer Rigby ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” he was a soldier killed by a civilian. Elsewhere through colonial history hundreds of thousands of soldiers have killed innocent civilians during colonial rule and it continues to happen even in the present. Not a single British soldier who committed crimes during colonial rule was ever put on the dock, convicted and punished like what happened to Nazi war criminals atƒÆ’-¡ Nuremberg,ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ and even now the scale of justice for crimes that Anglo ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” American troops in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Okinawa commit never get the same level of accusations that non-Whites get. This is a perversion of justice. It is also tantamount to racism and cover ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” up of crimes committed. Such conduct is no longer acceptable to the unfolding new world order that is emerging under Asian stewardship.

 

 

Understanding American attitudes: International Relations and Security

May 27th, 2013

Prof. Rajiva Wijesinha, MP Courtesy The Daily NewsƒÆ’-¡ 

One of the sadder aspects of Tissa JayatilakaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s celebration of American values and conduct with regard to Sri Lanka is his suppression of the change that took place in American policy with the change of government at the beginning of 2009. While many of us thought that, in the interests of the world as well as the majority of the American citizenry, a change would be good, we knew that things would be worse for Sri Lanka if the Republicans were defeated.

We were relieved, given the manner in which the diaspora with its ties to the LTTE had cultivated Hillary Clinton, that Obama was the Democrat candidate, but we still knew things would be tough. When Obama then appointed Hillary as his Secretary of State, we had to prepare for a very different approach.

European resolution

I am astonished though to find Tissa too of such a myopic mindset, and asserting that the United States along with India ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”supported us to the hilt from 2002 onwards in our battle against the LTTEƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. He has obviously not read Wikileaks, which makes it clear that in 2009 the US attitude had changed, and they were fully behind the European resolution against us.

Barack Obama Hillary Clinton Condoleezza Rice Robert Blake

The fact that the US had changed was obvious from the manner in which Bob Blake, in his last days, was no longer the pillar of support he had been earlier. In 2007 for instance, the US supported government actively in the East when the European Union was sulking because we had driven the LTTE out of there. In that year we found both the US ambassador in Geneva, a solid old school Republican, and his more left-leaning Deputy, extremely sympathetic. The latter was indeed one of Dayan JayatillekaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s best friends in Geneva.

In 2009 however Blake had told a former State Department employee that his different approach was because he now served a different administration. I do not know whether Blake was one of the ambassadors Tissa got on with ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” he was not at the party Blake had on the occasion of ObamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s inauguration, when he said he had got together Sri Lankans he saw as special friends of his country ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” but Tissa must surely have realized that things had changed. Britain, which had been leading the attack on us, did so, and David Miliband got a far more sympathetic hearing from Hillary than he would have done from the intellectually more rigorous Condoleezza Rice.

Third World countries

Tissa is right in drawing attention to the fact that the US, when Bush was President, was more consistent in its response to terrorism and terrorists, and supported us in our efforts to get the LTTE proscribed. But LTTE supporters understood this, as well as the softer touch Hillary was going to be ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” which unfortunately our Foreign Ministry could not see ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” and changed their approach. Though the LTTE could not quite be presented as largely innocent freedom fighters, which the Americans have convinced themselves Contras and Chechens and the Taleban have been in their time, by 2009 Blake was involved in what might be termed a rescue operation. Thankfully, the Indians put a stop to this, helped also by the intransigence of the LTTE.

Where TissaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s misleading interpretation of international relations comes through is in his assertion that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Although the likes of Miliband and Kouchner tried their utmost to initiate international action against us, Sri Lanka was able to ensure that no government took a concerted diplomatic initiative at the UN Security Council to compel Sri Lanka to abort the final military push against the LTTE, something similar to that which India, acting unilaterally, had done in the 1980s by compelling us to halt the Vadamarachchi operation.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

MilibandƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s objective

There were efforts to put Sri Lanka on the agenda in New York, but these were restrained because of the veto that our solid supporters could be relied upon to use. Tissa makes no mention of what happened in Geneva, because of his animosity to Dayan Jayatilleka, in line with that of the less civilized Americans he follows (unlike the intelligent Democrats who realize that Dayan is potentially their best ally if they can be satisfied with Non-alignment based on a solid understanding with India).

In effect he ignores the fact that the actual scene of action was Geneva, as it is now, where it is numbers that count.

He ignores the fact that the sort of professional diplomat he affects to admire had failed to restrain the British from tabling a motion against us in 2006, a motion they sought to reactivate in 2007. Fortunately by then we had Dayan there, and by skilful diplomacy, building up a solid coalition of Third World countries whilst also talking actively to the West (so that some European countries were telling him what the Brits were up to, even though formally they could not break ranks), he was able to ensure that the motion was dropped from the agenda.

That was when the British Representative there, who had been hoping to go on to New York (and might have been sent there, had he fulfilled MilibandƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s objective with regard to Sri Lanka, which was and still is an ideal test case for changing the dynamics of the current international order), told me that our Ambassador thought we had won, but we should wait to see what would happen.

He moved on then, though, and I found his successor much less abrasive. But as we saw in 2009, Miliband was relentless.

Update of the High Commissioner for Human Rights On her Annual Report to the Human Rights Council

May 27th, 2013

Statement by H.E. Mr. Ravinatha P. Aryasinha Ambassador / Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka & Leader of the Sri Lanka Delegation to the 23rd Session of the Human Rights Council, 27 May 2013

At the outset, Sri Lanka wishes to associate itself with the statement made on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.

ƒÆ’-¡ My delegation takes note of the High CommissionerƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s statement and is firmly committed to supporting the High Commissioner in the discharge of her mandate as contained in GA Resolution 48/141.

ƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka urges the OHCHR to redouble its efforts in mainstreaming economic, social and cultural rights, which remain disproportionately marginalized, by allocating more financial and human resources to the promotion and protection of these rights.

ƒÆ’-¡ We reiterate the primacy of the role of the States Parties in the treaty body strengthening process.ƒÆ’-¡  It is also important for the special procedures mandate holders to adhere to the Code of Conduct as stipulated in Council resolution 5/2 in the execution of their respective mandates, through a professional, impartial assessment of facts. We would like to see an equitable distribution of financial resources among all special procedures mandate holders through a transparent process to safeguard their independence.

ƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka notes the challenges faced by the OHCHR, particularly with regard to the budget which is paramount to the effective and independent discharge of the mandate of the High Commissioner.ƒÆ’-¡  We believe that there is an urgent need for a more sustainable resourcing of the OHCHR in order to ensure efficient and objective fulfillment of its mandate under the administrative direction and authority of the UN Secretary-General and the General Assembly.ƒÆ’-¡  To this end, Sri Lanka believes that the bulk of the OHCHR funding must come from the UN regular budget.

ƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka remains deeply concerned that the lack of financial independence of the OHCHR also leads to disproportionate attention being paid to country-specific action in the Council which selectively targets some countries, while situations, human rights violations and restrictive practices in other parts of the world that warrant more urgent and immediate attention and action remain conveniently ignored. The continuation and proliferation of the practice of the selective adoption of country-specific resolutions in the Council is a tool that exploits human rights for political purposes.ƒÆ’-¡  We reiterate that such politicized action is contrary to the high purposes and principles of the Council and must be arrested.

ƒÆ’-¡ Regrettably, a similar pattern is evident in the case of continued action on Sri Lanka in this Council. It would be recalled that the call for an international investigation into the situation in Sri Lanka emanated here barely a week after the GovernmentƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s defeat of LTTE terrorism which reunited the country 4 years ago. As we have already informed the Council during past sessions, the ill-conceived resolution on Sri Lanka resulting from politicized action, diaspora compulsions and reports not mandated by the inter-governmental process and therefore lacking in legitimacy and credibility, is completely unwarranted and is for that reason rejected by the Government of Sri Lanka (GOSL). The collusion, which is increasingly evident between some countries that support action against Sri Lanka and some extreme elements of the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora with vested interests, is a concern that must be addressed more comprehensively by the OHCHR. The fact that some of these diaspora elements were accredited as members of a country delegation at the 22nd HRC sets an alarming precedent. Let alone not adding any value to the ongoing domestic reconciliation process, such action has caused mistrust about international processes among the people of Sri Lanka, and also negatively impacted our reconciliation efforts.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ Notwithstanding these distractions, in the four years since the defeat of terrorism, Sri Lanka has made significant strides in the reconciliation process. In keeping with Sri Lanka’s policy of continuous engagement with the Council, I am pleased to avail myself of this opportunity to update the Council on progress made since the Council last met in March 2013:

ƒÆ’-¡ – In the months of January, February and April 2013 of this year, GOSL has made public the continuing progress made in implementing the National Plan of Action towards the implementation of the recommendations of the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC), the home-grown reconciliation mechanism in Sri Lanka. In addition to the majority of the recommendations which were deemed most significant and incorporated in the National Plan of Action (NPoA) for immediate implementation by 22 key government agencies in July 2013, GOSL is presently in the process of integrating into the NPoA further recommendations made by the LLRC.

ƒÆ’-¡ – With the last batch of IDPs having been resettled in Mullaithivu in September 2012, and 23,398 choosing to live with host families, all 295,873 IDPs resulting from the ending of the conflict have been successfully integrated.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ – As at end March 2013, only 96 square kilometers remains to be demined, out of 2,064 square kilometers left contaminated with landmines and UXOs at the conclusion of the terrorist conflict. Over 961,447 explosive devices (anti tank ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” 1,459, anti personal ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” 523,797 and UXO ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” 436,191) have been recovered and the Sri Lanka Army was responsible for demining approximately 75% of the land.

ƒÆ’-¡ - Of approximately 12,000 ex-LTTE combatants who were arrested or surrendered at the end of the conflict, as of 15 May 2013, 11,551 persons, which included 594 child soldiers, have been rehabilitated and reintegrated into society.ƒÆ’-¡  As of 15 May 2013, 374 ex-combatants including 18 female ex-combatants are undergoing rehabilitation.ƒÆ’-¡  Among those rehabilitated, 212 youth who were previously pursuing tertiary education were re-inducted into the university system to follow their undergraduate studies.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ – Legal proceedings have been instituted against 194 ex-combatants who are under judicially mandated custody, remanded or enlarged on bail by Court. In order to expedite the cases of suspects that are in remand custody after serving indictment, the Government established 3 additional courts in Vavuniya, Mannar and Anuradhapura besides the Colombo High Court. Separate state counsels and dedicated staff including Tamil translators and typists have been allocated for this purpose. Furthermore, in order to file cases for the suspects that remain under remand custody pending indictment, a special committee has been appointed to look into their cases. The scope of this committee is to review and advice further legal proceeding of these cadres, including the possibility of release of suspects following rehabilitation.

ƒÆ’-¡ – The Government has also established a mechanism to ensure the right of information of the relatives of the LTTE suspects. A centralized, comprehensive database of detainees established by the Terrorist Investigation Division (TID) of the Police with units operating around the clockƒÆ’-¡  in Colombo, Vavuniya and Boossa enables next-of-kin (NoK) to receive details of detainees and those who are released from detention. It may be noted that this information is only provided to NoK, as detainees have requested that such information not be released publicly due to privacy concerns. Upto now, around 3,220 inquiries have been made by the relatives to the TID alone (486 phone call inquiries, 5 email inquiries and 2,729 physical appearances). 2,729 complaints have been recorded and 1,628 investigations have been completed and 1,101 investigations were in progress as of February 2013.

ƒÆ’-¡ – While ICRC access to prisons and detention centres where detainees under the Prevention of Terrorist Act (PTA) continues, the Ministry of Defense and the ICRC have also held a series of discussions on the issue of disappeared persons and continue to maintain a positive dialogue on areas of cooperation. In an ongoing operation, a Family Tracing and Reunification Unit (FTR) has been established in collaboration with UNICEF, primarily to trace missing children.ƒÆ’-¡  The Unit recorded 2,564 untraceable persons out of which 676 were children, while 1,888 were adults.ƒÆ’-¡  About 64 percent of tracing requests were reported by parents of children who had been recruited by the LTTE.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ – Addressing concerns relating to accountability, the only authoritative and credible source of information relating to the demographics and those killed and untraceable in the Northern Province during the period 2005 – 2009, the Enumeration of Vital Events 2011 in the Northern Province (EVE 2011) by the Department of Census and Statistics (DCS) conducted during the months of June and July 2011, has estimated that the total number dead from 1 January to 31 May 2009 is 8998, including deaths caused due to old age/sickness, natural deaths, deaths due to accidents/homicides/suicides and other causes. Out of this, 7896 are probable conflict related deaths, which include LTTE cadres killed in action, LTTE cadres and civilians who escaped from the conflict zone and had travelled to other parts of Sri Lanka/overseas, civilians likely to have been killed in cross fire and civilians killed by the LTTE whilst escaping from LTTE control, false reporting, found to be alive, deaths reported but not during the period of Humanitarian Operation and those who have gone overseas/moved to other parts of Sri Lanka/ untraceable etc. It would be recalled that from Jan ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” May 2009 around 2,400 Sri Lankan security forces personnel were killed and around 11,000 wounded, which indicates the intensity of the LTTE resistance at the time. The GoSL has embarked on a fresh survey on deaths, injuries, untraced and property damages as recommended by the LLRC NPoA and this survey is expected to provide vital information to respond to many questions raised related to deaths, injuries and those untraced during the conflict.

ƒÆ’-¡ – Pursuant to recommendations made by the LLRC, in relation to the killings of the 5 students in Trincomalee, investigations have been concluded and upon studying the material, the Attorney General has advised the Police to initiate non-summary proceedings, and the formal institution of these proceedings before the Trincomalee Magistrate is due to take place in the first week of June.ƒÆ’-¡  The investigation into the killings of the 17 ACF aid workers is continuing.ƒÆ’-¡  Further, an Army Court of Inquiry is presently investigating allegations made following the Channel 4 video footage, irrespective of its authenticity or otherwise. To date GOSL’s request that Channel 4 provide the original material used by them to help the investigation process, has not been acceded to.

ƒÆ’-¡ – The security forces presence in the Jaffna peninsula and the islands, which was over 50,000 personnel at the height of the conflict, has today reduced to approximately 13,200. WhileƒÆ’-¡  rationalization of this presence would be considered in line with the national security interests of Sri Lanka, efforts are also underway to explore possibilities to relocate troops in the Palaly cantonment and in other identified Government lands, in order to allow original owners to settle in their native lands. While some lands have been earmarked for use in the expansion of the Palaly airport – KKS harbour complex as part of the redevelopment of the area after almost 3 decades of conflict, owners of private lands acquired would be given compensation at market rates, and additionally alternate lands in adjacent areas.

- To address issues pertaining to land, the Government is in the process of formulating the Terms of Reference of the Fourth Land Commission. In May 2013, as per the recommendations of the LLRC, the Land Commissioner GeneralƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Department launched a special accelerated programme to resolve issues pertaining to state land in the Northern and Eastern provinces in the post-conflict context, in collaboration with Provincial Land Commissioners, Government Agents and Divisional Secretaries,.ƒÆ’-¡  A notice issued by the Land Commissioner in this regard has been widely circulated in all three languages in order to inform the public of this initiative.

ƒÆ’-¡ – The economic growth rate and the share of the contribution to the national economy by the Northern Province have grown since the end of the conflict. The province recorded an economic growth rate of 22% in 2010, and 27.1% in 2011. The corresponding figure for 2012 is expected to be released in June. In 2012, paddy production in the Northern Province recorded an increase of 24% while the highest growth in marine fishery was also recorded from the Northern Province, which grew by 28%. The Government continues to focus on infrastructure development activities in the Northern and Eastern Provinces through significant public investment, in road construction, power generation and transmission, port development and extension of railway lines, etc. 139 destroyed and damaged schools were reconstructed and rehabilitated while 348 schools had been reopened in the Northern Province in 2012. On 14 May 2013, the 43-kilometre Medawchchiya-Madhu segment of the 106 kilometre long Medawchchiya – Thalaimannar railway line was commissioned under the first phase of the Northern Railway Project. The northern railway network was destroyed by the LTTE several times and the train service completely ceased operations after the 13th June 1990.

ƒÆ’-¡ – Following the conclusion of the Census in the Northern Province and preparation of the electoral register, elections to the Northern Provincial Council is scheduled to be held in September 2013.

ƒÆ’-¡ The Council may additionally wish to note that the High Commissioner for Human Rights has now decided to undertake a visit to Sri Lanka from 25 to 31 August 2013, in response to an invitation formally extended to her by the GOSL in April 2011. Sri Lanka considers this visit as part of its continued, transparent and proactive engagement with the High Commissioner and the OHCHR. We believe that the visit would enable the High Commissioner to experience at first hand the significant strides made and also efforts presently underway in the reconciliation process in Sri Lanka, in the relatively brief period of 4 years since the end of the ruthless terrorist conflict that decimated our nation and its peoples for 30 long years. We hope that through the visit, a platform will be built for constructive engagement between GOSL and the OHCHR, laying by the fallacies that have in recent years guided the UN system’s actions and engagement with respect to Sri Lanka and its reconciliation process.ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ In conclusion, Mr. President, Sri Lanka looks forward to constructive engagement at the 23rd session of the Council.

ƒÆ’-¡ Thank you.

105th Anniversary of Ahmadiyya Khilafat.

May 27th, 2013

By A. Abdul Aziz Press Secretary, Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Sri Lanka.

ƒÆ’-¡ May 27 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” is being observed as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Khilafat DayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ by Ahmadi Muslim throughout the world. After the demise of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the Founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in May 26, 1908, the system of Khilafat (the Spiritual Leadership in Islam) was re-established in May 27, 1908, in accordance with the promise by Allah the Almighty in the Holy QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an (Ch: 24, Verse: 56).

Given below is an excerpt of the Friday Sermon of Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Supreme Head of the world-wide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Islam, delivered on 24th May 2013, at ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Baithul NoorƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, Calgary, Canada. gave a discourse on the system of KhilafatƒÆ’-¡  inƒÆ’-¡  Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Islam.

ƒÆ’-¡ Ahmadiyya Khalifa started his sermon by reciting verses of Holy QurƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢an from Chapter 24 and versesƒÆ’-¡  52 ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” 57, the meaning of which are:-

Allah, the Exalted, says:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The response of the believers, when they are called to Allah and His Messenger in order that he may judge between them, is only that they say: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”We hear and we obey.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ And it is they who will prosper. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-(24:52)

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-And whoso obeys Allah and His Messenger, and fears Allah, and takes Him as a shield for protection, it is they who will be successful.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (24:53)

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-And they swear by Allah their strongest oaths that, if thou command them, they will surely go forth. Say, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Swear not; what is required is actual obedience in what is right. Surely, Allah is well aware of what you do.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (24:54)

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Say, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ But if you turn away, then upon him is his burden, and upon you is your burden. And if you obey him, you will be rightly guided. And the messenger is not responsible but for the plain delivery of the Message.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (24:55)

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Allah has promised to those among you who believe and do good works that He will surely make them Successors in the earth, as He made Successors from among those who were before them; and that He will surely establish for them their religion which He has chosen for them; and that He will surely give them in exchange security and peace after their fear: They will worship Me, and they will not associate anything with Me. Then whoso is ungrateful after that, they will be the rebellious.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ (24:56)

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-And observe Prayer and give the Zakat and obey the Messenger, that you may be shown mercy.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡  (24:57)

ƒÆ’-¡ For the members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at there is a special day that comes in the month of May. I mean the 27th of May, which is known as Khilafat Day and is celebrated as such by the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at. With reference to this, despite the fact that three days still remain, I have chosen to talk about this topic today.

While the 26th of May 1908 was a heart rending day for the members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at, and it shook the faith of many, and caused restlessness in the hearts of some, for the enemies of Ahmadiyyat it was a day they used to inflict pain and try and suffering on the members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at.

In the history of Ahmadiyyat, there are such painful accounts recorded of the statements and acts of the enemies of Ahmadiyyat that one is amazed to read them and it is difficult to imagine that a human being can stoop to such a low state and involve himself in the kinds of actions that they undertook at the time of the death of the Promised MessiahƒÆ’-¡  – Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian (peace be on him).

How could such deplorable deeds be expected from those who attribute themselves to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who was sent as a Mercy to all the worlds!

People act in accord with their nature but on the 27th of May 1908, we saw the Might and Decree of Allah manifest itself and we saw Him fulfilling His Promise. 27th of May came heralding a message of peace and security for the Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at. This day came bearing the glad tidings of the fulfillment of the promises that God had made with the Promised Messiah (as) and it came to scorch the enemies of Ahmadiyyat in the fire of their own rage and frustration and it came as a day that destroyed their false joys and happiness.

The 27th of May is not an ordinary day for the Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at. This is a very important day and this importance increases yet more when we cast a glance at the prophecies of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The vast majority of the Muslims of the world look to the Ahmadiyya Muslim JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at with great regret and resentment, infact we should say they look at us grudgingly and with great envy that we have Khilafat (System of Spiritual Leadership established among us.

They have tried many times to establish Khilafat among their own selves and they keep trying, but they have always been unsuccessful in this endeavor for the very powerful reason that they have disobeyed a clear directive of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

The Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had said that when the Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi appears, they should take whatever pain and suffering may be necessary and go, crawling on their knees, over glaciers of ice if need be, and convey his salams, greetings of peace, to him.

ƒÆ’-¡ Then, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) also informed everyone of the signs, that if they see being fulfilled, they should realize that the one making the claim is true in his claim. These signs that the Holy Prophet mentioned are both heavenly and earthly and they are frequently made mention of among our gatherings and also we present them to our opponents with regularity – but I will not mention them at this time.

It is, however, a cause of great misfortune for those who do not believe that, for worldly and material reasons, or for fear of the so-called Muslim divines and clerics, or because they do not pay attention or heed the directives of the Holy Prophet, not only have they not accepted the one who made the claim to being the Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi, but their governments have become so audacious as to use most foul language when referring to this holy personage who has been sent by God.

Their actions are indeed evil. And all this, despite knowing full well that the age in which we live is shouting and informing anyone who cares to listen that this is the time for the one who was to come to have indeed made his appearance. Allah has shown all the signs confirming these things and continues to show signs, but still these people continue to oppose the one sent by God.

After each act of opposition by the enemies of Ahmadiyyat, Allah castigates them with a new punishment but their defiance and audacity is such that they are not willing to give up their opposition. So if this is not their great misfortune what is it and what can we say it is?

In any case, as I said, this day is of great importance and the Holy Prophet (sa) has himself made an announcement to this effect in one of his prophecies. The exact date was not foretold, but certainly, by announcing the advent of one who would be his greatest and most ardent and true lover, who would come as the Promised Messiah and then after him announcing that an era of Khilafat would begin, he made a prophecy of this dayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s coming.

So what could be more important than that about which the Holy Prophet himself should have made an announcement?

There is a hadith (sayings of Prophet) of the Holy Prophet (sa) narrated by Hazrat Huzaifa (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be on him.) said:

ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-Prophethood will remain among you as long as Allah wills. Then He will take it away and Khilafat on the lines of Prophethood shall commence, and then, when Allah wills, He will take away this bounty also. Then in accordance with His Decree corrupt/erosive monarchy would be established, which will make people sad and feel constrained and then when this era will come to an end, in accord with another Decree of God, despotic kingship would emerge till the Mercy of God will descend and bring this era of tyranny and excess to an end. Then again, Khilafat on the precept of Prophethood shall be established,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and then after saying this, the Holy Prophet became silent.

ƒÆ’-¡ So clearly in this Hadith, first the Holy Prophet (PBUH) talks about his own Prophethood and then he talks about the establishment of Khilafat-e-Rashida, the Rightly Guided Khilafat which would move forward on the pattern, or lines of prophethood, and the world saw and witnessed how the first four Khilafats, which are referred to as Khilafat-e-Rashida, had nothing to do with the worldly kingships and their pomp and glory. They operated with just one goal in mind; to please Allah and kept this in view as they discharged the duties of Khilafat. Then also the world saw how every word of what the Holy Prophet had said came true when he said that there would be times when kingships would reign and at times these would be a little less severe and at other times they would be very severe in their treatment of the people.

So if we read history we see the words of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) coming to fulfilment by the establishment of Khilafat-e-Rashida and then the kingships in which to some degree of severity we saw tyranny and excess taking place. The kings who came were more inclined to the world and material things than the faith.

Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that, as it has always happened, God turns with Mercy to His creatures, and after a long period of darkness, GodƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Mercy shall descend and bring to an end the era of tyranny and excess. And Khilafat on the pattern of Prophethood would again be established. And then he became silent as it is stated in the Hadith.

Every one can ponder on this hadith and see that the Holy ProphetƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s prophecy about Khilafat-e-Rashida was fulfilled, then his words predicting the coming into being of relatively less despotic, and then immensely despotic era of kingships also were fulfilled.

So then how can there be any doubt about the last part of his prophecy? So when all the signs have been fulfilled and also Allah has declared in the Holy Quran:

And among others from among them who have not yet joined them. He is the Mighty, the Wise. (62:4)

In other words Allah will again arrange things for the coming into being of Khilafat on the pattern of prophethood.

Allah, the Exalted, says, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-He is the Mighty, the Wise.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

So when AllahƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Mighty, All Encompassing Wisdom determined, and when His Mercy was moved, the Muslims were freed from despotic kingships and Khilafat on the pattern of prophethood was established as He desired.

So we Ahmadis are fortunate because we bear witness to the truth of the first part of the Holy ProphetƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s prophecy, and believe in it, and have seen it being fulfilled, and we are those who also believe in the last part of his prophecy. We believe fully that this part of his prophecy also has been fulfilled.

There is another hadith of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) which relates to the verse from Sura JumuƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ah,

And among others from among them who have not yet joined them. He is the Mighty, the Wise. (62:4)

Keeping in mind these words of Allah, and keeping in mind the conditions of the world and having seen all the signs that have been manifested, we have believed in the Imam of the Age who was to have come.

In one of his sayings, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has referred to the Promised Messiah (a.s) as, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-nabeeullah,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ or Messenger and Prophet of Allah. Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has also said that between me and the Promised Messiah (as) there is no Prophet. Then in accord with verse 4 of Sura JumuƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ah, wa aakhareena minhum, the Holy Rrophet (PBUH) said that the one who was to be raised in the latter days would be like unto his own coming into the world.

In other words, the person who was to come, the Promised Messiah (a.s) would be so totally immersed in his love of the Holy Prophet, that he would become, as it were, his reflection and thus he would attain the title of Prophet upon being sent into the world.

While explaining this verse of Sura JumuƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ah, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had placed his hand on the shoulder of Hazrat Salman Farsi (r.a) and said that the one who was to come in the latter days would be from among these people and would be a non-Arab.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) also told us the sign which relates the disappearance of faith and it being lifted to the farthest heavens. This is a sign of the times that these Ulema, Muslim religious divines, clerics, also accept and they acknowledge that at the time when the Promised Messiah (a.s) had made his claim, the condition of the faith of the Muslims was extremely poor as if faith had disappeared from the world.

So they all see that all the signs have been fulfilled. And the signs having been fulfilled tells us that the Promised Messiah (a.s) who was to come had indeed come at the appointed time.

ƒÆ’-¡ Here, let me also make clear that by virtue of the Promised Messiah (a.s) being the Khatamul Khulafa he attained to the very highest pinnacle of Khilafat on the pattern of prophethood or we can say that he was bestowed the very highest pinnacle of Khilafat on the pattern of prophethood.

And by virtue of him being the Promised Messiah (a.s) and in fulfilment of the words of the Holy Prophet, by being totally immersed in the love of the Holy Prophet he was bestowed also a reflected prophethood. Thus the system of Khilafat that began with the Promised Messiah (as) is in reality a continuation of the pattern of the prophethood of the Holy Prophet (sa). And the work that is to be done by this Khilafat is to insure that the commandments of the Holy Quran are followed by the Muslim Community (Umma), and the rights and duties that are due to Allah and to His Creatures are fulfilled and discharged by the Muslims. And by making the practice (sunna) of the Holy Prophet our model, insure that it is acted upon and the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at is urged to act upon it. So Khilafat-e-Ahmadiyys is a continuation of Khilafat-e-Rashida in this period of the rejuvenation of Islam in the latter days.

With regard to the first period of Islam, and after learning from Allah, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had announced that the Khilafat-e-Rashida would come to an end after a certain period of time. But with regard to the Khilafat that would be started during the renaissance of Islam in the latter days, he had given the good news from God that this Khilafat would remain forever.

But for which people is this good news given? Most certainly this good news is given and will be true in favor of those who will discharge the dues of Khilafat. Those who will walk on the ways of righteousness (taqwa), righteousness, and do good deeds, and those who will go on perfecting their worship.

Ahmadiyya Khalifa went on to say that the greatest heartrending time that came upon the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at was indeed when the Promised Messiah (a.s) passed away. The enemies were happy and the members of the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at were in a state of fear but the Promised Messiah (as) had been preparing the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at for this for quite some time by telling them that Allah had told him repeatedly that the time of his death was near. But he had said that this was no cause for concern or of becoming despondent.

Ahmadiyya Founder Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad – the Promised Messiah (a.s) wrote all this down in his book, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-The Will.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ And where he wrote this, that he would soon be departing from this world, he also laid out the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢atƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s spiritual, financial, and operational methodology and informed everyone that the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at would indeed become established and continue to exist forever.

He informed the members of the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at that they should not worry, because Allah had promised to him that He would cause the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at to go on flourishing; because this was the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at, regarding the progress of which, the Holy Prophet had given the good news, and it was the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at within which he had said that Khilafat was to be re-established in the latter days.

The Promised Messiah (a.s) writes in his book ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Al WasiyyatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢,

God’s Word informs me that many calamities will occur and many disasters will descend on the earthƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”‚ some during my lifetime and some after I have gone. And He will promote and advance this JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”at to the full. A part of it will happen at my hands, and some after me. [Al-Wasiyyat]

ƒÆ’-¡ He goes on to say:

Thus He manifests two kinds of Power. (1) First He shows the Hand of His Power at the hands of His Prophets themselves. (2) Second, when with theƒÆ’-¡  death of a Prophet, difficulties and problems arise and the enemy feels stronger and thinks that things are in disarray and is convinced that now this JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”at will become extinct and even members of the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”at, too, are in a quandary and their backs are broken, and some of the unfortunate ones choose paths that lead to apostasy, then it is that God for the second time shows His Mighty Power and supports and takes care of the shaken JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”at. [Al Wasiyyat]

ƒÆ’-¡ He says further:

… it is essential for you to witness the second Manifestation also, and its Coming is better for you because it is everlasting the continuity of which will not end till the Day of Judgement. And that second Manifestation cannotƒÆ’-¡  come unless I depart. But when I depart, God will send that second Manifestation for you which shall always stay with you just as promised by God in Brahin-e-Ahmadiyya. And this promise is not for my person. Rather the promise is with reference to you, as God [addressing me] says: I shall make this JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”at who are your followers, prevail over others till the Day of Judgment. [Al Wasiyyat]

ƒÆ’-¡ Ahmadiyya Khalifa said:

So by the Grace of Allah, the Exalted, for the last 105 years we have been seeing Allah fulfill this promise of His. The JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at went through all kinds of periods of difficulties, but by the Grace of Allah, the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at kept moving forward at a very considerable speed along its trajectory of success and achievements.

If the enemy tries to impose upon the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at a period of tyranny and brutality in one country, Allah counters by opening up for the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at, in another country, extraordinary ways and means for progress. But not only this, even in the country in which difficulties are created for us, there too, Allah continues to strengthen the faith of the members of the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at. And then, when I see this and experience it in my own person, that despite all my weaknesses, how Allah, the Exalted, enables the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at to continue to march forward on the grand and expansive freeways of success and achievement, faith increases even more in Allah, and belief in His promises continues to become yet more perfect and complete.

Certainly it is the invisible Hand of Allah which continues to push the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at forward more and more. And whomsoever Allah will make the Khalifa, regardless of what the condition of that person maybe, He shall continue to bestow upon him His Help and Support. Insha-Allah!

Ahmadiyya Supreme Head further said: as I said, Allah, the Exalted, has initiated this system of Khilafat in Ahmadiyyat and this system can not be initiated anywhere else. Ahmadis are indeed fortunate because, by accepting the Promised Messiah (as), they have been blessed with the bounty of Khilafat.

So always remember that the Promise that Allah has made is not unconditional. It is conditional on certain things. And when these conditions are fulfilled, then, by the Grace of Allah, security will also be bestowed and the state of fear shall be changed into one of peace and the members of the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at have experienced this many times.

A non Ahmadi leader of some renown, a friend of an Ahmadi, said that although I do not believe you to be true, yet this I believe, after watching this whole affair, that the practical and manifest decree of God and His support is with you. So there are such people also who despite witnessing everything still insist on sticking to their heedless and obstinate ways.

The wave of tyranny that is blowing in Pakistan these days is an expression of the fact that Ahmadis are continuing to make gains and progress and they see the fields of our success continue to expand more every day and all their attempts to finish us never succeed. They continue trying to figure out how they should go about destroying us?

But I say to these people that, O enemies of Ahmadiyyat! Remember that our Lord, our Friend, is that God Who is the Possessor of All Powers. He will never allow you to succeed. The progress of Islam is now destined to take place through the Promised Messiah (as). The flag of the Holy Prophet of Islam will now be raised in the world through the servants of the Promised Messiah (as), this flag will be raised now in the world by those who have firm faith in Khilafat on the pattern of prophethood, those who are attached to Khilafat, who have become the beads of the necklace that is the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at-e-Ahmadiyya, who have firmly gotten hold of the rope of Allah. So no effort of yours, and no misdeed or attack that you carry out, even if it be with the help of any worldly government, will be able to stop Khilafat-e-Ahmadiyya from achieving its purpose nor will any such effort be able to stop the progress of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.

The members of the JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢at should also remember that, as I said, treading on the paths of righteousness (taqwa), righteousness, establishing salat, prayer, and advancing in financial sacrifices will continue to enable them to benefit from the bounties of Khilafat. So it is the duty of every single person that he make a full fledged effort so that by the Grace and Mercy of Allah, he should take a large share of these bounties.

In conclusion, Ahmadiyya Khalifa read out few writings of Ahmadiyya Founder – Promised MessiahƒÆ’-¡  and some of which are:

Don’t think that God will let you go to waste. You are the seed which the Hand of God has sown in the earth. God says that this seed will grow and flower and its branches will spread in all directions and it will become a huge tree. So, blessed is one who believes in what God says and does not fear the trials which he suffers in His path. For, the coming of trials is essential so that God may try you to see who is true in his declaration of BaiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”at and who is false.

ƒÆ’-¡ Then the Promised Messiah (a.s) says:

God addressed me and said that I should inform my JamaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”at that those who believe and their belief is not adulterated with worldly considerations and is free from hypocrisy and cowardice and is not found wanting at any stage of obedience, such people are the favourites of God. And God says that indeed these are the ones whose station is that of Truth.

May Allah enable all of us to fulfill all the wishes and desires that the Promised Messiah (as) had and enable all of us to establish a true and fully loyal connection with Khilafat and bestow upon us the ability to establish the highest standards of obedience and enable us to achieve the highest levels of our worship so that we all continue to be blessed with the bounty of Khilafat.ƒÆ’-¡  Aameen!

The English translation of the Sermon, the video link is as below:-

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9W3P258qRwY&feature=youtu.be

Srilankans can never become vegetarian

May 27th, 2013

Dr. Mareena Thaha Reffai,

With the recent immolation of ƒÆ’-¡ the bhikku demanding cattle slaughter to be banned from Srilanka and advocacy for vegetarian food to be staple diet of Srilanka is gaining attention. We can safely predict this will never come to pass.

The first and foremost reason being that the politicians will never allow it to pass. If anyone thinks all the politicians who will give up the delicious gourmet food at the parliament for anyƒÆ’-¡  reason they have another thought coming. They will fight tooth and nail to stop it. But then the alternative to allow it only for the politicians of Srilanka ƒÆ’-¡ is not beyond reality. After all wasnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t there a move to give car permits the FAILEDƒÆ’-¡  politicians in the PCƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s? ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Only our country can come out with such atrocious suggestions without blinking an eyelid.

The other reason beingƒÆ’-¡  the plight of the fishermen. If everyone become vegetarians what would the fishermen do? How will they survive? How to find jobs for the thousands of them and what becomes to their families?

Some may wonder whether banning cattle slaughter will inconvenience ƒÆ’-¡ the Muslims. Not so. Eating beef is not a pre requisitive to the Muslims. They can be vegetarians if they want to. They can eat fish, eggs, mutton and camel meat if they want to. Of course the Muslim butchers will have to find alternative income measures, as much as the non ƒÆ’-¡ Muslim ones have to.

Actually instead of demanding the government to ban the slaughter, the easiest way toƒÆ’-¡  minimize ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” or even abolish slaughter is to train the people to become vegetarians. Or else illicit slaughter and illegal import will becomeƒÆ’-¡  another ƒÆ’-¡ lucrative measure of income for the politicians and their goons. .

Let it start with the bhikkus who should set an ƒÆ’-¡ example for the people to follow and first to ƒÆ’-¡ be followed by the politicians. While the slaughter of animals decrease people will have time to find and adjust to alternative means of income, like poultry and farming.

 

 

Shame on you Sunday Island Editor

May 26th, 2013

Christine Perera

The Sunday Island editorial is shameful and resonates why the Buddhists are angry. When a monk self-immolates himself in protest against cattle slaughter ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” what does the Editor of the Sunday Island say ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-why only cattleƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ using his pen and his ability to reach out to the people who buy the island newspaper and belittle the sacrifice made by a Buddhist monk who gave up his life for a cause. Is this editor so naƒÆ’†’¯ve to not connote cattle with all animals ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” does he think that the monk can mention every living animal to meet the criteria of the Sunday editors sympathy and that too on Wesak? Such editors are unsuitable to carry out their duty and is a perfect example of how the English newspapers are using their medium to humiliate and denigrate the majority Buddhists of Sri Lanka.

The monk did what he did because the current legislation in place has not sufficiently addressed the animal welfare.

The Government cannot allow a sacrifice to go in vain because it wants to court the minorities for their votes and we wonder how many minority votes lead MPs into power. Realistically not many. It is always the Buddhists that put politicians to power. Politicians may well do to remember this. to be

The Government owes it to the Buddhists to enact the animal welfare bill in MEMORY of this monk who gave up his life to save the animals being slaughtered in Sri Lanka. 5000 cattle are slaughtered EVERY DAY ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” calculate that into a month and a year!

Buddhists must demand the enactment of cattle slaughter from the Government without delay.

 

 

Changes in Law – Attempt to get away with War Crimes

May 26th, 2013

By Afshain Afzal

Changes in Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF) of 18 September 2001 thatƒÆ’-¡  allowed USA forces to go after the perpetrators of the 11 September attacks on Pentagon and World Trade Centre are being worked out. The barbaric geographicallyƒÆ’-¡ limitless War on Terror that allows USA without any legal authority to carry out armed attack on any nation. So far those countries that witnessed US attacks, over a decade and a quarter, include Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Yemen, Somalia, Mali, Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Congo, Syria and many more.

One wonders where is United Nations Organizations and hundreds of international peace groups and organizations. The list of war crimes and human rights violations by US personnel as well as partners have never been condemned by these organizations. There are serious concerns if any International Law or UN Charter exists or not. These organizations have become coffin thieves deputed on the distribution of graves. Why the mass graves in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan are not visible to the world? Which law allows USA to intrude and occupy another country on the suspicion that some elements of Al Qaida are hiding there? USA’s intruders were not welcome by the governments in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Libya and many other countries but still world and international organizations are supporting them. One wonders Washington and some other countries claim that Al-Qaida is involved in terrorism. Even if it true (for the sake of discussion), Al Qaida is not a nation that justify a foreign nation like US to breach the sovereignty of other countries to hunt Al Qaida in foreign lands.

The media personnel who dare to write the truth are threatened for dire consequences while emails and crank calls are received by them in the shape of death warnings. This speaks of level of freedom of expression. In a recent development, all of a sudden the US President Barack Hussain Obama has changed his tone. In a statement, he said, “As Commander-in-Chief, I believe we must keep information secret that protects our operations and our people in the field.”

With these remarks, the freedom of press in USA, especially for investigative reporters has come under draconian check. Where, state machinery express determination to maintain the freedom of press in the country, the impression that world generally carry after the recent series of incidents is that investigative journalism that once claimed to holds US government accountable has been taken its last breath.

Serious concerns have been witnessed among media personnel about the impartiality of the US’ state machinery in dealing with the journalists. The communication of the media personnel was being wired without authority was doubted but recent phone records of journalists and media have left no room for any ambiguity. Some of the foreignƒÆ’-¡  journalists in contact were asked to comment on statement of President Obama, “The Justice Department’s investigation of national security leaks offers a recent example of the challenges involved in striking the right balance between our security and our open society.”

Many declined to comment that no media personnel can dare talk about anything. Some said that they admit that they work on the dictation of CIA. Yet one of them started talking rot about US policies with regard to immigrant reporters. Presently, reporters are governed under Department of Justice guidelines for investigations but new changes would allow state and intelligence machinery to easily blackmail them.

Interestingly, the US media policy for the enemies and adversaries are quite opposite what Washington expect from own reporters, journalists and other media personnel. The Congress has been tasked to pass a media shield law to guard against government overreach.

A code of conduct has been framed that brings media personnel under aƒÆ’-¡  law that demands their commitment to protect classified information. The problem with the law, once passed, would be treatment of US media personnel working in foreign land or at home and committing the same offence against foreign nations.

Is Washington prepared to see American and other foreign journalists prosecuted. Washington wants to brings changes in AUMF to continue to fight terrorism without keeping America on a perpetual wartime footing. The development is linked with humiliating defeats at various theaters around the world and rise of home grown terrorism.

The events compelled President Obama to say, “Americans cannot be on a war footing forever”. Washington must be prepared for self-catharses and accountability. Where there is immediate requirement to restore the rule of law inside USA as ironically there is public reaction inside US, in which war-veterans and agents have become worse enemies of US and western world.

These discarded beasts have neither been able to earn ƒÆ’-¡ respect in the American society nor the world at large. War crimes and human right violations haunts them. The dead bodies of thousands of Muslim infants and those who have not even reached their teens do not allow them to sleep. The rape and torture of men and women and their brutal killings on the basis of suspicion have no parallel in the world history. One wonders how we can allow the United States of America as a state to run away like this. It is high time that trial of ƒÆ’-¡ these war criminals and enemies of humanity must be carried out in International Court of Justice and sanctions be imposed against these them.

afshain@hotmail.com

The Buddha through modern literary eyes

May 26th, 2013

By Prof. Sunanda Sugunasiri writing from Toronto

British author, Salman RushdieƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s The Satanic Verses was regarded as blasphemous and raised ire in the Islamic world. A fatwa condemning the author to death was issued by the Iranian spiritual leader in 1989.The furore brings to mind the treatment of the Buddha in two works of fiction, one originally written by a Swiss writer and translated into English, and the other in Sinhala in Sri Lanka.

There are both parallels and differences between Herman HesseƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s ever-so-popular novel, Siddhartha, and RushdieƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s work.

Both were written in a Western language and published in the West, although Hesse was not born into the faith the book deals with.

Renunciation

If Prophet Mohammed is thinly veiled under the name of Mahamed, Siddhartha is the lay name of the Buddha before his renunciation. The Buddha himself becomes a fictional character at the hands of Hesse. Indeed, the cover of the first English translation of Siddhartha in 1951 shows a seated Buddha.

HesseƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s character, however, does not match the life of historical Siddhartha in all its detail. Our protagonist, for example, ends up as a ferryman and not a Buddha. But there is little doubt that Hesse had the BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s life in mind when he developed his character.

Born to a Kshatriya family (the Buddha was born a prince), Siddhartha leaves home ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-to join the ascetics,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ and goes from teacher to teacher. Dissatisfied, he goes on a solitary search.

All this is the life of the Buddha. Even the ferryman is symbolic of the Buddha, the one who found the way to help sentient beings across the ocean of life.

Twist of history

In a clever twist of history, Hesse takes Siddhartha, and his companion Govinda, to the Buddha as his last teacher. Leaving the Buddha, Siddhartha goes on the solitary search, just like the historical Siddhartha did, vowing ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-IƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ll conquer myself.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

This search, however, takes him on a different course from the historical Siddhartha: to a courtesan who he asks to be his ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-friend and teacher.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ But this again is clearly not created out of the blue by the author, but drawn upon the character of courtesan Ambapali who goes on to become an Arahant under the Buddha.

In the course of the psychological transformation from spiritual seeker to prisoner of the senses, Hesse uses the same dream technique as the one that has stirred up the Rushdie controversy:

During the night … Siddhartha had a dream. He dreamt that Govinda stood before him, in the yellow robe of an ascetic … He embraced Govinda … and kissed him. He was no longer Govinda, but a woman, and out of the womanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s gown emerged a full breast, and Siddhartha lay there and drank; sweet and strong tasted the milk from her breast. It tasted of woman and man … (Siddhartha, 1951, p. 50).

According to the Abhidhamma analysis of a human being, there is both a woman and a man (yes, listed in that order) in each of us. While elements like the senses ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” eye, ear, nose, tongue and body, are the universals, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”femininityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”masculinityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ are particulars. While each of us come to be of a dominance of one or the other of the latter at conception, the one not opted for remains dormant within us nevertheless. Indeed it may be reflective of this that in the Sinhala Buddhist culture, the Buddha comes to be called both ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”motherƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ (of nectar) (amaa maeniyan) and ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”fatherƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ (budu piyaanan). Formally speaking, if the former refers to the affective, i.e., the feeling domain of the right brain hemisphere, the latter refers to the cognitive, i.e., the rational domain of the left hemisphere.

This scene, as well as the lengthy encounter with the courtesan (covering a full quarter of the novel), who finds herself with child, can be seen as drawing upon Prince SiddharthaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s own lay life of twenty-nine years. He lived in a royal household, entertained by wine and dancing women. He had a wife and a son.

HesseƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s portrayal of Siddhartha, no doubt, is an extension of historical SiddharthaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s life up to renunciation, but incorporating significant elements of life after renunciation.

And he is clearly exploring the human side of the pre-Buddha, through thinly veiled fictional detours.

Just as clearly, all this is offensive to the sensibility of the Buddhist who likes to think of only the Buddha, as the one beyond a shadow of lust, and in complete control of the senses, with the pre-Buddha, the very anti-thesis, and preferred to be kept far off from memory.

Despite the liberties taken of the type that would raise the ire of the devout, Hesse departs from Rushdie in one significant way. He does not treat the Buddha irreverently. Indeed, the protagonist addresses the Buddha as, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-O Perfect One.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Yet, Siddhartha challenges him:

You show the world as a complete, unbroken chain … linked together by cause and effect. … But … this unity and logical consequence of all things is broken in one place. Through a small gap there streams into the world of unity something strange, something … that cannot be demonstrated and proved; that is your doctrine of rising above the world, of salvation (p. 35).

Siddhartha is challenging here one of the BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s most fundamental teachings: Nibbana. The entirety of his teachings thus comes tumbling down. The Buddha is no longer the Perfect One!

Or the All-knowing One, as known to millions of followers. The Buddha responds to the challenge with the words, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-You have found a flaw.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬

Now the Buddha admits to his fallibility!

The Buddha even wishes the departing young Siddhartha well in his search.

Sensibility

WouldnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t all this step on the Buddhist sensibility? A redeeming factor for Hesse is that such a freedom is allowed by the Buddha himself. In his Discourse to the Kalamas, the Buddha says: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-… it is proper that you have a doubt.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ The Buddha cautions further not to accept anything, even in the faith that ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-this is our teacher,ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ but only upon personal experience.

Today, after over six decades, Siddhartha still adorns the shelves of libraries and university course outlines in both the Western and the Buddhist world. But what about when it first hit the bookstores?

As I recollect it, the publication hardly moved a feather in the Buddhist world. Buddhist countries like Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand were just beginning to enjoy political freedom. The literary elite had had their own education and training in the West, and were perhaps too benumbed to the local culture. For the more sensitive, Siddhartha would have been simply a twitch of the decadent West, and something to be ignored!

Where Siddhartha found ready acceptance, of course, was among the North Americans whose search for an alternative lifestyle ended in the hippie culture.

A closer parallel to the Rushdie furore, however, is the Sinhala novel written in the early seventies by Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s foremost writer of the time, Martin Wickramasinghe. Bava taranaya (Crossing the Ocean of Life) is the very story of the life of the Buddha.

While Wickramasinghe, born and raised a Buddhist, handles the Buddha story fictionally with the same respect that Hesse does, his imagination runs riot in one scene, which cuts to the very core of the Sinhala Buddhist sensibility.

As in history, the Buddha in WickramasinghaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s novel (1973) returns to his hometown. Here, he is venerated by his father, nursing mother and the royal retinue with deep respect, but keeping their distance.

Now without waiting for Yasodhara, his former wife, to come to him, the Buddha goes in search of her, and meets her in the bed chamber. And here the reader is treated to the following moving scene:

Restraint

It was with the greatest restraint that Yasodhara held in check any verbal expression of the surge of happiness that arose in her heart upon seeing the Buddha. But the surge held in check was so overwhelming that it knocked her right down. Soon up on her knees, she embraced the BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s feet, kissing them, as tears rolled down. As if in a stupor, she then reached up the legs to just below the knees and started kissing them. When King Suddhodana tried to remove her, the Buddha stopped him, signalling with his right hand . Now Yasodhara gave vent to her love, sorrow and happiness, turning them into a stream of tears. Seeing the bed chamber and the contents therein that ushered in flashes of his lay life from winning YasodharaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s love through a skilful display of the martial arts to the time of the birth of Rahula, the Buddha entered into a Samadhi. Across his face spread an aura of Metta and Karuna. An immediately sensing Yasodhara stopped kissing his legs and gazed at the BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s face. Even as her heart came to be overwhelmed with a happiness at seeing the face in its lustre of spiritual happiness, she was given to a fear (Bava taranaya, 13th printing 2008, p. 175,).

Clergy

If my memory serves me right, critics, journalists and the intelligentsia, and most understandably the Buddhist clergy, were outraged. And there were calls to ban the book, and pull it off the racks of bookstores and university libraries. But luckily no effigy burnings or death threats!

Luckily again Sri Lanka was no theocratic state. The multifaith secular government let the matter lie where it should: in the hands of the literary world.

Perhaps my literal translation does not capture all the nuances intended by the author, but what does the literary world see in this classic and powerful portrayal of conflict, denouement and resolution in one single paragraph? IƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢d say a deft literary hand at work, inviting the reader to at least six of the nine literary ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”tastesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ as in Bharata MuniƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Natyasastra, depending on what the reader brings to it. First, for the uninitiated and the immature reader, it is the srangaara rasa (love), while for the conservative and traditional reader, it is raudra (anger). There is also the karuna (compassion) for the helpless Yasodhara, but also the compassion and the empathy of the Buddha himself who, just prior to this scene, goes to where Yasodhara is, without waiting for her to come to meet her. There is also the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”apprehensiveƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ taste (bhaya) as Yasodhara ends given to a fear. But in the end, it is the saanta rasa (peace), a Buddhism-inspired sensibility, that wins the day, along with again karuna (compassion).

In the scene, the Buddha is portrayed as the Arahant with the kilesa defilements jettisoned, and Yasodhara as the woman in samsara, in the unsurprising vise grip of sentiment and feeling, and dukkha suffering. Putting the book aside, the student of Buddhism is treated to a sixth taste: heroic and energetic (utsaaha), reminiscing the story of the Buddha leaving the household life, subjecting himself to self-torture to the point of death and then experiencing the Awakening. And happily, it is the same sentiment of energetic effort that comes to be associated with Yasodhara who eventually becomes Arahant BhaddhƒÆ’†’  KaccƒÆ’†’ nƒÆ’†’ , and identified by the Buddha as being ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”foremost among those who quickly attain direct knowledgeƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢.

In the end, critical dialogue prevailed. Today, as then, I presume, bava taranaya adorns the bookshelves and course lists of universities and high schools.

Author Wickramasinghe, too, died the same way he lived ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” respected as a provocative but mature novelist, a scholar of Buddhism and Sinhala Buddhist culture, and, most importantly, a humanist. On a personal note, as a budding literary buff, I was happy to have had the pleasure of benefiting from all this, taking many a walk with him in the neighbourhood of his Nawala, Rajagiriya home. And I still treasure on my bookshelf the many books given to me, with his signature signature!

But why go to Switzerland or Sri Lanka to see how the Buddha has taken kickings and beatings with a smile? A Zen master titles his work, Dropping Ashes on the Buddha.

Closer to home, in a restaurant lobby in Toronto, a pot-belly laughing Buddha invites you to a soup named after him!

The last time I tasted it, I thought Perfection had found a home in the hands of the Chef!

Poet and short fiction writer, Prof. Sugunasiri is a Fulbright Scholar in Linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania, USA, his current research area is Buddhism.

The Buddha Proclaims the Second Law of Thermodynamics as Parting Gift!

May 26th, 2013

Prof. Suwanda H J Sugunasiri, writing from Toronto, Canada

The BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s last words, and last advice to his Disciples, were, “Samkharas are subject to decay. Strive with diligence” (Vaya dhammƒÆ’-¾ saƒÆ’†’¼khƒÆ’-¾rƒÆ’-¾. AppamƒÆ’-¾dena sampƒÆ’-¾detha).

SamkhƒÆ’-¾ra is a difficult term which is probably why there is no Sinhala term for it. All we have is a Sanskritized phrase, samskƒÆ’-¾ra dharma. What I remember seeing on a funeral banner half a century ago was a jocular ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-anisa saema sakaradamƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬, a rhythmic invitation to dance, it sounded, more than a call to share grief! But thatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s altogether another story.

Sugunasiri

An English translation of SamkhƒÆ’-¾ra captures the sense better. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”ForcesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. So ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Forces are subject to decayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢.
What, then, are these ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”forcesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢?

First, there are the psychological processes – what we sense through the eye, ear, nose, tongue and body. But there is also the sixth mind process itself. They all involve neuronal processes centralized in the brain. And neuropeptides, carrying messages, along the neurons. Yes, there are literally, no kidding, an estimated 10 billion to a trillion of them! So they are no simple force to reckon with. Then there are the physical forces: breathing, using your limbs, using language, etc.
Both the psychological and the physical forces do use high quality energy, technically, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”exergyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. So how and why does that high quality energy go to decay? As explained in Western Science, “The quality of energy deteriorates gradually over time. How so? Usable energy is inevitably used for productivity, growth and repair. In the process, usable energy is converted into unusable energy.” And this process is called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”entropy increaseƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, “a measure of unusable energy within a closed or isolated system”.
The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, or the entropy law, explains this process in relation to matter. But is there any reason why it would not equally apply to the mindbody? It is as much a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”closed systemƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, meaning that it enjoys its own independent existence. Is there anybody other than you in yourself?

As usable energy decreases and unusable energy increases, entropy increases. Living, by definition, means using up high quality energy ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” breathing, thinking, digesting food, maintaining our health, going on with our daily activities, even sleeping and resting and meditating.

So the BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s last words would be “Forces are of the nature of entropy”. What we have translated here as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”of the nature ofƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ is Dhamma, which in Western Science is called ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”LawƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ as in the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Law of ThermodynamicsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. (Law. Hm! Note any theistic connotations in Western Science?)

Entropy is the result of change, i.e., impermanence – anicca. And this impermanence, says the Buddha, is of everything in the total mindbody. And in life, everything relating to the mindbody undergoes change in three phases: whatever ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”high energyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ rises, comes to be used and ends up as ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”low energyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ at break-up (uppaada, thiti, bhanga). Or in four phases, if we were to count the two types of genesis as in the Abhidhamma: initial and subsequent. GrayƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Anatomy, the standard Medical Text, calls it prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.

But it is not just a matter of usable energy going to waste being turned into useless energy. Like used up food ending down the toilet! “Entropy is also a gauge of randomness or chaos within a closed system. As usable energy is irretrievably lost, disorganization, randomness and chaos increase.” Ever heard of Dukkha?

As would be heard at a funeral oration from a Bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni , “Of entropic nature indeed are the forces; arising and cessation their nature. Having arisen, they cease to be. Calming it is bliss.”
If the translation doesnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t ring a bell, perhaps the Pali rendering will:

aniccƒÆ’-¾ vata saƒÆ’†’¼khƒÆ’-¾rƒÆ’-¾ ; uppƒÆ’-¾da vaya dhammino.
uppajjitvƒÆ’-¾ nirujjhanti ; tesam vƒÆ’-¦«pasamo sukho.

Entropy is dukkha; Calming the yo yo of arising, staying put and ceasing is sukha. Be it in life, or in terms of Nibbana.
Get it? Got it! ItƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s as simple as that.

Thus the Buddha advices, “Strive with diligence”. DonƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t let chaos, disorganization and loss pull you down. Pull up your socks (strive) and walk with head high (with diligence). But humbling your mind, of course, retaining your equilibrium, mental and physical, and cultivating equanimity (upekkha). Remember, your Autonomous Nervous System is watchinƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ya. Nervously!

Did I say the Buddha was anointing the Second Law of Thermodynamics as his parting gift?

And what a parting gift! What Western Science limits to matter, Buddhian Science extends to the mind, and cumulatively, to the totality of sentience.

But more, the Buddha, as elsewhere, ethicalizes it, too. Shall we then say, “Good to see you around, Lord(ess) Entropy. But how do I work around you to make my life happier, and spiritually uplifting, and eventually work myself towards liberation?”
Unlike in Western Science, then, where knowledge is just for the sake of knowledge, the BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s proclamation of yet another reality on his deathbed was a final pragmatic, and compassionate, contribution to the welfare of sentient beings.
Saadhu saadhu saadhu. Well said. Well declared. Well proclaimed!

FOOTNOTE: It is to mean ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”The Enlightened OneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”The Awakened OneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ that IƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ve used the nomenclature, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”The BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢. ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Lord BuddhaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, as I see in common usage, is to equate the historical Buddha with mythical figures, such as Lord Ganesh, Lord Siva, Lord Rama, etc. It is also to turn an epithet into a proper noun.

(Prof. Suwanda H J Sugunasiri <suwanda.sugunasiri@utoronto.ca> is author of several books on Buddhism, including one on Abhidhamma, YouƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢re What You Sense: Buddha on Mindbody, 2001; Dehiwala: Buddhist Cultural Centre. His latest publication is Arahant Mahinda -

Continuing book review of Dayan Jayatilleka’s, Long War, Cold Peace — Part V- INDIA PAVING THE PATH TO THIRD WORLD WAR

May 25th, 2013

H. L. D. Mahindapala

India has not only lost its moral compass in foreign policy which was packaged and hailed as the “Panchaseela” at the height of the Non-Aligned Movement but also the strategic compass to navigate in the Indian Ocean. India needs an ethical / balanced foreign policy to win back the moral and political leadership which it lost in the post-Indira Gandhi period. India’s moral posturing in international fora may appeal to the West and its “strategic partner”, America, right now, not to mention its local boot-lickers and knaves. But how far can India go with America, leaving its neighbours behind? And how far can India go to stabilise its own security against emerging rivals in the East if its neighbours are on the other side? Can India secure her interests and security in the region without stabilising its neighbourhood and wining the hearts and minds of the SAARC members — the deciding factor in her overall security? Isn’t India digging its own grave by relying too much on far away America, (which, of course, has its own limitedƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ and temporary advantages,) instead of buildingƒÆ’-¡  lastingƒÆ’-¡ bridges of strategic friendships with its indispensable neighbours? To what extent will India’s “strategic partnership” with America protect India if India keeps needling and antagonising its neighbours? Can India put all it security interests in the American basket alone?

Indian and regional critics of Indian foreign policy are urging India to go for “soft power” rather than the big stick for the simple reason that India’s security depends essentially on the stability and progress of its neighbours. A destabilised region will invariably affect India’s security and economy. An anti-Indian neighbourhood is going to be the worst nightmare for Indian foreign policy-makers.ƒÆ’-¡ India’sƒÆ’-¡ pursuit ofƒÆ’-¡ aggressive interventionist and provocative policiesƒÆ’-¡ have not only sent negative ripples into every corner of SAARC but also raised alarm amongƒÆ’-¡  its own domestic analysts in the media, academia and the seasoned India-watchers.ƒÆ’-¡  LeadingƒÆ’-¡  analysts ƒÆ’-¡ like Dr. Subramaniam Swamy,ƒÆ’-¡ mature ex-members of the South Bloc and the military establishment are no longer hawkish as the politicos sounding off at the street level for electoral gains. India cannot risk any further military adventurism in the region without devastating blow-backs to its ownƒÆ’-¡ strategic and internal structures.

India, so far, has not gained byƒÆ’-¡ increasingƒÆ’-¡ tensions andƒÆ’-¡ rupturingƒÆ’-¡ relations in the SAARC region,ƒÆ’-¡ in particularƒÆ’-¡ with its excessive andƒÆ’-¡ counter-productive pursuit ofƒÆ’-¡ self-interests. Take the case of Sri Lanka. India has been the chief exporter of terrorism to SriLanka. Indian -made terrorism mushroomed in every corner, leading to the longest war in Asia. India trained, financed and, in addition, gaveƒÆ’-¡ diplomatic cover to the Tamil terrorists whom they knew would violate all known canons of human rights.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ What has India gained so far? Has it even solved the problemƒÆ’-¡ it created by exporting terrorism?

IndiaƒÆ’-¡ steppedƒÆ’-¡ in with its Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement of 1987 and its Peace Keeping Forces to eliminate the evil which it planted in the first place on Sri Lankan soil. It muscledƒÆ’-¡ in on the pretext of stabilising Sri Lanka. But the Indian intervention set the nation on fire. No one wanted the Indian solution. Not the TULF. Not Prabhakaran who was offered the Chief Ministership. Not the SLFP, a pro-Indian party. Not the UNP who signed it under duress. Not the JVPƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ nor the masses as a whole. It was purely an Indian solution for an Indian problem which never worked for the Jaffna Tamils, for the Sinhalese or the Indians who had to retreat leaving with their tails between their legs. In fact, the Tigers boasted that they defeated the fourth largest army in the world.ƒÆ’-¡  Intervention in Sri Lanka was a disaster for India. No Indian general, nor sensible analyst has claimed that the IPKF escapade in Sri Lanka was a victory for India.

The Indian cure was worse than the Indian disease it exported. Its Peace Keeping Force committed gross violations of human rights among the Jaffna Tamils. It is claimed that Rajiv Gandhi was assasinated by one of the female victims of anƒÆ’-¡ IPKFƒÆ’-¡ rapist.ƒÆ’-¡ Having done the damnedest against Sri Lanka, including voting on country-specific resolution at the UNHRC, India has the audacity to joins hands with America — another war criminal who admittedƒÆ’-¡ just last week that its dronesƒÆ’-¡ targeted and killed four of its own citizens — and accuse Sri Lanka of violating international humanitarian law. According to the latest reports,ƒÆ’-¡ US drones had killed 28,000 to 44,000 victims.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Will India move a resolutionƒÆ’-¡ at the UNHRC accusing its “strategic partner” ofƒÆ’-¡ conducting its warsƒÆ’-¡ violating international humanitarianƒÆ’-¡  law? There isn’t aƒÆ’-¡ turban big enough in India to hide its hypocrisy and humbuggery. What moral right has India to point an accusing finger at Sri Lanka after exporting terror and creating all the conditions for the violations of human rights in Sri Lanka?

From Kashmir to Sri Lanka India has been the primary cause of instability in the SAARC region. With its bull-in-a-China shop policy (this can be even taken literally now) India can continue to play havoc in the region. But it will boomerang on India’s own stability, security and even economic growth. My friend Dayan Jayatilleka’s Indian bogeyman threatening the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Sri Lanka can do so at its own peril in the future, particularly because it is trapped in the intersecting geo-political forces competing in the Indian Ocean.

Second, neither the build up of bases in the Indian Ocean by America, nor the new “strategic partnerships” in the region, indicates that the Indian Ocean is going to be the swimming pool of India. Dayan’s scenario of India coming out as the genie out of theƒÆ’-¡ bottle to dominate the region, with American aid, is good on paper. His theory assumes that Sri LankansƒÆ’-¡ , SAARCians,ƒÆ’-¡ and the other rivals of India willƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ curl up and die, allowing India and America to dominate the Indian Ocean. He even claims thatƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ the Americo-Indian forcesƒÆ’-¡ will target Hambantota and rule the waves of the Indian Ocean.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ The only thing he hasn’t said that China will have to find a new route over the north pole as it will have no space in the Indian Ocean. His knowledge of dialectics should inform him that every action has its reaction and that neither India nor America can have their own way.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Does he seriously believeƒÆ’-¡ that the other powers will hand over the Indian Ocean to Americo-Indian forces and not do anything about it?ƒÆ’-¡ 

India will have to fight for every drop of water to maintainƒÆ’-¡ its presenceƒÆ’-¡ in the Indian Ocean. In other words, in the new geo-political realities emerging in and around the Indian Ocean India’s position is not that strong as it imagines. India never had the strength to stand on its own. Nor does she have the capacity to keep all its neighbours under her thumb. The extreme swings from one bloc in the west to another in her foreign policy reveal that India is not sure of itsƒÆ’-¡ security nor herƒÆ’-¡ neighbours. India’s power in the global theatre depends on the strength of its “strategic partners” in the west. But the more it goes with the West the more it will alienate the regional neighbours as seen in India’s decision to vote with the US-led anti-Sri Lankan resolution at the UNHRC.

India’s failure to win a single nation in the region as a committed ally has serious consequences to India’s moral, politicalƒÆ’-¡ and strategic standing in the region. India is perpetually plagued with disputes of distribution of water, contested territories, and borders. SAARC which should have taken off like any other regional bloc have stalled because of India’s expansionist ambitions, imperialistic interventions and super power posturing which have angered all its neighbours.

Third, if Sri Lanka is to be carved up it will have to be by military force because Sri Lankans will never agree to carve up its territory under any circumstances. As seen in the previous failed IPKF adventure India will be faced with stiff resistance from the Sinhalese, particularly with a battled-hardened army who knows the terrain like the back of their hands. The resistance to foreigners — a historical trait ingrained in Sri Lankan genes — will bleed IndiaƒÆ’-¡ into economic anaemia and political discombobulation.ƒÆ’-¡  India got a taste of Sri Lankan resistance when Rajiv Gandhi narrowly escape a deadly blow from a naval rating who was on parade farewelling him. India, of course, may try planting one of its stooges as its surrogate ruler. Ranil Wickremesinghe is a likely succesor to Don Juan Dharmapala. But how long can he survive as a stooge of India?

Fourth, how safe will India’s investments be in Sri Lanka if India decides to balkanise Sri Lanka. India’s best strategy will be to make Sri Lanka an integral part of its growing economic empire. But for that India cannot be only one side. India has to keep Sri Lanka as a whole and not as fragmented parts. That is on the economic side. But if India thinks that it can get away by doing to Sri Lanka what it did to Pakistan it has to think again. India’s military adventure in dividing Pakistan into the east and west has not paid any long-term dividends to India.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

Furthermore, if India decides to solve the Tamil problem in Sri Lanka by dividing it into two ethnic enclaves it would only end up as a bigger burden on India’s back. Holding and influencing Sri Lanka as one unit is much easier than dividing it into two: it is certainly one problem less because the Jaffna Tamils would definitely play India against other forces in the region to get more and more. If, however, a part of Sri Lanka goes to India’s agents the other part would automatically go to India’s enemy, whoever it may be. Can India afford to lose its most vital southern flank when the north, west and east are already in peril ? India would have no clout in keeping the most vital part of the Indian Ocean balanced between India and China. What can India gain by dividing Sri Lanka except the permanent hostility of the Sinhalese?

Right now Asia is hotting up as an emerging Bermuda triangle of tensions, conflicts, and big power rivalry. America is pushing Japan, Pillipines and Vietnam to get tough with China on territorial claims. At the same time India, Australia, Japan and US are collectively getting together to throw a defensive ring round China. Beneath the theatrical Indo-Sino bonhomie expressed overtly, tensions over contested borders and territories are simmering, waiting for an opportune moment to erupt. Many more explosive Kashmirs and Ladahks will recur until it blows up in a big bang, sooner or later.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

Oddly enough, the preconditions for war which prevailed in Europe in the early 20th century, just prior to World War I and II, are reappearing menacingly in the East. Big power rivalry, testing each others nerves trying to gain supremacy in the East, looms large in the horizon likeƒÆ’-¡  ƒÆ’-¡ dark clouds that can come over suddenly, drenching the whole region in nuclear fall outs. Each attempt to muscle into disputed space in land and sea is an ominous cloud thatƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ wouldƒÆ’-¡ darken the Asian horizon.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

New alignments, new bases, newƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ “strategic parternships”ƒÆ’-¡  are emerging with the sole intention of winning supremacy over the other. India continues to view Pakistan as the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”real threatƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ even though it is adjusting its military strategy to include the possibility of a limited two-front war with both Pakistan and China. The first Blue Book on India published by a Chinese think tank, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, (CASS) said: “New Delhi is focusing to deal with limited war with China and Pakistan at the same time…. It spoke of large increase in troops at the borders and upgradation of border forces with new weapons and equipment,” said a PTI report.”It also spoke of increase in Indian defence budget with the rapid growth of the Indian economy making it the biggest buyer of the international arms,” said PTI.

These new developments are falling into place ominously threatening peace in the East. The last two World Wars were fought in the West. The Third World War, if it comes, will be fought in the East with India as its epicentre. After the two World Wars and the rise of the European Union and the collapse of the USSR tensions between warring European nations have eased. Nor is there a race for armaments in Europe to threaten each other. Their armaments industry is aimed at exporting weapons to flashpoints in the East or Africa in the main.

China and India, on the contrary, are building up their military hardware at break neck speed. Besides, with the backing of America India is provocatively needling China on many frontsƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ under the veneer of friendliness. The symptoms, the threats and the tensions that divided Europe and caused the two World Wars are emerging in the East. ChinaƒÆ’-¡ is being hemmed in from all sides. India has been most active, with US as its “strategic partner”, to throw land and littoral rings round China. Most significantly, there are four nuclear armed nations in Asia — Pakistan, India, China and North Korea. Of the four nations China, Pakistan and N. Korea form one bloc. India has to look far into the West to balance the combined nuclear superiority of the other three. Hence “the large increase in troops at the (Indian) borders and upgradation of (Indian) border forces with new weapons and equipment ,” as stated in the CASS report.

Whether Sri Lanka likes it or not it will be drawn into the nuclear holocaust of the Third World War, if and when it breaks out. India and China are focussed on the Indian Ocean which means thatƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ Americo-Indian “strategic partnership”ƒÆ’-¡ will keep a sharp eye on Sri Lanka. The CASS report too focussed on IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s maritime military deployment in recent years, the prime cause of ChinaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s worry as it regards IndiaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s fast expanding blue water navy as a major threat. In this scenario being India’s neighbour has serious consequences. Those communities nearest to India will receive the first nuclear fall-out on their heads.

The Indian naval and air bases in S. India are definite targets in any war. So, as they say, it is the moths closest to flames that will get burnt. Whether it is going to be a man-made nuclear war, or an explosion of nuclear plants due to unforseen acts of nature, like 9.0 earthquake which caused the nuclear plants in Fukushima to explode, it is the Jaffna Tamils who will be the first victims of any nuclear fall outƒÆ’-¡ over India. The Japanese government evacuated people within a 30 km radius of Fukushima. In the event of a nuclear explosion of any kind in India my friend Dayan’s formula of 13th Amendment will not save the Jaffna Tamils. They will have to abandon the 13th Amendment and come down to live with the Sinhalese, as the 75,000 Muslims did when they were driven out like cattle by Prabhakaran.

This is why the Sinhala south will be indispensable to the Jaffna Tamils and other minorities as it has been in the past. Not for the first time the Tamils will find the Sinhalese not so bad as they are painted to be, if and when the region goes up in flames. As in the past the Sinhalese will have no problems living with the Tamils or Muslims as long as they are willing to share the land as common property without any borders. After all the majority of the Tamils live with the Sinhalese in the south. Additions from the north fleeing the Indian nuclear holocaust will not make much of a difference to the multi-cultural, multi-ethnic, democratic Sinhala community.

Despite sporadic soda-bottle outbursts of violence, provoked mainly by aggressive minorities, the Sinhalese have co-existed with relative ease and harmony with all minorities down the ages. Though the differences are exaggerated they are not visceral or even historical. When, for instance, the tsuanmi hit the east it was the Sinhala peasants who took food and other essentials to the neighbouring Tamil victims in the east before the Government or NGOs ever reached them. It was the Sinhalese who elected Muslims, Burghers, Europeans ( H. R. Freeman, Government Agent in NCP) and even Tamils as their representatives to the legislatures at all levels. The list is long.

Quite rightly, Dayan quotes Buddhism as the most viable doctrine for harmonious living. This doctrinal influence has always opened up space for minorities to co-exist non-violently until the mono-ethnic extremism of the north exploded in its most virulent form in the forties, as pointed out by historian G. C. Mendis. Mono-ethnic extremism, driven byƒÆ’-¡ theƒÆ’-¡  new kid in the peninsular bloc,ƒÆ’-¡ G. G.Ponnambalam,ƒÆ’-¡ to beat theƒÆ’-¡ established old aristocracy of MahadevasƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ and RamanathansƒÆ’-¡ of Jaffna,ƒÆ’-¡ (Jane Russell) overan the most constructive political movement of the Jaffna Youth,ƒÆ’-¡  who boldly went against the caste and communalism. It was snuffed out byƒÆ’-¡ rabid and oppressive Vellahla casteismƒÆ’-¡ which morphed into virulent communalism –the most violent and negativeƒÆ’-¡ force inside and outsideƒÆ’-¡ the peninsula.ƒÆ’-¡ 

The Sinhalese do not claim sole ownership of the land for any particular sentient being. Even the fringe elements who claim that the land belongs to the Sinhalese have not advocated ethnic cleansing, or the right of minorities to share the land as common property.ƒÆ’-¡ If any extremists have made such claims they do not belongƒÆ’-¡  to the traditional Sinhala-Buddhist mainstream which had opened up its space down theƒÆ’-¡ ages for all migrants to live in harmony with them. The founding father of the Sinhala-Buddhist civilisation, Ven. Mahinda, laid down the doctrine of trusteeship — not ownership — which has been the guiding force in dealing with the minorities. In this doctrine of trusteeship it has been the established tradition of the Sinhala-Buddhists to share the land not only with fellow human beings but even with birds and beasts. We are to be the guardians only and not land-grabbing, exploitative owners. However, at the heart of the conflict is the obnoxious and divisive concept of exclusive ownership of land of one northern tribe which insists on mono-cultural supremacy denying multi-cultural, multi-ethnic, multi-religious co-existence.

Consequently, minorities who violate this doctrine with violence (Vadukoddai violence is an example) and claim parts of the territory exclusively to one group, excludinig others, rouse the wrath of the Sinhala-Buddhists. Resisting such mono-ethnic extremism to keep the land open for all communitiesƒÆ’-¡ to share it as common property is not a denial of the human rights of any minority group. Those who claim human rights must respect the rights of all other human beings to live and let live in communal harmony, adjusting to each others needs, no matter how long it takes, without resorting to violence.ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 

Those who resort to violence must also learn to accept the consequences of their needless violence. They can’t forever blame others for their sins. Above all, they must learn to share the land as common property of all communities. The intrasignet refusal to find space for non-violent co-existence has been a problem created and perpetuated only by the Jaffna Tamil leadership which has been described aptly by Bishop S. Jebanesan andƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ R.F.ƒÆ’-¡ Young (The Bible Trembled) as “Vellahla-Jaffna-SaiviteƒÆ’-¡ ” — the trimurti, or the Holy Trinty of Jaffna politics.ƒÆ’-¡ ThisƒÆ’-¡ compound word encapsulatesƒÆ’-¡ preciselyƒÆ’-¡ the over-archingƒÆ’-¡ peninsular political culture which went berserk when it fell into the hands of the first-born children of the Vadukoddai Resolution.

TheƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ideological contest thatƒÆ’-¡ dominated the Cold WarƒÆ’-¡ period has been replacedƒÆ’-¡ by theƒÆ’-¡ plagueƒÆ’-¡ of theƒÆ’-¡ majority-minorityƒÆ’-¡ confrontations. Defining the parameters for co-existence between these two groups hasƒÆ’-¡ tortured the best of minds.ƒÆ’-¡ Identity politics has taken centre stage.ƒÆ’-¡ At the end of theƒÆ’-¡ 33-year-old warƒÆ’-¡ the majority and the Jaffna Tamil minority in Sri Lanka areƒÆ’-¡ at loggerheads still, arguing who should get what in what quantity.ƒÆ’-¡  Whatever the diffferences may be non-violent co-existence within a democratic framework is a sine qua non for peace and stability. Dayan accepts this. The disagreement is on the means not the end. He saysƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ the 13thƒÆ’-¡  Amendment is the way out. It raises more questions than it answers.

More of this in the next article.

To be continued

Dawn of the Tamil Eelam through the Northern Provincial Council ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” What the Government and we, as citizens can do can do to stop it

May 25th, 2013

ƒÆ’-¡ Sri Lanka Support Group, Australia

Further to our Sinhala Media Release (posted on Lankaweb on 24 May 2013), we unequivocallyƒÆ’-¡  repeat that formation of the Northern Provincial Council under 13thƒÆ’-¡  amendment of the Constitution will lead to formation of the Tamil Eelam.

We say the Government can fundamentally do two (2) things to abolish the 13th ƒÆ’-¡ amendment, prior to the proposed Northern Provincial Council election, as follows:

  1. Article 86 of the Constitution ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Based on the issue of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”national importanceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ the President can call for a national referendum. The question to be asked from the people will be ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”Do you agree to abolish the 13th amendment in the Constitution, that was enacted in 1987, that has created the present provincial council system?ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

Prior to that, a draft Bill in this regard (the current JHU Bill with minor amendments is sufficient)ƒÆ’-¡  should be duly certified by the Cabinet (per Article 80 (2).

ƒÆ’-¡ It is expected that the ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”YesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ vote will win, with a resounding majority.

ƒÆ’-¡ Thereafter, again per Article 80 (2), The President is required to issue a certificate ƒÆ’-¡ in the following form: ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-This Bill/provision has been duly approved by the People at a Referendum.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’-¡ 

ƒÆ’-¡ This activity alone is sufficient to abolish the 13th amendment (no need to obtain 2/3 majority of the parliament). Then, that will be the end of the provincial councils (all 9 of them).

ƒÆ’-¡ Note Article 4 (a) of the Constitution ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” In addition to that of the Parliament, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”the Sovereignty of the People shall be exercised and enjoyed by the People at a referendum.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢

  1. Article 129 of the Constitution ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” The President can obtain opinion on the 13th ƒÆ’-¡ amendment from the Supreme Court. If this right is exercised, then, the Supreme Court will investigate the illegality of the enactment of the 13th amendment in 1987 and can essentially, provide opinion to the President (its hearing can be public), such as the following:

(i)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  Due to extreme duress put on Sri Lanka by India to sign the Indo-Lanka Agreement that led to the 13th ƒÆ’-¡ amendment ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” the whole nation opposed it in 1987, ƒÆ’-¡ the Agreement was signed after placing the country under curfew (more than 300 people that protested against it were shot dead by the government, about ƒÆ’-¡ 500 government owned buses alone were set fire by the angry public and other large scale damage to public property, a vicious assault on the then Indian Prime Minister by a member of his guard of honour and numerous other anti-Agreement incidents), the Supreme Court can find that the 13th amendment is null and void (void ab initio ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”there was no 13th amendment at allƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢). Then, all the 9 provincial councils will instantly become invalid (no referendum or 2/3 majority from the parliament will be required). Due to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”duressƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢, the Supreme Court is not estopped by Article 80 (3) to provide this opinion in the form of a declaration. The problem herein is that one could argue that then all the acts of the provincial councils since enactment are also null and void.

(ii)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  In 1987, the majority of the Supreme Court ƒÆ’-¡ was of the view that a referendum should be held ƒÆ’-¡ to pass the 13th amendment, the then government disregarded it, hence the present government should put the matter ƒÆ’-¡ to the people at a referendum:

(a)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  The President can either follow the procedure prior to the referendum under Article 80(2) (see above 1); the 2/3 ƒÆ’-¡ vote ƒÆ’-¡ of the parliament will then not be required or

(b)ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  upon successful outcome at the referendum (ie, having obtained the majority ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”YesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ vote), without using Article 80 (2), proceed and obtain 2/3 majority from the parliament.

An ordinary member of the public (as opposed to initiating the above two actions by HE the President), can do the following to obstruct the forming of the Northern Provincial Council which will lead to formation of the Tamil Eelam. These may not be strong causes of action as the above two (2), yet, worth pursuing:

  1. Use the current JHU Bill or a different Bill to seek any of the above number 2 reliefs from the Supreme Court: (2 (i), 2 (ii) (a) or 2 (ii) (b) (the petitioner ƒÆ’-¡ is not estopped by Article 80 (3). This will bring the end result of abolishing the 13th amendment (ie, end of the provincial councils).
  1. A usual resident of the Northern Province, who has not been given voting rights for the forthcoming election (eg. a Navatkuli Sinhala resident) (who is constantly being harassed by northern separatists), can file a fundamental rights application in the Supreme Court seeking relief ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”an injunction to stop the Northern Provincial Council election being held on 7 September 2013, until the petitioner is given voting rights.
  1. A usual resident of the Northern Province who is currently displaced (eg. an ex- JaffnaƒÆ’-¡  Sinhala resident), can file a fundamental rights application in the Supreme Court seeking relief ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” a declaration/mandamus that until the petitioner ƒÆ’-¡ is duly re-settled in the North, the Northern Provincial Council election should not be held.

The above 2 and 3 will bring the end result of only postponing the northern Provincial Council Election, not abolishing the 13thƒÆ’-¡  amendment.

We note the draft Bill that will be tabled by the JHU in the parliament inviting the legislatures to vote to abolish the 13th amendment. If this is passed with 2/3 majority (currently, an unlikely scenario), that will be the end of the 13thƒÆ’-¡  amendment. We commend the JHU for taking this bold move.

We have herein shownƒÆ’-¡  ways how the Government/the Public/MPs can ƒÆ’-¡ do things legally to abolish the draconian 13th amendment ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” that will lead to creating the Tamil Eelam. We stress that the Government and people of Sri Lanka should do everything possible to stop that from happening. Again, rather than doing things to facilitate the forming of Eelam (like holding the September election), we must do everything to discourage and stop it (like the draft JHU Bill and agitation by the NFF). It is the duty of the general public and the Sinhala Diaspora to express theirƒÆ’-¡  opposition to the 13th amendment and holding of the 7 September 2013 election. Unless you express your opposition, the Government will not know it. In this regard, we urge you to sign the Petition in Sinhala in Lakaweb dated 24 May 2013 (see below in the website). This is a joint effort of Sinhala intellectuals, professionals, Buddhist monks and various patriots in Sri Lanka and overseas. If you wish to comment about it,ƒÆ’-¡  please feel free to do so.

We must be realistic to accept that the abolishment of 13A may solve our problemsƒÆ’-¡  domestically, but, like what Mr Dayan Jayatilleka et al state, ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ internationally this could cause us huge problems (opening of a PandoraƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Box). Mr Jayatilleka has argued the abolishment of 13A will lead to stringent Geneva Resolutions in 2014, imposition of sanctions against Sri Lanka etc. Some have predicted even a possible invasionƒÆ’-¡  of Sri Lanka by India ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” we believe this is unlikely.ƒÆ’-¡  We should bear in mind whether ƒÆ’-¡ we abolish the ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ 13th amendment ƒÆ’-¡ or not, the international community (our current ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”enemiesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ in Geneva etcƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” US, UK,ƒÆ’-¡  Canada, Norway, EU, India) will not give up its desire to carve out a separate state in North Eastern Sri Lanka for Tamils. The ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”enemyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ forces are slowly and steadfastly working towards this common objective. The elected ƒÆ’-¡ Northern Provincial Government (most likely led by TNA) and of course the most powerful Tamil Diaspora will continue to falsely agitate the international community (largely western) that Sri Lanka is discriminating against the Tamils ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” they will never give up of making false accusations against the Sinhalese and the Government. Once the Northern Provincial Government is formed, they can request the international community to accept them as a separate nation (similar to how Kosovo was formed). There is provision in the current Constitution for them to merge with theƒÆ’-¡  East (using Article 154A (3), and eventually create a bigger and more prosperous nationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”North-Eastern Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” encompassing 1/3 of the current Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s land mass and 2/3 of the coast.

To avoid and ƒÆ’-¡ minimise the international pressure on us, ƒÆ’-¡ we should do the following (by saying these, we are not being unpatriotic, we believe as citizens it is our duty to assist the Government fully to find solutions to this most difficult and complex problem that the nation is currently facing, and we make the suggestions in that spirit).

  • Conduct informal discussions with the US on equal footing (if we can convince the US, the other countries who voted against us in Geneva will fall in line with them) ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” there must be a series of discussions with the US ( it is ok to explain to UK, Canada, Norway, EU and India also, but US is the key). We must clearly explain to them why it is imperative that the 13th amendment must be abolished (true they will not accept our point of view, but, it is important to open a window of dialogue with them. We must openly and freely discuss with our ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”¹…”enemiesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ and at least explain them why we do this ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” again, true they may not accept our position, but let us engage them ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” something the Tamil Diaspora does so well and we have failed so miserably).
  • We should find out from the US in writing what works exactly they want us to do in order to comply with the current Geneva Resolutions, and if we comply,ƒÆ’-¡  they will not pursue us again on the same matter/s in Geneva or other forum (we should obtain this assurance from them in writing before embarking on any Geneva compliance work). If the US is too unfair with us in negotiations, we can raise the difficulties in Geneva in September 2013 and beforehand. We should not forget we have thirteen true friends in Geneva ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” we should also work towards cultivating more friends ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” especially those who abstained fromƒÆ’-¡  voting.ƒÆ’-¡  It is a blessing we have such true friends like China and Russia in the UN Security Council, but we should also realise they may not be there for us all the time (note, when the UN Security Council approved the referral of Mr Omar Al Bashir of Sudan to the War Crimes Tribunal in the Hague, his best friends, China and Russia abstained from voting ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” they did not veto the proposal. The same thing happened in relation to Libya, to overthrow Gadhafi).
  • For above purposes, we must sit down with Robert Blake et al on equal footing (emphasis added) and engage in extensive discussions/negotiations with them. Only those with exceptionalƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡  communication and negotiation skills and possessƒÆ’-¡  a sound knowledge on the matters can do this type of work.ƒÆ’-¡  The government has to be extremely careful in picking the right people. They should not be mere political nominees. We need the best patriotic brains of the country to go into negotiations with these top US diplomats. Our team should be able to confront/convince John Kerry,ƒÆ’-¡  Robert Blake, Michele Sison ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’-¡ et alƒÆ’-¡  and obtain best possible outcomes for the country.ƒÆ’-¡ 
  • When negotiating, our team must always keep the best interests of Sri Lanka at head and heart.ƒÆ’-¡  We must constantly bear in mind that we will not agree to anything that will be a threat to Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s sovereignty and territorial integrity (this is what JR Jayewardene and his team failed to do when his Government signed the 1987 pact). We should envisage both short and long term threats toƒÆ’-¡  the countryƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s sovereignty and territorial integrity.

At talks with the US (can be held both in Washington and Colombo), if we can come up with theƒÆ’-¡  following agreements in relation to scrapping the 13th ƒÆ’-¡ amendment and regards to the outstanding Geneva Resolutions, it will be a huge win for us (note, currently we are totally entrapped by 13A, ƒÆ’-¡ also by the Geneva Resolutions ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…”that is why especially India has taken the upper hand over us).

Again, there is absolutely no alternative but to scrap the 13th amendment (removing the land and police powers from the concurrent list (9th Schedule) will not eliminate the threat to our sovereignty), in lieu of our adversaries accepting this or at least understanding why the country must do this and obtaining assurances from them that they will not take adverse action against us,ƒÆ’-¡  we could agree to the following:

  • We can agree to some toning down of military from the north but not entirely as suggested by the US
  • We can agree to hold an independent enquiry about the last stages of war, but, it is not international, but an entirely local enquiry. They must provide us with the complaints
  • We can agree to hold an independent enquiry about the alleged human rights violations in Sri Lanka,ƒÆ’-¡  but, it is not international, but an entirely local enquiry. They must provide us with the complaints
  • We can implement most of the LLRC recommendations provided that a special fund is set up by the international community to assist Sri Lanka (some of the recommendations are very costly to implement)
  • After the provincial governments are abolished, we can agree to decentralise moreƒÆ’-¡  power to ƒÆ’-¡ provinces especially to North and East (so the people can attend to most of theirƒÆ’-¡  affairs within the province rather than travelling to Colombo etc), through ƒÆ’-¡ Divisional District Councils (Pradeshiya Sabhas), whose memebers are elected

In summary, basically, we have two solutions at hand ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” (1) abolish 13A ASAP (before the proposed Northern Provincial Council Election), and ƒÆ’-¡ (2) engage positively with the international community to the maximum to minimise the adverse impact flowing from the abolishment.

After strenuous, positive negotiations with the US (and other adversaries) we would be able to obtain a firm written assurance from the US that we will not be hounded down again in Geneva or any other forum, and that they will not impose sanctions and do other things like initiating action against our leaders and war heroes in the Hague, they will not seek to split Sri Lanka ƒÆ’-¡ (for a brilliant diplomat, these are achievable), all peoples can thereafter live in Sri Lanka as One Nation. And, Sri Lanka will flourish in international forums, and will be able to keep its head high, like in the past.

The writer, Chanaka Bandaarage, President of Sri Lanka Support Group, is an Australian Lawyer

__________

If you wish to sign the Petition to HE the President requesting him to take action to abolish the 13th amendmentƒÆ’-¡  (please read it below ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” Lankaweb, dated 24 May 2013), please provide us with the information below:

ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’-¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬”…” srilankasupportgroup@bigpond.com

 


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