An Expert Panel needs to first investigate effectiveness of UN
Posted on July 22nd, 2010

shenali waduge

Sixty years ago, the United Nations was founded to maintain international peace and security, promote basic human rights, and protect fundamental freedoms. Sixty years on, its acronym UN projects negatives and a dismal track record of UNhelpful, UNethical, Unproductive, Unfair UN policies by its bureaucracyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦.should world Governments continue to assume this world body is realistically suited to secure world peace? A panel must first investigate how far UN & its associated organizations have been able to deliver on their goals against the billions that have been & is currently spent and deduce whether the UN needs to now close shop and be replaced with a restructured entity & new personnel.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ There may not have been another world war but the UN has not been successful in stopping many mini wars. Today there are almost 250 armed conflicts taking place globally. As a body that is meant to project all the good things that should be happening in the world, the UN has to be devoid of any & all violations it alleges against countries, leaders or Governments. This is a natural phenomenon & we are well aware of the adage ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…” practice what you preach. Nevertheless, it is becoming increasingly clear that this peace body is not delivering what it is meant to fundamentally deliver leave aside all of the other non-core related issues it has steadily included under its wings which invariably has left its concentration away from more important fundamental areas & instead on complex & complicated areas which has no coherent conclusions. Top on the list of UN failures include preventing killings in Liberia in 1997 where 7 years of civil war killed 200,000 people and Rwanda in 1994 which resulted in 800,000 deaths. UN has also failed to condemn slavery in Sudan, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, Angola, Kashmir, Colombia, Iraq, North Korea & Afghanistan.ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ 

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Rwanda was a case of the systematic murder of the Tutsi minority by the Hutu majority. This horrific loss of life occurred in 1994 but took 5 years for an international expert panel to fault the UN & other member countries including the US for not preventing nor ending the genocide. The UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda where Gen. Romeo Dallair testified revealed the UN was actually warned three months before the genocide that arms were being stocked yet the UN refused his request to raid the arms caches which were used to massacre 800,000 TutsiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s. It also questions why the UN bureaucracy decided to reduce its peace keeping force from 2500 before the genocide to a few hundreds & then doubled it to 5500 within weeks following the massacre?

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ When the apex peace body declares in the 2nd preamble of the UN Charter ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men & women and of nations large and smallƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…” these words are supposed to have meaning. Just one example shatters this very preamble that is the oil-for-food scandal. The 1991 Gulf War led to trade sanctions against Iraq & started in 1996 a UN humanitarian operation called Oil-For-Food which was to enable 60% of Iraqi people to be fed from the sale of Iraqi oil (which invariably was controlled by Saddam Hussein). The Oil for Food scandal will go down in history as one of the UNƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s bleakest of records with 2200 companies from 40 countries colluding with Saddam HusseinƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s regime to defraud $1.8billion humanitarian operation including the present US Secretary of State whose name became linked to the formation of the oil-for-food program.ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Similarly France has also been implicated with French politicians & businessmen involved in a web of kickbacks connected to the oil-for-food.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Iraq through law firm Maney & Purrington has lodged a $10billion lawsuit over the oil-for-food scam & is suing dozens of companies for defrauding Iraqi citizens out of food & medical provisions. 70 such corporations including Chevron (oil), Glaxosmithkline (drugs), BNP Paribas (French bank), Chrysler (car) are being accused for paying bribes to Saddam Hussein to secure business contracts under the program.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Former US Federal Reserve Bank Chairman Paul Volcker investigating the scandal based his report on 12million documents, unearthed how UN had authorized Saddam to sell oil to over 70 companies in the UAE that had direct ties to terror groups, how UN procurement official Alexander Yakovlev received bribes in excess of $950,000 from companies that made $79m in UN contracts, the UN budget oversight committee head Vladimir Kuznetsov was also indicted in the US for money laundering. The findings became more alarming when not only UN officials but Benon Sevan the head of the oil for food program was also party to these malpractices as was Kofi AnnanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s son Kojo Annan & the report specifically cites how Secretary General Annan (former) ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-was not diligent & effective in pursuing an investigationƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚. This is not the approach to ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-ACCOUNTABILITYƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚ that Secretary Generals of the UN preach to sovereign nations?

As is the case with all committees appointed the Volcker committee spent more than $30million on its investigation that concluded ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-serious instances of illicit, unethical and corrupt behaviourƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Yet, only in 2006 did the UN appoint a special anti-corruption unit (the Procurement Task Force) which has been since replaced in 2009 with the Office of Internal Oversight Services Permanent Investigation division & not surprisingly the number of internal corruption review cases opened, pursued, or completed has dropped drastically (previous investigation division had an average of 150 cases per year) & should anyone be surprised that the former task force investigators have been terminated too? The Permanent Investigation division decided not to even pursue about 95 cases left over by the previous team, a further 80 cases were also abandoned & the new team even stopped probes into contractors & cut qualified staff. Instead there is an all out attempt to promote a human security agenda to be financed through a ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-global human security taxƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚ & the UN handing over itself the right to make use of those revenuesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦.all this leads to a UN that is becoming a world body belonging to crooks who are planning to create a governance that will merit its sustenance & have nothing at all to do with the ultimate goal of peace.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Respect comes from visible examples of attempts to restore peace. It is in this context that the UN has always been expected to take a middle path ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…” nothing in extremes to enable compromise. Yet, year after year the UN has embarrassed itself by the manner it has handled its mandate. Its practice & clear trend is to instantly open up investigations, appoint panels, add clauses with no follow up against all the written laws & regulations currently in place. We wonder how many of the 7000 mandates the Secretary General himself is knowledgeable of, how many of these contradict each other, how many UN staffers are even aware of these clauses?

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ This necessarily leads to the all important question Can the corrupt accuse others of corruption? When UN staff are involved in rape, murder, kickbacks, fraud, embezzlement, human trafficking, smuggling, terror links & when the UN has not come to an agreed definition of terrorism or agreed on non-proliferation & disarmament what good is a UN staffed with 63,000 personnel whose salaries are paid by member countries.?

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ When an organization such as the UN preaches ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-rightsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚ to member nations, creates protocols, conventions & makes media mileage of its proposals does one expect to hear scandals involving its very officers who are being accused of raping children? Over 150 accusations were documented against UN peacekeepers sent to Congo in 2004 for rape, child abuse, sex for money, sex for food while a French NGO worker was charged for pornography on his laptop. Yet, not one UN soldier was charged though most cases had substantiated evidence. UN was quick to ask member countries to take action on home turf. There have been plenty of UN workers involved in immigration scams, visa frauds as well.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ It is also becoming increasingly clear that the UN today has been turned into a puppet by the larger & more powerful countries of the UN. The US financial commitment to the UN was $582m & it is through these contributions that the US insists on having its way. The US will not mind corruption in the UN so long as UN agrees to US pressures which is why US chose to ignore examples of corruption in the UN cited by the US budget analyst Linda Shenwich whose honesty was rewarded with termination of her UN role by the Clinton Administration, to add to injury the UN changed her safe combination, cut her telephone lines & had her leave the UN complex under armed escort with a veiled threat of becoming financially ruined should she expose corruption in the UN including the knowledge that the Clinton administration knew that UN peacekeepers sent to Africa & Asia were spreading AIDS and we can but wonder if US was responsible for introducing AIDS to Cambodia and also questions what other types of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-introductionsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚ have been taking place rest of the world!.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ So weƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢ve had oil scandals, sex, fraud, money laundering and we can now add to this list of UN helping to advance North KoreaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s nuclear weapons program, or how former Secretary General Kofi Annan accepted $500,000 personal prize from the ruler of Dubai (where the jury were UN personnel) this story (by Claudia Rosett) that hit the headlines in 2006 ultimately forced the UNSG to relinquish the cash. There is also the Kim-for-Cash scandal in North Korea with the UNDP handing over currency to Kim Jong !! in 2007 without informing the US of Kim sponsoring counterfeiting US bank notes & laundering money into world markets.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Whatever crimes exist in the world it is apparent it has taken place in the UN & not surprisingly UN peacekeepers have been accused of trading guns for ivory, having links with rebel fighters ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦.a clear trend that gives clear examples in Sri Lanka. A country that once had the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s most lethal terrorist outfit reign for over 25 years in an area that was exclusively LTTE in all but name, only UN humanitarian agencies & other NGOs were permitted to be stationed in these areas. Government troops & officials had no excess to these areas. These UN offices were responsible for building infrastructure, bettering the lives of the people etcƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦When the LTTE was militarily defeated & forces entered territory that was clearly a no-entry zoneƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦it was remarkable to see the number of underground bunkers that were built, 7 runwaysƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦& the question that naturally comes to mind was how were these built? Who facilitated such sophisticated offices to be built almost adjoining UN officesƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦.does simple ethics not necessitate the report of such activity of these UN & NGOs ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦when its own records notes LTTE as a terrorist entityƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦what ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-rightsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚ do they have unless they legitimize themselves by entering democratic means of governanceƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦no one stopped or denied the LTTE to enter democratic process, no one stopped it from running for election.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ But UN liaisons with terrorist entities it appears is not confined to Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s predicament. However, when these allegations do surface we should not be too surprised if the press release declares “These investigations found cases of misconduct by a handful of individuals but no evidence of systematic wrongdoing.” & everything is all fine & business continues as normal. Similarly, when the Congo sex scandal broke out a senior UN official was suspended from his job with pay pending an investigation into allegations of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-inappropriate conductƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚. So again we question when report after report, allegation after allegation reveals that there is a clear pattern what has the UNƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s top done about it? How can the UN function as the chief arbiter of legitimacy in global politics when it suffers from the very ailments it accuses other countries of violating ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…” UN may boast of Nobel prizes but it cannot boast of helping to create a peaceful world the prerequisite that gave birth to forming the UN.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ If UN refuses to take action over peace keepers that are violating the rules of UN & the UN insists member countries take charge of actions on home turf the natural question follows does sovereign nations require to ask permission or get consensus from any other country or countries to defend itself? The ambiguousness of this remains why would the US need to invade Afghanistan & why the UN did nothing about it not even other powerful countries, why didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t the UN stop what happened to Iraq. The reason for UN not wanting US to first attack Iraq was because UN officials, businesses & even politicians were making billions in kickbacks including Kofi AnnanƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s son who was employed at one of these companies. Was this not a conflict of interest & did this not violate UN policy? What is distinct about all of the cases brought against the UN & its officials is that there is a pattern of looking the other way. The UN staffer watching porn on his laptop was merely given early retirement, UN officials accused of sexual abuse were asked to resign following media build up, staff accused of wrong are not punished or years are taken for action to happen while they are recipients of handsome salaries & perks, most of the hiring takes place on who you know not what you know. In such a politicized environment can the world expect justice?

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ There is a steady pattern that shows either a need for conflicts to take place or groups tasked to ensure the groundwork for such conflicts is built up & when each time UN balloons its upkeep we can but ask whose money is being siphoned off. The UNƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Haiti Peace Keeping budget is $732million & two thirds of this goes towards the salary, perks & upkeep of UN personnel who are not even residing in HaitiƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦.similar scenarios prevails in other conflict stricken areas where the bulk of budgets actually goes towards overheads & not towards the devastated people.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ $590million (part of a $1.1billion disaster flash appeal) was allocated as tsunami funds. One third of this has not been spent on the devastated but on UN staff overheads (Financial Times investigation). Aid Groups are also under attack for spending much of the money collected through charities which had instead been spent on social & political gains & projects.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Now the UN is asking $60billion ($2.1billion a year for the next 5 years) to work on undiscovered climate information from the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s land, air and seasƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦Similarly in the last two decades the world has spent more than $196billion trying to save people from death & disease in poor countries. But billions spent on research has actually not given anything sustainable ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦people still die of the same diseases 33.4 million people live with HIV/AIDS worldwide, 2.7 million people were newly infected with the virusƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦asthma was rare in 1900, now it is considered epidemic.ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  It kills 180,000 worldwide annually according to the World Health Organization.ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  884 million people in the world do not have access to safe water. This is roughly one in eight of the world’s population, 2.6 billion people in the world do not have access to adequate sanitation, this is almost two fifths of the world’s population, 1.4 million children die every year from diarrhoea caused by unclean water and poor sanitation, Over the past 10 years, aid to health and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa has increased by nearly 500%, while aid to water and sanitation has increased by only 79%.ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦.Colossal amounts of money is designated for causes that are long term & do not necessarily reap results but ensure livelihoods of staffers. Similarly UN has requested $1.1billion additional fund request from top donors to boost UN expenses by 25% as well as requesting a further $1.9billion for renovating the UN head office in New York which is estimated to take 5 years to complete & would mean the relocation of 4500 UN staff & hundreds of journalists from media agencies to rented facilities in New York for which $1.8billion will costƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦.the organization is slowly but surely sucking up the earths resources but also siphoning off countries while accusing them of crimes against humanity & human rights violations when the UN are committing these very crimes.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Food, Clothing & Shelter remain the 3 main fundamental requirements of man. Yet, the UN tasked with taking care of these key areas have little to prove for its 60 years of ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-effortƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚.

  • 40 percent of the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s population accounts for 5 percent of global income. The richest 20 percent accounts for three-quarters of world income.
  • 27-28 percent of all children in developing countries are estimated to be underweight or stunted
  • 72 million children of primary school age in the developing world were not in school in 2005 (when less than one per cent of what the world spent every year on weapons was needed to put every child into school by the year 2000 and yet it didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t happen
  • There are 121 million children without education – Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names
  • about 0.13% of the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s population controlled 25% of the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s financial assets
  • A mere 12 percent of the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s population uses 85 percent of its water, and these 12 percent do not live in the Third World

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ These are just a few of the statistics that clearly signals & questions what has been done with the billions that have been pumped into the UN offices over the years when the statistics show alarming resultsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦even the 3 basic areas of food, clothing & shelter have not been taken care of. It is also opportune to remind the present UN that certain cultures, certain practices of people with distinct history & origins cannot be changed by using terminology like ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-freedomƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚ ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-democracyƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚, ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ…-fundamental rightsƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ”š‚¦therefore the UN cannot expect every single member country to be thinking & acting like the West. This is where the UN should have had a middle approach where its role was always limited to a facilitator & not turning into another aggressor as has been the case with smaller & less powerful nations in the UN. It is now opportune, for these smaller nations to rise turn themselves into a single voice & declare that the present UN should be dismantled & replaced with a new entity that would not expand their mandate before it has significantly addressed core areas it pledged to do. Why should a UN not first take care of the worldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s fundamental needs before branching out & expanding itself beyond what it can handle?

The only thing that the UN can actually boast of is its ability to attract political leaders onto a common platform & showcase a flurry of activity taking place which the media covers to perfection & the people of the world is given a message that the UN and these political leaders are doing something to better their lives. In reality the UN & most of these political leaders are the very reasons for the strife that exists, it is because of their actions & inactions that the world is plagued with never ending catastrophes that even despite repair leave scars that will never heal. This is the legacy that the UN & political leaders will always leave behind.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Shenali Waduge

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Completed missions

Continent Country Dates of operation Name of Operation Conflict
Americas Dominican Republic 1965ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1966 Mission of the Representative of the Secretary-General in the Dominican Republic (DOMREP) Operation Power Pack
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Central America 1989ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1992 United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA) Nicaraguan Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  El Salvador 1991ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1995 United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) El Salvador Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Haiti 1993ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1996 United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) 1991 coup and military rule in Haiti
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Haiti 1996ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1997 United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH) Stabilizing Haiti’s new democracy
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Guatemala 1997 United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) Guatemalan Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Haiti 1997 United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH) Training of the Haitian National Police
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Haiti 1997ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2000 United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH) Training of the Haitian National Police
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Haiti 2000ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2001 United Nations General Assembly International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH) Training of the Haitian National Police

Haiti remains poorest country in the western hemisphere

Asia Indonesian takeover of West New Guinea 1962ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1963 United Nations Security Force in West New Guinea (UNSF) West New Guinea
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  India / Pakistan 1965ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1966 United Nations India-Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM)

UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan costs annually USD6.2

Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Afghanistan / Pakistan 1988ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1990 United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Cambodia 1991ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1992 United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC) Vietnamese Occupation of Cambodia
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Tajikistan 1994ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2000 United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) Tajikistan Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  East Timor 1999 United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) Indonesian invasion and occupation
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  East Timor 1999ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2002 The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) Indonesian invasion and occupation
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  East Timor 2002ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2005 United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) Indonesian invasion and occupation
Europe Former Yugoslavia 1992ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1995 United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) Yugoslav wars
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Georgia 1993ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2009 United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)

(annual cost of USD 27.9 for peace keeping operation)

Abkhazian War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Croatia 1994ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1996 United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO) Croatian War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2002 United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH)

(annual cost of USD 144.7 for peace keeping operation)

Bosnian War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Republic of Macedonia 1995ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1999 United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP) Aftermath of the Yugoslav wars
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Croatia 1996ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1998 United Nations Transitional Authority in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) Croatian War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Prevlaka Peninsula 1996ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2002 United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) Prevlaka territorial dispute
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Croatia 1998 United Nations Civilian Police Support Group (UNPSG) Croatian War
Middle East Egypt / Israel 1956ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1967 First United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF I) Suez Crisis, Six-Day War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Lebanon 1958 United Nations Observation Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL) Lebanon crisis of 1958
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Yemen 1963ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1964 United Nations Yemen Observation Mission (UNYOM) Yemen Civil War (See also Yemen Arab Republic)
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Egypt / Israel 1973ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1979 Second United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF II) Yom Kippur War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Iran / Iraq 1988ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1991 United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) IranƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”Iraq War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Iraq/Kuwait 1991ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2003



United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ (annual cost of USD 52.8 for peace keeping operation) Gulf War
Africa Congo 1960ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1964 United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC) Congo Crisis

UN Peacekeepers accused of rape, sex for food,

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Angola 1988ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1991 United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I) Angolan Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Namibia 1989ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1990 United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) Namibian War of Independence
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Angola 1991ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II) Angolan Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Mozambique 1992ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1994 United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) Mozambican Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Somalia 1992ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1993 United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) Somali Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Liberia 1993ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1997 United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL First Liberian Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Rwanda/ Uganda 1993ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1994 United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR) Rwandan Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Rwanda 1993ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1996 United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) Rwandan Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Somalia 1993ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1995 United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) Somali Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Chad / Libya 1994 United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group (UNASOG) Aouzou Strip dispute
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Angola 1995ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1997 United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III) Angolan Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Angola 1997ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1999 United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) Angolan Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Sierra Leone 1998ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”1999

(annual cost of USD 699.2 for peace keeping operation)

United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) Sierra Leone civil war
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Central African Republic 1998ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2000 United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA) Central African Republic mutinies
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Sierra Leone 1999ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2005 United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) Sierra Leone civil war
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Eritrea/Ethiopia 2000ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)

(annual cost of USD 200.3 for peace keeping operation)

Eritrean-Ethiopian War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Burundi 2004ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2007 United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB) Burundi Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Congo 1999ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”2010 United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) Second Congo War

UN Peace Keeping Operations costs approximately USD 2740 annually.ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ 

Current deployment

Continent Location Start of operation Name of Operation Conflict
Africa Western Sahara 1991

1964 ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ (annual cost of USD 50.5 for peace keeping operation)

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) Moroccan occupation of Western Sahara
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Liberia 2003 United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) Second Liberian Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  CƒÆ’†’ƒ”š‚´te d’Ivoire 2004 United Nations Operation in CƒÆ’†’ƒ”š‚´te d’Ivoire (UNOCI) Civil war in CƒÆ’†’ƒ”š‚´te d’Ivoire
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Sudan 2005 United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) Second Sudanese Civil War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Sudan 2007 United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Darfur Conflict
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Chad, Central African Republic 2007 United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) Darfur Conflict, War in Chad (2005ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…”present)
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Congo 2010

1964 ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ (annual cost of USD 393.2 for peace keeping operation)

United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) Second Congo War
Americas Haiti 2004 United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) 2004 Haiti rebellion
Asia East Timor 2006 1964 ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ (annual cost of USD476.8 for peace keeping operation) United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) 2006 East Timor crisis
Europe Cyprus 1964 ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ (annual cost of USD 42.4 for peace keeping operation) United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP Cyprus dispute
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Kosovo 1999 (annual cost of USD 413.4 for peace keeping operation) United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Kosovo War
Middle East Middle East 1948

(annual cost of USD 23.2 for peace keeping operation)

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) Monitors the various ceasefires and assists UNDOF and UNIFIL
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Golan Heights 1974

(annual cost of USD 35.7 for peace keeping operation)

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) Agreed withdrawal by Syrian and Israeli forces following the Yom Kippur War
ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Lebanon 1978

(annual cost of USD 143.3 for peace keeping operation)

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) Israeli invasion of Lebanon and 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict


One Response to “An Expert Panel needs to first investigate effectiveness of UN”

  1. A. Sooriarachi Says:

    According to reports appearing in the Washington Post, Ban KiMoon has failed to fill the vacant position of the Head of the Internal Investigations Unit since 2007 and has now blocked the filling of a senior staff position in the Audit Unit responsible for overseeing internal operations. Instead he has appointed his own consultants to oversee similar tasks.
    The outgoing Undersecretary General & Controller of the UN, Ms Inga-Britt Ahlenius a Swede, who has completed her five-year term at the UN has made the following comments in her memo to UNSG.
    (1) That the UN Chief “undermined and sabotaged the responsibilities and independence that were granted to her office” as the senior official responsible for the war on corruption in the organization.
    (2) “There is no transparency; there is lack of accountability.”
    (3) “Rather than supporting the internal oversight which is the sign of strong leadership and good governance, you have strived to control it which is to undermine its position,”
    (4) “I regret to say that the Secretariat is now in a process of decay. It is not only falling apart … it is drifting into irrelevance,”

    This and similar accusations by other UN officials show that Ban Ki Moon and his confidants in the UN system are now trying to run a “parallel UN authority”, backed by powerful nations that want to dominate the world by hook or by crook. Right now, SriLanka is a victim of this new trend in the UN and it is high time the Non-alligned nations woke up and took strong action to stop this. They must restore the integrity and relevance of the UN.

Leave a Reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.



Copyright © 2022 All Rights Reserved. Powered by Wordpress