ගුණාත්මක බවින් තවත් පහළට වැටෙන ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ විශ්ව විද්‍යාල
Posted on December 12th, 2011

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…- ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º, ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ , ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶® ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º World University Ranking ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶» 30 ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡.

2010 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶º 96.1 ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ 91.2 ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ 83.4 ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · 15 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ 21 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± University of Hong Kong ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º 79.2 ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 26 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º 75.6 ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ Pohang University of Science and Technology ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ 75.1 ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · 28 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. 37 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ 70.7 ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ . ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶º 51.6 ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º147 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. 2009 ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» 155 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º 24 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ Indian Institute of Science Bangalore ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º 2011 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 559 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ( Makerere University ) 2011 ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ 1062 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 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ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ 2246 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¹ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ 2690 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.( ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ webometrics.info ) 2011 ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º 2324 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ , ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º 2615 ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶« ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º 2552 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ”¹…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶º (Open University of Sri Lanka) ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ 4189 ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡. ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚, ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶» ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ Universidad SimƒÆ’†’³n BolƒÆ’†’­var Venezuela ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦”ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¹ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¨ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¥ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶³ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·, ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚°ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶®ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶º. ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶”…¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”…” ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶©ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘. ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ “ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¦ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¢ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ¶«ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·”…”ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…-ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶½ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶± ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶§ ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ƒÆ’‚ ¶º ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·”‘ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¶ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ ƒÆ’‚ ¶”‚¹ƒÆ’‚ ¶ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶­ ƒÆ’‚ ¶¸ƒÆ’‚ ·”…¾ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚ ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒÆ’‚ · ƒÆ’‚ ¶¯ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶ºƒÆ’‚ ·”‘.

ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ” -â„¢ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·”‚ƒÆ’‚ ¶±ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚  ƒÆ’‚ ¶´ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ¢-¾‚¢ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·ƒ…‚¡ƒÆ’‚ ¶»ƒÆ’‚ ·

 

6 Responses to “ගුණාත්මක බවින් තවත් පහළට වැටෙන ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ විශ්ව විද්‍යාල”

  1. Dilrook Says:

    Wrong reasons. There is no point asking the same system why it is down!

    The real reason is lack of benefits to the society (tax payers who pay for free education) from universities. As a result the society does not value investing more in universities. Why should the society invest in a venture that does not give it a proportionate benefit in return?

    A large percentage of doctors, dentists, compter professionals, etc. who get free education (paid by taxpayers) leave the country without giving anything back. They may send money to their parents but not to the taxpayers who spend for them. Why waste money on them?

    On the other hand arts graduates remain int he country and in most instances there are no jobs for them.

    A way to reimburse taxpayers should be introduced. Those who leave the country without serving for 10 years after gaining full qualification should pay proportionately the deficit. This money can be used to reinvest in universities, to pay more for lecturers and get quality lecturers.

    More and more private univerities should be introduced to compete with inefficient tax payer funded universitites. Private universitites create no burden on taxpayers.

    Quality of universities should be measured not by comparing them against Harvard but against a yardstick that measures the value to the country.

  2. RanjithD Says:

    Supun,

    Do not talk about things that you do not fully understand. This ranking system does not necessarily mean that all those universities below Havard and Oxford are bad. This system is part of the market system to set up each university against the other to compete. As Dilrook says, comparing all universties in the world to one yardstick that is appropriate for the western world is of no ral value except to keep the West high and the rest low.

    Universities have to have the highest responsibility to the communities in which they exist. This idea of telling each other I am good and you are bad is not the way forward.

  3. Christie Says:

    Sinhalese The question is if we train more of those who gain employment in West and elsewhere, it will be the best money earner for the country as these people send money to the Island nation. When it happens ousr sisters and mothers do not have to go to work in the middle east etc to fund education in the country.

    This ranking aside the education of the Sinhalese masses have have suffered a lot since 1956.

    While the Sinhalese masses lost the opportunity, their leader’s children do not like these low level universities and go to the West to study.

    The best example is SWRD’s children Sunetra, Chnadrika and Anura. SRRD made two Univerisities overnight from thin air; Vidyodaya and Vidyalankara. ( They did not study Sinhalese in their tertiary pursuits)

    Hon Sirimavo banned London Advanced Level exams for Locals and it affected Sinhalese kids the most. Her son went to Madras (Chennai) India and did Advanced level to gain entry to Oxford.

    Our universities are politicised by the Socialists; whose the leaders have studied mostly in the West.

    Ban political activities in all educational institutions. Make English the language of Instruction and provide facilities for Chinese. (Sinhalese youth know enough Hindi from Indian cultural hedgemony).

  4. Dilrook Says:

    Christie

    They don’t send money to housemaids’ families. They send money only to their loved ones. That doesn’t make matters any better for housemaids. The country loses more than gains. National coffers get nothing from them except the exchange advantage which is very small compared to (emphasised) the money the state spends annually to educate those who take it and leave the country.

    On the other hand, getting them to pay the cost of their education doesn’t break the bank of those who leave the country. They can easily offord it. That way everyone benefits.

    Those who want to go aborad can go.
    The state gets the return for its investment.
    Tax payers get the return for their investment.
    Tax payers get doctors, dentists, etc. they deserve in their districts.

    Otherwise the Indian invasion of the highly lucrative Sri Lankan professional job market will continue. Indians are aggressively invading Sri Lanka’s medical, engineering, business and many other fields not because Indian qualifications are better suited to Sri Lanka (not at all) but because Sri Lankan free university graduates are leaving without paying for their lunch. In fact Sri Lankan professionals are considered more suitable to jobs in most countries than Indians despite the irrelevent university ranking.

    Needless to say Sri Lankans are better to suited to work in Sri Lanka than Indians. Allow those who want to leave to leave but let them pay for their lunch so that others can be educated free. They can afford it easily.

    Comparatively Tamils leave Sri Lanka after free education more than Sinhalese and Muslims.

  5. Christie Says:

    Remittances from house maids working overseas is the biggest income surpassing income from garments and primary produce.

    Evry one in the Island pays taxes and charges towards the revenue of the country, not just the ones that pay income tax. So government expenditure on eduycation health etc ocomes from that revenue.

    The Sinhalese, Muslims, Burghers and Malays should stop patronising Indian doctors and other Indians and ofcourse Indian businesses and products.

  6. KingSasanka Says:

    If the “Pass mark” levels are lowered so low to please a few at the foundation levels, what do you expect when children reached tertiary level.

    Recently I was in the audience when head of one of the departments of one of the premier universities in Sri Lanka addressed the gathering, I was thinking is this what we produce at our universities.

    The person was truly a “Home grown” product.

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