The Spread of the CDU Kidney Disease: Is ten thousand deaths not sufficient to spur us to action
Posted on December 1st, 2013

By Garvin Karunaratne. Ph.D.

I am perturbed to hear that CDU is found to have spread to the North Western Province, This disease has already caused the deaths of at least ten thousand  people in the North Central Province and though this has been investigated by local as well as international institutions like the WHO, the spread has not yet been arrested.

It appears to me that no definite course of action has been taken because of conflicting advise and in view of the fact that the advice has been offered by  authorities of repute  it is not possible to hammer out which is the real cause.

I am not a scientist to offer  a scientific solution or to comment on the advice offered by scientific giants.

However as an administrator of agricultural development ,social and economic development programmes in more than one Third World country I can state that the best course of action will be to take action on all the advice simultaneously.  Then somehow the spread of CDU can be arrested.  My experience of working with farmers in Anuradhapura and Hambantota  urges me to make a suggestion that immediate action must be taken to arrest this disease. If no action is taken  CDU will spread and ultimately cause the death of close upon a million. At that stage when CDU has spread it will be difficult to find a solution and that will perhaps be the end of Sri Lanka with Dengu mainly in the Urban areas and CDU in the rest. The innocence of the poor farmers with whom I have worked for long whose travails and tribulations are the core of two of my novels urge me to speak out. (Mukulita Piyumo Ayi Vana Meda Me and Vidanes Daughter)

I have spent most of my administrative duties in the dry zone and was at the forefront of introducing high yielding varieties and providing  advice to use fertilizer to boost yields was what we always concentrated on.

At that time in the Sixties there was a coordinated extension service by two Departments- the Agrarian Services with its active cultivation committees and the Department of Agriculture with its qualified officers from the village level upwards.  The extension service was very effective especially with the peoples organization at the base.

Compared to the Sixties three major changes have taken place in agricultural extension:

Firstly the Paddy lands Act was abolished and with it the extension work that the Department of Agrarian Services did ceased. The cultivation committees were done away with and this left a big vacuum that has not yet been filled.

Secondly the World Bank came up with their Training and Visit System of Agricultural Extension which made the Agricultural Department work it alone without any farmer organizations. That was a system suitable for large scale farmers and not for peasant agriculture. It was forced onto Third World countries.

Thirdly President Premadasa  with one stroke of his pen made all Agricultural Overseers Grama Niladharis and with this the extension service totally ceased to exist. Agricultural Instructors worked at the divisional level and they had a very large number of farmers to cater to and  without trained overseers the extension service virtually broke down.

Fourthly   the craze of boosting paddy production made the present government give a fertilizer subsidy. Fertilizer was given out at a 90% subsidy and the farmers did use it. This subsidy cost the Government Rs, 34,000 million annually.

In the absence of a vibrant extension service the farmers used all varieties as much as possible.

I have already documented my experiences with agricultural extension officers in the Nineties. When I wanted advice they gave me the wrong advice and I am certain that the situation has not yet been corrected because when I casually inquired from some farmers in the Kurunegala District last year(2012)  I was told that they used Urea at the basal stage.

In the Nineties my inquiries were  at  the extension centers at Udupila and Kadawata.

“The officers there did not know the exact amount of fertilizer I should use and relate it to the high yielding varieties. At my insistence they raked their files and provided me with details. The circular they produced advised the use of Ammonium Sulphate and Urea at the basal stage and no mentioin was made of their use at the top dressing stage.  I brought this to the notice of the Secretary to the Ministry and months later I got a reply that the advice given to me was out of date by half a dozen years.  About a year later I dropped into one of these Centers and   found that even then the top dressing was not incorporated. There is not a single farmer who does not know  that ammonium sulphate/urea must be used as the top dressing. “(From: How the IMF Ruined Sri Lanka and Alternate Programs of Success. Godages)

Agricultural experts Cecil Dharmasena and U P de S Waidyaratna have documented how the agricultural extension system is paralysed  today..(Island 22/4 , 6/5 ,28/5, 4/6)

Thus in my opinion the main cause is the excessive use of fertilizer, especially at the inappropriate stage. For instance urea and ammonium suphate can be absorbed  if there is a plant. Used at the basal stage these are not absorbed and leach into the soil- one of the fundamental causes to make the water unfit for human consumption.

To get back to the extension service even today there are no qualified officers at the village level. The Niyamakas who were appointed have to be trained and I suggest that a mobile training programme be mounted immediately to equip them with the necessary knowledge. For extension purposes a farmer’s organization like the cultivation committee of the Paddy Lands Act is essential. There was much talk of a Jana Sabha at the village level. Such an organization if established will give a boost to all development activities.

The other reasons adduced by scientists  are also valid and action should be taken. Ample tests should be carried out to ensure that agrochemicals  and pesticides available are not harmful and the extension service has to ensure their proper use.

A Vibrant extension service is essential.

The spread of CDU is still at its initial stage. If no action is taken immediately it can turn to be an epidemic that cannot be controlled.  Then millions will die.  Let that not happen to my Motherland.

 Garvin Karunaratne, PhD Agricultural Economics and Non Formal Education, Michigan State University

Former Govt Agent Matara and Senior Assistant Commissioner of Agrarian Services.

1 st December 2013

24 Responses to “The Spread of the CDU Kidney Disease: Is ten thousand deaths not sufficient to spur us to action”

  1. Lorenzo Says:

    Govt. has no time or money to fix this problem because 100% of their time and money goes to satisfy Tamils!!

    This is the problem in SL.

    REAL PROBLEMS don’t get attention.
    FAKE PROBLEMS of Tamils ALWAYS get priority.

  2. Susantha Wijesinghe Says:

    In Vavuniya, I remember people putting a little lime juice into the glass of water, and you could see an opaque powder like substance, sedimenting to the bottom. It is calcium. I believe this is a contributory factor for CDU.

    Lorenzo !! Very true, real problems don’t get any attention. Fake problems of Tamils receive utmost attention.

    EG: Tamil problem, ethnic problem, self determination problem, homeland problem defecating problem, Tamil dignity problem, Tamil urinating problem and so on. They have never ending problems. It is a curse they brought about themselves, by killing innocent people. This CURSE will never, never, end for those who are crying over problems. It will be transferred from generation to generation. A new bearded rascal has now taken over the baton.

    BR has said that the Rajapakses will carry on for another 20 years. That is a new curse in the making.

  3. Lorenzo Says:

    “BR has said that the Rajapakses will carry on for another 20 years. That is a new curse in the making.”

    If BR becomes the president then SL is stuffed!

    Unless SL can overcome the TAMIL CURSE (the curse of Tamils in SL) there will NEVER be solutions to ANY REAL problem.

    It gets worse.

    PIPE WATER to all is the solution.

    But when Sinhalese ask for clean water they get killed!!

    e.g. Weliweriya

    So how can you resolve this problem!

  4. Fran Diaz Says:

    It is curious that the Central Province is not affected by CKDU. The Central Province gets its fair share of fertilizers, insecticides and herbicides due to tea plantations and vegetables grown for commercial purposes. The worst affected are three provinces adjacent to the Central Province. CKDU started over 20 yrs ago – it was not even highlighted during those times. Lanka leaders were too busy with the imaginary ‘Tamil Problem’ then as now. At least now with the present govt. there is extensive Kidney Dialysis being undertaken to treat the affected people. This is a very expensive undertaking.

    Also we must note that the ltte used water as a weapon. About 1,000 soldiers died of dehydration at Elephant Pass due to the ltte cutting off their drinking water supply. Also note that the ltte cut off water to thousands of farmers of the East which triggered the last war with the ltte.

    There is no other way to heal the affected areas other than use of the Reverse Osmosis Process to clean polluted water and pipe the clean water to households. Or pipe in clean water from an outside area. Wearing of protective gloves and goloshes necessary if working in water such as in paddy fields. This is an expensive undertaking. It would be a good thing if such a venture is undertaken via the CHOGM. The so far useless Jnt Opposition could wipe away their past ‘sins’ by initiating such a move ?

    Those affected by the CKDU could use Homeopathy for relief or even cure in some cases (please see web for removal of heavy metals using Homeopathy). They have to make sure that reinfection does not happen. The other method is Chelation therapy which is risky if the person is weak due to the diseased kidneys. It has to be done with doctor supervision and heavy doses of vitamins and minerals to supplement and may suit people who are relatively strong & healthy and wish to prevent spread of disease.

    Here is an article on CKDU, from the Island newspaper :

    Chronic Kidney Disease – When Scientists Disagree
    November 29, 2013, 8:31 pm – Island

    By Dr. Kingsley de Alwis, President,

    National Academy of Sciences of Sri Lanka

    The deadly disease known as Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Aetiology (CKDu), aka Chronic Renal Failure (CRF), is progressively ravaging many poor rural communities in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. It is now being detected in other areas of the Dry Zone such as the Eastern and Uva Provinces as well. It has resulted in the deaths of a large number of people, variously estimated at between 20 and 22 thousand, over the last 20 years. Some 8,000 persons are currently said to be undergoing treatment for this disease and, according to the Minister of Health, the Government is spending over Rs. 4,000 million annually on treating CKDu patients. This insidious disease which, according to the final WHO report, cannot be ascribed to diabetes mellitus, hypertension, primary glomerular nephritis or other known etiologies, usually progresses without outward symptoms until it reaches an advanced – and often terminal – stage. 

     What do scientists say about the causes of CKDu?

    Many investigations have been launched and studies carried out to identify the causes of this disease, but no definitive answers have yet been found, although theories abound. The possible causes to which CKDu has been attributed by scientists include, among others:

    hardness and/or high content of fluorides in drinking water;

    use of cheap aluminium cookware which is easily solubilised by the fluoride in water;

    ·excessive use of agrochemicals containing nephrotoxic chemicals, such as compounds of heavy metals like cadmium and arsenic, and even plant nutrients like phosphate itself (hyperphosphatemia);

    ·consumption of food items such as lotus roots and smoking tobacco, which have high Cadmium (Cd) levels;

    · algal and herbal toxins in the drinking water supply;

    · high ionic concentration in groundwater aquifers supplying the wells from which people draw their drinking water;

    · nephrotoxic ingredients (e.g. Sapsanda) in widely used ayurvedic herbal medicines;

    · excessive dehydration in the work environment of farmers; and even

    · genetic predisposition of the affected population to kidney damage from normally harmless levels of nephrotoxins; and

    · multi-factorial causes (i.e. all or most of the above!)   


    Sometimes Scientists Disagree

     With every theory, a silver bullet or panacea has been suggested as being the solution to the problem. For over two decades, scientists in various institutions in different parts of the country (as well as Sri Lankans living in other countries!) have been doing research and/or propounding theories on these different possibilities. Many have been proposing solutions, often rushing to publish them in newspapers and/or the electronic media, presumably to get maximum publicity for their theory (and themselves).  Often these theories have been defended aggressively, with more heat than light being thrown on the problem.

     There still remain many gaps, even in defining the scope of the problem. For example we still don’t have adequate information on the profile of the CKDu patients with respect to: age, gender, education, occupation (including participation in farming and other activities if they are housewives), income, kinds of food & water and other substances consumed, cooking utensils used, source of drinking water, work habits (place, hours, outdoors/indoors, etc.),  size of family, position in the family, other family members and members of the immediate neighborhood  affected (if any), nature and quantities of agro-chemicals used if they are farmers, type of farming (e.g. paddy cultivators, chena cultivators, vegetable growers, etc.); location (preferably with GPS coordinates), etc. etc. Nor do we have a map showing the intensity of occurrence of the disease or a map of the ionic content of water bodies (including aquifers) in the country.

     The urgent need to develop a strategy to rid the country of CKDu was realized by the Sri Lankan Government, which requested the World Health Organization (WHO) to embark on a program of collaborative studies with the Ministry of Health to identify its cause(s). These collaborative investigations have shed some light on various possibilities, but have not yet resulted in a definitive diagnosis of the problem, only the listing of several likely causes.


    Disagreement among

    scientists is healthy

     However, we need not be unduly alarmed about the number of different causes to which CKDu is attributed by scientists. In fact, this is the normal way in which science works. Science moves forward through collection of evidence, putting forward explanations (hypotheses), debating theses explanations through a series of interactions, as well as the clash of ideas, collecting more data and revising their conclusions. Scientists may analyze different sets of data or limited data and come to different conclusions and dispute each other’s ideas. (The proverbial six blind men describing an elephant by feeling different parts of its anatomy come to mind). Then, as more information is collected or becomes available, scientists refine their interpretations and, in time, come to conclusions that are closer to the truth. The main thing is that the data they gather and the conclusions they come to are out there and accessible to all others working on the same problem – especially if their findings are published in peer-reviewed scientific journals rather than in the newspapers.

     Considering the number of factors that could be involved and their interactions, the investigations on the aetiology of CKDu should necessarily be carried out by a team comprising a whole range of specialists including, among others:


    ·  medical scientists (epidemiologists, nephrologists, pathologists, public health specialists),

    · agricultural scientists (soil scientists, agricultural chemists, extension personnel, agronomists, agricultural chemists working on fertilizers and pesticides, food technologists),

    ·  analytical chemists,  geologists, hydrogeologists, geohydrologists, hydrologists, water quality specialists and

    · sociologists, economists and statisticians.

    The National Academy of Sciences of Sri Lanka (NASSL), being the only body of eminent senior scientists in Sri Lanka covering the whole range of disciplines involved, is organizing a Symposium on “Chronic Kidney Disease of uncertain origin (CKDu): a scientific basis for future action”, focusing on the current status of knowledge of the disease, its occurrence, manifestation, cause(s) and the short and long-term action needed to combat or mitigate it.

     The full-day symposium is scheduled to be held on December 10, 2013 at Galadari Hotel, Colombo. The Symposium will bring together most of the practitioners in the different disciplines mentioned above who have been working either independently or under the Health Ministry- and WHO-sponsored research project. The Tentative Program of the Symposium is given at the end of this article.


    Expected Outcomes

    The expected outcomes of this symposium would be:

    1.      A clearer understanding of the present status of scientific knowledge concerning the cause or causes of CKDu in Sri Lanka, as opposed to unfounded theories or conjecture;

    2. The identification of short-term measures that would deal with possible factors that might be implicated in the spread of CKDu among population groups at risk, but which would in any case improve the general health and work environments of the rural population in the endemic CKDu areas (e.g. schemes to provide safe drinking water, careful monitoring of the quality of agrochemicals used by farmers, health education programs for the rural population, etc.)

    3.  A long-term program to continue the investigations through a structured, multi-disciplinary research project to tackle CKDu in the affected areas, preferably coordinated by an Epidemiologist.

    Following the Symposium, the National Academy will publish the proceedings and, together with interested organizations/ funding agencies, participate in preparing project proposals for implementing the short- and long-term measures proposed”.

  5. Lorenzo Says:

    Govt cut off water to Sinhala people in Weliweriya by NOT giving them clean pipe water while PUMPING OUT all good water from Sinhala areas like Labugama, Kalatuwawa to Tamil areas like Wellawattei.

    THIS is the problem.

    GIVE every Sinhala family clean pipe water. Let them have wells but have the pipes too.

    This is the solution.

  6. Lorenzo Says:

    The root cause of CKDu is BAD DRINKING & COOKING WATER.

    Give these 2.5 million people in affected areas CLEAN PIPE WATER.

    That’s all.

    NO NEED for further analysis. SOLUTIONS, SOLUTIONS, SOLUTIONS!

    WATER is the problem. It does NOT matter Cd, Ca, Ar, Fl, algae, etc., etc. The source of the problem is BAD WATER.

    Some are making BIG MONEY from this CKDu research while people die.

    For scientists this is a TREASURE. Now Endian scientists are coming here to use SLs as guinea pigs! Bloody hell! People die.

    Just give these 2.5 million people in affected areas CLEAN PIPE WATER and CKDu, Cholera, Hepatitis ABC, water bourne disases, etc., etc. will be gone.

  7. Lorenzo Says:

    School story of a FOOLISH king who seeks the root cause of a collapsed house.

    Finally he finds out the fat man in the mosque to be the culprit who had nothing to do with it!!

    Instead if the fool had RECONSTRUCTED the damn house, problem solved!!

    This is the problem in SL.

    HAIR SPLITTING over root cause analysis when the damn SOLUTION IS STARING ON THE FACE.

    Tamils make GOOD use of this nonsense and INVENT NEW ROOT CAUSES that delays SOLUTIONS!!

  8. Fran Diaz Says:


    Cause & Effect is to know. As you say, Solutions to problem are all important, but Cause & Effect are also important in order to know historical truths and to avoid future similar problems.

    For instance, use of aluminum cookware is dangerous to health, and Dr Kingsley de Alwis has highlighted that point.

    There is no other way to find lasting resolutions to problems, whether it is health or politics. Sometimes the two aspects intertwine in negative ways, to our dismay.


    Sri Lanka needs a National Govt. that works for the People of Lanka.

  9. Fran Diaz Says:

    There are no “Tamil Problems” or “War Crimes”. The “Tamil Problem” & ‘War Crimes” are inventions to distract the GoSL and the ordinary people so that various other agendas can be carried out.

    If at all, the Tamil Problem in the form of Caste/poverty in Tamil Nadu.

  10. aloy Says:

    Water is the most precious thing in this world. Please give it to to who ever needs it. No need to split hairs for the root cause. We generally know the problem. Hon. Minister of water supplies, over to you.

  11. Lorenzo Says:


    We know the cause – BAD WATER.

    That is ENOUGH. No need to SPLIT HAIRS (thanks Aloy for the perfect term) further. Then we become like that foolish king who looked for root causes within root causes and ended up doing the WRONG thing.

    BAD WATER cause OTHER problems too – stomach problems, Hepatitis, etc., etc.

    Just give people CLEAN PIPE WATER in CKDu affected and POTENTIALLY AFFECTING areas.

    Let the scientists split hairs in LABS. Not with people’s lives.

  12. Lorenzo Says:

    “The “Tamil Problem” & ‘War Crimes” are inventions to distract the GoSL and the ordinary people so that various other agendas can be carried out.”

    This is true.

    This is their plan.

    And it is working.

  13. Fran Diaz Says:

    Yes, do give all water needed AND find the causes for pollution of water wherever it happens. Find the reasons and stop/apprehend the culprits whether natural or two legged. Those who use water as a weapon ought to face the death penalty.

    Our bodies are 70% water and its uses many, many. We cannot live without it. Even a kindergarten kid knows that.

  14. Fran Diaz Says:


    The scientists NEVER said not to give clean water to those who need it. Their aim is merely to find the causes which is important too, and let the public know of their findings. Why get upset over that.

  15. Lorenzo Says:

    This water problem (Weliweriya, north central province) will creep up from various other parts too.

    This is a problem identified hundreds of years ago. As population increases water available for each human reduces. It will get WORSE. Solutions are needed NOW.

  16. Lorenzo Says:

    Because over 10,000 people have died, tens of thousands more dying and NO PLAN to give clean water to the people!!

    This is what upsets me.

    From Weliweriya to Anuradhapura it is the same problem!

    All this happening when people WASTE WATER in Wellawattei, etc.

  17. Fran Diaz Says:


    I am upset too. That makes two of us – that is why we keep writing in. But we can’t deny clean water to any part of Lanka, Wellawatte or Weliweriya.

    How to make water in a POLLUTED AREA clean again : This is the problem. Reverse Osmosis is the only method we know to make heavily polluted water clean again. Our Cabinet is not composed of Scientists. There has to be a Science Advisory Committee to the entire Parliament, not just to GoSL. With increased industry coming in, this is a must.

    In the meantime, the entire Parliament must be held responsible for delivery of clean water to affected areas on a regular basis, on a reliable basis, till pipe lines are laid and CLEAN pipe borne water made available. Attention should be drawn through all media for both delivery of clean water as well as CLEAN pipe borne water. Top priority must be given to this matter by both GoSL & Jnt Opposition. Coming together in tragedy is the hallmark of a working Democracy.

    We were wishing that the matter was brought up at the CHOGM. That would have made CHOGM meaningful.

  18. Lorenzo Says:

    We can do that LATER.

    FIRST give clean pipe water to all this people. Peopel are dying without good water. That is the FIRST problem to resolve.

    In my view water MUST be used as a weapon of demographic manipulation.

    Even if SL doesn’t, Tamils are already doing it against others. When it comes to resource crunch it is the law of the jungle.

    GOOD water resource is limited. Sinhala water consumers must be PRIORITISED over Tamil water needs.

    In my view water MUST be used as a weapon of demographic manipulation.

    I’m 100% certain this is what ancient SL rulers did.

    By DAMING rivers BEFORE they flowed to the DRY NORTH (areas CLOSEST to Tamil Madu and areas likely occupied by ANY INVADERS. Even IPKF invaders landed in the north!!) our kings LIMITED the water supply to the NORTH thereby LIMITING the number of kallathoniyas who can invade and SURVIVE in the island.

    Geography also helped SL. Jaffna peninsular is the CLOSEST to Tamil Madu and water is VERY BAD in Jaffna. VERY high salt and calcium. When we boil water in Jaffna permanant CaCO3 sediments get deposited at the bottom and sides of kettle. This NATURALLY killed ANY large invaders in to the island and controlled the INVADER numbers.

    SOME BLOODY FOOLS try to give clean water to Jaffna. A BLOODY DISASTER of hara-kiri!! All Tamil Nadu people will be in Jaffna soon if that is done.

    In my view water MUST be used as a weapon of demographic manipulation.

  19. aloy Says:

    I have seen the the “No fire Zone” story by Jayawardani. In the back ground are top top agricultural land in the country. There is plenty of good looking water bodies. If that filming was done on the actual location I can see that tamils are blessed with what the best our country can give. I think what they want is to have it exclusively for themselves.
    Coming back to the water problem, If SL can find money to do so many expensive expressways (some of which leading to unproductive zones) why cant they find money to save the dying farmers who are the main voters of big time politicians of SLFP. They should be told the reality before they vote next time.

  20. Fran Diaz Says:

    Water must NEVER be used as a weapon. God/Truth/Allah will destroy such outfits or people – see what happened to the ltte who used Water as a weapon. Over a 1,000 soldiers died of dehydration due to ltte cutting off their water supply. At Mavilaru, the ltte cut off Water to thousands of Eastern Province farmers. There ought to be new Laws to carry the death penalty for purposely spoiling Water and heavy fines for inadvertently doing so.

    The present GoSL has inherited huge problems left untended by previous regimes due to the Cold War and so called invented Tamil Problems.

    The present GoSL must carry a message to the People of Lanka that pipe borne Water is being planned and each rural area will get Clean water according to a Plan. After all, that was what was done with rural electricity project too, still being carried out.

    The message from the GoSL about clean pipe borne Water is in the making must be LOUD & CLEAR. Otherwise, mischief makers will make much out of this situation.

    Scientific studies about the Water problem must go on simultaneously to piped water plans for all of rural Lanka. One county, One people.

  21. aloy Says:

    You are right here. Plan and give pipe borne water to all Sri Lankans. This is the solution. Prioritize NCP. Perhaps to start with reverse osmosis could be an immediate solutions as these villages are spread out. I too will contribute by designing few systems with WaterCAD solutions free of charge if given the opportunity.
    As for scientific investigations we should not rely on them too much. These people have been investigating for the last twenty years or so. Have they come out with final conclusion?. More confusion when there are too many investigations; each parting going on the direction that they are interested in. Finally more confusion. There were up to 18 different groups of eminent scientist to investigate the cause of Weliveriya problem. What have they produced?. Nothing so far. I know when the report comes out there will be 18 divergent views. This is the order of the day in SL. We cannot agree and come out with anything in one voice. The other day I saw a head line of a Sunday Leader news paper. They were asking whether Prabakaran is a Hero or a terrorist, when the obvious is well known.

  22. Lorenzo Says:

    Water IS used a weapon of demographic control and defence.

    e.g. Weliweriya, Welioya, Wellawattei, EP, Mahaweli, Galoya, etc.

    No amount of ideology can stop that. That is how the world works.

    What must happen is leave that to the strategists and GIVE PIPE WATER TO CKD AFFECTED AREAS FIRST.

  23. Fran Diaz Says:


    Water as a weapon and Rioting as a weapon must never be allowed in Lanka. No, never. Caste & Class wars must be ‘fought’ in other ways.

    DEMAND through graphic demonstrations & Petitions from local politicos and local bodies better housing, better education, pipe borne water, etc. That is what they are there for – to meet the needs of the Public, not just collect pay packets and warm seats of power. Media should be used extensively with photos for the Cause at hand.

  24. Lorenzo Says:


    Of course! Riots – absolutely NOT.

    But ONLY in an ideal universe. Certainly NOT in this universe where the struggle to survive OVERRULES everything else.

    The end justifies the means. The end is SL’s survival as a unitary Sinhala Buddhist nation. ALL the countries in the world are on SURVIVAL GEAR at this moment. We must not get to EXTICTION GEAR.

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