Rajapakse, regional politics, “Eurocentric Developmentalism” and the western hegemony -Part 2
Posted on March 31st, 2010

Geethanjana Kudaligamage

“Eastern Nightmare” a hysterical anxiety, and the inherent historical fear of the west toward the east.

The pre-modern Silk Road, the red line depicts the land route and the blue line depicts the sea route. Europe locates in the periphery, to the far west of the Asian center.

Post LTTE political developments in the region

Few crucial developments have been progressively unfolding within the sphere of Sri Lankan current politics, namely”¦

1.  Rajapakse administration has demonstrated its determination to demarcate its policies clearly in the direction of liberating from “Eurocentric Developmentalism.”

 2.  It is foreseeable a rift in the centrality of the existing world system in north Atlantic circuits in future, due to growing Indian and especially Chinese global economic relations, and even can expect a shift of the centrality (probably partial) from North Atlantic to the Indian Ocean region.

 3   Unforeseen Western strategic failure in the region; due to sudden reaction of Sri Lanka in retort to its adversaries’ amateurish handling of SL affaires.

4.  The western desperate and undressed reaction; punitive strategy (vengeance?), becoming increasingly unpopular in the global south and proved to be counter productive, (i.e. NAM decision to submit their displeasure on UN secretary genera’s decision over appointing a committee to look into war crimes in SL) and above all, is indirectly helping Rajapakse to consolidate his power base; notwithstanding western maneuvers, emerging realities have resulted to strengthen Chinese factor in SL politics more than ever before.

 5.  The strong determination of the west to turn the table into their advantage, and predictable further militarization of the region.

 6.  The deterioration of the credibility of once high regarded international bodies such as, United Nations Organization due to its increasingly becoming hegemonic tool of the west.

 7.  India’s reassessment of her future in the region; breaking her posture as the antagonist of the regional corporation, leaving a hope of ending the colonial trap of rivalry with China over the border issue; and her signing nuclear partnership with Russia.

 Before undertaking “Eurocentric Developmentalism,” and its deceptive agenda of enforcing exploitative structures, it is essential to note the limitations of describing “ƒ”¹…”ED’ (Eurocentric Developmentalism) with a short description of “Eurocentrism” and its philosophical background that supports this premise. Therefore, please note that the ideas presented in this part of the article are mostly gravitate on Eurocentrism, its philosophical background and the “ƒ”¹…”invisibility’ of Eurocentric formulas of “economics” that in turn prevent development out of poverty of a greater part of the world humanity of about 80% of the world population, due to some fundamental philosophical and ethical slippages. This writer believes somehow someone must discuss these issues at least now because, if Sri Lanka needs to transcend from its current state of affairs, including politico-economical, diplomatic and policy planning, she must liberate from the servile mentality of some of the Eurocentric ideological premises that dominate our entire thinking process.

We all recognize, without any doubt, the west’s immense contribution to mankind, and its greater achievements in arts, sciences and enrichment of entire human knowledge. In turn, it has enlightened and liberated man, but only the western man. Why? Why this liberation never seeped through geographical boundaries of the west to reach the rest of the humanity? Why not to Africa, the closest landmass to Europe, to a greater part of Asia and a large segment of Latin America? Was that, as Eurocentric mind deemed, due to natural inferiority of populations of global south or is it a part of the flamboyant yet deceptive design?

On the other hand, have we ever thought about identifying this so-called third world in terms of history? This is the part of the humanity that was under vigorous western colonization. Does the history of colonization have anything to do with the existing poverty of these countries today? If someone says “ƒ”¹…”no,’ then certainly that answer is based on Eurocentric ideological premise; because, Eurocentrism without any hesitation, can deny such responsibility and philosophically justifies this denial. When Eurocentric policies are being imposed upon third world nations, the philosophy behind this imposition already endorses such impositions.

For instance, when colonial India was suffering from these policies and resulted starvation and hundreds of thousands of peasant deaths, still the British colonial administration was never moved. Why”¦, because the philosophy was there to rescue them from their sins. The western philosophy played a greater role in the colonial history, and even now.

Irrational myth of modernity and Eurocentrism in general (a prelude to  “Eurocentric Developmentalism”)

The greatest damage that Eurocentrism has brought into our intellectual culture is the “disappearance of hypothesis” of the coevalness of the peripheral humanity. Let along active scientific research, even bringing a hypothesis of a research topic to prove something like “hi-tech methods of steel production in pre colonial India” or similar topic into domains of scientific research in third world has been mostly discouraged and more often even considered as trivial and insignificant. The discouragement instigates in the high levels of western intellectual stronghold in universities in western metropolitan centers. Through experience, third world intellectuals know that they will never be able to survive without the approval of these western centers. The entire world’s knowledge production has been linked to few universities in the west. If anything comes out side this mainstream domain of knowledge, will be discarded as trash, or if not, never given due recognition. On the other hand, if anything to be considered as serious, definitely those knowledge productions required to fall within the shade of, as Michael Foucault says, “the knowledge tree” of the west. (An insight into this area could be found in “Archaeology of knowledge,” and “The order of the things” Michael Foucault)

 This writer has met many learned Sri Lankans who do not even give any serious attention to ancient Sri Lanka’s remarkable technological advancement, which in turn built entire civilization of the island. (Eurocentrism even against using the word civilization in relation to Sri Lankan ancient cultural development) They consider such information as unworthy to grant access to intellectual domains, considered to be just gossips and utterances, not even worth to be taken serious and therefore kept virtually exteriority of their “serious studies.”  For instance, the use of iron in the past is a subject that can cause a widespread laughter in science faculties and labs in universities in Sri Lanka. (If they don’t laugh openly, still prevailing notion is not positive) Even after archaeological excavations unearthed iron nails and other artifacts in the island, still these Eurocentric folks were reluctant to believe this; knowing the fact that such disbelief eventually place them out of accepted scientific method of reasoning.

 If they believe in scientific method, they do not have to go that far, still they can witness the complexities in the use of steel in the ancient construction methods, even cutting and slicing of stones could never become such intricate affaire if there was no wide range of steel use, iron ore melting technologies, casting methods, tempering methods so on. This revels the extent to which they have being blinded by Eurocentrism and how far that has been penetrated into their marrows. Eurocentrism actually produces more blind people with mythical beliefs rather than more worldly wise ones, in other words these Eurocentric intellectuals must be considered as mentally sick people, due to half of their brains being dead. But the hegemony does not care about genuine knowledge of mankind. But, how if laughter can generate more money than serious attention?

 The Indian example again supplies a clue to uncover this dilemma. As Chomsky revels, “It (India) produced as much iron as all of Europe until as late as the end of eighteenth century; British engineers were still studding Indian manufacturing techniques in 1820 “in order to help English steel makers close the technological gap with India” (Chomsky)

A Harvard military historian observes, “Bombay was producing locomotives at competitive levels when the railway boom began. But (the British authority, in order to dominate the market), “really existing free market doctrine” destroyed these sections of Indian industry just as it demolished India’s textile industry, along with its advanced ship building industry and other that had made it the world’s leading center of manufacture before the British takeover. (Chomsky) This revels why Europe is suffering from “eastern nightmare” even in this stage of late capitalism.

 But it is doubtful if large section of contemporary Indians would believe their own story due to their own Eurocentric world view. India, to this writer’s experience, is the most dreadfully colonized nation on this planet. An over confident Indian can surmount even Queen Elizabeth for being more Eurocentric than the Queen. Their Eurocentrism in most cases is ridiculous and laughable even to another colonized. It is extremely sad and complicated issue.

 In fairness to our Indian friends, (otherwise they might beat me on the road) it is more appropriate to give an example to prove this point. Sometime back when I was involved in higher education, I happened to share an apartment with an Indian friend from the same university. Very soon I realized that he was suffering from inferiority complex. In every night, as a habitual practice, this Indian friend had something to say against India or criticize his fellow Indians for little things like, chewing beetle or farting in public, coming to classes in Indian national dress or eating using fingers etc.  As this situation was becoming annoying, I decided to play “Rajapakse” with him, which means, fighting the Indian war for Indians. When he becomes outrageous, I began to intervene with counter arguments in favor of Indians, in other words I tried to save India from Indians.

 One day all of a sudden, he came up with this wonderful invention. He said”¦

“You know, all our Indian politicians are stupid bastards.”

Jokingly I said that I didn’t like him using the word “all” in it.

Poor guy without contemplating what I said, continued to say “I hate the buggers”   

Just for curiosity, I asked why he said so, and asked to give me an example.

He said the chief minister in his state was a stupid because he couldn’t speak English.

In turn I asked if he was talking about England or India.

He said India. I asked why he believed that his rulers must speak English given the fact that they are not ruling England. But he said this single fact revels they are just stupid and useless.

This dialogue revel the relationship between “intelligence and the language,” a notion strongly prevail in the west and their colonies; perpetually planted and developed through Eurocentric education. The idea is, the languages of the center such as English, French and German are the languages of knowledge production and all other languages are considered to be peripheral languages, including Spanish language.   

But people who have traveled in UK, USA, Canada and Australia know that there are millions of people live in those countries with excellent knowledge of English but below average intellect. Above information tells the social background we live in that is hegemonized by Eurocentrism.

 Philosophical background of Eurocentric Developmentalism

The clarification of the idea of Eurocentric Developmentalism can be given as thus. “Eurocentric Developmentalism” or “ƒ”¹…”ED’ is an ideology and praxis imposed upon underdeveloped world by western administrations and their economic experts as Chomsky says, with full of “bad ideas.” It is an ideology of fixation, to a “ƒ”¹…”hope’ receding further and further away as we attempt to catch it up, an economical metaphor symbolically relating us to the material glory of the west, but more frequently turns out to be a “ƒ”¹…”mettle jacket’ that prevent, if not limit our growth by economical malnutrition. That is the shortest answer this writer can provide for this question.“

 Getting out of this fixation is a major paradigm shift in Sri Lanka’s approach to the post independent economic policy. It appears that Sri Lanka is searching for new avenues rather than depending on erratic “Eurocentric Developmentalist formulas.” This change no doubt, from the western angle, must have added another justification for a regime change in the island.

As Enrique Dussel shows, “Eurocentric Developmentalist” paradigm, generally perceived as “western formula for human progress” has been based on fundamental philosophical fallacy.” The primary of them is the placement of Europe above the rest of humanity. In that sense, concepts that import from Europe, may it be political, economical or social, perceived to be superior to the rest. As the way it has been enforced to the rest of the world, the developmentalist idea of Europe, eventually manifest as the only way for progress to the rest of the humanity. This is not only “the belief” of the administrations in Europe, but also the administrations in the global south, especially in the former colonies of Europe.

As Dussel says, “One would need something like “Developmentalism” to signify the ontological position that Europe’s development is assumed to be the model for every other culture”¦this view of history has been imposed in all the programs of history, high schools to university, not only Europe and the United States, but also in Latin America, Africa and Asia.”

But, as entire humanity in the global south have experienced throughout their history, whatever comes from Europe in gift wrap is containing the “serpent” of dominance hidden in the very core of it entailing further subjugation. As such, this philosophical fallacy of “development” also seemed to be based on the fundamental element of domination and exploitation.

Is there a true intention of Europe to develop third world? If there was such intention then why they needed to colonized non European world in the first place, instead of helping them on friendly relations. They say the reason for colonizing is to spread civilization among backward nations. Then why they created such a blood bath to bring good and their experience of human progress to the non developed world? Why they needed to force, at times against the will of benefiters, this so-called magical fortune of development upon masses of the global south? Wasn’t there any other peaceful way to perform this noble task?

If anyone says that history has nothing to do with the present state of affairs in relation to European intentions in the current world, then the other question arises is “ƒ”¹…”what was the real intension for Europe to suddenly exchange their role from brutal colonizer to generous missionary who work hard to save people of the third world abandoning Europe’s well known greed?”

Why they divided Africa into virtual chessboard to just spread civilization? Do they have any valid answer for that?

The Eurocentric developmentalist idea and the justification of its enforcement have a history. It is not just economics that play or embedded in this paradigm. History of the development of western thought, the “philosophy” has roots in it. It is the history of Eurocentrism.

Father of western philosophy Hegel, the principal shaper of modern western philosophical foundation, (according to Dussel’s proclamation, the “racist of the western philosophy”), has been the main contributor to give a philosophical cloak to cover-up all historical sins of the west including the justification of European colonialism and its ideology. In turn, this philosophical justification shaped up the European “subjectivity” to normalize the crimes of Europe in dominating others.  Hegelianism has justified using force, committing crimes, and bringing misery upon other races for gaining mere material benefit for the development of Europe. According to Hegel, western European race is “the” superior race among all other races. Ordinary European never feel anything wrong with colonizing or dominating others due to his belief that Europe processes the moral right to dominate others as he “the European” subjectively believed so, since it has been philosophically justified to him throughout the history. (Reed: “White Mythologies, Writing history and the west.” Robert Young. London/New York: Routledge, 1990 and “The Invention of Americas,” Enrique Dussel. New York: 1995 and “The Underside of Modernity,” Enrique Dussel. New York 1996) 

The Eurocentric superiority complex and the racist perception toward entire non European humanity can be best understood by this quotation of the war time British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to the Palestine Royal Commission in 1937. He said:

  “I do not agree that the dog in a manger has the final right to the manger even though he may have lain there for a very long time. I do not admit that right. I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia. I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place.”

Today the British administration, the present day flag bearers of Churchillian racist ideology, is well known for their concern of alleged human rights abuse in Sri Lanka. But any statement similar or even close to this above pronouncement of Churchill will never come out of a non European mouth. It is a European thing, strictly a white thing.

 Hegelian philosophical premise that ingrained in “Eurocentric Developmentalism”

Enrique Dussel’s explanation brings a valuable philosophical insight from the peripheral, non European perspective. He identifies and locates the crisis and the tragedy in the third world within the “question of modernity.” Let us see what has been deep-rooted in modern thought that fashioned our contemporary world culture, including politics and economics.

“Eurocentrism and Developmentalist fallacy are two aspects of the same world-view. From Hegel, the concept of development passed to Marx and from him to economy and sociology.” (Dussel)

Concepts of this philosophical premise as follows.

 1.       European culture is the most developed, superior to all other cultures,   therefore nothing to learn from outside, but carrying the burden of   spreading civilization to non European inferior cultures. In that sense,  Eurocentric Developmentalism needs to be considered as a means of civilizing  (in the colonial era), modernizing (in the recent history), and globalizing the “Other”( now). (Hegelian)

 2.       Other cultures abandon or exit from their own barbarity by means of the modern civilizing process constitute their progress.

          “And if they refuse   our empire, they can be compelled by arms to accept    it, and this will be just war     by natural law.”

          “Human progress of the entire humanity considered as the history of Europe.         

          “What other better or more healthy thing can occur to these Barbarians, but  that they be governed by the empire of those whose prudence, virtue and    religion will convert the Barbarian”¦into civilized men.” (Gines de Sepulveda)   There is no difference in this stance even today. If anyone tries to get out of   the global system they will be punished economically, diplomatically, politically and even militarily.   

 3.       Fundamentally based on the “universal history” of mankind. All events and  interpretations of human progress,  road to development  are  called “history.”

          In other words “history” is the narration of sequential events of human  development. Now this part has been taken over by the corporate media.  They record the historical narration of mankind the way they want it to be        recorded and known. In such records, Rajapakse becomes the despotic ruler of  Sri Lanka who has denied human rights of the masses that the west is trying to liberate. 

 4.       Human progress interpreted in broad sense; in terms of political   economical, cultural and social progress as well as human knowledge.            

5.       Europe‘s development is assumed to be the model for every other culture.

          Europe positioned in the center of world humanity, the light of all knowledge, the only model for the development, only model for the realization of progress, emancipation and absolute freedom. (Hegel)

 6.       As western philosophy bring about the concept that civilization was moved from east to west, and then culminated and ended the history in the Western  Europe, Asia considered to be in infancy, Africa is the darkness not worth even  to speak about, Latin America is out of the horizon and excluded. (Hegel)

 7.      An underdeveloped country is ontologically nonmodern and pre-    enlightenment, according to Hegel.

According to the Hegelian concept of universal history (the history of mankind), it was ended in Europe through the realization of modernity. The universal history, articulated based on the theoretical findings of Darwinian evolution theory, according to which, Capitalists believed capitalism was the culmination of the evolution (history of mankind) and the Communists believed human social evolution had to move one more step to realize communism thus to culminate the human evolution and to reach the end of history. In other words the story of Europe is the story of natural evolution of mankind. In which the god only knows how Darwin can justify the European ignorance of the existence of another continent to the west to Europe, (when China already knew such existence of it to their east, more details about this will be given later) and Columbus’s accidently discovering it. Then the beginning of colonization of the entire world. If we believe this Eurocentric crap, then colonialism also becomes a part of human evolution. Thus white racism, Eurocentrism, war in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Vietnam every event of human history will be a natural part of the human evolution. So, why people need to fight against this? After all, this is our evolution, a part of us all. Eventually the evolution will be ending at the moment that Trans national corporations taking over the whole planet under their umbrella of influence. Thus will be the ending of the story of Darwinian social evolution.   

          “Universal history goes from east to west. Europe is absolutely the end of universal history. Asia is the beginning.” (Hegel)

          “But this alleged east- west movement clearly precludes Latin America and Africa from world history and characterizes Asia as essentially confined to a  state of immaturity and childhood.” (Dussel)    

 As most post modernist thinkers did, the inventor of the concept of “Trans Modernity,” from the peripheral perspective, then launching a major ideological assault on the western philosophical foundation, Enrique Dussel criticizes the European model.

The most fundamental of the thesis of Dussel’s argument of “Eurocentric Developmentalism” is the thesis that the European modern development, as Europe’s perpetually propagating in the third world, is not a linear and sequential development formula that it sustained to achieve modern development in Europe. But was a different phenomenon which associated with 15th century European colonial expansion. Its plundered wealth extracted from colonies through terror and annihilation of populations made Europe to realize modern development. If there was no colonial expansion, there would be no modern development in Europe.

Modernism on the other hand is an ideology of dominance upon the “European Other.” The fundamental basis in his critic is presenting the “actual cause” of European Modern development in oppose to the false pretext of such development. Dussel is coherent on his position and says that Europe would have never achieved modern development if she, by accident, never happened to “invent” Amerindia. (American continent including North and South mainland) and followed by its colonial expansion in Africa and Asia. Therefore, from every angle, “Eurocentric Developmentalist” formulas, doesn’t have any relationship with the third world experience; and never brought any accomplishment to the third world for they are ideologically based on false foundation and self-deception in its very core. Western philosophy on the other hand has supplied the ideological justification for the crimes committed by Europe on the path of this development.

(At this point one can refute Dussel’s argument by bringing examples such as Japanese, S. Korean, Taiwan and even Singaporean examples to support Eurocentric Developmentalist ideology. But these examples have been refuted and proved to be fake by many writers including, Noam Chomsky. More details will be given later)

According to Dussel, Invention of Amerindia provided Europe the “comparative advantage” over China India and the Muslims, laying down the foundation of modern development in Europe. It is also the fundamental “effect” of the simple fact of the discovery, conquest, colonization and integration of Amerindia, and of its related other advantages, such as four hundred years of free labor obtained through slavery. He submits the thesis that modernity and the centrality of Europe in the current world system is not the sole “fruit” of an internal superiority accumulated during the European Middle ages over against other cultures, but instead, he says, it is the reverse of it. “Modernity and its related progress is the “fruit” of accumulated wealth through colonialism not the cause.”

(Please note, five years after the discovery of the silver mines of Potosi in Peru and the mines in Zacatecas in Mexico, from which a total of 18,000 tons of silver arrived in Spain between the years 1503 and 1660.)

Moreover, sixty years after the Second World War, which generally perceived as relatively peaceful and as the post colonial era of independence and emancipation, has never altered the misery of by gone colonialism in the global south. Instead it has become even worse. Reasoning this failure, western advisers blame corrupt political leadership in the third world for being, fraudulent, unproductive and ineffective, without acknowledging the fact that this particular leadership is again, a making of the bygone colonial powers itself, which continuously receiving political and military patronage on one hand and a protective system to plunder the third world collectively by providing necessary safe heavens in the west including banking facilities in Switzerland to hide their ill-gotten booty from their respective countries.

However, Eurocentric development paradigm is meant for the “ƒ”¹…”Other.’ Dussel says the peripheral “Other” is the “other side,” the “underside of modernity.”

“The ambiguity of the realization of modernity (progress) on the part of “open society” of late capitalism (current liberal capitalism) finds itself limited by what we call the developmentalist fallacy. That is, it would like to extrapolate, to impose the model (and the philosophy that derives from it) of late and central capitalism, in the very same straight line of development without discontinuity, on peripheral capitalism (of Africa Asia and Latin America; or in other words, to more than 80% of global capitalism, If we take its population numerically), underdeveloped and, as is said in such developmentalist ideology, “delayed.”

The “delay” of peripheral capitalism is a “before” with respect to the” after” of “late” capitalism. What is not taken into account, in this Eurocentric ideology, is that there is no such “before” since 1492, (the year that Columbus discovered Amerindia and the year that Europe began to look for new territories, and in the case of Sri Lanka, this “Before” must be understood strictly within the colonial era since 1505 up until the beginning of capitalism during British era in SL but not before that), the periphery is not a “before,” but an “underneath”; the exploited, the dominated, the origin of stolen wealth, accumulated in the dominating, exploiting “center” “¦The peripheral world will never be able to be “developed” nor “center” no “late.” Its path is another. Its alternative is different. Liberation philosophy gives expression to this distinction.” (Dussel, “The under Side of Modernity”) [Within bracket emphasis is writer’s]

In Sri Lankan context, west plays a different tune. They can’t say that the fault is “before” since nothing related to “before” has been left in Sri Lanka by British colonial administration. Instead they say that our structures are bad so they need to be adjusted; we are terribly lethargic, inefficient, ineffective and corrupt, politically immature.

 The vast region of Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka in the center

(This map shows modern maritime routes that pass by Sri Lanka to connect Europe and Middle East, but does not show the routes that connect Southern African region and the South American region.)

Summarizing his critic of modernity and proposing a new paradigm named “Trans Modernity,” Enrique Dussel says,

“”¦This (trans-modern) position intends to recoup what is redeemable in modernity, and to halt the practices of domination and exclusion in the world system. It is a project of liberation of a periphery negated from the very beginning of modernity. The problem is not the mere superseding of instrumental reason (as it is for Habermas) or of the reason of terror of the post-moderns: instead, it is a project of overcoming the world-system itself. Such as it has developed for past 500 years until today. The problem is the exhaustion of a “civilizing” system that has come to its end. The overcoming of “cynical managerial reason (planetary administrative), of capitalism (as economic system), of liberalism (as political system), of Eurocentrism (as ideology), of machismo (in erotics, of the reign of the white race (in racism), of the destruction of nature (in ecology), and so on presupposes the liberation of divers types of the oppressed and or excluded. It is in this sense that the ethics of liberation defines itself as Tran-modern because the postmodern are still Eurocentric.”

No doubt, as Zimbabwe had to go through all its suffering due to its natural wealth of sitting on abundant minerals and precious metals; with all other reasons, (such as securing launching pad for the project of destabilizing India, the eastern nightmare of Europe) to a great extent, Sri Lanka’s current crisis stems out of its strategic location. Now Sri Lanka wants to turn this “curse” into their fortune. But it is puzzling why all these western economical experts never ever mentioned us to take the advantage, and make our fortune out of our strategic location, which even Portuguese envisioned in 16th century? Why all these financial institutions never envisioned it and funded this project to develop a modern harbor in the south of Sri Lanka, if they are really sincere about our economical future well-being? But Sri Lanka has taken a decision by its own at the end and it is certainly a decision beyond modern “Eurocentric Developmentalist” formula. When she took this decision, she must be well aware of the fact that there are no detours on this route. It is a one-way ticket, no return. 

(Will be continued)

4 Responses to “Rajapakse, regional politics, “Eurocentric Developmentalism” and the western hegemony -Part 2”

  1. Mr. Pol Says:

    Thank you Geethanjana Kudaligamage for these excellent pieces where you have put into words what many of us have been thinking for some time and importantly presenting the global and historic factors and realities facing us in well written and well researched articles. You’re conclusions are quite correct and send a chill down the spine of all Lankan lovers to see what we are up against and what the West has done to entrap our people such as funding Gonseka, funding his election violence to decrease voter turn out thus reduce the margin of victory, then proclaim himself the victor and try and seize power in a coup (his plan was to storm the Election Secretariat and hold the elections commissioner at gun point). This coup attempt and subsequent creation of a Military dictatorship was green lighted, fully backed, planned and funded by the West -so much so for their love of “democracy”.

    Most despicably the white world goes around trying to portray Rajapakse as a “dictator” where by they are trying to camouflage and deny the democratic will of the people after their attempt to create an actual dictatorship through Fonseka failed, adding another bullet point to the frustratingly long list of the Western failures in trying to under mine Sri Lanka further increasing their frustrations, anger and desire for vengeance.

    There are many challenges ahead for Lanka and Lankans, Rajapakse is by the far the best man to lead us however I fear he has not fully grasped the situation befalling us and the difficulties ahead of us, I hope such informative pieces to reach the officers of Government, the nation needs as much assistance as it can get from all Lankan supporters.

    Look forward to Part 3

  2. Fran Diaz Says:

    I learnt recently that even the Zero in mathematics was introduced by Indians. Zero has no value by itself. It is supposed to represent Infinity or God. Combined with another figure, it means everything ! India should boast of this creation. Western mathematicians were at sea till the Zero was introduced into the scheme of things. India & Lanka have many things to be very proud about. These facts should be introduced into our History Books which are still Eurocentric in content. A healthy PRIDE about our own Heritage will increase our Self Respect, which is the most important psychological factor for people who have undergone Colonial Rule, both in India & Lanka. This is different to unhealthy egocentricity.

    Now we must examine also why it is that some Indians are more Eurocentric than even the Europeans. I think, it is a sad fact that there are many people in India who have been displaced in Society through India’s intractable Caste System (Untouchables & others), who embrace Eurocentrism in self defense. This is the sad truth. Buddhism erases false barriers in Society as does Christianity. Through a good education system, Hindu people can elevate themselves and can drop the caste system, while still practicing the essence of Hinduism.

    In Lanka, Eurocentrism is embraced for a sense of superior Class – a false notion. By ones ACTIONS is a person High Class or Low Class, not blind imitations of Europcentrism.

    Let us not throw out Eurocentrism altogether. There is a good & useful side to it which can complement our own culture.

  3. gunarat Says:

    Although I am happy that the writer has focused on this subject for the benefit of those who are not well-informed on intellectual developments, both Euorcentrism and Orientalism have come under severe criticism over the last 40 years by scholars like Wallerstein, Gunder Frank, Abdel-Malek, Edward Said, Alatas, Mirsepassi, and several others.

    The writer could have been more generous by acknowledging his intellectual debt to these pioneers, including Dussel whom the writer cites.

    At few scholars of Sri Lankan origin are also heavily involved in exposing the myths of Eurocentrism and Orientalism.

    Susantha Goonatilake’s “Toward a global science: Mining civilizational knowledge” (Indiana University Press, 1998) is one supreme example.

    Shelton Gunaratne’s “The Dao of the press: A humanocentric theory” (Hampton Press, 2005) is another.

    Well before the Rajapakses came to the fore, Malaysian PM Mahathir Mohamed and a Japanese intellectual named Ishihara (mayor of Tokyo) published a book exposing Eurocentrism and Orientalism.

  4. Priyantha Abeywickrama Says:

    Interesting article though too advanced to make a quick judgement. Can you please tell whether the following text from your article are your own word creations to help create an understanding about your objectives.

    “This writer believes somehow someone must discuss these issues at least now because, if Sri Lanka needs to transcend from its current state of affairs, including politico-economical, diplomatic and policy planning, she must liberate from the servile mentality of some of the Eurocentric ideological premises that dominate our entire thinking process.

    We all recognize, without any doubt, the west’s immense contribution to mankind, and its greater achievements in arts, sciences and enrichment of entire human knowledge. In turn, it has enlightened and liberated man, but only the western man. Why? Why this liberation never seeped through geographical boundaries of the west to reach the rest of the humanity?” (Note: This is one such big illusion that dominate the mind of people educated within the western system. Unfortunately I personally can vouch for what, who and how these achievements are made and prove that westerners are just bluffing. If needed I can give you very specific details.)

    You said “west’s immense contributions to mankind”. By any chance, do you mean their great contribution to drive humanity very close to extinction? What would it be if someone prove that enrichment of entire human knowledge were more like a heap of garbage produced by speculation? Can you please tell more specific examples that can be attributed to their own. We do track the origin of knowledge and have found very interesting origins.

    Dear Franz, zero and mathematics etc. were ancient Sinhala creations. Hindus claim everything as theirs because that is what they are. There are clear references in Hindu scripts to my assertion on many bits and pieces of knowledge left with them. If you have seen how they replicate English style shamelessly with a twist in Om Shanthi Om, everything done by English too would be claimed by Hindus in the future. If Hindus are that clever, why they are stuck in the primitive times is the million dollar question. By the way any body knows who those original English come from?

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