What Genetic Studies Say about Sinhalese, Tamils in Sri Lanka and South Indians
Posted on February 5th, 2011

Dilrook Kannangara

Sri Lanka is home to many different ethnic groups. They all have equal individual rights to Sri Lanka. No one has more rights than another for whatever reason or excuse. Due to the close proximity to South India, genetic interactions between Sri Lanka and South India share a long history. However, this does not preclude the possibility of Sri Lanka having a native population unique to the island. Linguistic and racial groups go hand in hand to a great extent in the Indian subcontinent as in many parts of the Old World (the world excluding the Americas and Australia). The only unique ethnic group in Sri Lanka is the Sinhalas. The Sinhala language is only spoken in Sri Lanka and there is an enormous associated cultural, traditional, historical, military and religious identity associated with the Sinhalas. Tamil the other major ethnic group of the country is linguistically, traditionally, culturally and in many other aspects the same as in Tamil Nadu ƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢¢”š¬…” Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s closest neighbour. Muslims of Sri Lanka are linguistically and culturally share both Sinhala and Tamil aspects with Arabic and Malay affinities. Veddas are an aboriginal group of people sharing linguistic similarities to Sinhalas and Tamils. The main and unique Vedda language is a Sinhala derivative. A Sinhala speaking person can understand the unique Vedda language with ease while a non-Sinhala speaker would not. Veddas in Ampara speak Tamil with very little change and not a different language. Veddas genetically, culturally and anthropologically show great similarities to other ancient tribes in islands of the Indian Ocean.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Sadly political issues surrounding the demand for a separate nation for Sri LankaƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s Tamils have muddled the proper understanding of genetics in the island and the region. Each group claims genetic and scientific evidence justifying theories favourable to their political aspirations. The struggle to create a separate nation for Tamils in the island turned violent in the 1970s and war continued until 2009. During the early stages of the war Sinhalas and Muslims were completely chased away from the north which is claimed by Tamil groups as part of their anticipated Tamil nation. Today the northern districts of Jaffna, Mulaitivu, Kilinochchi and Mannar have no Sinhala or Muslim populations while the eastern district of Batticaloa has no Sinhala population. A few decades ago there were tens of thousand of Sinhalas and Muslims in these districts until they were violently chased away by Tamil armed groups.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Genetic Studies

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ A large number of genetic studies has been carried out into the subject of genetic similarities and dissimilarities of Sinhalese and Tamils in Sri Lanka. A few older studies have shown a close affinity between the two groups of people and South Indians. However, many modern studies have shown the opposite. Obviously there have been interactions between these groups but that hasnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t eliminated the possibility of many dissimilarities.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Latest and most comprehensive genetic studies have come up with remarkable findings. WorldƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢s most comprehensive genetic study findings were released in 2008 after decades of research. Based on these, maps have been drawn. The following map presented with credits to the owners (Martin Soave/University of Michigan), plots genetic similarities and dissimilarities of a part of the world.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ [A schematic of worldwide human genetic variation, with colors representing different genetic types. Illustration by Martin Soave/University of Michigan (http://ns.umich.edu/index.html?Releases/2008/Feb08/migrate)]

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ The map was based on a pioneering scientific study. [Most Detailed Global Study of Genetic Variation Completed (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080220161704.htm)]

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Please follow the above links for the entire map of the Asia and Africa regions. A zoomed in map of the South Indian region has been provided from the map with credits to Martin Soave/University of Michigan.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Zooming in on Sri Lanka reveals many interesting things. General rules of interpreting maps apply. Unless contagious, the same colour occurring in two widely distant locations should not be interpreted as a similarity because although there are thousands of genetic groups, less than fifty colours are used. The map is not to scale.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Note further that the map is not a satellite image which means smaller ethnic groups within a larger area are not mapped. Only the most common genetic composition of people of an area is mapped. None of the researchers have any affiliation to Sri Lanka or Tamil groups and none of them are aware of political implications (if any) of their findings. It was done simply for the advancement of knowledge and it should be appreciated in that spirit.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ What is of interest is this does not surprise most Sri Lankans. Historical, archaeological, religious and traditional vast knowledge which is very well documented in Sri Lanka supports these findings and does not in any way contradict them. Further, most scientific findings and almost all recent scientific findings of genetic studies are consistent with this.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Interpretation

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ An interpretation is not needed as the map speaks for itself. Tamil majority areas in Sri Lanka, namely the northern province, parts of the Trincomalee and Batticaloa districts have two different genetic groups (coloured in blue and orange) while the rest of the island where the majority is Sinhala has a completely different genetic composition (coloured in light grey). Over 85% of the population in the areas coloured in blue and orange are Tamils (subject to the fact that the map is not to scale) according to the 1981 census which is the latest comprehensive census. Over 85% of the population in the light grey coloured area is Sinhalese according to the 1981 census.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ This clearly shows that Sinhalese and Tamils have a completely different genetic composition. To give an idea of how big and small this difference is, consider the genetic differences between a chimpanzee and a human. It is only 1% as they have 99% same DNA. However, among humans differences can be extrapolated with no reference to other species. Then the differences become contrasting. It proves that although all humans belong to one big human race (and all primates to one big family of primates), there still are distinct differences among humans.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Another interesting find is that Tamils in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka are genetically the same (not just similar) to Tamils in Tamil Nadu, South India. This is a fact that has been vehemently denied by Tamil separatists. They always argued contrary to obvious facts that they are genetically distinct from Tamils in Tamil Nadu although they use the same language, customs, traditions and religious practices as Tamils in Tamil Nadu. These arguments fall into pieces with scientific discovery.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ When faced with genetic, linguistic, traditional, customary and religious sameness with Tamil Nadu Tamils, Lankan Tamils have used another argument which says Sinhalese and Tamils in Sri Lanka are genetically same. Once again this scientific finding disapproves that argument and establishes the fact that Tamils in Sri Lanka are not just similar but same as Tamil Nadu Tamils while Sinhalas are genetically unique and different in the region.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ It gets even more interesting to note that there are two genetic variations of Tamils in both Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. The orange coloured group of Tamils are in most parts of Tamil Nadu and most parts of Vanni, Trincomalee and Batticaloa districts. These areas are geographically closest to each other. It is absolutely no miracle. However, Jaffna has a unique Tamil group coloured in blue which is found directly north across the seas in Tamil Nadu which is the closest point to Jaffna. Even today the Jaffna Tamils consider themselves to be different to other Tamils! This remarkable scientific finding sheds light on the age old belief and confirms it. They are closely related to the same genetic pool in Tamil Nadu than to any Sri Lankan group.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Another important find is the fact that Tamils in northern and eastern Sri Lanka could not have arrived in Sri Lanka a very long time ago. Had they arrived a very long time ago, they would have different genetic structures than that of closest areas across the seas in South India. Secondly, had Tamils in northern and eastern Sri Lanka arrived in the island a long time ago, they would be carrying a highly mixed genetic structure that is widely dissimilar to South India.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ This is not the case which proves beyond all doubt that Tamils in northern and eastern Sri Lanka are very recent (in human anthropological terms) arrivals than the rest of the population in the island. They are so recent that there was no time to interact very much not only with the people outside the north and the east but also with each other!ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚  Had the two distinct Tamil groups (blue and orange) interacted with each other substantially, their genetic structure would have been different to South India. Even that didnƒÆ’‚¢ƒ¢-¡‚¬ƒ¢-¾‚¢t happen. Therefore claiming Tamil traditional homelands in Sri Lanka is absurd and unscientific.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Even without these findings, linguistically, traditionally and historicaly perfect resemblance of Tamils in Sri Lanka and Tamils in South India establish the fact that the two groups have been recently separated.ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ 

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ All in all this latest and most comprehensive scientific discovery confirms what most Sri Lankans already know with astonishing accuracy.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Difference between Tamils Who Lived in Sri LankaƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ and Recent Tamil Migrants

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ However there is evidence that Tamils lived in Sri Lanka as long as the Sinhalese. But they interacted and integrated within the Sinhala community. This fact is well recorded in highly sophisticated and very detailed historical accounts kept by the Sinhalas in thousands of stone inscriptions and many written records including but not limited to Sihalavattu Puranaya, Deepawamsa, Mahawamsa, Chulawamsa, Rajawaliya, Sinhala nam potha and other ancillary records. There is no historical account of ancient Tamils of Lanka demanding a separate area of the island or living separately from the Sinhalas. Only disputes among the Sinhalas and Tamils stemmed from Tamil invasions from South India. Even in these cases local Tamils teamed up with the Sinhalas within the Sinhala army. All Tamil invasions were ferociously and completely defeated by the Sinhala army.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Tamils who lived in Sri Lanka in ancient times cannot be traced today distinct from the Sinhalas as they have integrated into the Sinhala community. Genetic studies have found significant yet not dominant Tamil genetic contributionƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ to the Sinhala community.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ However, sadly, Tamils who show genetic similarity to Tamil Nadu than the rest of Sri Lanka have failed to integrate very well. They are the ones demanding a separate Tamil nation. They must follow their ancestors and integrate into the Sri Lankan, mainly Sinhala community for there to be lasting peace as in the past. There are no historical records of any clash or major disagreement between the Tamils who integrated with the Sinhalas and the rest of the Sinhalas. In fact there are historical records that positively prove there were no such clashes.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ Coastal areas of Sri Lanka fell into the control of the PortugueseƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ some years after 1505 and then to the Dutch. They came to Asia in search of spices. Having conquered parts of Sri Lanka, they launched a massive drive to cultivate spices and tobacco. Hundreds of thousands of labourers with their families were brought from Tamil communities in Tamil Nadu, South India to the northern and eastern coastal parts of Sri Lanka. Jaffna tobacco was world renowned for its aroma and quality at that time. It shows the large extent of tobacco cultivation and how it dominated the northern parts of the island. It was a low populated area with a very harsh climate until the tobacco industry changed everything in the 17th century. This new found prosperity attracted hundreds of thousands more Tamils from Tamil Nadu, South India.

ƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ In 1815 British took control of the entire island. Tea and cocoa production became main industries of the island. Hundreds and thousands of Tamil Nadu labourers and their families were brought by British labour contractors. In fact Sri Lanka is not the only country Tamil Nadu labourers wereƒÆ’-¡ƒ”š‚ taken to. Many nations of the British empire including Malaysia (including modern day Singapore), South Africa, Fiji, islands of the West Indies, Nigeria, Seychelles and Burma faced the same fate. It artificially and mercilessly changed and destroyed not just the ethnic balance and harmony of these nations but also their eco systems. Sri Lanka being the closest to South India suffered most. During the 450 years of Portuguese, Dutch and British rule of coastal areas of Sri Lanka, there was absolutely no border control! Anyone and everyone could land in the island. This resulted in a humongous number of illegal immigrants into the island. Illegal colonization sponsored by the colonialists, aggravated the situation. Having taken these respectable humans around the world, the Dutch and British Empires deserted them when these colonial empires collapsed leaving them and natives struggling.

31 Responses to “What Genetic Studies Say about Sinhalese, Tamils in Sri Lanka and South Indians”

  1. Chintha Says:

    Tamil EALAM is a well planned and schemed FRAUD ,to expand Tamil Nadu into SL by fraudulant history claims calling SL Tamil homeland. (Note not part of SL whole SL is Tamil homeland according to fraudulant claim) This is the history tought to Tamil kids, so they can justify the unjust they are doing to Sinhalese , the majority. The simplest test that proves Tamils in the North have migrated less than 400 years ago is the language they speak. The language difference betn Tamils in TN and Tamils in SL are about 350 years, according to historians. This is a good measure to find out when Tamils migrated to SL. The whole EALAM project is a BIG FAT FRAUD and nothing but a FRAUD. I can’t believe the govt is oppenning ferrry svc to TN, befor the sensus. How are they going to distinguish TN Tamil and SL Tamil. Bio IDs are very important to keep the TN Tamils ending up in SL and claiming bogus Home land claims. And the sad thing is most Sinhalese have no clue about the Tamil Home Land FRAUD imposed on thier country and the danger they are still facing of the modern invasion threat they are facing.

  2. De Costa Says:

    Tamil Tiger MS Mudali should read this. I expect his racist comments. He wants to unify Sinhala Buddhist and Tamil Hindu into one race called “Thuppahi Hindu” and erradicate Christian and Muslim religions.


    This is a well written article with good scientific basis. I know for a fact that there are some families who are identified as Sinhalese are really Tamils who landed here very long time ago and integrated and married with Sinhalese and claim to be Sinhalese. One of them is a “Seaman” (like our friend in TN) family. But they speak, read, write and well known as Sinhalese.

  4. Ram2009 Says:

    Thank you for a well written article.

  5. Naram Says:

    Dilrook You have made a soud analysis. Tamil diaspora seem to spend a great deal of time to prove that there were Tamil villages in the past in many parts of the country and it would not be worth the effort to counter such arguments. THere may well have been, as record of importing labour in times of major construction activityor war is recorded, Gajabahu’s import of Cholas 10,000, Dutch import of slaves to work in Jaffna, and human instict is to stick together, but naturally the tendency is to escape out of a caste dominated society like Jaffna particularly if they are considered sub – human as in post Hindu revival after the rise of the local warlord Sankili in 1590s who expropriated Sinhals landowners massacaring most and pushing the rest into a sub caste Koviars. THis is a fact I learnt from the ‘Story of Jaffna’ a book written in the 1920s by Mudaliar Rasanayagam and a good part of it can be read in the internet.

    I remember in my young days many small towns had specialist dealers in Suruttu – Cheroots menfolk who had migrated from Jaffna used to run the shops. I also learnt that the permission for Jaffna folks to settle in Jaffna in large numbers came from Governor Horton who feared continuing nationalist uprisings after brutally crshing the Kandyan provinces to oblivion.

  6. thurai Says:

    when we image India and Sri lanka is one land, Tamil Territory surrounded with many Languages. In Tamilnadu
    they have karnatka,Delungu,Kerala and other Territories. They live peacefullly. Tamils in north and south
    also want peaceful life all communities in Sri Lanka. Who wanted Tamileelam? Tamil politician. They all came from
    well educated Tamil Families who supported the British rule in Sri Lanka.

    They visited Tamilareas only once in five years to ask the votes. They never considerd about development
    of the Country particularly Tamil & Sinhala poor peoples. Late Duraiappa (Murdered by Tamil terrorist) supporter
    of Sri Lanka Govt is exception. Generation who came from Tamil Politician live in Abroad need Tamileelam.

    We all must work together to safegurd our country from Power thirsty TGTE and blood & Money thirsty LTTE.

  7. A. Sooriarachi Says:

    The distiction between early Tamil migrants who assimilated into the sinhala majority and the new migrants who were brought as labourers to work on plantations by the Portuguese, Dutch and the British and also the allowance uninhibited migration from South India to SriLanka during colonial rule, explains why there are two types of Tamils in SriLanka. The pre-colonial rule Tamils who wish for one nation with the Sinhalese and the Muslims and the post-colonial rule tamils who prefer separation to safeguard their unfairly obtained priviledges under colonial rule and avoid equal rights to the rest of the nation. To strengthen their claim for separation, it is said that during the past 30 years the LTTE colonised many regions in the North and East claimed by them, with South Indian Tamil migrants and plantation workers from the hill country.
    The above distinction may also explain why the British did not accede to the demands of this over priviledged post-colonial migrants for 50% of everything, as the British knew it was neither a justifiable nor a sustainable demand to give the rights of a separate nation to a group of new migrants the Colonial powers themselves contributed to come in to SriLanka.

  8. jimmy Says:

    Agree with Thurai 100%

    Both Sinhalese and Tamils wasted the last 60 years arguing, analyzing , debating and fighting
    Tamil writers and Sinhala writers write for the last 60 years like this one from Dirlook which are unnecessary
    Gosh ! we are living in the 21st century and still wasting time analysing this nonsense

    Tamils should be very patriotic for Srilanka from now onwards . I know Tamils were not patriotic for the last 60 years. Tamil leaders screwed us big times
    Sinhalese should show love , compassion for Tamils.
    In Jaffna a common village man only see Srilankan Army . They are the only sinhalese he or she sees in North and East
    In my opinion since there is no terrorisim, Govt should train every day the Lankan Army to love and resepect the follow Srilankan Tamils which will give a very favorable opinion on Sinhalese
    SOme of the pictues I see from Jaffna are great . I see Army comanders and officers visiting functions and people garland them . I am happy to see these which never happened when I was a kid
    When I was a kid I remember I was scared for Army for no reason . I am happy things are changing now

    There should not be Tamil race or Sinhala race or Muslim race or Burger race but SRILANKAN race

  9. jayt Says:


    This is very conspiratorial article. This did not come from you but have come from somebody who are a supporter of Tigers and who have been trying to put down Sinhalese pride for overs years and get right for Tamil to claim land in Sri lanka.
    Furthermore, If Sri lanka had a good intelligent agency, they already know where it came from.

    The world know how to control foolish Sinhalese; their everyday job is to keep Sinhalese scared until Sinhalese come out and Tell :Yes We were Tamil”, What a dumb games that Sinhalese are playing.

  10. Fran Diaz Says:

    No Genetics in Sri Lanka, please ! This genetics thing was Hitler’s argument for a ‘pure state’ in Germany i.e. get rid of all Jews !

    We have to fight Tamil Separatism (or any other Separatism), with the Law of this land called Sri Lanka.

    As fighting for a separate State is UNLAWFUL and against the Constitution of Sri Lanka, all Tamil people who want Separatism should be requested to go back to Tamil Nadu, which is the Tamil Homeland, or to any other place they like. Other Tamil people who want to live with the rest of Lanka can live among us. Tamil people cannot live in Sri Lanka and ask for a separate state for Tamils only. Period.

    Whatever our genetic structures, only people with love for Lanka and are for a United, Unitary Lanka should be allowed to live on this land. The rest can go anywhere else they truly like ! what more could be fair and democratic ?

  11. jayt Says:


    If you are not one of those Sinhalese who lost identity after accepting foreign religion and oftentimes supporting tigers to claim land, then do not worry, but if you are one of those who feel that they are related to Tigers because of Christian religion or have no recored Sinhalese family history in Sri lanka, then you are free to Tamil Nadu and live in Tamil Nadu.
    Sri lanka is an old country with recorded Sinhalese family histories, so, do not try to destroy Sinhalese identity to serve the interest of Tigers or foreigner.

  12. cassandra Says:

    In 1958, when communal tensions were being felt for the first time, someone asked a friend of mine, what race he belonged to – Sinhalese or Tamil. And I will never forget his classic response, “My friend”, he replied, “I am glad to say I belong to the HUMAN race”. So am I.

  13. jayt Says:

    There are is big misunderstanding among some Sinhalese who were told by other Sinhalese that Sri lanka has clear or supper sovereignty, but when we the people like Dilrook’ s article and investigate where this article come from there is no any sovereignty.

    If you want to make peace with Tamil, you do not have sell your soul to Tigers to make peace with Tamil. No country in the world do it or no one can do it. Tigers knows it and Tamil people knows it. For a example, in Germany, after the war, still there are Jews, but no any German govt. ever tried to make Jews unJews. Also, neither Jews asked German to make them German because on one hand it is unrealistic and Germen public no government won’t go for it. On other hand, Jews never ask for it because Jews are proud of their race and culture. So, today, Jews are still Jews; for example, they are
    American Jews, British Jews, French Jews Russian etc.
    And Similarly, All western government have ethnic/race info data stored in the government plus they have homogenize
    plan to protect each western country and group identity. They do allow some laddies marry mostly African immigrants because they have high female birth rate. However, they do control everything to protect their identity.

  14. Lorenzo Says:

    Well said Dilruuk. You hit the nail on the head diplomatically.

    Tamil homeland is Tamil Nadu, fullstop.

    But I have a complain. To read this we have to paste the links and come back to the article. It is a waste of time. Good if a map was given with the article.

  15. Fran Diaz Says:

    All the people in this world came “out of Africa” – this is a scientifically proven fact.

    If we truly analyse the Gene Pool of the People of Lanka, you will find a generally ‘Mallung’ Gene Pool ! – all sorts mixed in ….

    We do agree that the “Tamil Homeland is in Tamil Nadu”.

  16. jayt Says:

    if you are mixed, you can go TN as well. are u one of those guys who call themselves Sinhalese and go around the world and tell Mrs and Mrs Badaranayeke is Tamil. and Sananayake is Tamil and Sinhalese are Tamil. What you are writing what now is what western propagandists have been writing against Sinhalese. You do not represent True Sinhalese.

  17. Fran Diaz Says:

    jayt: I am sorry if I hurt your feelings. Never meant to do so. I am interested in scientific facts only and write in to share knowledge. True facts set us free. I am a human being and I have no knowledge who my ancestors were thousands of years ago, though I have knowledge of my ancestors hundreds of years ago. My ancestry is Sinhala (my birth certificate says so), and I am absolutely sure I was born in Sri Lanka, as were my parents and grandparents and great grandparents. So I am Sinhala, and I am a Sri Lankan by birth. Those are the facts.

    I greatly admire the Teachings of Lord Buddha, and the True teachings of other Masters, for that is the absolute spiritual Truth.

    Here is a write up re the origins of Homo sapiens. These are scientific facts and we must all accept it as such.

    “An Overview of Black History

    Compiled & Edited by Phillip True, Jr.
    1. Origin of Man: “Human Beginnings”

    Dr. Albert Chuchward, distinguished scholar, anthropologist, and archeologist theorizes that the earliest member of the human species appeared about two million years ago in the Great Lakes region of Central Africa. This early human species eventually spread over the entire continent. Many individuals in Dr. Churchward’s field generally agree with his theory, including Dr. L.S.B. Leakey. In 1963, Leakey found primitive human fossils, 1.2 million years old in East Africa.

    Further discussion on this theory was published in Newsweek Magazine, January 11, 1988, in an article called “The Search for Adam & Eve.” The subject was about the collection and testing of a global assortment of genes. A trail of DNA was found that led them to a single woman from whom we all descended. The evidence indicates that Eve lived in Sub-Saharan Africa, between 80,000 and 200,000 years ago. These descendants began migrating from their original homeland, inhabiting the whole world.

    The African ancestry of the human race is now generally accepted as a fact. Dr. Eric Higgs, of Cambridge University has made a study of the migration of ancient men, and claims that the first man of Europe came to the continent from central and east Africa about 200,000 years ago. Professor Chester Chard, of the University of Wisconsin, has studied the routes of early men who left Africa to colonize the rest of the world, and he has concluded that there were four prehistoric migration routes from Africa to Europe.

    Professor Leakey was asked if any of these early Africans reached the New World, and his answer was as follows: “It is inconceivable that man, the most curious and mobile of all animals, would not have come to America when the elephants, the tapirs and the deer came from Asia. … Man spread out from Africa to Asia to Europe. It is inconceivable that he would stay out of America.”

    In 1988, the findings of anthropologists Christopher B. Stringer and Peter Andrews, of the British Museum of Natural History further confirmed the single-origin theory, that Homo Sapiens had evolved from an African Homo Erectus group, 200,000 years ago who had later migrated to Asia and Europe about 100,000 later. Both scientists contend that fossil evidence supports their single-origin theory. They also note that the oldest modern looking human fossils, from Western Europe, are only 35,000 years old.

    Human skull remains, 2.4 million years old were found in Kenya in 1965. This new date places the origin of human beings within the period of major climate change, a global cooling is already believed to have caused other mammals to undergo dramatic evolutionary change. Geologist, John Martyn discovered the fossils while working in the Chemeron Beds in Kenya’s Great Rift Valley. The date of the skulls was determined using a new scientific method called Agron.

    These discoveries help to validate the fact that mankind originated in Africa. Humans born around the Great Lakes region, so very close to the equator, would have been very heavily pigmented. Gloger’s Law states that warm-blooded animals born in such an equatorial region as the Great Lakes and Kenya will secrete a dark pigment called eumelanin (melanin)”.

  18. Fran Diaz Says:

    Also, who is a “True Sinhalese” ?

    I don’t know about being a “True Sinhalese”, but in my book, anyone born in Sri Lanka is a “True Sri Lankan” if he/she works for the common good of all Citizens of Lanka. Ironically, there are foreigners like Col. Olcott who worked for the common good of Lankans, especially Buddhists, at a time when Lankans felt the foreign yoke too heavily.

    For instance, in Gt. Britian, a person of exceptional ability is defined as a talented Britisher, not a talented Englishman, Scotsman, or Welshman.

    We seem to have arrived at a point in time where, in our Democracy, we have to drop too much ethnicity and become ‘Sri Lankan’.

    I think if we get caught up in defining people by their Genes/ethnicity, we may get into trouble here.

    I have no idea of Mrs B’s or Mr Senanayake’s genetic get up. That is Mudali’s forte !

  19. jayt Says:

    well my friend, Sri lanka do not need Homo sapiens history. who need it is the western supporters of Tiger. So you can tell the West to bring whole Africa into the West and intermarry to them. Then, there won’t be no identities and no more wars in the meddle east and other part of the world.

    West countries rule by great big Hippocrates. and There are the ones who brings up this kind of propaganda theories Homo sapiens and put them up into the world. why they publish them into other countries? it is because this is the tactic they used and are using now in other countries to bring down people moral and pride down, once they have done that these people become handicapped and then come the bible, and then “you have the land” and “We have the

    in colonial time, Natives in Canada and US were told by Christian priests that their moms and fathers and grant parents
    have come from barbaric race therefore, if you become a Christian we make you a new honorable race. Today, they are drunken lords of streets of North America.

    Therefore, Please tell them to practice their home sapiens theories in their own country. For example, they can tell Jews to become Muslim, why? because you came from homo sapiens and you do not need to worry of Arab wars.

  20. jayt Says:

    And Tell The Hindus, Tamil, Tamil untouchable and untouchable of India to become Muslim. no genetic allowed. no more wars.

  21. jayt Says:


    Sri lanka army fought deadly war to protect Sinhalese identity, pride and history. Tamil who do not like Sinhalese identity, can go out the door to TN. Sinhalese identity and culture and land threaten by Tamil. Tamil are not threaten by Sinhalese.

    Second, the actual fact about Tamil treat: Tamil are not the real threat to Sri lanka. Real threat to come to Sri lanka from foreigners who are bent on conspiring against Sinhalese by using a section of Tamil

  22. jayt Says:

    I also like to investigate the people who claim sovereignty of Sri lanka and fight western propaganda and at the same time and same people copy down western propaganda, insult and malicious conspiratorial deceit against Sinhalese Identity.

    UNP government of President Jayarwarderne, Pramadasa and even madam Kumarutunga stood against these malicious conspirators but this government who claimed they fought a war, but copy down malicious western propaganda publish against Sinhalese. Why? the reason behind is the war crime charges brought by certain group to frighten Sinhalese and blackmail them to insult Sinhalese identity and claimed their power on Sinhalese.

  23. Fran Diaz Says:

    jayt : While I agree with you that the Sinhala Culture (you call it Identity) is diminished, I must state that REVIVAL IS POSSIBLE. It is as simple as providing Food, shelter & clothing to all Sinhala People needing these,(plus others), also jobs, training, education, through the various Buddhist Organisations (NOT Buddhist Temples which should confine itself to teaching the Dhamma and Meditation). We have to consider it the Dhane part of Dhana, Seela & Bhavana. Invest in People. Then Conversions will automatically stop, because people convert mainly for just those items.

    The Sinhala Identity/Culture has nothing to do with our genetic structure. It is in BUDDHISM and also in our Sinhala Language. It is in the 5 Precepts, the Eightfold Noble Path, the Dhana, Seela & Bhavana. We have to apply the Teachings of the Buddha when we supply society with Food, shelter, clothing, jobs training, education, etc.

    We are not left in peace in Sri Lanka because of Globalisation for various resources, sea routes, entry into South India, etc.

    We have to learn some English to have knowledge of what is going on in this world. We have to learn some Science to get technical skills help our survival. Ask Podihamuduruwo (Colombo), about such things – he knows. All Buddhists will have to provide good leadership in difficult times such as now, in order to be recognised as good leaders, not only leadership from the President. The President is/has already providing/provided excellent leadership under harrowing conditions. Survive first, using our ancestral cultural values of Buddhist Teachings, not so much in rituals & chanting, but in the actual practice of it in daily living.

    What is really going on in the rest of the world ?

    The stark truth is that there is Climate Change happening due to Global Warming. The carbon dioxide emissions from burning up of fossil fuels (mainly cars & industries) is heating up the air. Due to heated air, Water from the seven seas plus other bodies of water are evaporating and coming down to earth in the form heavy rains and snow. Do we in Lanka know that the walrus population in the Arctic have left their usual habitat on ice floes as there are no ice floes in the warming sea, and come to Alaska ? Animals are adapting, and some species are dead or dying due to Climate Change. Food supplies to both animals & humans are gravely affected due to Climate Change. This is true for almost all the countries, including the west.

    We humans have to devise ways of surviving, rich or poor, east or west. Buddhist philosophy is the best we know to apply on how to survive on an apparently self destructing planet. Knowledge of English Language & Technology really helps.

    Buddhism can be taught in English and other languages too ! I am personally very proud to say that the very important principle of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Modern Psychotherapy is a direct adaptation from the Buddhist Satipattana Bhavana. In foreign countries, Buddhism is highly respected and appreciated.

    Here is an extract written by a person who benefitted from such Psychotherapy :

    “Seven years ago, I was treated for major depression and anxiety using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Two years ago, I started learning Buddhism. I am amazed by the similarity between the two.

    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is based on the fact, that how we think affects how we feel. For example, irrational thoughts, like everyone must like me will cause us to feel upset, every time, we confront a person who reacts negatively to us, we feel upset. Cognitive Behavioural therapy also operates on the idea, that it is our unrealistic expectations that causes much suffering. For example, I must be rich, I must always have many friends etc. Cognitive Behavioural therapy is about thinking realistically and rationally.

    Buddhism says the same thing, but in a different way. Buddhism uses the word, desire instead of expectations and Buddhism too is about thinking realistically, that is, impermanence, law of causes, conditions and effects, suffering etc. Buddhism emphasizes wisdom which is similar to rational thinking promoted by Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.”

    Sri Lanka is mostly Buddhist. Let’s keep it that way. Let’s measure our Identity/Culture mostly through Buddhist Teachings and not through our genetic make up. Truth as taught in Buddhism, is Eternal.

    Who will lead this Movement ? It is all Sinhalas & foreigners who value Buddhist Teachings, in Sri Lanka and in foreign countries. Welcome anyone who wants to become a Buddhist. Invest our money in our People.

  24. Fran Diaz Says:

    Re Cognitive Behavioral therapy, it would be more correct to say that it is an off shoot of Vipassana Bhavana, with some Satipattana Bhavana added on. I leave this part to some one who has studied the similarities in some detail to lend more clarity to the topic.

    Also, there is much we can learn from the Shaolin Buddhist monks in self defence. Much also to learn from other Buddhist countries of the world, Japan, China & Bhutan in particular.

    Bhutan’s leader said some time ago that he is interested in the ‘Gross National Happiness’ of his people.

  25. jayt Says:

    Fran, you live deferent part of the world , and I live in deferent part of the world. You have deferent experience and I have gone through deferent experience that no Sinhalese have gone thru. As a result I at first, I suspected you right way according to your statement about Sinhalese and said to myself, Oh’ foreign agent finally managed to infiltrated into Sinhalese media section or government by bribing or Sinhalese who hate Sinhalese pride because his or her caste background or influencing Sinhalese through a threat of war crime and establishment of Tiger exile govt. On the hand, I also I thought may be that some Sinhalese are right who says the govt. has two faces; one is great patriotism to get vote by calling UNP, JVP and Fonsaka are traitors and on other hand, copy downs western hate propaganda against Sinhalese to satisfy Tigers and their agents because govt. scared of their threat. Therefore, my suspiciousness on you still there and it is legitimate. It won’t go away until you very me why you copied down western hate propaganda.

    I tell you the truth. Any foreign or local malicious man or women who wrote hate, malicious defamatory remarks against our great great grand parents or our ancestor or our identity, I will capture them and stone them to death in public in Galle Face park.

    I met thousand of good American, British, Canadian European friends who suggested me this excellent idea of stoning to death punishment is as the best option for several reasons.

    But we cannot let go some of the things go free. We have to communicate discuss, and share the experiences. The education is not just come from the book of history, math and geography There are some Sinhalese who feel this is the good time take revenge on govigama Sinhalese and ridicule and attacks Sinhalese identity because their caste back

  26. jayt Says:

    Note: missing the paragraph just before last one.

  27. jimmy Says:


    I truly admire your writings eventhough I may not agree in everything . I am sure you are very learned person. I can see it from your writings


  28. Fran Diaz Says:

    jayt: We are forced to approach our own problems today in a scientific way, or else what we have to say will not be accepted in a Globalised world, and we will not easily find solutions either. The Buddha gave to the world the most scientific way to Self or God Realisation, which is the ultimate act of love or compassion toward ourselves.

    I am truly sorry that you find scientific writing offensive. However, in some ways, Science is the salvation of the Buddhists too, as Buddhism is very scientific. Modern day science came from the west, but our ancestors in Lanka made water ways & tanks that make western civil engineers gasp in amazement !

    For further clarity please listen in on website http://www.wopg.org. Much wisdom there, spoken from the Heart.

    Jimmy: Thanks for appreciation !

  29. Fran Diaz Says:

    Jimmy: I am not a ‘very learned person’ ! I am just an ordinary person who is interested in knowing this world and helping people to help themselves. Just tired of the sham and hoodwinking that goes on in some parts of the world ,,,,,

  30. Dr. Jayasiri Fernando Says:

    Sorry this is a belated response to a very well written & researched paper.

    It answers a lot of questions but there are still many puzzles. Having read the Mahavamsa & a no of history books
    including Prof. K.M. De Silva’s large work I have come to some conclusions. I am professionally not a historian!!

    1. Before the Sinhalas arrived in Tambapanni there were people living in Sri Lanka fo at least 8,000 years (Central Indians, Zorastrians & perhaps a few South Indians). So called Devas, Yakshas & Nagas.

    2.Did Vijaya’s original 700 men marry South Indian women (Pandyan Queens & nobility??). This dilution plus the people living already in the east originally & in the Vanni formed the original Sinhala Race as a single cultural & linguistic entity. I am sure they intermarried.

    3.Sri Lanka was invaded by many South Indian tribes not all of whom spoke Tamil, perhaps all Dravidian tongues.
    This is the Tamil community of Jaffna & the east.

    4.Nobody has the courage to do like Dilrook Kannangara has attempted, to say the following.

    A.Sri Lanka is the land of the Sinhalas.
    This is by linguistic , cultural & militiary events in the past 2,500 years.
    B. All races will live equitably (both in word & deed) & have absolutely identical opportunity & citzenship as Sri Lankans.

    C. There are none & never will be so called tradiional “Homelands”

    The minorities have the best of both worlds. Our “Cidade”- Colombo has 39% Tamils & 20% Muslims (Total 59%)
    These are facts. The majority Sinhala has 41% in the Capital City. Till 2009 there were no Sinhalas & Muslims in
    Jaffna. This will all change, as it should be as a fair thing.

  31. Dilrini.DeSilva Says:

    I would like to point out that the scientific paper (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v451/n7181/abs/nature06742.html) which forms the basis of this article did NOT include samples from Sri Lanka in their dataset and the map is just an illustration and should not be interpreted as describing the fine details of genetic variation in every part of the world. The samples representing South Central Asia came from 8 Pakistani populations (http://www.cephb.fr/en/hgdp/table.php) and results have been generalised to fill in nearby geographical regions on the map.

    Although Dilrook’s interpretations based on the map seem plausible, I stress that there is no real genetic evidence for this.

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