Posted on February 7th, 2012

Dr. Ananda W. P. Guruge (Former Sri Lanka Ambassador to U. S. A.)

 No other country of comparable size has a culture so ancient in antiquity and development, so diverse in character, and so rich in variety of creativity. In this respect Sri Lanka is unique.

Sri Lanka received many waves of migrants as revealed by prehistoric burial places and, at least, one megalithic structure and twenty-five centuries of history. History begins with the arrival of the Indo-Aryans originally from the Northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, followed by migrations from other regions of Northern India. The history of the Sinhala Kingdom is available as a written record starting from 543 BCE.

 Again, Sri Lanka has this special distinction that its historical record has been periodically updated in the Great Chronicle (Mahavansa), right up to the last century. Supported and elaborated in a voluminous historical literature, it is a  history whose overall accuracy is established by inscriptions, monuments, archeological artifacts and references in Greek, Latin, Indian, Chinese and Arab literatures.

 Greeks knew Sri Lanka from the fourth country BCE as Taprobane (< Tamraparni or Tambapanni) and its cartographers knew so much of the topographical features, cities and ports that they assumed the Island to be many times larger than India.

Rome received King Bhatika Tissa’s Ambassadors and in a comparative study of Sri Lankan and Roman societies by Elder Pliny gave credit to Sri Lanka’s superior features. The father of one of the Ambassadors was described as the Sri Lankan Ambassador to the court of China India portrayed the island as the home of Ravana in their epics but recognized the  Sri Lankan contribution to the study and preservation of Buddhism. Indian scholars came to translate the Sinhala commentaries into the Buddhist lingua franca, Pali.

Arabs immortalized the island of Selendip (<Sihalanamdipa) with adventures of Sinbad the Sailor as the land of delightful surprises.

Chinese hailed it as the home of Buddhism and sent pilgrims in search of books and religious artifacts. The Chinese also used Great Port (Mantai) as the mid-point emporium in its maritime silk route. Li Chau recorded that the largest ships that came to China were from Sri Lanka.

Europeans (Portuguese, Danes, French, Dutch and Breitish) flocked to the Island in search of cinnamon and spices.

All had a great appreciation of its scenic beauty and all that nature has given it.

So was our homeland called the “Pearl of the Indian Ocean.”

 The founding of the city of Anuradhapura in the fourth century BCE by Pandukabhaya symbolized the pluralistic culture of the Island in the earliest known epoch. The city  had places of worship for Brahmanical sacrifices as well as for Ajivika and Jain practices. The western suburb was reserved for Greek merchants. Earlier settlers – the Yakkhas and possibly Nagas – had their own shrines. The municipal services were organized in astounding detail. The management of water resources, for which Sri Lankans have had a high-level expertise, already had made a start.


The arrival of Buddhism in the third century BCE enriched the Sri Lankan cultural pursuits especially on account of the self-renewing institution of the Buddhist Sangha. In Sri Lanka, the Sangha played a major role in practically every aspect of culture. Buddhism has had the most beneficial impact on the national

achievements in art and architecture, language and literature and even performing arts. It is also due to the all-accommodating tolerance and goodwill of Buddhism that Sri Lanka became and remains the meeting place of many cultures, both eastern and western.

 It is predominantly the Sinhala Buddhist culture, which has prevailed most strongly and for the longest time. Commencing with the sacred Bodhi tree and Thuparama Stupa, the Buddhist shrines trace twenty-three centuries of architectural achievements. The stupa or dagaba received the foremost attention. Simpler and far less ornate than the Indian stupa, Sri Lankan dagaba acquired its own unique characteristics. Kings and rival monastic institutions concentrated on size rather than on ornamentation.

Tissamaharama in the South was already the biggest dagaba in the subcontinent in the second century BCE. Ruwanveli Seya was superseded by Abhayagiri and Mahasena made Jetavanarama so large that it remained the second tallest structure of the whole world for over a thousand years. Only the great pyramid of Egypt surpassed it in height. Another experiment in Sri Lankan architecture was the Cetiyaghara, a grand mansion over a dagaba. Even the Ramayana refers to this form of architecture as a special feature of Lanka.

 Sri Lankan expertise in structural engineering is even more vividly displayed by Lovamahapaya or Brazen Palace – a 125 foot nine-story skyscraper with a thousand rooms mounted on a foundational platform of 1600 stone columns.

Temple architecture evolved in complexity. In Polonnaruwa one sees dagabas of new design like Satmahalprasada, the vault-roofed image houses and the most exquisite structure combining the dagaba and the image-house, the Vatadage.

Its Lankatilaka image-house, Chapter house, and Nissanka Lata Mandapa are impressive monuments.

 The whole Island is dotted with thousands of shrines among which those like Lankatilaka, Gadaldeniya, Embekke Devalya, and Nalanda gedige – all around Kandy — merit to be called architectural gems.

 The origin of the Buddha statue of Sri Lanka may or may not be connected with how

it happened in India. In any case, the Sri Lankan Buddha statue, whether in the most austere and, therefore, faith-evoking simplicity of Samadhi and Toluwila statues of Anuradhapura or in the imposing presence marked by the giant Aukana and Maligawila Buddhas, is refreshingly new in concept and superb in execution. Nowhere else in the Buddhist world is such a charmingly elegant complex of Buddha images as at Galvihara in Polonnaruwa, which Dr. Senerat Paranavitana rightly called “That poetry in Stone.”

Buddhist statues had been made of not only stone but also in stucco, wood and bronze. Dambulla, in its sheltered caves, houses as many as three hundred of them.


The bronze statuary displayed great advances made in metallurgy and metal industry. The four-foot Tara statue – now the cynosure of the British Museum in London – symbolizes technological expertise as much as artistic perfection. So are the numerous bronze Buddhas ranging from those of Badulla and Polonnaruwa right down to those of the Kandyan period.

 Painting has a long history in Sri Lanka. Prehistoric paintings are found in Tantirimalai, near Vavuniya and the use of paintings as media for both ornamentation and education find mention in the Chronicles. The wealth of art that had gone into the decoration of the relic chamber of Ruwanweli Seya was described in great detail and the authenticity of such records was later proved when the relic chamber of Mahiyangana stupa was opened.

 The glorious frescoes of Sigiriya (the mere pittance that remains of a five thousand square-foot picture gallery with paintings of five hundred damsels) and the equally fascinating twenty thousand square feet of murals of Dambulla Caves are remarkable highlights in Buddhist art of early Sri Lanka. Dambulla seems to have witnessed many centuries of artistic creativity and what one sees today could be the eighteenth century restoration of much older creations.

That the tradition developed in quality and artistic perfection is established by the most exquisite paintings of Tivanka Pilimage of Polonnaruwa and Dimbulagala – now to be seen only in replicas preserved in the Colombo museum. Every image-house in Sri Lanka has been a veritable art gallery and the continuation of the lively traditions of Buddhist painting is seen in the magnificent work of Solius Mendis and Nanda Lal Bose in Kelani Vihara and the modernistic rendering of George Keyt at Gotami Vihara, Borella.

 Sculpture, apart from the Buddha statues, too, figure as a medium of decoration and education, even though Sri Lankan output bears no comparison with those of India at Ellora, Ajanta and Western Caves or the stupendous sculptures of Borobudur of Indonesia or Angkor Wat and Bayon of Cambodia. The Sri Lankan masterpieces are the numerous renderings of the Sandakadapahana (Moonstone), with the one at Anuradhapura as the most beautiful, the Muragal (Guardstone) and the Purnaghata (Pitcher of plenty).


It is in language and literature that Sri Lankan talent for creativity is best

displayed. How the Sinhala language developed from its early Prakrit form to its

modern state is traceable over twenty-two centuries. The thousands of rock inscriptions show not only how the script evolved but also how the grammar, vocabulary and style developed for Sinhala to be a full-fledged language.

Authoritative commentaries on the Tripitaka were produced in Sinhala from the third century BCE and the Pali Canon and the Sinhala commentaries were written down at Aluvihara around 84 BCE.

 Sinhala poetry appeared in inscriptions as far back as the first century before Christ. How much the Sinhala people of all ranks enjoyed poetry and used it as a popular vehicle for expression of emotions is displayed in Sigiri graffiti on the mirror wall. Thousands of verses, so far deciphered, speak of literary traditions of the highest order. It is, therefore, not surprising that the earliest of the extant works in Sinhla is Siyabaslakara of King Sena and it deals with the art of poetry. Many works had been lost but records had been made of the names of at least twelve great poets of the past. 


Early works in blank verse such as Muvadevdavata, Sasadavata and Kavisilumina show the influence of Sanskrit poetic norms and among them Kavsilumina, most appropriately called the “Diadem of Poetry” compares favourably with great poetry in world literature.

With a new form of four-line rhymed verses, with a variety of metres, Sinhala poetry rose to great heights of creativity. Works like Gira Sandesa of unknown authorship, Selalihini Sandesa of Totagamuve Rahula, Guttila Kavya of Wettewe and Lovedasangrava of Vidagama Maitriya are yet so popular after five hundred years.

 The output of Sinhala poetry had been prolific even at times when political upheavals had interfered with cultural development.

The abundance of folk poetry ranging from work-songs of carters, boatmen and miners to semi-literate compositions for popular consumption provides significant evidence on Sri Lanka’s love for poetry and poetic expression.

 The main reason for the growth of Sinhala literature has been the readiness of the literati, in particular, and the people, in general, to be open to influences, which came from other cultures. Pali with Theravada Buddhism and Sanskrit with Mahayana Buddhism influenced the Sinhala language and literature. All three languages had a symbiotic existence in Sri Lanka and were used for the production of the national literature. A Sinhala king is ascribed the authorship of a Sanskrit poem of high quality on the abduction of Sita – the theme of the Ramayana. Sri Lankan history was written in Pali apparently with a wider readership in mind. If so, the purpose was fulfilled in that an Extended Mahavansa was produced in Southeast Asia and its manuscripts have been available only in Thai and Cambodian script.

Another feature of the Sinhala literature, when compared with current literatures of India, is the antiquity of prose literature. In Indian literature prose is hardly four hundred years old. But Sinhala prose appears from very early times in inscriptions and many works traceable to over a thousand years.

Especially after the twelfth century when monks were enjoined by decree not to study or teach poetry and drama, Sinhala prose literature saw a tremendous development in expressiveness and experimentation in style. Those classics like Amavatura of Gurulugomi, Butsarana of Vidyacakravarti, Saddharmaratanavaliya of Dharmasena and Pujavaliya of the Chief of Mayurapada Pirivena are still read and enjoyed after seven hundred years and generally held to be unsurpassed.

 Evidence for the development of performing arts is not so readily available. That music and dance played a role in religious practice is vouched for by many descriptions in literature. Sixty monks are said to have pursued their meditation to reach the highest stage of perfection on hearing a song sung by a farm girl. Processions have been an essential aspect of religious festivity and music with drums and flutes and dances of various forms figured in them prominently. Stone sculpture at Yapahuwa and wood-carvings of Embekke Devalaya depict dancers, musicians and, at the latter site, even practitioners of martial arts.

The prohibition of studying and teaching drama by monks in the twelfth century is indicative of a time when performing arts had been at the height of popularity. Sandesa poems preserve many descriptions of dance performances. The realistic portrayal of the power of music and the charm of dance in Guttila Kavya is convincing evidence that the poet could not have been so effective unless he had personal experience of aesthetic arrest.

The continuation of the tradition in the Kandy Perahera and the land-tenure support given to performers are further evidence for a rich heritage in performing arts as well. The existence of ritual music and dance in Kohombakankariya and Devol exorcisms, the ready acceptance of South Indian Nadagam and the imitation of Indian model for the Nurtya drama are further indicative of the Sri Lankan openness to cultural influences from all over.

 As I started by calling the Sri Lankan culture pluralistic, one is bound to expect an equally detailed account of the cultures of the other ethnic and cultural groups that contribute to Sri Lankan culture.

South India has had the closest relations with the Island. Vijaya episode speaks of a consort for the king and wives for others who came from Southern Madhura.

Dameda, as Tamils were called in early inscriptions, are mentioned as traders and mariners and they had in Anuradhapura a household whose inscriptions give valuable information. Two such traders had captured the throne for a while and a Chola  invader had ruled the northern region for forty-four years. Infamous Anula is said to have had a Tamil city architect whom she later raised to kingship and murdered. Influence of South Indian courtiers on Sinhala kings is also mentioned in the Chronicles. South Indian mercenaries (Velaikkara) played decisive roles in wars of succession. Yet, concrete evidence of the presence of large settlements of South Indian people has yet to be found. Inscriptions of Dameda were in Sinhala Prakrit and their donations were to Buddhist temples. Candamukha Siva’s Tamil wife built a Buddhist temple and gave donations to it. The three Brahmanical temples, which Mahasena converted into Buddhist temples,have no history to establish how far back they go.

So, the presence of Tamil culture with inscriptions in the language and Tamil architecture of the Shiva Devalayas and Naipena Vihara of Polonnaruwa are more indicative of the impact of the fifty seven years of Tamil occupation of the northern region, with Polonnaruwa as the administrative centre, during short-lived imperial power of the Cholas in the tenth century. In the absence of locally produced inscriptions in Tamil other than those of Sinhala rulers or their mercenaries, or any works of literature of any antiquity, the only evidence for the prevalence of Tamil culture comes from the rich and varied bronze miniatures found in Anuradhapura and Polonaruwa. They speak of the impact of the South Indian form of Hinduism with its many gods, saints and pious devotees. Tamil gods Skandha and Vishnu get identified with local gods of Kataragama and Devinuwara and Ganadeviyo became the god of learning.

Similarly, South Indian architecture is to be seen in Lankatilaka (similar in character to the monuments of the Vijayanagar empire) and Gadaladeniya, entirely constructed of stone, and in the Buddhist monuments of the Kandy period.

In the field of Literature, significant Tamil influence is noted in the evolution of Sinhala prose after the twelfth century and the abundance of Tamil loanwards in Sinhala. That Tamil scholars contributed to Sinhala literature is borne out by the fact that the leader of the team translating the Jataka Book into Sinhala in the thirteenth century was a Tamil Buddhist monk, the Sinhala grammar Sidat Sangarawa is modeled on a Tamil grammar and a Tamil courtier Nannurutunayar produced the earliest extant Sinhala glossary.

Tamil culture appears to have developed independently and in isolation after the Tamil Kingdom of Jafna came into existence around the thirteenth century. It preserved the Tamil language in its archaic purity and it is recognized in South India as Senthamil or Pure Tamil. Tamil culture of Sri Lanka remains a field in which more research and dissemination of information are vital. Hence the paucity of information that we have on it.


Even less is recorded of the continuity and the development of Muslim culture of Sri Lanka. Arabs have been present in Sri Lanka from almost the time Islam was founded. Arab literature records invaluable information on Sri Lankan economy and products.

A sizeable Muslim population was welcomed and settled in the Eastern region by the Sinhala kings when the Portuguese, continuing the Crusades in Asia, persecuted them. As in the case of the Tamil Culture, Muslim culture, too, needs to be studied so as to understand fully how Sri Lanka has evolved into the present situation as the home of a pluralistic culture.

 This brief account of Sri Lankan culture, attempted at the specific request of Sri Lanka Association and the Sri Lankan Consulate General of Los Angeles, California is not meant to be anything more than a cursory analysis of a few high points in a subject that needs many hours of study and presentation.

The historical developments in the various fields of culture explain to us how the current cultural characteristics of Sri Lanka had evolved. We have preserved our own traditions but always added to it and made our own those influences that came from all over the world.

Our literature has drawn inspiration for content, style and form from Western Literature. New forms like the novel, the short story, the drama and the blank verse are fully integrated to our culture. We enjoy the ancient folk music along with the lively Kandyan court music of South Indian influence, the dynamic rhythms of Portuguese, African and Brazilian Baila and Kafirinna, the lilting charm of Indian classical music and even its more popular rendering in film music. Our choreography, too, has become so very cosmopolitan.

Some may argue for cultural purity and decry all that has come as new features.

But others may derive as much pleasure from Maname and Sinhabahu, synthesizing indigenous music with Nadagama prototypes, and similar efforts in other forms of culture where innovations grow from symbiosis and synthesis. Yet others may leave culture to have its own life and evolve as the cultivation of aesthetic creativity and taste dictates. Whatever be the position we may take, one thing is certain. The culture of Sri Lanka with its long history will never be dormant.

If this presentation develops an interest to seek more information and for some to undertake in-depth study leading to better understanding and appreciation, my purpose is served.


  1. Dilrook Says:

    There are some inaccuracies. Apart from them it is very intersting.

    Quote…Tamil culture appears to have developed independently and in isolation after the Tamil Kingdom of Jafna came into existence around the thirteenth century. It preserved the Tamil language in its archaic purity and it is recognized in South India as Senthamil or Pure Tamil. Tamil culture of Sri Lanka remains a field in which more research and dissemination of information are vital. Hence the paucity of information that we have on it….Unquote.

    There was no Tamil Kingdom of Jaffna from the 13th century. A Tamil ruled the Jaffna Kingdom (which was a vassal kingdom of the Kandyan Kingdom as it paid taxes) only after the 16th century with the blessing of the Portuguese.

    The word Jaffna derived from the Sinhala word Yapana > Japana > Jafana. Not from the Tamil nadu word of Yarlpanam. Note the “L” and “M” sounds absent from the word Jaffna. The authority on it is the book Spiritual and Temporal (hope I got the two terms in that order) Conquest of Ceylon where these terms are mentioned interchangeably.

    Further proof can be found in the absence of Portuguese names in Jaffna which are extremely common among Sinhalese. This clearly suggests Jaffna Tamils arrived in the island after the Portuguese conquest.

    Re: Senthamil or Pure Tamil

    This is because of Kerala (Malabar Coast) people colonizing Jaffna in large numbers. They preserved the Kerala pronounciation, etc. which are close to older Tamil. On the other hand Tamil continued to evolve in Tamil homeland – Tamil Nadu. However, today things are fast changing as Colombo Tamils, Upcountry Tamils and Baticaloa Tamils are fast integrating with Jaffna Tamils. This unique Senthamil will not be preserved in Sri Lanka due to integration.

    Further proof of this can be found in Dutch codification of Malabar land laws to be applied to Malabar Coast immigrants to Jaffna. It is known as Thesawalamei law. Its preemble reads the law to be applied to Tamils of Malabar origin clearly proving Tamils in Jaffna to be Malabar migrants.

    Quote…..Even less is recorded of the continuity and the development of Muslim culture of Sri Lanka. Arabs have been present in Sri Lanka from almost the time Islam was founded…..Unquote.

    Add to that, Muslims in Sri Lanka today are not decendents of Arabs. Arabic men as traders migrated to the island and integrated with the Sinhala community possibly millinia before the advent of Islam. Given their integration into the society and small numbers, they couldn’t retain their unique identity. They became part of the Sinhala Buddhist community.

    Almost all the Muslims of Sri Lanka apart from Malays are South Indians. The Beruwala Mosque which is considered the oldest in the island has a South Indian name which is very strange given the absence of South Indian populations in the region. Sri Lankan Muslim culture (apart from Malays) corresponds almost perfectly with South Indian Muslim culture.

    All these are part of the Sri Lankan culture today which is eseentially a multicultural society.

  2. jimmy Says:

    Good Article Hon. Ananda Guruge,
    I do not see you make other race or other religion inferior . I admire it
    People can and should write about their cultcure . There is nothing wrong on that but sadly People like Dirlook always write bad about other races.
    It does not help unity among races. Shame on you Dirlook
    I noticed your previous comments on Tamil race and cultcure
    Looks like you need some Psychiatric help or Find a Budhist Temple where they could help you to become a better human being
    I am a christian and I know you are not . If you are a christian I could have asked you to find a good church and pray for your soul. You are an angry man with so much hatred against Tamils
    It is not acceptable any more
    People like You Dirlook can not go on like this Period . I mean There are Tamil ass–les like you also spread hatred every f–king day
    It needs to stop
    Atleast I am sure Todays generation will ignore people who write and talk hatred all the time. PLEASE FORGIVE ME IF I MISUNDERSTOOD YOU


    I hope I am correct

    Hoist the Srilankan flags all over, sing national anthem in schools and all functions, spoken sinhala and spoken tamil for school kids,

    sue the monsters who write or talk against other race or cultcure or religion

  3. Lorenzo Says:


    This may be the tenth time you abuse writers here.

    Previously your targets were Shenali, Kithsiri, Ratanapala, Ranjith. This is NOT acceptable.

    Stop behaving like Prabakaran. It was in LTTE areas people ended up in jails, psychiatric hospitals or gallows for speaking out. Not in SL.

    If what is good for SL is bad for you, GOOD! What is bad for you is good for SL. Accept it.

  4. jimmy Says:

    correction Lorenzo
    I do not think I said anything bad on Ranjit or ranjith . IF I did it could be an honest mistake
    I remember I asked my honourable friend Lorenzo not to be mean to other races
    All that I am saying is we can not waste time in talking against other races or cultcures or religions any more. Those days are over folks . We have to stop it NOW . not tomorrow but right now
    We have to say SH SH SH when thinking or writing bad of other races.stiop the thought process which does not help unity
    There are Tamil racists who hate unity with sinhalese and there are sinhala racists who hate unity with tamils
    I am sorry we have to stop an end to this now.
    I am not angry with one particular peroson . There are thousands of racists both Tamils and sinhalese living among us . They think, breath with hatred against each other
    those days are over folks .
    Todays generation will not accept this behaviour any more
    Forget about 13 + or 13- or 11+ . I do not believe these will help the country
    Then what will help the country ?



    Thank you I rest my case

    Ayubuwan, vanakam, salam Alikum, have a great day , Bonjour merci

  5. jimmy Says:

    You said I abuse writers here. I feel bad now
    I know I am sensitive . I do not like when people talk against other races or cultcures or religions

    I am not going to write any more then but I will pray for peace among us. There are too many many great sinhalese , Tamils Muslims bergers who are begging for peace no more hatred any more


  6. lingamAndy Says:

    Do not worry about Lorenzo ( We all have some think in out head to judge him)
    You dream YES My dream wil come to true one day in our mother lanka !
    That day YES that day We(I) will land in my motherlanka with all my hard earn money from this Western world to as first class citizon !

    Well said jimmy , You are a genievin Chignkalavan !




  7. lingamAndy Says:

    Agreed ! Jimmy !

    Forget about 13 + or 13- or 11+ . I do not believe these will help the country !

    There are Tamil racists who hate unity with sinhalese and there are sinhala racists who hate unity with tamils!

    There are thousands of racists both Tamils and sinhalese living among us Now ! Those days are over folks !


  8. lingamAndy Says:

    Please keep write you are not abuse writers not feel bad !
    eg:in froms peple talk about unity but do not want to accept their diversity !
    I do not understand if no diversity why need unity !

  9. nandimitra Says:

    The sinhala buddhist heritage must be revived. It was this heritage that accepted every migrant from india with open arms, who gave refuge to the catholics in wahakotte when they were discriminated by the dutch,they also gave refuge to the muslims in the eastern province when they were discriminated by the portugese.( unfortunately forgotten by the minorities) even Ibin Batu the arab traveller mentions the hospitality of our people compared to the Indians. It is the British colonialist who introduced division in their desire to divide and rule and the constant unfair hype by the Tamil politicians who continuously talk about the tamils being discriminated that has pushed us into this dilemma where by we have become less magnanimous in our governance . Compassion and morality towards the poor and the less well off in our society are less emphasised. The problems of Sri Lanka today is because we are too close to the white mans philosophy but are further away from Buddhism.

  10. lingamAndy Says:

    Ref:The sinhala buddhist heritage that accepted every migrant from india – Not agreed
    Hela Heritage done it to Bhuddhist & Saivate !
    We all are part & parcel of this Greater Hala Heritage!

    Ref: we are too close to the white mans philosophy but are further away from Buddhism- Not agreed further away from Buddhism
    We are further away from this Greater Hala Heritage !

    Ok pass is pass now time to unite our diversity !
    United our Provincial to one Nation !

    the Sinhala idiots – please apolose for this wording !!!!
    Eg: If Sinhalas are idiots than how did they win 33 war with in 2years !

  11. Naram Says:

    Thank youDr Guruge for the cocise article.

    I would like to know more about the language Nayakkers spoke – Was it Tamil or Telengu. Prof Anuradha Seneviratne once mentioned that a vast number of names in Sri Lanka have Telengu origins. The form of well once popular in Jaffna -Aandi Linda with the palanced walk on beam to is said to be a technique brought from Andra Pradesh. Also it is said by another, Mudaliar Rasanayagam in his story of Jaffna, that in the lawlwss period of Sankili operating in the turbulent Portugese times Sinhala population along with CatholicsofMannar were massacred. Those who escaped the massacre were expropriated and humbled to low caste Koviars – agricultural labourers.

    Also our rich diversity of beliefs, Pattini, Aiyanayake, Katharagama etc stem from the immigration of many Indian Gurus with the rise of sea trade, and others. Buddhism sank to a new low it issaid in the time of Rajasinghe I ie 1640 or so when he preferred to hear theadvice of Aritta Kivendu over others. Do please correct me.

Leave a Reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.



Copyright © 2019 All Rights Reserved. Powered by Wordpress