Contain China policy and Sri Lanka
Posted on July 7th, 2012

Ranjith Soysa

The Australian, a national new paper in Australia reported recently information relating to a secret war plans of Australia and her allies to contain China. The report was based on leaked   US cables published in Wikileaks website. The Australian Foreign Minister in one if his interviews rejected the existence  of such a white paper . According to the Australian report the USA considers China as a threat.  Hence, the objective of the contain China policy was to plan for a blockade of China’s sea routes to control movement of imports and exports of China when  the US and allies decide  to act.

These developments in the Western camp have a direct relevance to Sri Lanka because of its geographical location and being considered as a friend of China. Sri Lankan ports will play a strategic role in the near future in facilitating the sea trade of China to meet her growing demand. Therefore, the strategists who are now drawing the policy to contain China must be planning what should be  done either to cajole Sri Lanka to  follow their grand plan or, if,  there is resistance  from Sri Lankan side , how they can muzzle Sri Lanka to force her to be a part of  the containing  China policy.

Many a country in the Western camp do depend on the dynamic expansion   of the Chinese   market for their growth. But, they also continue to harbour fears of China becoming the world’s number 1 economy. The Liberal Premier of Western Australia whose exports to China reached $47 billion in 2011 explained this phenomenon clearly when he said, “Australia’s relationship with China is immature and the federal government lacks clear policy on how to deal with the country’s biggest trading partner in a climate where xenophobia remains.  In short, the USA and the Western camp has no choice but to be a part of the Chinese boom while  also  holding the banner of  Chinese threat.  In the final analysis ,the West cannot accept that the centre of power is shifting elsewhere similar to what happened in the 20th century when the Europe was overtaken by the USA.

The “hawks” in the West are convinced that with the transfer of global power their “ƒ”¹…”civilization and the values’ are at risk and the West should be ready  to retaliate . The policy of containing China will be the final  desperate strategy the hawks will employ before the inevitable rise of China to the top position in the international community. When one by one large legendary multi-national cop orations fold up and individual countries have to put up with financial collapse   the West is compelled to ignore   the open market theories of demand and supply by opting  to assist, bailout  sick commercial ventures and sick countries unlike their IMF prescriptions to the developing and under-developed countries. The national economy and national security aspects are given recognition to prop up the West and the hawks busily proceed to explore soft power as well as tough diplomatic initiatives to  manage geo-politics to their advantage.

Sri Lankan President and his government militarily defeated the LTTE  by removing an organization which could have been used by the West  to destabilize the region including Sri Lanka.  Many Western countries covertly assisted the LTTE in their attempt to weaken SrI Lanka  pushing her to seek international intervention or  foreign party intervention  to negotiate peace with the LTTE.. The notorious Ceasefire Agreement of 2002 and subsequent events have  amply proved that the foreign interference in any form even as a pretext of  guarantying  of peace in Sri Lanka will finally weaken the centre. It also creates opportunities to the enemies within the community such as foreign funded NGOs to dictate terms  with a view  to deconstructing  Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka was even considered as a case fir for R2P  when foreign (Western) pressure was exerted by the Western diplomats thro NGOs  and foreign think tanks.

The President Rajapakse lead the nation in defeating the plot and he is now being marked by the Western powers such as the British, the USA and the EU. Their thirst to get involved in the island’s affairs was visible when they were able to get the UN Human Rights Commission to pass a resolution with the support of India against Sri Lanka.  The human rights violations which took  place in various foreign locations  in the recent times and the UN resolution against Sri Lanka  demonstrate that this type of decisions are not based  on international norms but due to the geo-political context of a  given country. In short, it is clear that the  West is of the view that Sri Lanka must be controlled as it can create problems for their geo-political strategy in the coming decade.

In short, Sri Lanka should be allowed to be embroiled in political instability and continue to depend  on the West’s financial system “”…” a trap -including the Western model of development.  The Sri Lankan people are  pushed to  gain their place in the consumer society driven by hidden persuaders. The upper middle class is setting the pace for the country to depend on the  international market for its survival. The foundations of the national economy are ignored for short term expectations. Finally, Sri Lanka will be a ripe mango to fall into the lap of the foreign  powers when the country will have no choice but to accept the terms of the West.

Thomashausen , commenting on the R2P says ,,” case by case analysis of each situation and desire to intervene or remain  inactive is not governed solely by the international norms, (But) by the geo-political context of the situation ,the national interest   and the perception of the collective security needs of the permanent five”

Sri Lanka should seriously study the implications of the  West’s contain China policy and strengthen its national economy to avert  being a subject of  R2P ploy in any form.  The R2P in its mildest form can be triggered by the UN Human Rights Commissioner’s desire to advise Sri Lanka how to be accountable for the fictitious figure of 40,000 deaths invented by Darusman and his team.

 

 

25 Responses to “Contain China policy and Sri Lanka”

  1. AnuD Says:

    Sinhalization should continue. Threat from the church should be considered serious. President can visit Vatican every month but it will not work in the long run.

  2. Sunil Vijayapala Says:

    American vulturism must end. Some South American countries have kicked out US Aid. These vultures will get their first taste when and if they confront Syria now ably backed by Russia. China will follow. Unfortunately for our English speaking Colombons, some Catholics/Christians this is bitter news.

  3. Lorenzo Says:

    “Sinhalization should continue.”

    ABSOLUTELY. It is the ONLY solution at the end of the day.

    We need Chinese military bases in SL as bargaining tools. Once established, it is impossible to remove.

  4. Kit Athul Says:

    Looks like you prefer INDIAN military bases Lorenzo, which they have now in Trincomalee. What is wrong with Chinese Military bases? Spell it out.

  5. AnuD Says:

    By 2020, USA will increase the strength of It’s Naval fleet in the Indian Ocean. Because of that, Sri lanka will get more problems in the future. I think,they are working hard in the Eastern province already.

  6. AnuD Says:

    I think eventually EU disintegrates, probably it is progressing. EU as an economic Union, does not have much power. By bullying Sri Lanka like countries EU tries to establish reputation. UK has power as long as USA is powerful.

    Sr lanka has to clear about it’s challenges. It comes from India (TamilNadu is part of that), Western powers and from the Church. These threats need to be handled separately.

    I think, present president or the opposition leader are not worried about the threat from the Church of which the priority is making Sri Lanka a Christian country. I don’t believe that they feel about it.

  7. Lorenzo Says:

    Kithsiri,

    “We need Chinese military bases in SL as bargaining tools. Once established, it is impossible to remove.”

    Not bloody Indian. We DON’T have any Indian bases in Trincomalee now.

    No point having temporary bases, we need PERMANENT ones. Not like SLA army camps in Jaffna that were reduced to nothing by now.

  8. AnuD Says:

    I think, they will push us to a stage that Sri Lanka will have to have Chinese military bases. That is why they try to get some one which will be partial to them. On the other hand, Why did Ranil visit China recently ? He did not say anything to newspapers or and no one asked hi about that.

  9. Geeth Says:

    Ajith,
    Australian newspapers have exposed yet another proof for our argument that Western policy over Sri Lanka is based on gaining complete control in the India Ocean region including its sea routes… rather than human rights

    But the question is if that was the only reason, then why should they support Tamil separatism? Because West could have obtained support of Sri Lankan ruling class (majority of them are Sinhalese) easily by friendly means rather than the antagonistic path they have chosen now; because it is well known that the policy makers of our ‘ruling class’ were and are among some notable poodles of the west in the South Asian region. It is a fact. We all know about it and the west knows it even better than us to begin with. Considering the fact that this entire destabilizing project was surfaced during the reign of our greatest poodle in South Asia; JR. Jayawardene the great, why did west take the difficult path of helping separatism?

    Even today if west can abandon their policy of destabilization and separatism in Sri Lanka, our ruling class can easily sell the idea of supporting the west to have a western military base in Sri Lanka. Don’t forget, they established voice of America in the north Western coast under vehement opposition of India at that time. VOA, in its closest proximity to Indian subcontinent, can collect data and be a useful listening center that can jeopardize Indian defense. Making JR to take such a daring decision to allow a VOA close to India, US made India to make the obvious move toward supporting Tamil separatism in Sri Lanka. USA got two birds casting one stone. I think supporting separatism in Sri Lanka is part of this grand strategy.

    Under JR, west had its golden opportunity to come into Sri Lanka and gain whatever they wanted, and unlike today, at that time USA had a very good rapport with Sri Lankan public as well. Therefore, it was just only a matter of a word, a slip of the tongue for JR to have an American military base in Sri Lanka at that time when the entire left and the opposition of the country had being tossed in to the waste basket of the history at that time.

    If you remember, USA expanded its mission in the island moving to a new embassy premises in 1984, and JR ceremoniously opened the new chancery cutting a red ribbon. So we all thought JR was going to have a US military presence in Sri Lanka taking note into the threat that was looming upon SL from India. But adding insult to the injury, then US ambassador James W. Spain declared that USA had no interest of having a military base in Sri Lanka. How can you explain that if west wanted to gain control in SL soil just only to control sea routs? What ever the way our left twist the facts, JR regime was the golden time for the west to come back into Sri Lanka if their intention was only to control sea routes.

    Then why they didn’t come? Unlike our stupid politicians, west is planing ahead to gain results in decades to come. If they happened to establish a base, then India will be kept away from creating the path for Tamil separatism in Sri Lanka.
    So poor JR without having nowhere to go, just like a lonely male who being abandoned by his partner at the old age, turned toward Britain to remind them about the defense agreement the two countries had. In other words, he asked Britain to come back. But Britain had trashed the idea.

    Then the puzzling question is why west needs to destabilize Sri Lanka now, even at a time when India has become its ally? And then why India willfully supporting western project of destabilizing and division in Sri Lanka knowing the fact that it might boomerang back to them, disintegrating Indian union itself?

    This is a wonderful article Ajith. This relationship of economics, the defense and foreign policies are the aspects I also tried to explain in my articles. Bringing Nambiar, Navaneetham Pillai into UN mechanism tells how far western global strategy is entrenched in South Asia. But instead of countering this ‘semiology’ by adding a counter strategy of increasing people like Thamara into positions like in Geneva; our foreign minister got rid of her to satisfy the western strategists.

    So anyway, for the sake of discussion, I hope you would answer these questions.

  10. Geeth Says:

    To say something about global economic dominance, modernity and the west, I must say that de-dollarization in emerging economies is the biggest threat to the west, especially that is a threat that USA is facing. If Dollar loses its position as the global currency, the entire economy of the west will be reduced to its actual size. Printing paper currency during last sixty years without any backing of gold or silver value into it has accumulated trillions of Dollars around the world without having an actual value. If China India gains its lost pre-modern dominant position in modern time, they will definitely abandon the Dollar.

    To the current economic trajectory, black money (of dollars) must remain black. 1% of supper rich must remain supper rich and meant to keep their dollar wealth tightly hidden in their vaults and bank accounts. Bringing this money into the open economic function will be the end of the world economy.

    On the other hand, another unchangeable feature of modernity is to make sure that the 80% of poor people of global south to keep remain poorer without having access to the wealth and a chance to taste the fruit of modernity. As far as the west can maintain the super-rich minority as such, they can keep the fake money or the ‘fiat’ money (see Wikipedia) out of exposure to the economic function. because entire global curency maket is a fake one. these papers has no value at all. Their value exceeds many times, and can buy off entire global GDP many times.

    Then as far as the west can maintain this 80% poorer in Africa, Asia and Latin America, the global economy will be remaining healthy.

    Now this must explain why Tamils become friends of modernity by their default and the Sinhalese becomes foes of modernity by the default. Because modernity cannot exist without dominance and control, therefore Tamils has been recognized as one of the cogs in that machine of western global dominance. It’s no matter how our Sinhalese policy makers wonderfully beatifying their a…… and presenting them to the west with attractive twists, still for the west, they are just stinky and useless!!!!!

    I hope G.L will understand this reality.

  11. Geeth Says:

    Sorry, it must be Ranjith, not Ajith.

  12. Lorenzo Says:

    Geeth,

    “Making JR to take such a daring decision to allow a VOA close to India, US made India to make the obvious move toward supporting Tamil separatism in Sri Lanka.”

    The VOA station was put up in 1992 in Premadasa’s time. Premadasa approved it. By then India had supported tigers for 10+ years, fought the tigers and left the island.

  13. Geeth Says:

    Lorenzo,
    VOA and Trinco base were in the agendas of discussion since the beginning of Jayawardene era. It is not the year what matters here or what year VOA commenced or signed the agreement is not that important. What is important is the continual policy of JR that was readily antagonizing India without knowing the true intention of the west. Premadasa continued it. JR thought that US would treat Sri Lanka as another Taiwan/Formosa. But he was wrong. My point is that west wanted to use India as a cat paw to do the dirty job. They didn’t want to take Trinco at that time because that would have jeopardized this agenda.

    I am not white washing India at all. But it is a valid question to ask why India is doing something that is not really for the benefit of India at all. But i am sure India most probably thinking to annex NE to Indian union. That must be the exact bite that west is showing to them.

    Actually today India is doing Hanuman, while exporting Ram to the west. When it comes to Sri Lankan issue, both India and west thinks they use each other in regard to SL issue and are trying to outsmart each other. But actually west is using India. West wants to come into Trinco someday as ultimate victor, after creating a greater Tamil nation combining TN of India and NE of SL. Then in presence of hostile neighbor India next to it, west will be offered Trinco in a platter and can stay there forever. By that time Indian union also might have been gone with the wind. Indians are the greatest fools of the century.

  14. Lorenzo Says:

    Geeth,

    I was ONLY disputing the VOA matter. Mostly agree with everything else.

    I couldn’t find any evidence the VOA project was in the pipeline AND SL had authorised it during JR’s time.

    “West wants to come into Trinco someday as ultimate victor, after creating a greater Tamil nation combining TN of India and NE of SL.”

    This may explain why India wants to annex NE before USA does!!

    I would not agree ONLY India and USA and EU are after this. Many other nations would be after Trinco including Saudi and Iran. A major dog fight will happen in Trinco.

    So it is a GEOPOLITICAL matter NOT a dimplomatic matter. GLP is only the foreign minister. He has no authority or power in geopolitical mattters.

    Only solution is Sinhalization of Trincomalee.

  15. Geeth Says:

    Lorenzo,
    Like any other commenter in this forum discussing things pertaining to various issues, I also do not have evidence in handy to tell you whether or not VOA project was in the pipeline when JR was in office. People like Manikdiwela and Paskaralingam should have such evidence.
    But just think the amount of time that needs to complete a mammoth project like VOA after going through all these governmental administrative procedures of two governments in Washington and Colombo. Do you think within two years of Premadasa’s time all these things can realize?

    To tell you the least, I was in the circle close enough to overhear things as well as understand many sensitive issues in a close proximity during the time of JR, Premadasa and even Chandrika. Therefore I came to know that there were many things, even greater things including VOA in the pipeline at that time. But I agree with you India had begun destabilizing Sri Lanka way before the VOA. But VOA is only an outcome of a continued policy of JR even up to Premadasa. So I agree with you, I must have stressed about this policy little more than the VOA in SL.

  16. Dilrook Says:

    Geeth and Lorenz:

    Disintegration of Sri Lanka has no bearing on India. India is 60 times larger than Sri Lanka and 90 times larger than “Tamil Elam”. Bangladesh was split out of Pakistan in 1970s by India. But that didn’t cause West Bengal or India to disintegrate. Actually, creating Tamil Elam guarantees India’s territorial integrity!

    Extremely influential Tamil Nadu politicians want a nation to go to UN, etc. They can never get it on their own. They can only get it with Indian help. Once they have it, they will run it through their “devotees” and worshippers including TULF, TNA, etc. They will never leave India. Why should they? They have met their Tamil national aspirations. By being part of India they will have access to world’s 4th largest economy (3rd largest in 20 years from now), 6th superpower, the regionally bully, Hindu culture and religious affiliation, etc. So they will never leave India. Tamil Nadu will be forever loyal to India for helping them.

    However, LTTE had other ideas. LTTE wanted to create a Tamil nation spanning Tamil Elam, Tamil Nadu, Tamil Malaya, etc. India was vehemantly against this plan. It would have created a rift between India and USA over this. But LTTE is no more! India is in a mighty hurry to create Tamil Elam as a suckling of Tamil Nadu and hence India.

    USA would not allow the disintegration of India as it is the only country that stands up to China in China’s east. USA has big plans for India after December 2014 when US troops withdraw from Afghanistan. USA has been ignoring Kashmir lately to please India.

    In addition, USA wants a military platform close to action that can be sacrificed in a war. Tamil Elam serves this purpose of use it and dump it.

    That is why USA and India try very hard to establish Tamil Elam. It is no secret. That is why USA didn’t come to our rescue in 1987. USA and India will never go against one another as long as China is strong.

  17. Geeth Says:

    Dilrook,
    “Disintegration of Sri Lanka has no bearing to India.” What you have said is the thinking of the RAW and the stupid Indian ruling class. West also want them to think that way. But the rift between west and the east is much wider than you think. Modern world cannot share their booty with India as a nation state, but it would share it with the selected supper rich of Indians or the Indian corporatocracy.

    It is only the naive colonized bums in the Indian ruling class can think that they can be equal partners of the west just because of the China factor. Yes they can enjoy that feeling until the time comes for the disintegration of Indian union. West will use India now at the same time they will divide it. They will try that in China and Russia as well.

    In twenty years to come, the concept of nation state will be weekend and the concept of class politics will take over the power. The concept of nation will become an idea of the common man, like you and me. When that time comes, it is not the west that will pave the way to break India, but the minority of Indian super-rich class who joined hands with the global agenda of multi-national corporations will call the shots in Indian politics and will pave the path to do it for the benefit of Corporatocracy. The Indian ruling class did it once for the benefit of their class at the independence and will do it again if needed to protect their interests. They will never give a shit to their nation state. Besides, there was no historically united India to begin with.

    Dilrook, see it in this way. Modern idea in the form of capitalism needs a center periphery mechanism. The nation state of India has no place in the center as well as China wouldn’t have it. But a selected crowd or a minority of all nation states in the world will be a part of the center in the new world order.

    The case of Russia could have been different if it did not have a vast swath of land stretching from Europe to Bering Strait and abundant resources in there that historically west was deeply longing to exploit. But unfortunately it has. Just think why Russia is not offered membership of NATO. Why still NATO considers Russia as a threat, and threat for what? Why NATO encircling Russia via a missile shield?

    Division of Sri Lanka is the first step toward dividing India. Once Sri Lanka is divided, west doesn’t even have anything to do to break India. It just will collapse like a house of cards.

  18. Geeth Says:

    Dilrook,
    I forgot to ask you the fundamental question. Can you give us the rationale behind western promotion of separatism in Sri Lanka? Is that a human rights issue, ethnic justice? Why they are so desperate? Just to divide Sri Lanka to have a base in Trinco to control the see routs? They could have done it with the help of the Sinhalese right? Why didn’t they do it?

  19. Geeth Says:

    Sorry it’s sea Routes, not see routs.

  20. Dilrook Says:

    Geeth:

    It is not RAW thinking or any other explative. It is the reality in the modern world. Break up of Sri Lanka has absolutely no bearing on India. The island nation is too small to make in impact on India. This is outdated thinking to infer India will break up if Lanka breaks up. In fact it will further strengthen India! West is not interested in disintegration India. On the contrary. India has already become a very strong western stooge to protect itself from disintegration. A stable India is essential to counter China.

    Is there any country other than India that can take on China in Asia? No. Apart from China, only India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons and India has the largest armed forces after China. USA would rather fight off China through India. Now USA grooms India to play a bigger regional role.

    Please read my article in Lankaweb about a week or two ago. I have provided loads of evidence on the matter.

    The confusion on the western agenda and the Indian agenda comes from how the two colonials treated the LTTE. LTTE was a western tool to create Tamil Elam and an Indian tool to expel the west. If you look at LTTE’s evolution, it very cleverly reformed itself to survive the end of the Cold War. However, LTTE had its own thinking contrary to India and the West. It wanted to create the ancient Chola empire spanning Lanka, India, Malaysia. That didn’t go well with India. However, the pre-1989-LTTE and post LTTE (2009) position is that India wants to disintegrate Sri Lanka and create Tamil Elam.

    It is India more than USA that is behind the peaceful Tamil Elam campaign.

    It was India not USA that came up with the anti-Lankan resolution at UNHRC that won. Had the US version been presented, it would have lost badly. It was only a stick used by USA to threaten Sri Lanka. But India revised it so it can be won. Few weeks ago Foreign Minister presented LLRC developments to USA and the Americans were very impressed. But what was India’s reaction? Menon condemned Lanka claiming “nothing has been done”.

    If you read the Indo-Lanka Peace Accord, it forces Lanka to accept the north and east as areas of traditional habitation of Tamils.

    India is our biggest enemy. Even the British occupasion was channeled through India by the British-India Company. It is the same successful strategy they are using today.

    I predicted how India will vote at the UNHRC one moth before there was any indication basing these geopolitical developments. Now India has gone mad over not merging the north and the east. If not in 2012, soon the Eastern Province will have a Muslim Chief Minister. India has already objected to this. This is why the EPC was dissolved before Menon’s visit. Trincomalee is in the Muslim majority Eastern province and Muslims are not as Indian stooges as Tamils in politics. Trincomalee will never be under a TNA provincial council (although the Trincomalee UC without any powers is TNA led). Soon India (not USA) will force Lanka to merge the north and the east. Obviously it should not be done.

    It is a great tragedy USA is our biggest export partner and India is our biggest import partner! No worse tragedy for a nation than to have enemies as its biggest trading partners. Saving Sri Lanka starts with the economy.

  21. Dilrook Says:

    NATO considers Russia as a threat because it is! It works bothways.

    Russia owns the world’s largest nuclear weapons arsenel today with an estimated warheads count of 13,000 compared against 5,200 of USA. Russia is a top military spender. Russian interests almost always go against US interests.

    Examples: Kosovo, South Osetia, Abkhazia, Syria, Libya, Palestine, Afghanistan, India, Ukraine, Arctic oil reserves, North Korea, islands off Japan, expansion of NATO.

    Russia is the only big five superpowers to continuously test long range nuclear weapons especially sea launched versions and land mobile versions.

    The Cold War never really ended. Only a party’s name changed. Communism was an excuse like human rights, not the reason. Otherwise the Cold War would have staretd in 1917 and not in 1945.

  22. Geeth Says:

    Dilrook,
    You have said…“The island nation is too small to make any impact on India.” It would have been true if there is no geopolitical significance of Sri Lanka in relation to the stability and security of the region. But unfortunately we are in the midst of a geopolitical great game of superpowers. So I must say that I have to disagree with you.

    I have no argument about the ugly Indian hand that is messing with SL politics and nor do I deny the fact that India is # 1 enemy working against the unity of the nation right now. But all these things never disqualify the fact that western countries also promoting separatism in Sri Lanka for last sixty years and working very hard to realize it ever since, if not even before the activities of Redbana in Vanni district.

    For a moment if I agree with you about your idea that “breaking up Sri Lanka has absolutely no bearing on India,” can you give me a viable reason why western countries begun their tacit campaign of separatism in Sri Lanka from 1970s?

    Dilrook, divided India is always better for its neighbors. No argument about it. But can you explain why western countries working against Sri Lankan sovereignty and unity? Why they wanted to save Prebhakaran? Why they are grooming a new generation of Elamists in their capitals? In short can you answer my first question that asks you to give a rationale behind western promotion of separatism in Sri Lanka? Is that for human rights, ethnic justice or just to divide Sri Lanka to have a western military presence in Trinco to control the see routs or something else? But they could have gained a foot hold with the help of the Sinhalese majority without promoting separatism in the island. Then why didn’t they do it? USA was a friendly country of Sri Lanka for decades. We never had any bilateral disputes of anything. Under even such relationship, instead of working closely with the majority Sinhalese, why they tried to back stab us messing with racial politics of the island?

    All in all, are you suggesting there is no western agenda in this Indian Ocean island politics?

  23. Dilrook Says:

    Geeth:

    You should read the following. It contains all the answers you are after.

    http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items/2012/06/30/2007-the-year-geopolitics-changed-the-war-on-terror-in-sri-lanka/

  24. Dilrook Says:

    Geeth:

    Go to Dilrook Kannangara on the right hand side above. Click and go to the first article that is listed dated 30 June 2012.

    You will find all the answers there.

    Western agenda is much worse than it appears to be. But India still remains the prime enemy of this nation in the post LTTE era. India has given us two options – to be a vassal state of India or suffer disintegration. Will our leaders steer the nation away from this menace?

  25. Susantha Wijesinghe Says:

    GEETH !!! W.M.P.B. MENIKDIWELA LEFT THIS PLANET ABOUT TWO YEARS BACK. HIS WIFE DHARMA LEFT THIS PLANET EARLY THIS YEAR. Menikdiwela lived in our house at Nawala for about one year, while he was doing the DROs exam. So much for memories of Menikdiwela.

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