Personality Disorders Described in the Jātaka Stories
Posted on November 28th, 2014

Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge 

Jātaka stories describe various personality types and it could be regarded as an ancient book of personality psychology. Different types of personalities and personality traits can be found in these stories.

Personality has to do with individual differences among people in behavior patterns, cognition and emotion. It is a set of enduring behavioural and mental traits.

 Personality is defined as an individual’s characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling (Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2009). Personality development is the development of the organized pattern of behaviors and attitudes that makes a person distinctive and unique. Personality formation is a process whereby an individual becomes an individual; that is, the process whereby one develops stable and enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving. These patterns are, to a large degree, adaptations both to the internal demands of instinctual drives and tensions as well as to the external demands for conformity and socialization (Gerson, 1993).

 Different personality types were discussed by Galen (120 AD) Carl Jung (1875 – 1961) and Professor Hans Eysenck (1916 – 1997). Galen proposed four fundamental personality types such as sanguine (pleasure-seeking and sociable), choleric (ambitious and leader-like), melancholic (analytical and quiet), and phlegmatic (relaxed and peaceful).  According to Carl Jung there are two major types of personalities: Extraversion and Introversion. Professor Hans Eysenck proposed two personality dimensions: extraversion and neuroticism.

 According to Vedic concepts, personality is composed of three elements (gunas): i. Satva (pure qualities), ii. Rajas (pleasure-seeking propensities and emotions), iii. Tamas (animal-like behavioural tendencies leading to deterioration). Abnormalities result from the excess of Tomas and Rajas (Dube, 1979)

 In Buddhist psychology three major personality types have been described. The first type is Raga (predominantly sensual pleasure seeking) personalities. Their thoughts and actions are pre occupied with seeking bodily pleasure. The second type Dvesha (anger based) personalities and they are largely impacted by self loathing, resentment and frustration. The third type Moha (irrational) personalities and they are unable to come to a rational conclusion and lack wisdom. Based on personality type the Buddha provided appropriate mental and emotional healing.

Many Personality Disorders are described in the Jātaka Stories. Personality disorders involve patterns of behavior, mood, social interaction, and impulsiveness that cause distress to one experiencing them, as well as to other people in their lives.  Many of these behaviors may cause severe disturbance in the individual’s personal and work life. In general, individuals with personality disorders have difficulty with close, intimate or attachment relationships. They experience chronic interpersonal problems, have difficulties in establishing a coherent sense of self or identity, and may be seen to be impulsive, irritable, fearful, demanding, hostile, manipulative, and even violent (CAMH).

According to the APA a personality disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectation of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment.

 For the DSM-5 criteria for a Personality Disorder requires impairments in personality (self and interpersonal) functioning and the presence of pathological personality traits. The impairments in personality functioning and the individual’s personality trait expression are not better understood as normative for the individual’s developmental stage or socio-cultural environment (American Psychiatric Association).

 According to Bierer and colleagues (2003) that childhood emotional abuse and neglect are broadly represented among personality disorders, and associated with indices of clinical severity among patients with borderline personality disorder. Childhood sexual and physical abuses are highlighted as predictors of both paranoid and antisocial personality disorders. Several studies have provided strong evidence that personality disorders (PD) represent a significant clinical risk for violence (Esbec, 2010).

 Antisocial Personality Disorder

The Kshanthivadi Jātakaya depicts a character that bears psychological criteria which is similar to the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). The APD is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. Lack of remorse, poor behavior control, Tendency to violate the boundaries and rights of others, aggressive violent behavior, are more common in Antisocial Personality Disorder.

The Kshanthivadi Jātaka story narrates negative characteristics of an aggressive King name Kalabu. The King Kalabu became angry when he saw Kshanthivadi Hermit was giving a sermon to his harem women. He felt that his pride was threatened in front of Kshanthivadi Hermit’s charismatic personality. The Kshanthivadi Hermit was known for his non-violence, non-cruelty and kindness to everyone. He was famous for his loving kindness virtue.  The women were piously listening to him. The King could not tolerate this scenario.

In front of Kshanthivadi Hermit the King Kalabu feels insecure and his jealousy, inferiority complex and anger surged. His lack of remorse, sadism and cruel mentality do not see the Kshanthivadi Hermit’s great human qualities.

Out of anger and sexual jealousy the King Kalabu orders his men to torture the hermit. The king wants to do a sadistic experiment and see whether he could provoke Kshanthivadi Hermit. With the King’s orders, the executioner cuts the hands of the Hermit. But the Hermit shows no anger. He replies: I have no ill feelings towards you the Great King. Then the King orders to cuts his legs to observe any angry reaction from the hermit. But the Kshanthivadi Hermit’s eyes looked calmed and filled with Methha – the loving kindness for everyone.  It ignites the King’s anger further, and then he orders to kill the hermit. Even in his last breath the Kshanthivadi Hermit does not curse his tormentors or shows anger. He absolutely controls his emotions without being infuriated. His heart is filled with Methha up to the end.

The King Kalabu demonstrates swallowed emotions, a distorted sense of self, manipulation of others without remorse or empathy for the victim, egocentrism, lack of responsibility, extroversion, excessive hedonism, high impulsivity, and the desire to experience sensations of control and power. He truly fits in to APD criteria.

The King Kalabu’s lack of empathy was much similar to the NAZI s who exterminated millions of men women and children. The Psychologist Gustave Gilbert interviewed a number of NAZI leaders (including Hermann Göring) at the Nuremberg trial after the WW2. According to Gustave Gilbert NAZI s lacked empathy.

The Western Psychology has limited answers to explain the extraordinary reaction demonstrated by Kshanthivadi Hermit. Although he was subjected to unspeakable torture, he generates no anger. The hermit has a loving-kindness feeling towards the King and to his tormentors during the torturous proceedings. Until his last breath, the hermit does not hate the King. Instead the hermit focuses his loving kindness towards the evil king. According to the modern psychology it was an unusual human response.

The modern Western society was influenced by the non-violence movement led by Mahathma Gandhi and the Civil Right movement organized by Dr.Martin Luthr King Jr.  As described by the Psychiatrist Dr. Nassir Ghaemi King and Gandhi had found a way to use aggressive impulses to resist injustice without hurting others.  (However nonviolent resistance had been described in the Maathanga Jātakaya. According to this tale the Pundit Maathanga launches a nonviolent resistance when he was beaten and humiliated by Princess Ditti Mangalika’s servants. Finally he wins).

The emotional reaction of the Kshanthivadi Hermit remains an extraordinary human reaction. The reaction was based on radical empathy.  Perhaps such emotional reactions could have explained by Victor Frankl who practically showed that under the extreme physical and psychological pain man can preserve his spiritual freedom of independence of mind.

Empathy is the “capacity” to share and understand another’s “state of mind  The origin of the word empathy dates back to the 1880s,  when German psychologist Theodore Lipps coined the  term einfuhlung” (literally, in-feeling”) to describe the  emotional appreciation of another’s feelings ( Ioannidou &Konstantikaki, 2008).

According to Rogers (1959) the state of empathy, or being empathic, is to perceive the internal frame of reference of another with accuracy and with the emotional components and meanings which pertain thereto as if one were the person, but without ever losing the ‘as if’ condition. Thus it means to sense the hurt or the pleasure of another as he senses it and to perceive the causes thereof as he perceives them, but without ever losing the recognition that it is as if I were hurt or pleased and so forth. It this ‘as if’ quality is lost, then the state is one of identification.

The author of the book A First-Rate Madness” Psychiatrist Nassir Ghaemi highlights that empathy is a not just a mere hypothetical concept it is a neuro- psychological fact. The theory of Mirror neuron concurs that human has an innate capacity to be empathetic.

Individuals with psychosis and personality disorders lack empathy. The Jātaka stories present a number of individuals who unable to empathize. In Maha Kapi Jātakaya and Chulla Suthasoma Jātakaya describe such people with personality disorders and who lack empathy.

 Paranoid Personality Disorder

 The Paranoid Personality Disorder describes individuals characterized by suspiciousness, mistrust, irritability, and emotional coldness. They appear hypervigilant to anticipated dangers and are likely to put others on the defensive by being accusatory and judgmental. (Gerson,, 1993). Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is characterized by a pervasive mistrust of other people (American Psychiatric Association). According to Freud paranoia evolved from the repressed homosexual urges of the patient. Carroll (2009) states that individuals with paranoid personality disorder may harm others as part of what they view as revenge or even as a pre-emptive strike.

The King Vedeha (in Ummaga Jātakaya) shows a number of psychological features similar to Paranoid Personality Disorder. Although the Pundit Mahosadha serves him faithfully and saved the King’s life in a number of times the King Vedeha continuously suspects Pundit Mahosadha’s actions. He has no gratitude. The King Vedeha could be misled easily by other ministers who had selfish interests. On one occasion the king’s paranoia led the Pundit Mahosadha to flee from the kingdom. The King Vedeha shows irritability and emotional anesthesia. He was highly judgmental and unpredictable in his thoughts and in his actions. Although the King Vedeha had negative characteristics the Pundit Mahosadha saves him from a massive incursion that was led by the King Chulani Brakmadathha.

 Psychopathic Personality

 Psychopathy is a multidimensional personality disorder (Cardoso &Viding, 2014). The concept of psychopathy emerged in the late 19th century in Germany, and was used as a synonym for aggressive and irresponsible behaviour (Koch 1891; Buzina, 2011). Psychopathy is in other studies often confused with antisocial personality disorder (Gurley 2009; Buzina, 2011).

 Strickland and colleagues (2013) highlight that Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) and its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. According to Skeema and colleagues (2001) a large body of research conducted over the past two decades indicates that the construct of psychopathy captures individual differences among those with APD and that this construct bears critical implications for clinical and legal decisions about violence risk and treatment.

 Cornel and collagues (1996) view psychopathy as a personality disorder associated with multiple social and behavioral problems.  Psychopathy involves a constellation of traits including callous-unemotionality, gmanipulativeness and impulsiveness. (Cardoso &Viding, 2014). Dolan and Doyle (2000) state that Psychopathy is a strong predictor of relapse of violent attacks.

 By definition, psychopaths are callous, selfish, manipulative, irresponsible, impulsive, sexually promiscuous and generally antisocial (Hart & Hare, 1997). Viding, McCrory and Seara-Cardoso (2014) point out that Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by lack of empathy and guilt, shallow affect, manipulation of other people and severe, premeditated and violent antisocial behavior.

 The Jātaka Story book widely narrates a number of individuals with Psychopathic Personality. In Chulla Suthasoma Jātakaya the cannibal King shows clear psycho-behavioral traits of a psychopath. Furthermore in the Sachhang Kira Jātakaya the Prince Dushta-Kaumara (Evil Prince) would qualify for psychopathic personality traits. These individuals show lack of emotions, callousness, unreliability and superficiality in significant levels.

 Borderline Personality Disorder

 The student monk in the Kuti Dushaka Jātakaya has unstable and intense interpersonal relationships and he is troubled by impulsivity. He is emotionally unstable and has extreme anger. His marked mood swings interrupts his spiritual practices. He has difficulty in dealing with relationships and social situations. He is handling emotions and thoughts in an inappropriate manner. His emotionally volatile behaviour becomes more and more intolerable to others. His feelings of emptiness lead to a deceitful character. Finally he gets angry with everyone in the monastery and set fire to it. Then he flees. This student monk would fit in to the Borderline Personality Disorder.

 The term borderline personality disorder was coined in 1938 by Adolph Stern, a psychoanalyst who viewed the symptoms of bpd as being on the borderline between psychosis and neurosis (CAMH). Herpertz and colleagues (2014) state that interpersonal dysfunction is the most prominent and best discriminating characteristic in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Affective instability is also a core symptom, with marked fluctuations in mood, which may switch rapidly from hopelessness and despair to feeling irritable, angry, and out of control (Crawford, 2014). The Kuti Dushaka monk has most of the DSM based descriptions of the Borderline Personality Disorder.

 Histrionic Personality Disorder

 Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a personality disorder. People with HPD have a high need for attention, make loud and inappropriate appearances, exaggerate their behaviors and emotions, and crave stimulation (David, 2006).They have strong unstable emotions with an impressionistic style, and can be easily influenced by others. They are egocentric and persistently manipulative. Their self-esteem depends on the approval of others. They crave excitement and act on impulse or suggestions hence putting themselves at great risk.

 Bhikkhu Kokalika’s character would fit in to Histrionic Personality Disorder. He was an ego centric and used to exaggerate and dramatize events. He acted on impulses and once verbally abused Buddha’s two Chief Disciples, Venerable Sariputta and Venerable Moggallana. When Devadatta decided to cause a division among the Sangha he used Bhikkhu Kokalika. Kokalila had an excessive need for approval.  He was flattered by Devadatta who had hidden motives.  Soon Kokalika joined with Devadatta and worked against Buddha. He often exaggerated and dramatized minor events causing utter distress among the other bikkus. Finally Devadatta and Kokalika took 500 monks and left Buddha. After few months the monks who went with Devadatta realized that they were decived. They again came back to Buddha. Kokalila was disappointed in Devadatta‘s leadership. When Kokalika realized that Devadatta used him he became furious and physically assaulted Devadatta.  Devadatta vomited blood and became seriously ill.

 Narcissistic Personality Disorder

 The term ‘narcissism’ originated from the Roman poet Ovid’s Metamorphoses  (Book III) in the first century story of Narcissus and Echo, and much later evolved into a  highly specialized psychoanalytic term (Konrath , ‎2007). Narcissism was first introduced into psychological literature in 1898, when Havelock Ellis used the term Narcissuslike to refer to “a tendency for the sexual emotions to be lost and almost entirely absorbed in self admiration” (Ellis, 1898; Raskin & Terry, 1988).

 For Freud narcissism was a soothing of the self as a sexual object. According to his essay On Narcissism (1914) Freud wrote that narcissism is a normal maturational phase of healthy development in all children. He further stated that narcissism is complement to the egoism of the instinct for self-preservation. However he assumed that in healthy development an individual move away from primary narcissism and invests his / her libidinal energy into another person rather than themselves.

 As Freud believed narcissist is someone who was primarily focused on self-preservation, who was independent, not easily intimidated, aggressive, extraverted, high in activity, and unable to love or commit in relationships. (Konrath, ‎2007). According to the Italian Psychoanalyst, Sergio Benvenuto Freud’s first use of the word ‘narcissism ‘in 1910 and Freud wrote: “[Homosexuals] identify themselves with a woman and take themselves as their sexual object …..they proceed from a narcissistic basis and look for a young man who resembles themselves and whom they may love as their mother loved them.

 The individual diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder presents with grandiosity, extreme self-involvement, and lack of interest in and empathy for others (McNeal, 2003).

 According to the DSM description Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder. An individual with NPD has a grandiose sense of self-importance. He / she is  preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love and believes that he or she is “special” and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people and  requires excessive admiration. He / she lacks empathy and interpersonally exploitative.

 Russ and colleagues (2008) are of the view that narcissistic personality disorder is one of the least studied personality disorders.  In addition Narcissistic Personality Disorder is not included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Also Narcissism is a more complex construct than portrayed by DSM-IV criteria (Russ et al., 2008).

 According to Golomb (1992) Pathological narcissism occurs in a spectrum of severity and NPD is considered to result from a person’s belief that they are flawed in a way that makes them fundamentally unacceptable to others. Both clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism include an aspect of self-esteem maintenance or self-enhancement and the effects of narcissism are most substantial in relation to interpersonal functioning (Miller et al., 2010).

 The Jātaka story book illustrates (in Shankeya Jātaka) Narcissistic tendencies of two monks who have grandiose sense of self-importance and require excessive admiration. They also have a very strong sense of entitlement and repeatedly show arrogant and haughty behaviors. In adding up the Jātaka story book discusses a woman named Magandia who had malignant narcissistic personality traits. She was beautiful and swollen with pride. She was histrionic and coquettish. Magandia was glib and superficial. She bore an exploitative and un-empathic character.

 Magandia had grandiose fantasies about the search for ideal love. When she heard about the charismatic personality of Buddha she made her mind to marry him. When Magandia came to meet Buddha, he rejected her proposal considerately stating that her beauty is impermanent and he no longer has any interest in mundane life since he started his spiritual journey. Magandia became disappointed. She felt that she was rejected by the Buddha. She severely felt humiliated and reacted with disdain, rage, and retribution.

 When the King Udeni saw beautiful Magandia he immediately proposed her and made her one of his queens. After becoming a queen Magandia robustly started seeking revenge. She initiated numerous plots to harm Buddha. But each time she failed.

 When Magandia came to know that King Udeni’s third queen Samawathi is a devotee of Buddha she focused her anger and resentment towards her too. Magandia conspired to kill Samawathi and her friends. Finally she was able to kill her and her friends by setting fire to queen Samawathi’s palace. The King Udeni became devastated when he heard Samawathi’s death. Finally he discovered Magandia’s evil actins and she was condemned to death.

 The Buddhist literature narrates another prominent woman named Khema who was an absolutely beautiful woman and was very conscious of her beauty. She had a grandiose sense of self-importance. She believed that she was somebody special and unique due to her prettiness. She wanted to achieve unlimited success and she became the chief consort of Magadha ruler King Bimbisara. Although the Bimbisara was a devotee of the Buddha Khema never visited Buddha fearing that he would not appreciate her beauty and also she had a sense of entitlement.   However the King Bimbisara persuaded her to see the Buddha and listen to him. After listening to Buddha’s sermon about impermamance Khema realized that her beauty is not going to last forever. She realized that impermanence and change are basic facts of existence. Khema understood that the process of growing old,   falling sick, and dying are universal maladies and one has to face these realties. After the self realization she decided to become a Bhikkhuni. Khema was able to overcome her narcissistic tendencies.

 Pseudologia Fantastica

 Lying is a common human trait defined by Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary as making “an untrue statement with intent to deceive (Dike, 2008). Pathological lying is characterized by a long history (maybe lifelong) of frequent and repeated lying for which no apparent psychological motive or external benefit can be discerned. Pathological lying has been defined as a chronic, uncontrollable, compulsive need to lie, regardless of the fact that the lie is evident, that it serves no purpose, or the obvious consequences of speaking the lie.

 Pseudologia Fantastica or pathological lying is not recognized as a diagnosable disorder in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders. The individuals with Pseudologia Fantastica have behavior of habitual or compulsive lying. It was first described in the medical literature in 1891 by Anton Delbrueck (Dike, 2008).

 Korenis and colleagues (2014) state that Pseudologia fantastica is a psychiatric phenomenon that is a mixture of fact and fiction involving fantasized events and self aggrandizing personal roles. The individual may be aware they are lying, or may believe they are telling the truth, being unaware that they are relating fantasies.

 The Buddhist literature provides a case vignette of a woman with Pseudologia Fantastica. Her name is Chinchi Manavika who pathologically lied. She made a false accusation against Buddha. But her dishonesty was exposed.

 Cetiya-Jātakaya could be viewed as another case example of pathological lying. The king Cetiya had been described by the texts as a deceitful and a dishonest individual.  He repeatedly and compulsively tells false stories.

 Hubris Syndrome Found in the Jātaka stories

 According to Owen (2008) Hubris syndrome is associated with power, more likely to manifest itself the longer the person exercises power and the greater the power they exercise. The Jātaka story book describes several Kings who seem to have affected by Hubris syndrome. The King Vidaḍūbha surely fits in to this category.

 Hubris is associated in Greek mythology with Nemesis. The syndrome, however, develops irrespective of whether the individual’s leadership is judged a success or failure; and it is not dependent on bad outcomes (Porter, 2009).

 The King Vidaḍūbha was an arrogant and aggressive monarch. He was a restless, reckless and impulsive individual with too much self-confidence. Vidaḍūbha was the son of King Pasenadi Kosol and Vāsavakhattiyā, the daughter of a Śākya named Mahānāma by a servant girl. Therefore other Shakya kings who were swollen with pride did not respect Vidaḍūbha. He was insulted and marginalized.

 Shakya is a clan of the ancient Vedic period (1500-500 BCE). The name is derived from the Sanskrit word śakya which means capable, able. The Śākyas formed an independent republican state, known as Sakya Gaṇa-rājya. The Śākya capital was Kapilavastu in present-day Nepal, which lies near the border of the present-day Uttar Pradesh state of India (Warder, 2000). Shakyans were very self-righteous and a privileged group.

 Vidaḍūbha ascended the throne of Kosala after overthrowing his father the King Pasenadi Kosol. After becoming the ruler of the Kingdom of Kosala he wanted to avenge the Shakyans who insulted him and his mother.

 The King Vidaḍūbha who had a narcissistic propensity saw the Shakyan region as an arena in which he could exercise his power and seek glory. He thought he could restore his damaged ego by crushing the region. He had a powerful army that could attack the Shakyan kingdom at any time. He wanted to enhance his image by attacking the regional territories make the other kings frightened. Hence they would respect him.

 His initial plan to attack and massacre the Shakiyan kingdom was disapproved by his advisors. Yet he had contempt for the advice and could not tolerate criticism of others. He disregarded all the advice and organized his troops. Even Buddha requested him three times not to invade the Shakiyan kingdom. But he was adamant and determined to overrun Shakyans. He had an exaggerated self-belief and bordering on a sense of omnipotence. He wanted to be the great ruler.

 The King Vidaḍūbha invaded the Shakiyan kingdom and slaughtered every man. A very few Shakiyans escaped the genocide. The King Vidaḍūbha acted as a tyrant killing old and the sick. He had loss of contact with reality. Vengeance became his main target. After the massacre he and his troops camped near the Achiravathi River. That night due to severe inundation the King Vidaḍūbha and his men perished.

 Some experts view Hubris Syndrome as an acquired personality disorder. Dictators are particularly prone to hubris because there are few, if any, constraints on their behavior.  Owen (2008) views hubris syndrome as developing only after power has been held for a period of time, and therefore manifesting at any age. In this regard, it follows a tradition which acknowledges the existence of pathological personality change. In Vidaḍūbha’s ‘case he changed dramatically when he acquired power. There was a marked personality change in him. He became more self centered and focused on revenge. He stopped listening to others even to Buddha.

 Stockholm Syndrome

 Stockholm syndrome was initially used to describe the experience of hostages in Stockholm, Sweden, who expressed positive feelings toward their captors (Smith, 2009).   Stockholm syndrome, or capture-bonding, is a psychological phenomenon in which hostages express empathy and sympathy and have positive feelings toward their captors, sometimes to the point of defending and identifying with them. These feelings are generally considered irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims, who essentially mistake a lack of abuse from their captors for an act of kindness (Namnyak et al., 2007). Demarest (2009) indicate core factors associated with Stockholm Syndrome such as (affiliation with the abuser), Psychological Damage (lasting effects from the abuse), and Love-Dependence (how the women feel they love or are dependent on their abusers).

 Kanavera Jātakaya of the Jātaka storybook bears a story which is similar to the Stockholm syndrome. This storyline is about a courtesan named Sama who was frantically allied with a robber from the village of Kāsi. Sama saved this notorious bandit from the legal hands and lived with him.

 The bandit once took her to a park and on the pretence of embracing her, squeezed Sama’s neck until she lost her consciousness. Then the robber gathered all her jewellery and escaped thinking that Sama died on the spot. However as soon as Sama came back to her senses she looked for the bandit. She had strong affection and sympathy for the robber who tried to kill her and robbed her precious jewellery.

 She became so obsessed and started searching for him. Unable to console herself, she wandered from place to place crying for his name. She composed a song describing love and affection towards the outlaw. Sama employed singers and ordered them to sing her song in gatherings. After sometime the bandit accidently heard a song sung by musicians about him. The song described that Sama has forgiven him and needs to be with him. The thief on hearing the song was unable to believe that Sama was alive. When he spoke to the musicians they assured him that she was alive and that also told that she immensely misses him. They said that Sama is waiting to see him and ready to embrace him with open arms. The robber became puzzled and could not make up his mind. He suspected this was a trap and  ran away to a country far away. Sama became hugely sad and disappointed.

One Response to “Personality Disorders Described in the Jātaka Stories”

  1. AnuD Says:

    I think I read a similar article from the same author some time ago and this is excellent information.

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