Posted on November 24th, 2013

Shripal Nishshanka Fernando

Nobel doctrines of numerous archeological and historical data shall be utilized to exact determination of authoritative body of a geological portion of the globe or simply who shall govern a country.

So called leaders of India, Norway, UK, North America, South Africa and any other country may learn hereby that as a Universal Law, all the Buddhas worship Shri Lanka thrice with absolute truthful bliss of happiness. Gauthama Buddha did his responsibility about 2500 years ago. The baby who will become the Buddha (prince Siddhartha for Gauthama Buddha) shall be born, attain Buddhahood and enter to the unseen, everlasting and perpetual enjoying happiness meaning Nibbana or Nirvana in India in the same exact locations/spots  in a cycle of time with a variable amplitude. Due to the reason that only a tiny portion of Indians would understand the doctrine of Buddhism, only Shri Lankans will be luckier where a majority understand and embrace it in proper respect and dignity. Indira Gandhi’s father Shri Jawaharlal Nehru was a converted Buddhist. But Indira Gandhi initiated Shri Lankan terrorist conflict in 1967/68.

Albert Einstein the Great realized how his dreams could be conceptualized accurately and in his final stage of span of life, spent the time in understanding Gauthama Buddha’s teachings. He described how Buddhism only will qualify to adhere with future cosmic world for scientific researches and development. (Searches of engines like Google have his sayings). Quantum and Nano analysis with micro and mega scales could be guided to prove his theories. He was requested to be the first Prime Minister of Israel and he refused blatantly. Had he accepted the offer, today Israel shall be a country of Buddhists.

Jesus Christ could study tits and bits of Buddhism & partially religions like Jainism during his wandering period in India, before returning back to Jerusalem. Judaism has some preaching of Buddhism by Kashyapa Buddha (the Buddha prior to the Gauthama). Prophet Mohamad (PBUH) descended from a link of generation of Jesus. Abraham can be related to Judaism as well. Pure Hinduism, Brahmanism and some other religions request total harmlessness of any living being. Unfortunately those theologies believe opposite qualities of Buddhism constants called Thrilakshana. Instead of Impermanence they believe in Permanence, for real Suffering it substitutes a Happiness (just mythical) and finally in lieu of Selflessness they trust in Selfness.

As a constant hospitality, Shri Lankans warmly welcome anybody with open hands. It is a consistent for the past, present and future. Only sub-minded people curse Shri Lankans and specially Sinhalese who can claim the only country they come from.

NASA found Sinhala as the fourth oldest language in the world where Pali/Sanskrit being first and second. Babies born in other countries to Shri Lankan parents are also lucky.

Israel (Mossad) supported the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) while Shri Lankan government was betrayed diplomatically in defense dealings during the governments of late presidents J.R.Jayawardane and   Ranasinghe Premadasa.

Mossad shall apologize and learn ABC from the current Shri Lankan Intelligence of Defense, which its principles are constitutionally coded by Buddhist principles while any other religion can have its freedom freely.

May all universes be peaceful!


  1. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha’s period saw not only urbanisation, but also the beginnings of centralised states.The successful expansion of Buddhism depended on the growing economy of the time, together with increased centralized political organization capable of change. Buddhism had seen a steady growth from its beginnings to its endorsement as state religion of the Maurya Empire under Ashoka Maurya (304BCE–232 BCE). It continued to flourish another 4 centuries and spread even beyond the Indian subcontinent to Central Asia and beyond to China.

    Ashoka Maurya banned Vedic sacrifices as contrary to Buddhist benevolence, Buddhism began its spread outside of its Magadha homeland. The succeeding Shungas reinstated the sacrifices. They also built the large Sanchi stupa next to a Shunga capital. The overall trend of Buddhism’s spread across India and state support by various regional regimes continued.The consolidation of monastic organization made Buddhism the center of religious and intellectual life in India. Pushyamitra the first ruler of the Sunga Dynasty built great Buddhist topes at Sanchi in 188 BCE. The succeeding Kanva Dynasty had four Buddhist Kanva Kings.

    The decline of Buddhism in India is the result of the hostility of the Brahmans. The gradual expansion in the scope and authority of caste regulations shifted political and economic power to the local arena, reversing the trend of centralization.The caste system gradually expanded into secular life as a regulative code of social and economic transactions. In ancient times, the four varnas were primarily a categorization scheme and the Vedas did contain prohibitions regarding intermarriage. There were, however, large numbers of castes probably originally tribal lineage groups.

    Pusyamitra Sunga (185 BCE to 151 BCE) was hostile to Buddhism, he burned Sūtras, Buddhists shrines and massacred monks. The Hindu Saivite ruler Shashanka of Gauda (590–626) destroyed the Buddhist images and Bo Tree, under which Siddhartha Gautama is said to have achieved enlightenment. But a steady decline of Buddhism in India set in during the later Gupta era and under the Pala Empire. Chinese monks traveling through the region between the 5th and 8th centuries CE, such as Faxian, Xuanzang, Yijing, Huisheng, and Song Yun, began to speak of a decline of the Buddhist sangha, especially in the wake of the White Hun invasion. By that time, Buddhism had become especially vulnerable to hostile rulers because it lacked strong roots in society as most of its adherents were ascetic communities.

    In 711 Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh, bringing Indian societies into contact with Islam, succeeding partly because Dahir was an unpopular Hindu king that ruled over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty – a view questioned by those who note the diffuse and blurred nature of Hindu and Buddhist practices in the region, especially that of the royalty to be patrons of both and those who believe that Chach himself may have been a Buddhist. The forces of Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir in alliance with the Jats and other regional governors.

    Many instances of conversion of stupas to mosques such as at Nerun as well as the incorporation of the religious elite into the ruling administration such as the allocation of 3% of the government revenue was allocated to the Brahmins. As a whole, the non-Muslim populations of conquered territories were treated as People of the Book and granted the freedom to practice their respective faiths in return for payment of the poll tax (jizya). They were then excused from military service or payment of the tax paid by Muslim subjects – Zakat. The jizya enforced was a graded tax, being heaviest on the elite and lightest on the poor.

    The Gupta Empire period was a time of great development of Hindu culture but even then, in the Ganges Plain, half of the population supported Buddhism and the five precepts were widely observed. The Hindu rulers and wealthy laity gave lavish material support to Buddhist monasteries. After the Guptas, the Shaivite kings of Gujarat (as well as Nepal and Kashmir) also patronized Buddhist monasteries, building a great center of Buddhist learning at Valabhi. The Buddhist emperor Harsha and the later Buddhist Pala dynasty (8th to11th Centuries ) were great patrons of Buddhism but it had already begun to lose its political and social base.

    With the surge of Hindu philosophers like Adi Shankara(788 – 820), along with Madhvacharya and Ramanuja, three leaders in the revival of Hindu philosophy, Buddhism started to fade out rapidly from the landscape of India.

    By the 10th century Mahmud of Ghazni defeated the Hindu-Shahis, effectively removing Hindu influence and ending Buddhist self-governance across Central Asia, as well as the Punjab region. He demolished both stupas and temples during his numerous campaigns across North-Western India, but left those within his domains and Afghanistan alone. Hindu and Buddhist statues, shrines and temples were looted and destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni and many Buddhists had to take refuge in Tibet.

    Decline continued after the fall of the Pala dynasty in the 12th century and the gradual Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. The Buddhism of Magadha was finally swept away by the Islamic invasion under one of Qutb-ud-Din’s generals Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, during which many of the Viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramshila were destroyed, and thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred in 12th century.

    Muhammad attacked the north-western regions of the Indian subcontinent many times. Gujarat later fell to Muhammad of Ghor’s armies in 1197. Muhammad of Ghor’s army was too developed for the traditional Indian army of that time to resist.

    In 1197 the capital, Bihar, was seized by a small party of two hundred horsemen, who rushed the postern gate, and sacked the town. Further, the slaughter of the “shaven-headed Brahmans,” as the Muslim chronicler calls the Buddhist monks, “was so complete that when the victor searched for a competent person to explain the contents of the library not a soul was alive.

    A similar fate befell upon the other Buddhist institutions, against which the combined intolerance and rapacity of the invaders was directed. The monasteries were sacked and the monks were slain, many of the temples were ruthlessly destroyed or desecrated, and countless idols were broken and trodden under their foot. Those monks who escaped the sword fled to Nepal, Tibet, and South India to avoid the consequences of war and Buddhism was finally destroyed and those areas then came under these Muslim rulers.

    Although the Mithila rulers were Shaivite Hindus, they continued the Pala patronage of Buddhism and offered strong resistance against the Ghurids. They stopped, for example, an attempted drive to take Tibet in 1206. The Sena king (a Hindu) installed defensive garrisons at Odantapuri and Vikramashila Monasteries, which were imposing walled citadels directly on the Ghurids’ line of advance.

    Nalanda escaped the fate of Odantapuri and Vikramshila monasteries. When the Tibetan translator, Chag Lotsawa Dharmasvamin (Chag Lo-tsa-ba, 1197 – 1264), visited northern India in 1235, he found Nalanda damaged, looted, and largely deserted, but still standing and functioning with 70 students.
    A Tibetan monk called Dharmaswamin visited Nalanda in 1235, nearly 40 years after its sack, and found a small class still conducted in the ruins by a 90 old monk, Rahul Sribhadra. Weak and old, the teacher was kept fed and alive by a local Brahmin, Jayadeva. Warned of a roving band of 300 Turks, the class dispersed, with Dharmaswamin carrying his nonagenarian teacher on his back into hiding. Only the two of them came back, and after the last lesson (it was Sanskrit grammar) Rahul Sribhadra told his Tibetan student that he had taught him all he knew and in spite of his entreaties asked him to go home. Packing a raggedy bundle of surviving manuscripts under his robe, Dharmaswamin left the old monk sitting calmly amidst the ruins. And both he and the Dharma of Sakyamuni made their exit from India.

    Many Buddhist monks fled Bihar and parts of northern Bengal, seeking asylum in monastic universities and centres in modern-day Orissa, southern Bangladesh, Arakan on the western coast of Burma, southern Burma, and northern Thailand. The majority, however, together with numerous Buddhist lay followers, went to the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, bringing with them many manuscripts from the vast monastic libraries that had been destroyed.

    Buddhism was in a strong position in Kathmandu at the time. The Hindu kings of the Thakuri Dynasties (750 – 1200) had supported the Buddhist monasteries, and there were several monastic universities. Since the end of the tenth century, numerous Tibetan translators had been visiting these centres on their way to India, and Nepalese masters from them had been instrumental in the revival of Buddhism in central and western Tibet. The early Hindu rulers of the Malla Period (1200 – 1768) continued the policies of their Thakuri predecessors.

    The Musalman invaders sacked the Buddhist Universities of Nalanda, Vikramshila, Jagaddala, Odantapuri to name only a few. They raised to the ground Buddhist monasteries with which the country was studded. The monks fled away in thousands to Nepal, Tibet and other places outside India. A very large number were killed outright by the Muslim commanders. How the Buddhist priesthood perished by the sword of the Muslim invaders has been recorded by the Muslim historians themselves.

    In 1215, Genghis Khan conquered Afghanistan and devastated the Muslim world. In 1227, after his death, his conquest was divided. Chagatai then established the Chagatai Khanate, where his son Arghun made Buddhism the state religion. At the same time, he came down harshly on Islam and demolished mosques to build many stupas. He was succeeded by his brother, and then his son Ghazan who converted to Islam and in 1295 changed the state religion. After his reign, and the splitting of the Chagatai Khanate, little mention of Buddhism or the stupas built by the Mongols can be found in Afghanistan and Central Asia.

    Timur was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire destroyed Buddhist establishments and raided areas in which Buddhism had flourished.

    In Tamilnadu and Kerala, Buddhism survived until 15th to 16th century, as witnessed by the manuscript of the Manjusrimulakalpa. At Nagapattinam, in Tamil Nadu, Buddhist icons were cast and inscribed until this time, and the ruins of the Chudamani Vihara stood until they were destroyed by the Jesuits in 1867.

  2. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Muslims wiped out
    complete civilisation in Egypt
    Parsees from Persia
    Buddhists from Afghanistan & Maldives
    Sikhs from Lahore
    Sindhis from Sindh
    Kashmiri pandits from Kashmir
    Hindus & Buddhists in Bangladesh.
    Christians and Hindus from several Islands of Indonesia

    But the real enemies to defeat are the disturbing emotions and attitudes that lie hidden in the mind. Buddhism’s “Jihad” is purely an internal spiritual war against the inner foes. Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha was born into the warrior caste and often used military imagery to describe the spiritual journey. Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha was the Triumphant One, who defeated the demonic forces of unawareness, distorted views, disturbing emotions, and impulsive karmic behavior.

  3. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Today most Christians believe that:

    – There is only one God. He is the Creator and Sustainer of the universe.

    – God sent prophets such as Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Joseph, John the Baptist, Jesus, etc.

    – People should follow the Ten Commandments and the moral teachings of the prophets.

    – Mary, the mother of Jesus, was a virgin; therefore Jesus was born miraculously.

    – Jesus Christ is the Messiah and he performed miracles.

    – The Old testament/Torah and the new testament/Gospel) are holy scriptures.

    – Satan is evil; therefore, people should not follow Satan.

    – An Anti-Christ will appear on Earth before the Day of Judgment.

    – Jesus Christ will return by descending from Heaven and will kill the Anti-Christ.

    – The Day of Judgment will occur and people will be judged.

    – There is hell and paradise.

    The concept of God has 3 forms (Father, Son, Holy Ghost/ Spirit) – TRINITY was not adopted by Christianity until the Council of Nicea about 325 years after Jesus died. Some of the early Christians were Unitarians. Even today, there are Christian Unitarian churches that do not accept the Trinity. Modern Christianity was not founded by Jesus, but rather by Paul and the Romans in the Council of Nicea in 325 AD, inspired by Satan. In this Council of Nicea, Church leaders from around the world debated and finally decided on what should and what should not be included in the Bible. There were different views expressed in the Council; however, the views of the those who were most powerful won. As a result, lots of Gospels were thrown away. For Christianity to be adopted by the Roman Empire as its official religion, it had to succumb to the desires of the Romans who wanted to incorporate their own pagan religious beliefs and myths into Christianity. The integrity of the message brought by Jesus from God was compromised to appease the Roman Empire. Christianity has evolved into a cult that has deviated significantly from the true teachings of Jesus by: (a) adding new doctrines not preached by Jesus, (b) deleting or modifying some of the teachings of Jesus, and (c) creating an “unholy”, man-made scripture. A holy scripture must be in the form and content intended, inspired, or revealed by God, not created by human beings. These doctrines merely form a man-made hypothesis that defies the natural/inborn tendencies of people to worship only their creator as we have explained above. Trinity is a concept that was copied from a popular pagan religion of the Romans, called Mithraism. There are as verses in the Bible that contradict with the doctrine of Trinity. The Original Sin concept encourages people to sin as much as they want and not to do any good deeds. After all, regardless of their sins, Christianity teaches that Christians will be forgiven, saved and go to heaven as long as they believe in Jesus, as explained above. The Original Sin concept is not fair, as we have explained earlier, because no one should be made to bear the burden of someone else’s sin or mistake.

  4. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Year 622: Following the embarrassments of the Satanic Verses and hallucinogenic Night’s Journey aboard the flying ass, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh was run out of Mecca. In his meeting with 12 warlords from Medina at a waddi called Aqaba, the first Muslims “Pledge to wage war against all mankind,” and the Islamic Era officially began.
    623: Muslims drew first blood, killing one Meccan and kidnapping another at Nakhla. They plundered their caravan and brought the booty back to Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh.
    624: Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh led the first Muslims out to plunder a Meccan caravan at Badr. They missed the target but encountered some Meccan merchants who had gone out to protect their business interests from the Islamic raiders. The Muslims killed 70 Meccan merchants, most of whom they were related to, and took almost that many Meccans captive. The hostages were ransomed back to their families, creating an Islamic precedent that is followed today. The Qur’an’s 8th surah is revealed as a situational scripture to justify fighting and stealing.
    624: Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh laid siege to the richest Jewish settlement in Yathrib aka Medina. After forcing the Banu Qaynuqa into the desert to die, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh stole their homes, land, businesses, farms, and treasure. The Qur’an’s 59th, 61st, 62nd, 63rd, and 64th surahs are revealed to beguile the Muslims into believing that what they were doing was religious and good.
    625 : The Muslims continued to terrorize and rob the Meccans, so they went to Yathrib/Medina to stop the source of their pain. Thinking they had killed Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh at Uhud, as well as most of his jihadists, the Meccans returned home. Since the terrorist religion was an inch from being destroyed, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh contrived the 3rd surah, in which Allah tells Muslims that he will kill those who don’t fight for Islam.
    625 : Needing to satiate the covetous bloodlust of his mercenaries, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh decided to plunder the people in Yathrib. The defenseless Banu Nadir people were starved into submission and forced out into the desert to die. Once again, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh stole their homes, land, businesses, farms, and treasure. Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh had become so sexually perverted, and such a ruthless megalomaniac, he made up the 33rd surah, the Qur’an’s most immoral rant to justify his despicable life. Allah approves rape and incest.
    626: The Meccan merchants returned to Yathrib/Medina to stop Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh from continuing to terrorize them but they were thwarted by a trench he had dug in the sand. While the Battle of the Trench was a standoff, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh gloated in typical Islamic fashion.
    627: Since the Battle of the Trench was bloodless and booty-less, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh needed to find easy prey for his sorry lot of jihadists. The Banu Qurayza people in Yathrib/Medina suffered as a result. After starving them into surrender, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh had his goons dig trenches in the center of Medina. He had every man and boy over the age of 12 tied hand and neck. In small batches he paraded 900 of them out and in his presence, he had his mujahideen cut off their heads over the open trench – pushing their bodies in. Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh after picking the most attractive widow for himself, used lots to determine a selection order for his followers to choose their rape victims. The children were then enslaved and sold to buy more weapons. Portions of the 33rd surah were revealed to demonstrate that Allah was a terrorist, slave trader, and murdering thief.
    628: This was a very, very, bad year. In it, terror became Islam’s signature act with raids launched against the Lihyan and Banu Mustaliq Arabs. The Qur’an’s 24th surah was revealed at this time to get the pedophile prophet Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh out of a prickly situation with his child wife.
    It was then that Allah’s Messenger assembled a considerable force of jihadists to plunder his hometown of Mecca – a mud hut village of 5,000 people that was home to Allah’s rock pile of rock gods known as the Ka’aba. But Allah’s boy became timid, and rather than sack his relatives, he signed the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, whereby Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh denied that he was a prophet and that Allah was God. The Qur’an’s 4th surah is revealed telling Muslims how they are to fight.
    This led to Islam’s darkest hour. Without the plunder the jihadists expected from Mecca, the first Muslims turned on Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh in a massive rebellion. So the Islamic warlord did what all despots do – he found a patsy for his marauding hoard. On their way back to Yathrib/Medina Muhammad’s mujahideen perpetrated a terrorist raid on the Khaybar people. The farming village was savagely conquered and plundered. Its leadership was tortured at Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh’s behest. The men were murdered and the women were raped, with Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh again personally participating. And the Muslims stole the homes, property, and possessions. Once again, the children were enslaved and used to buy more weapons and build a larger militia. The Qur’an’s 49th surah is revealed in order to reestablish Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh’s tattered reputation. It is especially revolting.
    629: In anticipation of dishonoring his sworn commitment to the Meccans at Hudaybiyah, where Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh promised not to terrorize the Meccans for ten years, Islam’s prophet revealed the 66th surah in which he says: “Allah has sanctioned for you the dissolution of your vows.” Islam’s god authorized his lone witness to lie. He then recited the 48th surah in which peaceful Muslims who did not wish to fight were told that they would be tortured by Allah. Then he said in the 47th surah, “So when you clash with the unbelieving infidels in battle smite their necks until you overpower them, killing and wounding many of them. When you have thoroughly subdued them, bind them firmly, making them captives…Thus you are commanded by Allah to continue carrying out Jihad against the unbelieving infidels until they submit to Islam.”.
    With that inspiration, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh’s mujahideen assaulted and plundered the Arab villages of Mulawwih, Banu Bakr, Harith, Kadid, Salasil, Jusham, and Idam in a series of terrorist raids. Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh then sent them to attack the Byzantines near the Syrian town of Mu’ta, where the jihadists fought their first battle against an actual army and were pummeled.
    630: Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh revealed the Qur’an’s second to last surah moments before his conquest of Mecca. In the 9th surah, the Qur’an’s war manifesto, we find: “This announcement from Allah and his Messenger to the people on the day of the Great Pilgrimage [to attack Mecca]: Allah and His Messenger dissolve (treaty) obligations with unbelievers.” Outnumbering the Meccan merchants two to one, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh’s mujahideen conquer his hometown and force everyone to surrender to Islam or die.
    On their way back home, the Islamic jihadists terrorize the Arab towns of Hunsin, Auras, and Taif. .
    631: Having over hunted Jews and Arabs, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh turned his sights on the Byzantine Christians. He revealed the Qur’an’s final surah, the 5th, to turn Christians into the enemy of Islam even though no Christian had ever spoken a word to or laid a finger on a single Muslim. With his justification in hand, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh assembled a militia of 30,000 mujahideen and assaulted Tabuk in today’s Syria. He gave the Christians an ultimatum: “Pay me or die.”
    632: Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh dies a miserable death. Under the Caliphate (Deputy of the Prophet) of Abu Bakr Islamic jihadists led a crusade to conquer all of Arabia. Arabs would either submit or die.
    After conquering Arabia and forever raping the Arabs of their freedoms, prosperity, and hope, Abu Bakr’s jihadists plundered Yemen. There, Mussailima, another false prophet indistinguishable from Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh is conquered. Muslims then wage war in the communities of Zu Qissa, Abraq, Buzakha, Zafar, Naqra, and Bani Tamim.
    633: The Muslim mujahideen led by Khalid al-Walid, the new religion’s most bloodthirsty terrorist, whom Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh himself had nicknamed the “Sword of Allah” for his ferocity and proclivity to tie women’s and children’s hands behind their backs and then cut off their heads, conquered the Persian city of Ullays along the Euphrates River in today’s Iraq. Khalid beheads so many civilians that a nearby canal, into which the blood flowed, was called Blood Canal.
    In the months which follow, Khalid’s mujahideen assault Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah, and Hadramaut. Islam’s second most famous terrorist raids towns across Iraq, and lays siege to Kazima, Mazar, Walaja, Ulleis, Hirah, Anbar, Ein at Tamr, Jandal, Firaz, and Daumatul.
    634: At the battles of Basra and Ajnadin Damascus in Syria the Muslim jihadists defeated Byzantine regiments.
    Abu Bakr dies and the Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab begins. His campaign of terror was particularly brutal. Immediately he attacks Namaraq and Saqatia.
    635: Muslim mujahideen besieged and conquered Damascus. They fought and won the battles of the Bridge, Buwaib, and Fahl. They go on to conquer Damascus.
    636: Islamic jihadists attacked and defeated the weakened Byzantines again at Yarmuk – this time pulverizing them. They fight and win at Madain.
    637: Syria falls to the Islamic onslaught. Then the Muslim crusaders conquered large portions of western Persia in today’s Iraq, beginning at the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah. Muslim mujahideen occupy the Persian capital of Ctesiphon.
    638: Islamic raiders attacked and defeated the Roman Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmouk. Muslims enter, occupy, and annex Jerusalem, taking it from the Byzantines. All Judea is claimed under the sword of Islam. Muslims go on to raid Jalula and Jazirah and continue their conquest of Syria, today’s Jordan, and Lebanon.
    On the Eastern front, Islamic armies conquer eastern Persia in today’s Iran, leaving only the Caspian Sea region firmly under Persian control.
    639: Islamic raiders conquer Khuzestan in the east and enter and begin plundering Egypt in the west, burning its libraries and defacing its monumental history.
    640: Muslim jihadists capture Caesaria in Syria and Shustar Jande Sabur in Persia. They fight the battle of Babylon.
    On the Western Front, Islam completes its conquest of Egyptian cities in the north, stealing them from the Romans. Arabia, Egypt, Persia, and the Fertile Crescent are now the personal fiefdoms of four Islamic Caliphs.
    641: Muslim crusaders who bypassed the countryside of Syria and Judea en route to Egypt, returned to raise their swords over everyone’s head. They attack Nihawand and then conquer Alexandria in Egypt.
    On the Eastern Front, Islam conquers and occupies all of today’s Iraq, taking it from the Persians.
    642: Islamic mujahideen fight the Battle of Rayy in Persia. Moving south on the Western Front, they conquer all of Egypt.
    643: In the north, Islam’s army conquers Azerbaijan and Tabaristan in today’s Russia.
    644 : The Islamic killing machine sacks and plunders Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan. Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab was assassinated. Uthman ibn Affan was appointed the third Caliph. Since Uthman’s family rejected Muhammad’s claim of being the Messenger of Allah, Islam divides with Shia rioters campaigning for the empowerment of Ali, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh’s cousin, adopted son, and son-in-law.
    646 : Muslims battle in Khurasan, Armenia, and Asia Minor throughout the Caucasus.
    647: The Islamic barbarians savagely plundered North Africa. Islamic jihadists conquered the Island of Cyprus. They besieged and plundered Tripoli in North Africa. And they forcibly established Islam as the only acceptable religion in today’s Iran, Iraq, Arabia, and Afghanistan.
    648 : The Muslim armies were unified and positioned against the Byzantines.
    650: The Islamic conquest and occupation of Persia was completed. The entire realm of history’s oldest and most powerful empires surrendered under the assault of bloody swords when resistance became futile.
    651: Muslims won the Battle of the Masts against the Byzantines and nearly captured the Byzantine emperor.
    652: The Islamic assault against humanity stalled and the Muslim mujahideen openly displayed their hostility toward Uthman.
    654: Islam’s violent and aggressive conquest of North Africa was all but completed. Only Morocco remained free of the religious scourge. Muslims now established new fiefdoms throughout the region they occupied.
    656 : The Sunni Caliph Uthman was assassinated by Muslim soldiers. Ali ibn Abi Talib, adopted son, son-in-law, and cousin to Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh, was given the Caliphate. His claim to the throne was having married the prophet’s daughter Fatima. Killing the Caliph to become Caliph would become standard operating procedure in the Islamic world.
    In the battle of the Camel, Aisha, Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh’s child wife, led a rebellion against Ali for not avenging Uthman’s assassination. Ali’s Shia partisans won.
    657: In more infighting between Shia and Sunni Muslims (today called “sectarian violence”), the battle of Siffin between Ali and the Muslim governor of Jerusalem, went against Ali. Forced out of Medina, Ali moved the Shia capital of Islam to Kufa in Iraq.
    658 : Major battles were fought by Muslims in Nahrawan and then in Egypt, where the last pockets of resistance were suppressed. The Umayyad and then Abbasid caliphates would control Egypt until 868.
    660: Ali’s forces recaptured the Hijaz (Mecca-Medina area) and Yemen from their Sunni Muslim rival, Mu’awiyah. So Mu’awiyah declared himself Caliph and sets up his throne in Damascus.
    661: Ali was assassinated by a rival Sunni Muslim. Ali’s supporters formed the Shi’ite political/religious party and promoted his son Hasan to Caliph. They insisted that a blood descendant of Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh wield control over all Muslims. Hasan, however, not wanting to be the next to die, came to an accommodation with Muawiyyah, a relative of Uthman, and abdicated the throne, retiring to Medina.
    The Caliphate of Muawiyyah I began. He founds the Sunni Umayyid Dynasty and officially moved the capital of the Islamic Empire from uncivilized Medina to Damascus. What is interesting about this is that even though Damascus, unlike Mecca and Medina, was a literate community, and although we have countless records of Umayyid battles, tax collections, and political promotions, there isn’t a single line of Islamic scripture that survives from this time – not a word from the Qur’an or Hadith was written down. The first Qur’an fragments date to the eighth century and the oldest Hadith manuscripts date to the ninth century.
    There were no Qur’ans or any other written basis for the religion of Islam when its mujahideen were conquering the world. And that means they were doing it for booty, not religion. This is one of the most astounding, and little known, facts of history.
    The Umayyid Dynasty would retain dictatorial control over all territories conquered by Islam through 750
    662 : All of the Arabian Peninsula and today’s Iran and Iraq were unified under the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates. Their reign of oppression would last until 1258.
    666: Muslim crusaders raided the island of Sicily.
    670: Islamic armies continued to plunder portions of North Africa on the Western Front. Jihadists reach and conquer Morocco. The entire region was now under the control of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.
    The Eastern Army captured Kabul in Afghanistan. Soon Islam would control and occupy all of the Caucasus and Caspian region.
    672: Muslims storm the island of Rhodes, placing it under the dominion of their swords.
    673 : The Islamic armies begin the Khurasan campaign.
    674: Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.
    677: Islam’s militants occupy Samarkand and Tirmiz.
    678: Muslim armies besieged Constantinople, the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire.
    680: Caliph Mu’awiyah died and Hussein (Hussain) (Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh’s grandson by way of Ali), his family, and his supporters were massacred in Karbala, Iraq by the Sunni Umayyids. As a result, Yazid gained control of Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh’s bloody legacy.
    682: In North Africa Uqba bin Nafe marched to the Atlantic. He was ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuated Qairowan and withdrew to Burqa.
    683: Caliph Yazid died. Mu’awiyah II is crowned king of the death machine.
    684: Abdullah bin Zubair declared himself Caliph at Mecca. Marwan I, disputes the claim and names himself Caliph in Damascus. All the while the Islamic assault marched on with the Battle of Marj Rahat.
    685 : Falling like flies, Marwan I died so Abdul Malik became the Caliph in Damascus. Not losing focus, the Islamic mujahideen fought the Battle of Ain ul Wada.
    686: Mukhtar declared himself Caliph at Kufa, Iraq. As you might imagine, being the supreme potentate of a religious empire was profitable.
    687: Not wanting to share, the Battle of Kufa was waged between the Islamic forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah bin Zubair. Mukhtar must have lost because he was killed.
    691: Muslims went on to fight the Battle of Deir ul Jaliq. But then Kufa fell to Abdul Malik.
    692 : With the fall of Mecca to Abdul Malik, and the death of Abdullah bin Zubair, Malik became the sole Caliph.
    695: The Khawarij revolt in Jazira and Ahwaz shook Islam. Muslims however won the Battle of the Karun. Then a campaign against Kahina in North Africa was launched. Unsuccessful, the Muslims once again withdrew to Barqa. Next, Islamic forces advanced on Transoxiana and occupied Kish.
    700: Muslim armies fought against the Berbers in North Africa.
    702: Islam endured the Ashath rebellion in Iraq and fought the battle of Deir ul Jamira.
    705: With the death of Abdul Malik Walid I became Caliph.
    710: On the Eastern Front, Muslim crusaders conquered the lower Indus Valley. On the Western Front, Tariq ibn Malik crossed the Gibraltar straight separating Africa and Europe with a group of Muslims and entered Europe for the first time.
    711 : A 7,000 strong Islamic army under the command of Tariq ibn Malik invaded and conquered Spain, imposing the kingdom of Andalus. Almost all of the Iberian Peninsula submits to the sword of Islam.
    Muslims advanced on Sindh in Afghanistan and Transoxiana and then conquered Multan.
    712: With their recent conquests of Spain, the countryside of Egypt, and Morocco, the Islamic Empire now occupied and oppressed most all of the Persian and Roman Empires. The enormous, aggressive, and rapid land grab had all been achieved with the sword.
    715: Walid died and Sulaiman became Caliph.
    716: Muslims invaded Constantinople but failed in their attempt to take the Christian capital.
    717 : With the death of Sulaiman Umar bin Abdul Aziz took the crown of Islam.
    718 : The Islamic invasion, conquest, and occupation of Spain was completed.
    719: Cordova, Spain became the capital of Islamic Europe.
    720: With the death of Umar bin Abdul Aziz, Yazid II was anointed king.
    724: With the death of Yazid II, Hisham gained control of Warlord Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh’s legacy.
    725: The Islamic conquest of Western Europe reached it zenith with Muslims occupying Nimes in France.
    732: The Muslim crusaders were stopped at the Battle of Poitiers (Tours). While it’s hard to fathom, the Franks (French) halted the Islamic advance on Western Europe. However, Muslim armies continued to advance in Asia and Africa.
    The first century of Islam had been marked by death and destruction. Islam had been fed by plunder and it had expanded on the backs of its bloodied victims. There is almost nothing good that can be said of Islam’s first century. Islam has been a curse on all mankind.

  5. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Buddhism is a method of cultivating the mind. Since Buddhism affirms that the universe is governed by impersonal laws and not by any creator-god; it has no use for prayer, for the Buddha was a teacher and not a god; and it regards devotion not as a religious obligation but as a means of expressing gratitude to its founder and as a means of self-development. Hence Buddhism is is not a religion at all
    Nature abhors a vacuum, and religious entrepreneurs, taking advantage of the situation, seize the opportunity to spew prophetic nonsense. At least some area of life should be left to the individual where the person is totally free, without anybody else deciding for him, where he can open his wings like an eagle and fly across the sun – no chains, no bondages, no hindrances.
    Honesty is honesty – it cannot be Muslim, it cannot be Christian. Truth is simply truth – it is neither Christian nor Hindu. Love is simply love – it cannot be Eastern and it cannot be Western. Compassion is compassion – it does not belong to any race, to any country, to any climate; it is not dependent on any geography, or any history.
    Meditation is simply so scientific that just as you accept physics without bothering about whether it is Hindu or Muslim, you accept chemistry without ever thinking whether it is Protestant or Catholic. When you go to the doctor, you never bother whether the medicine is Christian or Muslim.
    The inner reality is simply a pure silence: thousands of flowers blossom there but they don’t belong to any organization. They are the reward of your own search, of your own inward-going.
    All the organized religions care basically depriving humanity of religion because they are misdirecting you. They are always directing you outwards — their God is far away in the sky. And when you pray, folding your hands towards the sky, you don’t realize that there is nobody to hear you.
    In fact, the one who is praying, the one who is alive in you, the one who is breathing in you, is the God.
    You have just to discover it.
    It is hidden in the layers of your false personality. Find out, in your innocence, and life becomes a sheer joy, a song without words, a dance, a celebration. And at the very end of your celebration, there is nothing but tears of gratitude. Those tears of gratitude belong to the individual heart, overflowing with gratefulness towards existence.
    Heaven is a “fairy story” for people afraid of the dark. Thoughts of heaven may stave off fears of death and the idea of an afterlife offers some hope in a world where life has been pretty harsh. Religious belief in the afterlife can be a powerful motivator to follow the rules of the religion. If you think of your body as a machine, it’s kind of hard to believe in life after death.Regard the brain as a computer which will stop working when its components fail. There is no heaven or afterlife for broken down computers. A deity no longer has any place in theories on the creation of the universe in the light of a series of developments in physics.
    We are born and reborn at every moment. Like many other Buddhist teachings, is easily verifiable by reference to our own experience and by science. The cells in the human body die and are replaced thousand times during the course of one’s life. This is part of the process of birth, death and rebirth. If we look at our mind, we find that mental states of worry, happiness etc., change every moment. They die and are replaced by new states. If we look at our body or the mind, our experience is characterized by continuous birth, death and rebirth. Our lives appear to be unbroken blocks of continuous events, but, when we maintain the straightforward frankness of our own mind as it comes to life each instant, even without effort, even without training, we are beautifully born each instant. We die with each instant, and go on to be born again, instant by instant.
    Buddhism is a way of life based on the training of the mind. Its one ultimate aim is to show the way to complete liberation from suffering by the attainment of the Unconditioned, a state beyond the range of the normal untrained mind. Its immediate aim is to strike at the roots of suffering in everyday life. All human activity is directed, either immediately or remotely, towards the attainment of happiness in some form or other; or, to express the same thing in negative terms, all human activity is directed towards liberation from some kind of unsatisfactoriness or dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction, then, can be regarded as the starting point in human activity, with happiness as its ultimate goal.
    The material world around us, is not based on ‘loose’ particles with empty space between them. There is no empty space, all is filled with energy. We live in one gigantic energy field. This energy field is even bigger then our universe, and probably encompasses all universes. So this means if we move our arms, we ‘push’ aside energy, and this will have effect throughout the whole field, it will not have huge effect, but it is like we in a pool, and we cause ripples and currents when we splash our arms, not just around us, but in the whole pool. The reality around us is based on different levels of worlds, that all are fixed in this field. Our organs are made out of cells, the cells are made out of cytoplasm, the cytoplasm is made out of molecules, the molecules are made out of neutrons, protons, and electrons, neutrons, protons, and electrons are based on quarks and energy waves, these quarks and energy waves are again based on smaller waves and we will end up in a giant pool of energy.

  6. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha ascended a mountain summit together with his recently converted disciples. Gazing at the view below, Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha began to expound: “Indeed, this world is burning with many and various fires. There are fires of greed fires of hatred fires of foolishness, fires of infatuation and egoism, fires of decrepitude, sickness and death, fires of sorrow, lamentation, suffering and agony.” Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha conveyed his essential outlook on the nature and cause of suffering.

    What he was trying to convey was his understanding that the phenomenal world that we inhabit is engulfed in the fires of suffering originating in deluded impulses. These fires of greed, hatred and ignorance, raging fiercely in the hearts of people, are the basic cause of the suffering of human existence. Therefore, Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha urges us first and foremost to come to a clear understanding of the root cause of suffering.

    Here, the deluded impulse of “greed” indicates uncontrolled desire for, and attachment to, material comforts, for wealth, power or fame. Desires of this kind grow and multiply without cease, and since their fulfillment cannot bring true and lasting happiness, a person in their grip is condemned to endless torment and frustration.

    The deluded impulse of “hatred” describes emotions such as resentment, rage and envy, that are triggered when our egocentric desires are not fulfilled. Unless controlled, these escalate into various forms of destruction and violence. Simply put, the deluded impulse of hatred is the violence that grows from an egocentric view of life.

    “Ignorance” refers to willful ignorance of reality, or the true nature of life and the cosmos. Thus it is this deluded impulse that generates discord and rebellion against the principles that govern the functioning of the cosmos. The wisdom that illuminates and reveals the true nature of the cosmos is referred to as “enlightenment,” while this kind of willful ignorance is referred to as “fundamental darkness” because it clouds and obscures the light by which we might see things in their true nature. Of all the deluded impulses, Buddhism considers ignorance the most fundamental.

    Buddhism views these impulses–greed, hatred and ignorance–as poisons inherent in life; together they are sometimes referred to as the “three poisons.” What Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha sought to teach his disciples is that the flames of the three poisons and of all deluded impulses originate in, and spew forth from, the inner lives of individuals to engulf families, ethnic groups, nations and eventually the whole of humanity.

    We see this in the world today, where the impact of uncontrolled greed goes far beyond the individual level; it creates economic disparities among racial and ethnic groups, and between countries on a global scale. The avarice of the industrialized nations has deprived people in developing countries of the conditions by which their basic needs can be met. And the greed of the human race is undermining the right of other living beings to exist.

    Violence is commonly found within families, in schools and in local communities. Deep hatreds that trace back to distant historical events give rise to intractable ethnic and racial conflicts. In some cases, such historical hatred is bound up with religious causes or identities, and finds expression in terror and random killing.

    Willful ignorance of the true nature of existence signifies a state of rebellion against, and denial of, the basic principles of life and the cosmos. As such, it distorts all aspects of life, from individual lifestyles to family, ethnic and national values. In other words, this kind of willful ignorance can be found in all value systems, ways of life, and views of nature that put one into rebellious conflict with the very principles that support one’s own existence, the principles that, ultimately, govern the functioning of the living cosmos.

    By sharing his enlightened understanding with others, Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha sought to help people minimize the destructive effects of these deluded impulses and in fact to transform them into the impetus for happiness.

    In India, the equivalent of “peace” is “shanti,” which means the state of inner tranquillity. It also means the enlightened condition attained by Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha sometimes referred to as “nirvana.” With respect to the state of inner peace, a Buddhist text describes this as follows: “Tranquillity of mind comes from having successfully transcended greed, hatred and ignorance.” As this passage makes clear, the Buddhist approach to peace starts from the fundamental act of surmounting these deluded impulses or inner poisons. The state of having brought these impulses under control, however, is not a static and private inner peace. Rather, it is limitlessly dynamic, expansive and evolutionary in its nature.

    The thirteenth-century Japanese Buddhist Nichiren expressed this with the following image: “Burning the firewood of deluded impulses, we behold the flame of enlightened wisdom.” In other words, through spiritual practice the energy inherent in our deluded impulses can be transformed in its entirety into the illuminating “flame” of enlightened wisdom. Thus, the three poisons can be subdued so that they no longer produce confusion and disruption; they can no longer drive us to act in a bizarre and destructive manner. It is for this reason that this transcendence of deluded impulses is known as inner tranquillity.

    In the state of tranquillity, the light of enlightened wisdom shines brilliantly, unblocked and unhindered by the clouds of deluded impulses. If one surveys the Buddha’s teachings, from the earliest scriptures through the subsequent Mahayana tradition, one can see that the core of Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha ‘s enlightenment was his awakening to the “law of dependent origination.” This concept has been expressed in various ways and was developed in great depth and detail in Mahayana Buddhism; its essence is the interdependence of all living beings and indeed all phenomena. Dependent origination teaches us that all things occur and exist only through their interrelationship with all other phenomena and that this fabric of relatedness is of infinite extent both temporally and spatially. Herein lies the basis for the principle of mutually supportive coexistence of all beings so central to Buddhist thinking.

    Each human being exists within the context of interrelationships that include other human beings, all living beings and the natural world. In other words, each person is sustained by the interdependent web of life. By awakening to this principle we are able to expand instinctive self-love into an altruistic love for others; we are able to nurture the spirit of tolerance and empathy for others.

    The doctrine of dependent origination also provides a theoretical foundation for peace. In terms of concrete action, it manifests itself as the practice of compassion. In Buddhism, compassion indicates the practical ethic of always maintaining an empathetic involvement with others. It means sharing their sufferings and unhappiness, working alongside them to overcome the deluded impulses that are the root cause of suffering, transforming these into happiness, benefit and joy.

    Ignorance is considered fundamental among these deluded impulses precisely because it blinds people to the reality of dependent origination, the unavoidable and all-encompassing interrelatedness within which we live. This ignorance gives rise to the greed that drives people to seek the fulfillment of their desires even at the cost of the suffering of others. It also leads to the kind of uncontrolled rage that seeks the destruction of a situation in which one’s desires are frustrated. It is for this reason that the deluded impulse of ignorance is considered equivalent to a fundamental egocentrism. It is a blind and finally self-destructive egocentrism because it violently severs the strands of the web of life that supports one’s own existence.

    The state of mind of one who ceaselessly strives to transcend this fundamental egocentrism is that of inner peace and tranquillity. The heart of such a person is lit with the wisdom of dependent origination, and overflows with the spirit of compassion.

    Buddhism’s core contribution to peace is to be found in the struggle against the deluded impulses that, rooted in the depths of the inner life of the individual, cause so much suffering and destruction in the whole of human society. In Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha ‘s Lotus Sutra, the destructive effects brought about by the deluded impulses are described as “defilements,” and classified into five stages, from the innermost and most personal to that which stains an entire age or era. These are: defilements of desire, of thought, of the people, of life itself and of the age.

    T’ien-t’ai, a Buddhist philosopher active in China in the sixth century, described the five defilements in the following manner: “The most fundamental of these five are the defilements of thought and of desire, which result in the defilements of the people and of life. These in turn give rise to the defilement of the age.” “Defilement of desire” points to deluded impulses such as the three poisons themselves. “Defilement of thought” refers to excessive and unreasoning attachment to specific ideas or ideologies. According to T’ien-t’ai, the defilements of thought and desire are the most fundamental and, through their impact on individuals, bring chaos and disruption to families, nations and states. Passed on from one generation to another, these defilements give rise to the “defilement of life,” instilling historical hatred and violence among different peoples, ethnic groups and nations. These defilements finally influence all people living in that era, resulting in the “defilement of the age.”

    Modern civilization increasingly exhibits the aspects of what Buddhism would term the “defilement of the age.” Signs of this include rampant materialism, the ruthless domination and exploitation of nature, and unbridled consumption. Since the end of the Cold War, our world has been spared major outbreaks of conflict stemming from attachment to ideology, that is, defilement of thought. However, the kinds of conflicts that are flaring up are rooted in the irrational passions, such as extreme nationalism, that Buddhism would classify as “defilement of desire.” These are considered even more deeply rooted in people’s lives and therefore even more difficult to control.

    In a world where deluded impulses cast the pall of their negative effects in the form of the five defilements described above, Buddhists have, I believe, a particular mission to contribute to the realization of peace on all planes. In other words, we should not be content with our inner peace of mind but should broaden our horizons and extend our endeavors to include abolition of war–that is, peace of the global human community–as well as peace with the natural world, through truly sustainable development and harmonious coexistence with the global ecosystem.

    Bodhisattva practice, compassionate action based on the Buddhist understanding of life, can contribute to the realization of peace in its three dimensions (inner, community and ecological peace).

    First let us consider inner peace, or tranquillity of spirit and mind. In Buddhism, a bodhisattva is one who carries out altruistic acts and seeks to contribute to human society by fully manifesting the qualities of wisdom and compassion. A bodhisattva strives first to transform his or her own life; the locus for this struggle is the realities of human existence and the sustained effort to alleviate people’s sufferings. In this way the bodhisattva strives to generate joy for both self and others.

    The practice of the bodhisattva has been expressed in contemporary terms as “human revolution.” The inner state of one striving for the realization of human revolution can be considered that of spiritual tranquillity; the state of inner peace expounded in Buddhism is a dynamic condition brimming with wisdom and compassion.

    In resolving the global challenges confronting humanity, political, economic and scientific measures must be pursued together with a transformation of human consciousness. We should establish a lifestyle of conserving energy, recycling resources and pursuing spiritual values. Our overarching goal should be to cultivate a shared awareness of our common humanity and of solidarity with the living organism that is Earth. As we move toward that awareness, we must develop the wisdom to properly direct toward beneficial ends of the life sciences, including the burgeoning field of genetic engineering. The outlook of the world’s religious and ethical traditions can and must make an important contribution.

    A Buddhist approach to peace offers important common ground with other traditions. The cause of a truly comprehensive and lasting peace can most effectively be furthered by ceaselessly expanding circles of friendship and understanding through dialogue, exchange and cooperation.

  7. Mr. Bernard Wijeyasingha Says:

    Before Buddhism Hinduism was a militant faith. It was the reformist faiths of Buddhism and Jainism that gave Hinduism the concept of non violence an the respect to all living things. When China invaded Tibet Vajrayana Buddhism became a world wide phenomena and thousands of Westerners have converted to that form of Buddhism. Zen Buddhism was also born in India and spread to Japan and that too has had a profound influence on Western culture.

    But Sri Lanka is unique for it is the only Buddhist nation that is the oldest unbroken Buddhist nation in the world and that makes her Sanga the oldest in the world. Now that Sri Lanka is rising on the world stage books like “Crucible of Decline” by Rocco S. Bagaladi writes of the downfall of the immoral Western nations especially the US and the rise on the global stage of Sri Lanka. go to Amazon.books and read the back of the book. It is worth reading

  8. Ibnu Ahmad Says:

    – Jesus Christ will return by descending from Heaven and will kill the Anti-Christ.

    This is totally false. Died will never return. According to the Bible, Jesus, son of MARY WILL NEVER COME AGAIN.

    Nalliah Thayabharan is not a Master of religion. What he said about Islam also not in accordance with the reality.

    Mind your own business.

  9. Lorenzo Says:

    Ibnu Ahmad Says:

    “Mind your own business.”

    TYPICAL Arab mentality. Ah! Mad!

    IF Arabs did mind their own damn business and NOT CREPT into Buddhist SL we would mind our own business.

    Not otherwise.

    Jesus was NOT son of Mary ALONE. He was the sun of g~d and g~d himself.

  10. Ananda-USA Says:

    Lorenzo said

    “Jesus was NOT son of Mary ALONE. He was the sun of g~d and g~d himself.”

    Does anyone really believe this nonsense? Still?

    Jesus Christ was the son of Mary and some man, most likely Joseph! He was a man who saw the inequities at play in his world and tried to find a reason and provide some gifted guidance for people to co-exist in peace, just like Lord Buddha before him and Prophet Mohammed after him.

    He was no more the virgin born son of Mary and God, than Prince Vijaya was the son of his mother and a Lion who spoke and acted like a man!

    IT IS TIME to ditch this adoring magnification of reality, as arrant nonsense, and value the compassionate and caring human beings that Jesus, Mohammed and the Gautama Buddha truly were.

  11. Ibnu Ahmad Says:

    When the Holy Qur’an rejects the Trinity, it doesn’t show any conflict with the true teachings of Jesus (peace be upon him), but rejects the wrong views of the Christians’ interpretations to their Book.
    Hereunder some guiding points, selected from the Bibles about Trinity:

    1. When Jesus was asked what the only way was to true salvation, he replied: keep the Commandments (Matthew 19:17). The first of the Commandments was to believe in the Oneness of God (Exodus 20:3).
    Why did Jesus answer so if he believed in and was part of the Trinity? Why did he not refer to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost?

    2. Jesus said that he had NOT come to change the Law of Moses (Matthew 5:17). The Law of Moses teaches that there is ONE God (Exodus 20:3).
    If Jesus was introducing the concept of Trinity, why did he not say that he was changing the Law of Moses or introducing a different understanding of it?

    3. If Jesus’s central message was that of Trinity (a concept alien to the Old Testament), why did he not elaborate on the subject to explain the interrelationships clearly? Why did he leave it to Paul to explain?

    4. If the Trinity existed since the beginning of time, were the Jews misled by all the prophets before Jesus in being told to believe in the Unity of God?
    If the Jews were not spiritually advanced to understand the complex concept of the Trinity, does that apply to the prophets also?

    5. If Jesus meant that he was literally the son of God, why should he confuse the issue by frequently referring to himself as The Son of Man, a term from the Old Testament, which did not imply divinity since the Son of Man (as understood in the Old Testament) was never a divine being?

    Hereunder some important evidences from the Bibles, showing there is only ONE God, different from the claim that he is Jesus Christ (peace be upon him):
    1. [John 17: 3] And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent.
    2. [Ephesians 4: 6] One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.
    3. [Isaiah 43: 10] Ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, and my servant whom I have chosen: that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me.
    [Isaiah 43: 11] I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is NO saviour.
    4. [Psalms 90: 2] Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God.
    5. [John 20: 17] Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God.
    6. [1Thimothy 2: 5] For there is ONE God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

  12. Ibnu Ahmad Says:

    Some of Christian Biblical based views generally quoted (while ignoring all other evidences) in support of Trinity are as follows:
    1. [1John 5: 7] For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.

    2. [Mathew 28: 19] Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

    3. [John 10: 30] I and my Father are one.

    4. [John 1: 1] In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

    5. [1Thimothy 3: 16] And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.

    According to the Athanasian Creed, (each person of the Trinity) “none is afore, or after other, none is greater, or less than other”. Also, since the 6th. Century; Christian statement of belief, focusing on Trinitarian and Christology which is, the equality of the 3 persons.
    Further, according to the Athanasian Creed, “The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son: neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but proceeding”.

    Hereunder the answers clarifying those above claim:
    Trinity is one of the basic beliefs of Christianity, that Son, Father and the Holy Ghost are one, which makes Jesus a partner of God, but Jesus never ever claimed to be God or partner to God. Jesus always preached about the unity of God, and being a Messenger of God.
    The concept of Trinity is based upon the above quoted verses of the New Testament, but if these verses are critically examined, the above verses cannot support Trinity.
    We shall now analyze the quoted verses in support of Trinity:

    A. The First Verse in support of Trinity:
    [1John 5: 7] For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.

    In the above, quotation there is not any indication that Jesus Christ is God or partner of God. A verse before and after the given reference shows that Jesus Christ has nothing to do with the Divinity of God, rather he is human being like others.
    The preceding verse of the above clarifies the status of Jesus, as follows:
    [1John 5: 6] This is he that came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth.
    The above verse; show that Jesus came to existence through water and blood and spirit, and these are the common factors in every human being. Water and blood are the main and basic parts of human body, and soul or spirit makes it living.

    Three factors agree

    When the above three factors agree in one, then it becomes a human being. In the above verses, it is not mentioned that Jesus is Father, Word or Holy Ghost; rather he is water and blood, not more than that.

    B. The Second Verse in support of Trinity:
    [Mathew 28: 19] Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

    This verse also does not support the concept of Trinity; because all the Prophets preached the same way. Every Prophet introduced God to the human being first, who is our spiritual Father, and then about their Prophet-hood, that they are sent by God, and talked about the angel Gabriel, who carries the message of God to the Messenger, who is known in the Bible by the name of the Holy Ghost.
    No Prophet can convey the message of God in the real sense unless he touches the mentioned three points. This is why Jesus guided his disciples how to baptize the people.

    C. The Third Verse given in support of Trinity is:
    [John 10: 30] I and my Father are one.

    Similar expression is given about the other human beings also in the Bible for example:
    [Ephesians 4: 6] One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.
    Then according to the above reference everyone is God. It shows that Jesus is not God but humble servant of God.

    D. The Fourth Verse in the support of Trinity is:
    [John 1: 1] In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

    Already it has been quoted above from the New Testament and discussed the issue that Jesus was made through water and blood, and soul made him living. According to the above quoted reference Jesus was not Word, or God.

    E. The Fifth Verse mentioned in support of Trinity is:
    [1Thimothy 3: 16] And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.

    The above verse is the statement of Paul, who always contradicts with Jesus Christ and is not a reliable person at all. Paul himself accepted that some time he commits lie, as it is clear from the following statement:
    [Romans 3: 7] For if the truth of God hath more abounded through my lie unto his glory; why yet am I also judged as a sinner?
    So a person who himself accepted that he commits lie, his statement has no value.

  13. Ibnu Ahmad Says:

    Further clarifications by the Bibles:
    The doctrine of the Trinity necessarily imparts the complete equality in all respects of the three persons of Trinity- the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Nevertheless, the study of the Bible reveals that in respect of the attributes, the Father is supreme and there is disclaimer by Jesus of those attributes:
    1. [Matthew 20: 23] And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father.

    2. [Mark 13: 32] But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.

    3. [Mark 5: 30] And Jesus, immediately knowing in himself that virtue had gone out of him, turned him about in the press, and said, ‘Who touched my clothes?’

    4. [Matthew 21: 18] Now in the morning as he returned into the city, he hungered.

    5. [Matthew 21: 19] And when he saw a fig tree in the way, he came to it, and found nothing thereon, but leaves only, and said unto it; Let no fruit grow on thee henceforward forever. And presently the fig tree withered away.

    6. [John 5: 30] I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me.

    7. [John 8: 28] Then said Jesus unto them, When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that I am he, and that I do nothing of myself; but as my Father hath taught me, I speak these things.

    8. [John 13: 16] Verily, verily, I say unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord; neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him.

    9. [John 8: 42] Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye would love me: for I proceeded forth and came from God; neither came I of myself, but he sent me.
    10. [John 14: 28] Ye have heard how I said unto you, I go away, and come again unto you. If ye loved me, ye would rejoice, because I said, I go unto the Father: for my Father is greater than I.

    11. [Luke 5: 16] And he withdrew himself into the wilderness, and prayed.

    12. [Luke 9: 28] And it came to pass about eight days after these sayings, he took Peter and John and James, and went up into a mountain to pray.

    13. [Luke 11: 1] And it came to pass, that, as he was praying in a certain place, when he ceased, one of his disciples said unto him, Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples.
    [Luke 11: 2] And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth.

    14. [Matthew 21: 22] And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive.

    All supplications of Jesus and those of his disciples were addressed to God. Obviously, therefore, there was no equality between the supplicant and Him to Whom supplication was addressed.

    Lacked such power

    God has the power to respond to supplication and to grant it. Quite obviously Jesus lacked such power, for indeed if he had possessed that power, his supplicating to God would have been meaningless.

    Had he been the second person in the Trinity, and therefore, God, he would have been in no need for supplication as he would have the power to do all that he wished. This well illustrated in his repeated supplications, in the garden of Gethsemane when he fell on his face and prayed (Matthew 26: 29):

    [Matthew 26: 29] But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.

    [Matthew 12: 32] And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come.

    It is apparent from these quotes that Jesus himself has solved the problem that God is one and he is only a Messenger of God like other of God’s Messengers. According to the Holy Qur’an a Muslim is bound to believe in Jesus as Prophet as he has to believe in all the Prophets of God (Al Qur’an 2: 137).

    Hoping I have made my points clear, while I was only referring to the Bibles and not to the Holy Qur’an.

  14. Lorenzo Says:

    Please visit the religion of peace website for a more accurate and independent assessment of Islam based on FACTS.

  15. Lorenzo Says:


    A special mass was held at the CHURCH OF NATIVITY in Bethlahem where Jesus was born to bless SL and the birthday boy MR a few days ago to celebrate his birthday. It was organised by the SL Embassy in Tel Aviv, SLs in Israel, Palestinian Authority, Israel Defence Forces and the Israeli government.

    (Asiantribune, Israel news, SL guardian)

    Just after Gota met the pope.

    CHURCH OF NATIVITY in Bethlahem has a website.

    Among news relating to SL is SL cricket captain Tamil Christian Matthews getting married in a church with the participation of MR and GR.

  16. Nesta Says:

    What Ibnu says is absolutely correct. As a Christian, I read holy Bible and find these truth and having belief accordingly.

  17. Lorenzo Says:

    FIRST EVER SL Buddhist temple has come up in Israel in Tel Aviv.

    Good move by SL. Thanks Israel. Now the uncivilised Saudis should learn to allow other people’s places of worhsip in Saudi.

  18. Nalliah Thayabharan Says:

    Religion is an opium that can be used either constructively to preach peace or to terrorize the defenseless and kill women and children. As Christianity forged its way through the Atlantic and Indian ocean via European and American ships, the Arabs found a way of riding camels through deserts with Islam on their helm.
    Buddhism is a philosophy and it is something other than the superstitious rubbish most of the people believe religion to be. Religions including Christianity and Islam are passionate, irrational and messy. But Buddhism is the flower of human intellect and it is reasonable and civilized. Religions including Christianity and Islam inspire war and atrocity; at worst, Buddhism incites mild arguments over tea.
    Apart from the occasional dictators and the tragic results of race-hatred and militant armed groups, today the western superpowers carry the gauntlet. How many wars and power struggles does our planet has to endure, for petroleum, minerals and economic advantage? Not only these power mongers wage wars to get what they want, they also exert power through embargoes and other political blackmail to achieve their greed and power.
    Greed and pride (not grievance) are the dynamics of last forty years of violence in Sri Lanka. Warlords are not really motivated for the betterment of society.

    “a man can marry an infinite amount of women without any limits to how many he can marry”
    – Old Testament – Exodus 21:10

    “King David had six wives and numerous concubines”
    – Old Testament -2 Samuel 5:13; 1 Chronicles 3:1-9, 14:3,

    “King Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines”
    – Old Testament 1 Kings 11:3

    “King Solomon’s son Rehoboam had 18 wives and 60 concubines”
    – Old Testament 2 Chronicles 11:21

    In biblical times adulthood could refer to the age of Puberty or even younger age. The minimum age for marriage according to the Talmud is 13 for boys, 12 for girls (“erusin” can take place before that, and often did in medieval times) and a girl is acquired to be a wife through money, a contract, and sexual intercourse. Usually all of these conditions are satisfied, although only one is enough to effect a binding marriage.

    In Ashkenazi Jewish communities in the Middle Ages, girls were married off very young. Any girl between the age of 3 and 12 was completely subject to her father’s authority, and her father could arrange a marriage for her without her agreement.

    Not only was it a custom in the Jewish society to marry a young girl it was also common in the Arab society.

    The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929 which forbade the marriage of a male younger than 21 or a female younger than 18 was passed during the tenure of British rule on pre-partition India.

    Even today about 50% of Yemeni girls are married before 18, some as young as 8.

    BTW the Holy Bible has lots of “interesting” stories like
    2 Samuel 11:2-4
    “One evening David got up from his bed and walked around on the roof of the palace. From the roof he saw a woman bathing. The woman was very beautiful, and David sent someone to find out about her. The man said, ‘Isn’t this Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam and the wife of Uriah the Hittite?’ Then David sent messengers to get her. She came to him, and he slept with her. (She had purified herself from her uncleanness.) Then she went back home.”

    1797 Napoleon takes the lands under the control of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church The Pope has become the facto ruler of the city of Rome and the suburbs by the 6th century AD. But in 754 AD, Pepin the Short, king of the Franks, officially handed over these areas to Pope Stephen II. These Italian lands under direct rule of the Pope were called Papal States, or States of the Church or Pontifical States. Pope, with the help of regional powers like the Franks, continued to annex more territories by gifts, purchases, and conquests until the Papal States included nearly the whole of central Italy. These areas reached their greatest extent in the 16th century. In 1797, Napoleon Bonaparte took much of the territory. In 1815, after the allied forces defeated Napoleon at Waterloo and restored Papal rule back in these areas under Austrian protection. But in 1870, Italian King Victor Emmanuel II annexed all Papal states including Rome and limited the Pope’s jurisdiction to the Vatican. In protest, each Pope thereafter considered themselves as prisoners under Italian occupation. In 1929, in the Lateran Treaty, Italian king Victor Emmanuel III recognized the full independence of the Vatican City under Pope.

    Vatican has a history of pacts with criminal dictators as the Holy See signed treaties with monarchs and governments regardless of slavery, inhumanity, or torture they may have induced upon fellow human beings. Vatican had links to government organizations, right-wing nationalism, including Fascism and Nazism. Moreover, From 1920′s to the 1940′s most every right-wing dictator had been brought up as a Catholic: Hitler, Horthy, Franco, Petain, Mussolini, Pavelic, and Tiso (who has served as a Catholic priest).

    Pope Pius XI, in his own words a “man with no love for democracy,” helped to bring Mussolini’s Fascist Party to power in Italy and in 1926 solemnly declared:
    “Mussolini is a man sent by Divine Providence.”

    The Spanish people, stricken with poverty and a high rate of analphabets (about 80% of the population), had swept away monarchy, proclaimed a republic and elected a left-wing government in 1931. Separation of State and Church was made a reality, religious freedom was granted and civil marriage adopted. Some of the Church property – which was estimated at one third of the nation’s wealth – was nationalized. To fight the “Antichrists,” a violent, relentless Catholic opposition was promptly started on a large scale throughout Spain.

    By 1934 Catholic organizations already planned a coup d’état, having been in touch with the Fascist Government of Italy. On July 17, 1934 the Spanish Army rose in many Spanish towns. The Spanish Civil War had begun. As soon as the revolt broke out, a General Franco made haste to let the pope know that his coup had succeeded. The papal banner was unfurled over the rebel headquarters at Burgos, and the Pope Pius XI had Franco’s flag raised over the Vatican.
    This was the beginning of a world-wide Catholic offensive against Republican Spain. Bishops in Italy, Germany and other countries published pastoral letters urging Catholics to help. The pope spoke. The Spanish Civil War, he said, was a foretaste of what

    “is being prepared for Europe and the World unless the nations take appropriate measures against it.”
    — Pope Pius XI, December 25, 1936

    Mussolini sent thousands of troops, Hitler sent warplanes, warships, tanks, and soldiers. The Spanish people fought a bitter, relentless fight from 1936 until 1939. Before the demolition of yet another young democracy in Europe was complete, Pope Pius XI died.

    BBC broadcasts on Croatia – February 16, 1942 :

    “The worst atrocities are being committed in the environs of the archbishop of Zagreb [Stepinac]. The blood of brother is flowing in streams. The Orthodox are being forcibly converted to Catholicism and we do not hear the archbishop’s voice preaching revolt. Instead it is reported that he is taking part in Nazi and Fascist parades.”

    – Hitler’s Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII, by John Cornwell page 256

    Though Fascist governments eventually died out and the Vatican made sure to distance itself from them, later dictatorships under Catholic tyrants would yet again be given the Vatican’s full support.

    For example, Chile’s Catholic dictator Pinochet who tormented Chileans. He was caught and was to be extradited to Spain where he could be put on trial for his crimes against humanity. The Vatican pleaded with international authorities to prevent his extradition – on humanitarian grounds, no less, arguing that the criminal was unwell. This farce might have been more believable, had the Vatican (and its fascist Nuncio to Chile, cardinals and archbishops) also pleaded with Pinochet for humane treatment of the Chilean people when he was still dictator. But the Vatican hadn’t done that, because Pinochet was working for the Church and in a Church-approved manner in his position as tyrant.

    Religious conversion is a deadly weapon much more disastrous than nuclear bombs and Vatican is the biggest terrorist organization that is using it for sowing distress and sorrow in this world. It is high time the civilized world shut down the ‘harvest machinery’ in Vatican .
    Even though the Christian population is “still” at 7%, the Christian Church has tremendous political influence in Sri Lanka. A majority of the major business tycoons, media organization owners, civil activists and almost all the senior cabinet members of the former UNP government were Christians.

    Both Ranil Wickremesinghe and Chandrika Kumaratunge are also widely believed to be closet Christians.

    DBS Jeyaraj wrote in the (Christian owned) Sunday Leader , Christians have contributed much more to the “Tamil cause” than Hindus.

    Christianity was brought to this island country of Buddhists and Hindus by the Portuguese, where it was imposed violently on the pre-Christian people against their will. The zealous soldiers of Christ destroyed temples and built Churches where the shrines had stood using the very materials of the broken temples themselves. They killed all those resisting who defended their pre-Christian places of worship.

    From 1574 onwards, the Catholic zealots kept destroying Buddhist and Hindu temples all along the Western coast. The monks and priests over there either fled or got killed or went underground. 1,000 pillared temples in Devundara in the deep south and Trincomalee in the East; the Saman Devale (temple) in Ratnapura; and the Kelaniya temple, all very much revered, were ransacked and burnt.A group of militant monks called Ganinnanse discarded the traditional yellow robe and began to wear a white robe instead to hide themselves.

    The Portuguese deliberately built churches over the ruins of Buddhist or Hindu temples. The present Kochikade church in Colombo and the Madu church in Mannar, both very popular now among Catholics, were Pattini Devales or temples for Kannagi, the famous heroine of Madurai in Tamil Nadu.
    Buddhist schools (pirivenas), which were also mini universities, were ransacked and burnt, and their monk-scholars killed. Among the schools thus destroyed were the Sunethra Devi Pirivena in Kotte, Vidagama Pirivena in Ragama – In 1557 400acre Vidagama Pirivena of Ragama converted to church graveyard and the Tottagamuwe Pirivena in Hikkaduwa. Today there hardly exists a Buddhist Temple over 150 years old in areas once ruled by the Portuguese, particularly in the maritime coast.
    The campaign against Buddhism had the involvement of three principal agencies namely –
    (1) The Roman Catholic Emperor of Portugal (2) His Viceroy at Goa and (3) The Roman Catholic priests in Sri Lanka
    ..the Portuguese came not only for trade and territorial acquisition, but for proselytising. The Papal Bulls of 1452, 1455 and 1456, gave the clear go ahead to Portugal to acquire territory and convert heathens. The Pope had conferred on Portugal a monopoly on all this. Force and intrigue were used convert them

    Many coastal communities in Sri Lanka underwent mass conversion, particularly in Jaffna, Mannar, and among the fishing communities living north of Colombo such as in Negombo and Chilaw. Roman Catholic churches with schools attached to them served Catholic communities all over the country. These schools also contributed to the spread of the Portuguese language particularly among the upper classes of society.

    The efforts of Roman Catholic clergy particularly the harsh methods adopted by them to convert Buddhists and reduce the influence of Buddhism among the public were viewed with great alarm by the Buddhist Sangha who had fled from Kotte to the Kingdoms of Sitavaka and Kandy, upon the conversion of Dharmapala and the seizure of Buddhist Temples.
    If Portuguese rule had continued and spread to the interior of the island, Sri Lanka would have completely lost its Buddhist heritage and become a completely Westernized and Catholic country. But even with the limited territorial reach (they were strong only in the Western maritime provinces) the impact had been deep, perhaps even indelible.
    Prior to the advent of the Portuguese, there was much Sinhala-Tamil and Buddhist-Tamil amity in Sri Lanka. Hindu temples dotted the maritime provinces, though these were Buddhist-majority areas. In the Thottagamuwa school, no distinction was made between Sinhala and Tamil, Pali and Sanskrit.
    It was the Portuguese who first created a division between the Sinhalese and the Tamils.

  19. Lorenzo Says:

    LTTE money collection has RESTARTED in Colombo. All Tamil businessmen are contributing to this. Many giving MILLIONS. NO compulsion. Willing donations.

    The STATED reason is to FILE A CASE TO SAFEGUARD “TAMIL DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS”. But it will not cost so much. REAL REASON is to buy weapons. AFTER the news of the killing of the “TRAITOR” (pro-SL EPDP PS chairman) money collection has INCREASED dramatically.

    DELFT islet is the FURTHEREST islet from SL and CLOSEST islet to Tamil Madu. Because of that it is a MAJOR Tamil Madu-SL weapons smuggling hub. This is why TNA/LTTE killed its pro-govt. PS chairman. Now weapons will FREELY flow to Jaffna, etc. Navy camp was WITHDRAWN in 2012 after “demilitarization” BS.

    I think the CASE TO SAFEGUARD “TAMIL DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS” is a case to get FULL 13 amendment rights.

  20. Ibnu Ahmad Says:

    Nalliah Thayabharan – what he says about prophet David and Solomon is totally incorrect. Yes. Bible gives the wrong picture about them. But, Holy Qur’an testify the truth of all Prophets such as Sri Krishna, Buddha, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon and Jesus, Muhammad etc- and say they are all true prophets sent by God to guide mankind. What Bible says are fabricated stories. Nothing else. Without knowing the truth, commenting these holy men by referring bible is also an uncivilized.

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