Sri Lanka’s Independence – a beneficiary of Japan’s entry to the Second World War which sealed the fate of European Colonialism in Asia
Posted on February 2nd, 2017

Senaka Weeraratna

Sri Lanka together with several other Asian countries owe much in winning their freedom, to Japan’s entry to the Second World War and the resulting chain of events that sealed the fate of European colonialism in Asia.

Jawaharlal Nehru, the Indian Prime Minister, when asked in the 1930s to name a likely date that India would win independence from Britain, replied by saying it would probably be in the late 1970s i.e. long after their time.

The fact that India gained freedom in 1947 much earlier than the date that Nehru thought was possible, followed by Burma and Ceylon in 1948, was largely due to the interplay of both external and internal factors.

Today, there is a great turn around in Historiography in respect to the role of Japan in the Second World War. Japan no longer has a pariah status or subject to isolation because of its conduct in the war. In fact, except in a couple of Far Eastern nations, Japan is increasingly gaining acceptance and recognition in much of Asia for being the catalyst in igniting the relatively dormant Asian Independence movements.

Nehru himself refused to take part in the San Francisco Peace Treaty Conference held in 1951 on several specified grounds and declared that Japan has done no wrong to India for India to seek an apology and reparations from Japan. India’s sympathies beginning with Subash Chandra Bose and Judge Radhabinod Pal ( the only  dissenting Judge in the Tokyo War Crimes Trial) have always been with Japan. J.R. Jayewardene from Ceylon made a resounding plea for Japan using the Buddha’s insightful words that ‘Hatred does not cease by hatred, but only by love; this is the eternal law.”

Asia’s leaders and Historians now see a direct and incontrovertible connection between the Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbour and Western Colonial bases in Asia, and the subsequent success of the independence movements which drew inspiration from Japan’s courage to take on the West and liberate Asian colonies. Japan more than any other Asian country was responsible for sealing the fate of European colonialism in the Orient.

Historiography and the narrative on who won Independence for India in 1947 is also rapidly changing with an increasing number of writers prepared to give credit to Netaji Subash Chandra Bose, Indian National Army and Japan for the eventual liberation of India, while conceding to Mahatma Gandhi and his followers due respect for their noble and sustained efforts in seeking freedom from British colonial rule.

New Book

In a new Book ‘ Bose: An Indian Samurai’ by military historian General GD Bakshi, claims that the former British Prime Minister Clement Atlee had said that the role played by Netaji’s Indian National Army was paramount in India being granted Independence, while the non-violent movement led by Gandhi was dismissed as having had minimal effect.

In the book, Bakshi cites a conversation between the then British PM Attlee and then Governor of West Bengal Justice PB Chakraborty in 1956 when Attlee – the leader of Labour Party and the British premier who had signed the decision to grant Independence to India in 1947 – had come to India and stayed in Kolkata as Chakraborty’s guest.

Chakraborty, who was then the Chief Justice of the Calcutta High Court and was serving as the acting Governor of West Bengal, is quoted  as saying : When I was  acting governor, Lord Attlee, who had given us Independence by withdrawing British rule from India, spent two days in the governor’s palace at Calcutta during his tour of India. At that time I had a prolonged discussion with him regarding the real factors that had led the British to quit India.”

My direct question to Attlee was that since Gandhi’s Quit India Movement had tapered off quite some time ago and in 1947 no such new compelling situation had arisen that would necessitate a hasty British departure, why did they had to leave?”

In his reply Attlee cited several reasons, the main among them being the erosion of loyalty to the British crown among the Indian Army and Navy personnel as a result of the military activities of Netaji,” Chakraborty said.

Toward the end of our discussion I asked Attlee what was the extent of Gandhi’s influence upon the British decision to leave India. Hearing this question, Attlee’s lips became twisted in a sarcastic smile as he slowly chewed out the word, ‘m-i-n-i-m-a-l’,”  Chakraborty added.

Fear of another Indian Mutiny

Though Japan lost in 1945, the legacy of Subhas Chandra Bose endured to stir the Indian masses and soldiers of the British Indian Army and ratings of the Royal Indian Navy to mutiny following the trial of the INA Officers at the Red Fort. It was the fear of such a Mutiny on a scale bigger than the Indian Mutiny in 1857, that convinced the British that it was time to quit India, and Burma and Ceylon within a few months.

No colonial country withdraws voluntarily from its colonies unless there are insurmountable ‘ push ‘ factors or except under compelling circumstances. The best illustration of this proposition is the shameful return of the Dutch and the French to regain their colonies in Asia after the end of the second world war. Japanese occupation during World War II had ended Dutch rule, and the Japanese encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement.

Despite their opposition to the tyranny of Nazi rule of France and Netherlands (1940 -1944), and delight in being liberated by the Allies, these two colonial powers were not prepared to share the freedom they gained in Europe with the subject people in Asia ( and Africa). They were not welcomed when they returned. Indonesians under Sukarno with the help of Japanese volunteers that remained in Indonesia after the defeat of Japan, defeated the Dutch in a series of military battles to finally gain independence in 1949. Likewise the Viet Minh under Ho Chi Minh performed admirably to wrest control from the French by defeating them at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and finally resulting in their withdrawal from all colonies of French Indo – China under the Geneva Accords of 1954.

External factors

Mainstream writings on the Independence movement in British occupied Ceylon  have so far failed to account for the external factors that contributed to advancement of the date of independence.

A study of colonial history of Ceylon shows clearly that local Kings have sought external help to end foreign occupation of parts of Ceylon. Several Kings of Kandy had contacts with the Dutch finally leading to the Treaty of 1638 signed in Kandy where the Dutch undertook to assist the Kandyan Kingdom under King Rajasinghe the Second to expel the Portuguese which was successfully achieved in 1658.

Likewise the Kings of Kandy solicited the assistance of the British Empire towards the end of the 18th century to end Dutch occupation of Ceylon. This was achieved in 1796.

The purpose of this paper is to show that external factors again contributed substantially to end British occupation of Ceylon finally leading to independence in 1948.

To remain oblivious to these external factors and extend credit exclusively to the locals on the ground that they were  ‘Freedom Fighters’ is an exercise in fantasy. There were no authentic freedom fighters in Ceylon after 1848. The last shot for freedom from colonial rule was fired in Matale in 1848 during the second war of independence (also called the Matale Rebellion).

The succeeding generations yearning for freedom produced marvelous orators, letter writers, pen pushers and even collaborators who preferred British colonial rule to continue rather than handing over the country to the locals. Several were quite happy to accept knighthoods and other perks, and co – exist with the colonial administration. There was no fight in them compared to what we have seen in warriors such as Keppetipola Disawe, Gongalegoda Banda, Puran Appu or even earlier in Kings such as Sitavaka Rajasinghe, Mayadunne, Veediya Bandara ( son in law of Buvanekabahu the 7th), Wimaladharmasuriya I, Senerath and Rajasinghe the Second, among others.

Our then local leaders pursued ‘ Constitutional Reform’ and not total independence though armed resistance e.g. Indonesia, or even large scale civil disobedience movements e.g. India. They were far removed from the type of fight and determination we have seen in other Asian nationalist leaders who fought against Western domination of Asia such as Hideki Tojo ( Japan), Subhas Chandra Bose (India), Mao Tse Tung (China), Ho Chi Minh ( Vietnam), Sukarno ( Indonesia), and Aung San ( Burma). These Asian freedom fighters and patriots preferred to use the only language that the West really understood and respected i.e. force of arms.

Except for Angarika Dharmapala, the freedom movement in Ceylon never produced a single leader of repute who enjoyed widespread support and admiration overseas for speaking out and engaging in battle for the liberation of Asia.

Historiography – a neglected field in Sri Lanka

Ceylon was very fortunate in gaining independence in 1948 despite not having fought in the real sense of the word to rid the country of foreign occupation. It is soldiers from other Asian countries e.g. Japan, who primarily made blood sacrifices to fight western domination of Asia during the Second World War. We were beneficiaries of these sacrifices and battles. We have to acknowledge this support from fellow Asians at some point in time.

Historiography in Sri Lanka is lagging behind the rest of the world. It is a neglected field. In respect to the narrative relating to the Second World War, our Historians have been merely echoing foreign perspectives and self – serving interpretations instead of carving out a separate original and independent path of research and writing.

It is time that we learn to look at historical events not from the angle of the colonizer but from the angle of those who have resisted foreign occupation both within and outside Sri Lanka.

Senaka Weeraratna

12 Responses to “Sri Lanka’s Independence – a beneficiary of Japan’s entry to the Second World War which sealed the fate of European Colonialism in Asia”

  1. Sirih Says:

    Our family was always there to counter colonial influences and their blood thirsty empire.. My great grandfather was working with japanese behind the scene to not to bombs SL’s major towns and only agree to counter british naval strength.. Even today Japanese talk of my families effort to work with japan to get rid of british colonials.
    Japans hierarchy call me “mr peace”. We still work with japanese to get most of the nations infrastructure sorted out … Unfortunately non of the present or past leaders knew how to get real japanese aid to SL due to corruption.
    We have locals that are more white than the whites and have a look into ranil or the idiot mangala the taylor…

  2. Lorenzo Says:

    Japan now supports TAMIL ELAM independence.

    Especially after AKASHI.

    Japan has joined ENDIA against China. Endia supports TE so Japan follows.

  3. RohanJay Says:

    Senaka Weeraratne and Sirih are just butt hurt their beloved Japs were crushed by the Americans in WW2. Its the Americans who liberated Asia not Japan, you dumb idiots! Typical Sri Lankan asians supporting Japan just because they Japanese were Asian. Its like Asians supporting the Previous American president Obama just because he was coloured.
    Personally I support the United States of America over those bloody thirsty Japanese in WW2. If Japanese suffered in WW2 it was at the hands of the Americans. They started being cruel to Americans and the Americans were doubly cruel back. Japanese thought they were the invincible warlike race in WW2 and were extremely arrogant. They thought the Americans were weak and could be easily defeated in WW2. The Japs underestimated how angry the American population was at the Japanese in WW2 and American men and women signed up and bolstered the American military and American women signed up in great numbers to work in factories to build American aircraft,ships, vehicles into a superpower which thrashed Japan. They picked a fight with mighty United States, and got brutally hammered.
    Senaka Weeraratne and Sirih can’t face those stark facts!
    Wether you lot like it or not, its United States of America that liberated Asia and NOT Japan!
    Because the Japanese were stupid enough to attack Americans in broad daylight at pearl harbour.
    Bringing the previously very reluctant United States in WW2. Once that happened arrogant warlike Japan fate was sealed.
    Thats the truth which senaka weeraratne can’t face!

  4. RohanJay Says:

    To others who don’t know history like Senaka Weeraratne. Here is the first action by the Americans in Second World War which sealed the fate of European Colonialism in Asia. Watch this documentary and learn something.
    Second World War which sealed the fate of European Colonialism in Asia.

  5. Christie Says:

    Forget about WWIi.

    Who is attacking us today?

    Answer is Indian Empire, Indian Colonial Parasites and Indian vermin.

    Idi Amin is a great hero who stood up to Indian Colonial parasites.

    Mohandas Karamchand is the most celebrated India Colonial Parasite who made his fortune from Blacks of South Africa.

    Talking about Japanese you have to ask Chinese and Koreans.

  6. samurai Says:

    I fully agree with the writer Senaka Weeraratna and the comment made by ‘Sirih’ .

    It is high time the external factors that effectively ended European colonialism in South and South-East Asia are included in Sri Lanka’s history books to correct blatant misrepresentations relating to the island’s relationship with the rest of the world in the 20th Century (pre-independence era) which has been written basically from a biased Western perspective to defend and justify colonialism.

    Another gross distortion in our history is the so-called ‘bloodless’ struggle (repeated ad nauseam) which supposedly succeeded in achieving independence. It was never a struggle – let alone bloodless – but only a campaign of appeals and demands for Constitutional reforms performed on bended knee. The British colonial masters never felt under pressure from the so called ‘ freedom fighters ‘ flaunting British knighthoods and enjoying other perks from the colonial Government.

    The last bloody struggle was the Matale uprising of 1848 which was brutally suppressed by Governor Torrington in the most inhumane manner, following the genocide of innocent people in the Uva -Wellassa region under the direction of British Governor Robert Brownrigg to teach natives a lesson in the wake of the failed 1818 uprising in the Kandyan Provinces.

    There is also hardly any recognition and national pride in our great kings and other heroes as INDEPENDENCE FIGHTERS who too valiantly fought to liberate the country from foreign occupation before the Kandyan Kingdom fell to the British in 1815.

    After 1848, all the bloody struggles (including India’s Civil Disobedience campaign) against British imperialism occurred OUTSIDE the shores of Sri Lanka, until the end of World War II. If not for Japan’s entry into that war there would have been no national freedom for any of the countries in the region at least for another half-a-century, NO MATTER what motives the Japanese may have had.

    The point here is that NO Western power, including the USA, opposed European colonialism in Asia and Africa until the end of World War II which drained coffers of the old white imperialists and the paved the way of the US become the new dominant global power and arrogate it self to the role of a world policeman who caused devastation in Vietnam, Iraq and elsewhere over the past 60 years.

    Indonesia still lauds Japan for paving the way to freedom from Dutch colonialism. People of Myanmar welcomed Japanese troops. The majority of Sinhala Buddhists were sympathetic to the Japanese and some Sinhalese in Singapore and Malaysia (then Federated States of Malaya) joined para – military units under the Japanese.

    Had the Japanese landed in Sri Lanka in April 1942 following the bombing raids on British bases in Colombo and Trincomalee, the course of the war might have taken a different turn. The Battle of Midway might have been averted. It is not unreasonable to speculate that large numbers of Sinhalese including Buddhist monks throughout the country would have welcomed the Japanese as liberators in a manner not dissimilar to the warm reception extended to the Japanese by the people of Burma and Indonesia when they entered these countries. Both Japan and Sri Lanka are conscious of the underlying Buddhist connections between the two countries.

    It is stupid to judge events of that era based on current political alignments and perspectives. There was no ‘India’ then as we know it today but only British-India which included what is Pakistan and Bangladesh today. Japan was a fully independent and proud nation being a role model for the subject people everywhere aspiring for freedom from colonial rule.

    Japan in the pre- war period had substantial political clout and foreign policy of its own. Japan championed the liberation of Asia under the banner ‘ Asia for Asians’. But after her World War II defeat she had no alternative but to toe the U.S. line. To say Japan was supporting LTTE terrorism and Tamil Eelam is rubbish, though she could not directly oppose the U.S.-UK stance on the conflict. If that was the case Japan would have allowed the pro-LTTE Tamil Diaspora to conduct anti-Sri Lanka campaigns from Japanese soil as did Norway and Canada or even the UK.

    Japan abstained from voting against Sri Lanka at the last UNHRC meeting when a vote was taken in 2014. India too abstained despite huge pressure from Tamilnadu and the anti – Sri Lanka Western block of nations,. The only Asian country that voted against Sri Lanka was South Korea. This was largely due to the growing Christian influence in that country.

  7. Dilrook Says:

    This is completely false.

    Sri Lanka gained formal Independence, true Independence and absolute Independence thanks to the British fearing the Soviet Union and the spread of communism. By 1945 Japan was a pulp and no one respected or feared it.

    Japan became a US protectorate and ever since then has been promoting Western neo-colonialism in Asia. USA secretly admires Japan for its horrendous war crimes against fellow Asians – no other Asian country has done such horrendous war crimes against fellow Asians.

    Having won the war (including the capture of Nazi capital), the Soviet Union was a power to recon with. Colonial subjugation was a breeding ground of communist ideology. Had the British remained, they would have been ousted by a communist uprising in which case they lose everything.

    Although formal independence was given in 1948, British and American troops remained and parts of the island remained under their rule. Soviet Union refused Ceylon UN membership over this until 1955. Ceylon had to forego the remaining colonials to get UN membership thanks to the SU. Still, the British didn’t leave its stranglehold. The 1971 uprising was supported by some communist countries. By 1972 it was clear the Soviet camp was not going to tolerate any traces of western colonial influence (after Cuba, Vietnam, etc.). Ceylon receded all ties with Britain and became a republic.

    Japan must compensate China, Korea, ASEAN countries, Sri Lanka, etc. for war crimes and hand over Diaoyu, etc. islands robbed from other countries using violence. Germany on the other hand did compensate some of its victims.

  8. Sirih Says:

    @RohanJay, You are confusing the article and its replies with re. SL issue at war time.. Also you need to read the article well before getting into a tirade which does not help any one. There is a old saying “What you say, what you are”..

    Imperial japan was brutal and there is no argument about that, but at that time imperial army is rapidly moving towards asia and what imperial army was doing is so brutal and some areas it was war crime. Poor SL now saddle with old colonial power and marauding japan and on first instance we need to some how get rid of british but also come to a agreement with imperial japan, so that SL does not get destroyed due to imperial power play in asia. This is not about mollycoddling with imperial power, it is sobering facts and truth. My great grand father initiated the chat using common Buddhist heritage with Japan and it was successful and SL did not get damaged from japanese bombing runs. We did have few skirmishes that was minimum.
    Japanese had germ warfare labs in manchuria that experiment on live chinese and some are very valuable data which experimented on sub zero temperature .. US army was there first and rather than arresting these japanese doctors for war crimes, US army did a deal to get data and let war criminals free… (Any US stooge now need to think twice about good old USA..).
    All 3 surgeons became top surgeons in japan in post war and was successful. I know one of them which dies in early 2000 in Tokyo as a old man. I was working in japan at that time and use to visit this man… He was so remorseful of what happen and he told me that , in one instance when he was doing the live surgery with out anaesthetic , chinese man had a intense look towards the surgeon and surgeon told me that look haunt him all his life.
    RE. our independence, Brits were bankrupt and could not keep the empire running and also at that time US politicians want brits to get rid of all colonies. Later all that change due to geo political play with soviets but today, US is run by huge military complex and all of these past presidents since kennady are part of that complex as puppets. Obama was creation of the same defence industry and US today is interesting since Trump is asking questions that is creating huge problems for this powerful lobby.

    If you are smart, todays geo political landscape can be used for SL’s interest as long as you do not become a puppy or stooge to any foreign power.

    You cannot identify people with their politicians since british, japanese and american people are polite and charitable but their politicians are some thing else.

  9. samurai Says:

    I was amused to read RohanJay trying to teach us about World War II and Japan. I have seen previously not only the youtube video clip on the Doolittle Raid but also other war documentaries and feature films in cinema halls since my school days and later on Internet from the perspective of BOTH sides. (the Allies and the Axis) and read wartime newspapers.

    This is a subject I was interested in from a young age since my paternal uncle served with the British Forces in the Middle-East during the war and later upon returning to Sri Lanka was on the local staff of Admiral Louis Mountbatten, Allied Supreme Commander (South- East Asia) who had his headquarters in Peradeniya.

    The issue here is NOT whether the Japanese were blood thirsty or what they thought about themselves or their delusions or whether Japan was reduced to a pulp after the war or your great admiration for the United States etc. etc. but the irrefutable fact that the European Colonial Powers would have never left their colonies if not for World War II and Japan’s role in it – NOT what became of Japan after the war or Soviet Russia emerging as a world power after 1945.

    Sidetracking the issue amounts to a ‘yanne koheda malle pol’ talk.


    Read what the white Americans did to the indigenous Red Indians in grabbing their land which constitute a heinous crime against humanity of the utmost kind.


    US History of atrocities against native Americans (Red Indians) past-genocides/native- americans/

    United States annexed Hawai in 1898 despite the opposition of the vast majority of the Native Hawaiian segment of the population to annexation. Hawai later became a State of the U.S. in 1959. Native Hawaiians have demanded redress for the loss of their independence, lands, and culture. They have filed state law claims for back payment of ceded land trust revenues and to enjoin the negotiation, settlement, and execution of a release by trustees because of the overthrow of the government in 1893.

    USA is a colonizing power and not a liberating power with a sincere interest in Human Rights.


    ‘ The Leading Rogue State : The U.S. and Human Rights–The-US-and-Human-Rights/15476128

    Even after the end of World War II in 1945, some of the old colonial powers like the Dutch tried to reoccupy Indonesia (then Dutch East Indies) with the blessings of the United States! The Dutch East Indies administration received a 10 million dollar from the U.S. to finance its return to Indonesia Indonesian_National_Revolution

    After the French were defeated by the Vietminh in 1954 the USA prevented free elections being held in Vietnam in 1956 under the Geneva Accords and instead supported a Catholic dictator called Ngo Dinh Diem to remain in power illegally in South Vietnam until he was overthrown by the Army in 1963.

    What the U.S. did after Japan’s defeat was to fill in a different way the vacuum created by the old fashioned imperialism. Despite their war victories the old white colonialists were no longer in a economically strong position to regain their lost prestige and power.

    After WW II the American strategy however was not direct rule in other countries but governing by proxy or through puppet rulers depending on the circumstances.

    Washington’s role until the collapse of the Soviet Bloc was trying to prop up corrupt dictatorships and semi-dictatorships in Asia and Latin America in the name of anti-communism, Democracy and Human Rights.

    As for war crimes, no doubt the Japanese were involved in them. BUT THE QUESTION IS WHAT MORAL RIGHT HAS THE WW II VICTORS TO PASS JUDGEMENT ON THE JAPANESE? They have a history of colonial aggression and war crimes going back to FIVE CENTURIES. Americans have participated in the atrocities since around the late 19th Century. Japan merely aped them and joined the fray a few years later since they believed – rightly or wrongly – that it was the best way to ensure their national survival. It all ended in 1945. If Japan had to be punished for their wartime role then the victors have to be punished 10 times over for staging fake war crimes Tribunal in Tokyo after the war, and furthermore meddling in other countries continue to this day.


    (May I also remind RJ that the Vietnam National Liberation Front or the Viet Cong did not set off bombs in the U.S. cities killing civilians like the Islamic terrorists do in the West but the U.S. occupation of South Vietnam and bombing of North Vietnam led to the deaths of thousands of Vietnamese civilians and injuring scores of others some of whom are still suffering today as a consequence – the same fate befell many Japanese who survived the U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki two decades earlier)

    I suggest that RohanJay click on the following links, before calling Senaka and those who agreed with him dumb idiots and exposing RJ’s limited knowledge.
    What Sparked Japan’s Aggression During World War II? ra/2014/07/07/what_prompted_ japan_s_aggression_before_and_ during_world_war_ii.html

    How U.S. Economic Warfare Provoked Japan’s Attack on Pearl Harbor
    By Robert Higgs | Posted: Mon. May 1, 2006Also published in The Freeman sroom/article.asp?id=1930

    The Spanish-American War: The Leap into Overseas Empire sroom/article.asp?id=1344

    U.S. War Crimes in the Philippines /wffmaster/Reading/war.crimes/ US/U.S.Philippines.htm

    U.S. aggression in the Philippines /usaggressioninthephilippines/ home/reasons-for-colonizing

    Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal
    http://madangsingh.expertscolu crimes-tribunal-and-judgement- justice-pal

    Vietnam’s victory tems/2015/04/29/vietnams-victo ry-40-years-ago/

    The Injustice of the Nuremburg Trials v=ML0xYYKgPgw

    The above is an hour-long video clip exposing the double standards of the West in abuse of process.

  10. Christie Says:

    The article and some comments don’t see what cunning the Indian are.

    They made the best out of the British imperialists.

    How did all these Indian Colonial Parasites end up all over the World?

    They made the best out of the Second World War by supporting Japan, Germany and Italy in the same way they used the British.

    Bose, Nehru and Gandhi are cunning Indians.

  11. Christie Says:

    Hi samurai; The Indian Colonial Parasites have not left the so called “European Colonies” after the Second World War”.

    That is our problem.

  12. Lorenzo Says:

    Endians were with the Brits. Kithsiri is right.

    SL was ruled by the BRITISH ENDIA COMPANY!


    How about the MILLIONS of JEWS and CHINESE killed by those NAZI and Japanese criminals? Thank god USA intervened and stopped absolute genocide.

    Germany and Japan COULD NOT attack USA. They had NO capability. That was why they did NOT attack. But they attacked other countries within reach (including France, Russia, SRI LANKA, etc.).

    WW2 USA was a GREAT country. It could have minded its own business letting MILLIONS to die. But it did NOT. Thank god for 1940s USA!

    (Don’t confuse with POST-1945 USA.)

    Vietnam war? Over 2,000,000 Vietnamese Buddhists died in that war. After the war many Vietnamese went to western countries and became Christians. Now they go back to Vietnam to spread Christianity!! Same thing with SOUTH KOREA and JAPAN.

    While Christians only account for around 1% of the Japanese, Taro Asō is the SEVENTH Christian prime minister of Japan, after Takashi Hara, Korekiyo Takahashi, Tetsu Katayama, Ichirō Hatoyama, Masayoshi Ōhira, and his own grandfather Shigeru Yoshida. His Christian name is Francisco (フランシスコ).

    – Wikipedia

    Even SL had only 1 Christian PM!

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